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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Task 1
1.1 a) A
R1

B
R2

+
R3

R5

R4

E= 300 V R1 = 20 R2 = 30 R3 = 40 R4 = 10 R5 = 50

F E b) Total Resistance RT = R1 +R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 RT = 20 + 30 + 40 + 10 + 50 RT = 150 c) Total Current IT = VT RT IT = 300 150 IT = 2A d) Voltages V = IR V = 2A x 20 R1 = 40V V = 2A x 30 R2 = 60V V = 2A x 40 R3 = 80V V = 2A x 10 R4 = 20V V = 2A x 50 R5 = 100V

Therefore: 40 + 60 + 80 + 20 + 100 = 300V

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

e) Potential Difference AD = R1 + R2 + R3 = 20 + 30 + 40 = 90 = 2A x 90 = 180V BE = R2 + R3 + R4 = 30 + 40 + 10 = 80 = 2A x 80 = 160V CE = R3 + R4 = 40 + 10 = 50 = 2A x 50 = 100V DF = R4 + R5 = 10 + 50 = 60 = 2A x 60 = 120V f) Voltage Potentials B = 300V (Voltage across R1) = 300 40 = 260V D = 300V (Voltage across (R1 +R2 + R3)) = 300 180 = 120V Pd = 260 120 = 140V Evaluation : E = 300 V R1 = 20 R2 = 30 R3 = 40 A = 300V A = 2A B = 260V B = 2A C = 200V C = 2A D = 120V D = 2A

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

1.2 a) R1

+ -

E= 10 V R1 = 28 R2 = 20 R3 = 30 R4 = 10

R2

R3

R4

b) Total Resistance RT (parallel) = = = = RT = = = R2 x R3 R2 + R3 20 x 30 20 + 30 600 50 12 R1+ RT (parallel) + R4 28 + 12 + 10 50

c) Total Current IT IT IT = = = VT RT 10 50 0.2A

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

d) Current in R2 Voltage across R1 Voltage across R4 Voltage across R1 + R4

= = = = = = = =

0.2 x 28 5.6V 0.2 x 10 2V 5.6 + 2 7.6V 10 7.6 2.4V

I1 I2

= = = =

2.4 20 0.12A 2.4 30 0.08A

Therefore the current across R2 = 0.12A R3 = 0.08A

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Task 2
Colour Bands 1 R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 R 5 Brown Orang e Brown Red Blue 2 Grey Whit e Black Red Grey 3 Red Red Orang e Orang e Orang e 4 Gol d Gol d Gol d Gol d Gol d Nominal Value 1K8 3K9 10 K 0 22 K 0 68 K 0 % Tol 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Max Valu e 1890 4095 1050 0 2310 0 7140 0 Min Valu e 1790 3705 9500 2090 0 6460 0 Measured Value Using DMM 1784 3860 9820 22400 68400

Measured value using DMM E (Volts ) I (mA) RT (Ohm s) VA VB VC VD VE VAB VBC VCD VDE 10V 9.410524731 x 10 106264 10 V 9.83 V 9.47 V 7.34 V 6.42 V 0.16 V 0.36 V 2.1 V 0.92 V

