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Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


Operational Amplifier Based Analogue Circuits

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


Operational Amplifier Based Analogue Circuits

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


Operational Amplifier Based Analogue Circuits

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


Operational Amplifier Based Analogue Circuits

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


Operational Amplifier Based Analogue Circuits

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


Operational Amplifier Based Analogue Circuits

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


Operational Amplifier Based Analogue Circuits

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


Operational Amplifier Based Analogue Circuits

Task 1
ELEX 3C21 Inverting Operational Amplifier R1 = 10000 R2= 100000 R3 = 10000

7.2 Theoretical Amplifier Gain 10 Volts 7.3 Pk-Pk Voltage of Vi 1 Volt 7.3 Pk-Pk Voltage of Vo 10 Volts 7.4 Measured Amplifier Gain -10 Volts 7.5 Measured phase angle between Vi and Vo 1800 7.6 Measured DC offset of Vo 0 7.9 Max Undistorted Voltage of positive half cycle of Vo +5 Volts 7.9 Max Undistorted Voltage of negative half cycle of Vo -5 Volts 7.10 Comments: The oscilloscope is limited by its tolerances. It is also limited by the human eye, this is because we cannot read information that is much smaller that half a millimetre without optical aid. We also find it difficult to set an analogue device perfectly to the correct required value, without further assistance from optical technology. There are tolerances on the resistors after measuring the resistors and calculating the Av we get -8.62 Volts which is significantly different from 10 Volts.

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


Operational Amplifier Based Analogue Circuits

ELEX 4B24 The Wein Bridge Oscillator using a 741 Operational Amplifier R1 = 3K9 VR1 = 10K R = 5K6 C = 220x109 F C1 = 1F = 0.0075 Secs = 133.33 Hz = 1.1 Volts = 0.36 Volts = 00 = 0.3666667 =3 = 129.18 Hz

6.2 Measured Periodic Time (T) of output signals Vout: 6.2 Measured Oscillation Frequency fout of output signal Vout: 6.3 Measured Peak to Peak Voltage of output signal Vout: 6.4 Measured Peak to Peak Voltage of feedback signal Vf: 6.5 Measured Phase shift between vf and Vout: 6.6 Measured Feedback Fraction : 6.7 Measured Amplifier Gain Av:

6.8 Calculated Oscillation Frequency fo: 6.9 Observation of output signal when Gain is: a) Increased When the gain is increased the output signal is put out of phase, resulting in the circuit not working. b) Decreased When the gain is decreased the output signal will be lost completely. 6.10 Comment: After comparing the calculated values and the measured values, I have noticed that the differences are very small. The errors may have been due to the equipment being slightly out of calibration. 6.11 Explanation of D1 and D2 The two diodes act as a small rectifier. The two diodes potentially cancel one another out as the anode and the cathode of each are connected together.

Brendan Burr

BTEC National Certificate in Electronics


Operational Amplifier Based Analogue Circuits

Task 2
ELEX 3C25 Inverting Summing Operational Amplifier R1 = 8200 R5 = 2200 Max Vb Vb 5V 3V 3V 2V 0V R2 = 8200 VR1 = 4700 Max Va Va 0V 2V 3V 4V 5V Calculated Vo -5V -5V -6V -6V -5V Measured Vo -5.03V -5.03V -6.07V -6.06V -5.07V R3 = 8200 VR2 = 4700 R4 = 8200

7.4 Amplifier Gain for R1, R2, R3, R4 = 8K2 7.5 Amplifier Gain for R1, R2, R3 = 8K2, R4 = 33K 7.8 Calculated Voltage for Va = 1V and Vb = 2V 7.8 Measured Voltage for Va = 1V and Vb = 2V

1 4 -12 Volts -12.03 Volts

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