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Task 3
Diode Voltage = SIMULATION FORWARD BIASED Measured Resistance = 1K Power Supply Diode Resistor Voltage Voltage Voltage Current Vs (volts) Vf (V) Vr (V) If (mA) 0 0 0 0 2 0.632 1.37 1.37 4 0.655 3.35 3.35 6 0.666 5.33 5.33 8 0.674 7.33 7.33 10 0.68 9.32 9.32 12 0.686 11.3 11.3 14 0.69 13.3 13.3 16 0.693 15.3 15.3 18 0.696 17.3 17.3 20 0.699 19.3 19.3 22 0.702 21.3 21.3 24 0.705 23.3 23.3 26 0.707 25.3 25.3 28 0.708 27.3 27.3 30 0.71 29.3 29.3 Diode Voltage = SIMULATION REVERSE BIASED Measured Resistance = 1K Power Supply Diode Resistor Voltage Voltage Voltage Current Vs (volts) Vf (V) Vr (V) If (mA) 0 0 0 0 -2 -2 -0.1 0 -4 -4 -0.2 0 -6 -6 -0.3 0 -8 -8 -0.4 0 -10 -10 -0.5 0 -12 -12 -0.6 0 -14 -14 -0.7 0 -16 -16 -0.8 0 -18 -18 -0.9 0 -20 -20 -1 0 -22 -22 -1.1 0 -24 -24 -1.2 0 -26 -26 -1.3 0 -28 -28 -1.4 0 -30 -30 -1.5 0

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

1N4001 Diode Simulation


30 25 Current (If) 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Diode Voltage (Vf)

The following chart simulates the characteristics of a 1N4001 Silicon Diode. As you can see no current is passed through the diode when I reverse biased, this can protect components from possible damage and can also enable four diodes to act as a rectifier, to change ac to dc. The graph shows that the curve begins to get less and appears to be straightening, however in theory the line will never be straight. The voltage across the diode will keep having lesser changes, but there will always be change.

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Diode Voltage = 1N4001 FORWARD BIASED Measured Resistance = 986 Power Supply Diode Resistor Voltage Voltage Voltage Current Vs (volts) Vf (V) Vr (V) If (mA) 0 0.08 0 0 2 0.59 1.44 1.45 4 0.63 3.34 3.35 6 0.65 5.33 5.36 8 0.67 7.25 7.29 10 0.68 9.22 9.28 12 0.69 11.19 11.27 14 0.7 13.15 13.28 16 0.7 15.13 15.3 18 0.71 17.13 17.36 20 0.71 19.08 19.4 22 0.72 21.2 21.6 24 0.72 23.2 23.7 26 0.72 25.2 25.8 28 0.73 27.2 27.9 30 0.73 29.2 30.1 Diode Voltage = 1N4001 REVERSE BIASED Measured Resistance = 986 Power Supply Diode Resistor Voltage Voltage Voltage Vs (volts) Vf (V) Vr (V) 0 0 0 -2 -2 0 -4 -4 0 -6 -6.01 -0.001 -8 -8 -0.001 -10 -10 -0.001 -12 -12 -0.001 -14 -14.01 -0.001 -16 -16 -0.001 -18 -18.01 -0.001 -20 -20 -0.002 -22 -21.99 -0.002 -24 -24 -0.002 -26 -26 -0.002 -28 -27.99 -0.002 -30 -29.99 -0.003

Current If (mA) 0 0 0 0 0 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.003

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

1N4001 Diode Practical

30 26 22 Current (If) 18 14 10 6 2 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 -2 0

Diode Voltage (Vf)

After repeating the above simulation for real, I noticed that a small amount of current actually leaks through at -10V whilst in the reverse biased. Although it is too small to see on the graph there is a slight degradation in the diode. There is a difference in the simulation and real life, as the simulation would act on perfect conditions, such as the voltage being exactly 10V. However in real life there are always tolerances, due to the manufacturing methods.

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Diode Voltage = SIMULATION 5.1 Zener Diode FORWARD BIASED Measured Resistance = 1K Power Supply Diode Resistor Voltage Voltage Voltage Current Vs (volts) Vf (V) Vr (V) If (mA) 0 0 0 0 2 0.632 1.37 1.37 4 0.655 3.35 3.35 6 0.666 5.33 5.33 8 0.674 7.33 7.33 10 0.68 9.32 9.32 12 0.686 11.3 11.3 14 0.69 13.3 13.3 16 0.693 15.3 15.3 18 0.696 17.3 17.3 20 0.699 19.3 19.3 22 0.702 21.3 21.3 24 0.705 23.3 23.3 26 0.707 25.3 25.3 28 0.708 27.3 27.3 30 0.71 29.3 29.3 Diode Voltage = SIMULATION 5.1 Zener REVERSE BIASED Measured Resistance = 1K Power Supply Diode Resistor Voltage Voltage Voltage Current Vs (volts) Vf (V) Vr (V) If (mA) 0 0 0 0 -2 -2 -0.2 0 -4 -4 -0.4 0 -6 -5.02 -0.978 978 -8 -5.05 -2.95 -2.95 -10 -5.06 -4.94 -4.94 -12 -5.07 -6.93 -6.93 -14 -5.08 -8.92 -8.92 -16 -5.08 -10.9 -10.9 -18 -5.09 -12.9 -12.9 -20 -5.09 -14.9 -14.9 -22 -5.1 -16.9 -16.9 -24 -5.1 -18.9 -18.9 -26 -5.1 -20.9 -20.9 -28 -5.1 -22.9 -22.9 -30 -5.11 -24.9 -24.9

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

5.1 Zener Simulation


30 25 20 15 10 5 -5.2 -4.2 -3.2 -2.2 -1.2 0 -0.2 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25

Current (If)

Diode Voltage (Vf)

The Zener diode is mainly used as a stabilising component. This is so large amounts of current can get through, however small amounts (that below the stated value on the Zener diode) will not. In the simulation I used a 5.1 zener diode, as this cannot be altered, this means that at 5.1 volts the diode will begin to let the current through and allow the rest of the circuit to be powered. This is shown on the graph above through the x axis. At 5.1 volts, along the diode voltage (Vf) line, it clearly shows that the zener diode begins to break down and begins to let more and more current through. Whilst in the forward biased the zener diode acts in a very similar fashion to the normal silicon diode, 1N4001.

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Diode Voltage = 2.7 Zener FORWARD BIASED Measured Resistance = 999 Power Supply Diode Resistor Voltage Voltage Voltage Current Vs (volts) Vf (V) Vr (V) If (mA) 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 0.71 1.30 1.30 4 0.73 3.22 3.22 6 0.75 5.19 5.19 8 0.76 7.17 7.17 10 0.77 9.15 9.16 12 0.77 11.13 11.16 14 0.78 13.09 13.14 16 0.78 15.08 15.16 18 0.78 17.06 17.18 20 0.78 19.12 19.30 22 0.79 21.20 21.50 24 0.79 23.20 23.50 26 0.79 25.20 25.70 28 0.79 27.30 27.80 30 0.79 29.20 29.90 Diode Voltage = 2.7 Zener REVERSE BIASED Measured Resistance = 999 Power Supply Diode Resistor Voltage Voltage Voltage Current Vs (volts) Vf (V) Vr (V) If (mA) 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -2 -1.76 -0.24 -0.20 -4 -2.33 -1.69 -1.70 -6 -2.57 -3.44 -3.40 -8 -2.73 -5.33 -5.30 -10 -2.84 -7.17 -7.20 -12 -2.93 -9.11 -9.10 -14 -3.01 -11.04 -10.97 -16 -3.07 -12.87 -12.93 -18 -3.13 -14.82 -14.92 -20 -3.18 -16.72 -16.86 -22 -3.22 -18.61 -18.54 -24 -3.26 -20.70 -21.00 -26 -3.30 -22.80 -23.10 -28 -3.34 -24.70 -25.20 -30 -3.36 -26.60 -27.20

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

2.7 Zener Practical


30 26 22 18 14 10 6 2 -2 -6 -10 -14 -18 -22 -26 -30

Current (If)

-3.40

-2.90

-2.40

-1.90

-1.40

-0.90

-0.40

0.10

0.60

Diode Voltage (Vf)

When putting the zener diode to practice, I used a 2.7 zener diode, so the voltage will be lower when it breaks down, however there should be similar results. Current was leaking through at 2 volts, even though it shouldnt until 2.7 volts. This proves further the slight inconsistency of the mass produced components. The 2.7 zener diode, seems to break down much more slowly than the 5.1 zener diode. The normal silicon diode, 1N4001, graph is partly similar to the zener diode, in the forward biased. The 1N4001 degrades very slowly, holding the current when in the reverse biased. The zener diode is designed to degrade, at the specified voltage. Both of the diodes conduct at around 0.7V.

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Task 4 4.1 a) A
R1
I
1

B
I
3

V1

E1

V2

E2 V3
I

E1 = 17 V E2 = 34 V R1 = 35 R2 = 6 R3 = 4

R2
I
2

R3

F b) ABEF E1 V1 +V2 = 0 E1 = V2 V1 BCDE E2 V3 V2 = 0 E2 = V3 + V2 Therefore: ABEF = E1 = (R2 x I2) (R1 x I1) E1 = (6 x I2) (35 x I1) BCDE E2 = (R2 x I2) + (R3 x I3) E2 = (6 x I2) + (4 x I3)

ABCDEF E1 + E2 = V1 + V3 17 + 34 = (35 x I1) + (4 x I3) 51 = (35 x1) + (4 x I3)

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

Kirchhoffs Current Law I1 = I2 - I3 I2 = I3 - I1 I3 = I1 + I2

Substitute D into B E2 = (6 x I2) + (4 (I1 + I2)) E2 = (6 x I2) + (4 x I2) + (4 x I1) E2 = (10 x I2) + (4 x I1) Simultaneous Equation A E A E 17 = ( 6 x I2) (35 x I1) 34 = (10 x I2) + ( 4 x I1) 170 = (60 x I2) (350 x I1) 204 = (60 x I2) + (24 x I1) 374 = 374 = 374 x I1 I1 = 374 374 I1 = 1 A c) Currents C 51 = (35 x I1) + (4 x I3) 51 = (35 x 1 ) + (4 x I3) 51 = 35 + (4 x I3) 51 35 = 35 + (4 x I3) 35 16 = 4 x I3 4 4 I3 = 16 4 I3 = 4 A D I2 = I3 I1 (minus 35 from both sides) (divide both sides by 4) 0 + (374 x I1) (x 10) (x 6 )

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

I2 = 4 1 I2 = 3 A d) Voltages V1 = I1 x R1 V1 = 1 x 35 V1 = 35 V V2 = I2 x R2 V2 = 3 x 6 V2 = 18 V V3 = I3 x R3 V3 = 4 x 4 V3 = 16 V Therefore:

A
R1
I
1

B
I
3

V1

E1

V2

E2 V3
I

R3

E1 = 17 V E2 = 34 V V1 = 35 V V2 = 18 V V3 = 16 V R1 = 35 R2 = 6 R3 = 4 I1 = 1 A I2 = 3 A I3 =4 A

R2
1 3

F e) Power Dissipated in R2: E P = I2 x V2 P = 3 x 18 P = 54 Watts

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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


DC Circuit Theory

4.2 B A2 A1 A A3 D A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A B C D E F G = 180 A = 20 A = 160 A = 160 A = 180 A = 300 A A7 = 120 A A8 = 40 A A9 = 40 A A10 = 120 A A11 = 180 A A12 = 220 A A12 = A1 + A9 A1 = A2 + A3 A1 = 20 + 160 A1 = 180 A5 = A2 + A4 A5 = 20 + 160 A5 =180 A6 = A5 + A7 A6 = 180 + 120 A6 = 300 A7 = A3 - A8 A7 = 160 - 40 A7 = 120 A4 = A9 + A10 A4 = 40 + 120 A4 = 160 A6 = A10 +A11 A6 = 120 + 180 A6 = 300 A12 = A8 + A11 A12 = 40 + 180 A12 = 220 C A7 A5

A4 E A10 F

A9

A6

A11 G A8 A12

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