Advanced Soil Mechanics

Dr. Mubashir Aziz Design Class -1 (10-01-2012)

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Tentative List of Experiments
1. Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils
a) b) c) d) Effects of Shear Strain Rate Effects of Pore Fluid Effects of Testing Method (TC / DS) Effects of Soil Structure (Flocc. / Disp.)

2. Shear Strength of Sand-Clay Mixtures

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Faheem Haider Faisal Butt 28 Abid Hameed 29 Mian Atif Hafeez 24 GROUP-4 2010-MS-CEG-04 Muhammad Ali 25 2010-MS-CEG-20 Muhammad Arham 26 2010-MS-CEG-08 Jehanzaib 27 2011-MS-CEG-01 Muhammad Ali 2010-MS-CEG-18 Fahad Aziz 2011-MS-CEG-05 Adil Umer 4 .Groups / Members GROUP-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2008-MS-GEO-10 2011-MS-CEG-09 2011-MS-CEG-21 2011-MS-CEG-12 2011-MS-CEG-24 2011-MS-CEG-18 2010-MS-CEH-25 2011-MS-CEG-11 Ahmed Hasnat Ilyas Akram Hasan Gul Asad Sultan Usama Khalid Zia-ur-Rehman Yasar Ali Abidi Muhammad Ramzan 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 GROUP-2 2011-MS-CEG-07 2011-MS-CEG-23 2011-MS-CEG-10 2011-MS-CEG-16 2009-MS-CEG-13 2008-MS-GEO-07 2009-MS-CEG-31 2011-MS-CEG-06 Attique ur Rehman Jawad Munir Shojat Munir Hira Mashkoor Khuram Arshad Syed Umair Ali Hufsa Kanwal Rabia Yaseen 3 GROUP-3 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2011-MS-CEG-08 2011-MS-CEG-19 2011-MS-CEG-22 2011-MS-CEG-15 2008-MS-GEO-15 2010-MS-CEG-07 2011-MS-CEG-02 Omer Altaf Azhar Shehzad Sajid Bilal M.

INTRODUCTION – Geotechnical Design/Problems – Types of Geotechnical Reports – Types of Tests LABORATORY LAYOUT 5 Geotechnical Design Deep Excavations Retaining Walls Marine Bulkheads Piles & Caissons Footings Underpinning Rock Stabilization Finite Elements Cutoff Walls • Each type of geotechnical construction has its own design and investigation requirements. • Experience plays a major role in adopting the most efficient geotechnical design. 6 . • A good geotechnical design will identify issues and will offer alternatives if unexpected conditions are encountered.

design of earth and concrete dams. mechanically stabilized earth • Slope stability and landslide problems • Ground water cutoff. D422 ASTM D2487 ASTM D698. • Earth retention structures. • Soil nailing walls. D4254 8 . environmental cutoff barriers • Marine structures • Geotextiles and geomembranes • Tunnels and underground caverns • Geotechnical seismic risks 7 Laboratory-Based Engineering Properties of Soils (ASTM Standards) BASIC TESTS • Visual-Manual Classification • Unit Weight & Moisture • Moisture Content • Atterberg’s Limits • Sieve/Hydrometer Analysis • Soil Classification • Standard / Modified Proctor • Index Densities of Sands ASTM D248 ASTM D2937 ASTM D2216. D1557 ASTM D4253.Geotechnical Reports _ Possible Subjects • Settlement of structures and roads • Load capacity of piles and footings • Levees. ASTM D4643 ASTM D4318 ASTM C136. gravity walls. D1140. deep excavations.

D5084 ASTM D2974 ASTM D1293 ASTM D4647 ASTM G57 ASTM D3042. D4767 ASTM D2166 ASTM D3080 ASTM D1883 ASTM D2435 ASTM D4546 9 Laboratory-Based Engineering Properties of Soils (ASTM Standards) Contd… Other Tests Permeability Organic Content pH Determination Pinhole Test on Dispersive Clays Resistivity Carbonate Content ASTM D2434. D4373 10 .Laboratory-Based Engineering Properties of Soils (ASTM Standards) Contd… Shear Strength and Deformation Characteristics Triaxial Unconfined Compression CD Direct Shear California Bearing Ratio 1-D Consolidation by Incremental Load 1-D Settlement/Swell of Cohesive Soils ASTM D2850.

12 . ASTM E11 All test sieves must be manufactured to International Specifications and should be supplied with a “Certificate of Compliance”. Each sieve should be individually serial numbered. ensuring full traceability.Testing Sieves Standards: EN 933-2. ISO 565. The shaker is fitted with timer which can be preset for any duration. ISO 3310-1 The Sieve Shaker imparts a circular motion to the material being sieved so that it makes a slow progression over the surface of the sieve. ISO 3310-1. ISO 3310-2. At the same time a feature of the rapid vertical movement agitates the sample which helps to clear the sieve apertures and avoid them blinding. 11 Sieve Shaker Standards: EN 932-5.

A small sample of the material is prepared. weighed and placed into the vessel. also called pyknometer or specific gravity bottle. The reagent is then added and the vessel is sealed and shaken to mix the reagent with the sample. 13 Speedy Moisture Meter Standards: BS 812. ASTM D4944.Pycnometer A pycnometer (from Greek: puknos meaning "dense"). AASHTO T217 The Speedy Moisture is a portable system comprising a vessel with an integral pressure gauge a weighing scale and a carry case. 14 . is a device used to determine the density of soils.

BS 1377:1-1924:11 Drying.C136-D558.Laboratory Ovens Standards: ASTM C 127. and base. D698. 15 Liquid Limit Devices: Casagrande Method Standards: BS 1377:2. AASHTO T89 Used to determine the moisture content at which clay soils pass from a plastic to a liquid state. mechanical blow counter. warming and general laboratory applications. 16 . D1559. D1557. D559. The control system comprises of a Digital thermometer with thermostatically controlled units Microprocessor digital controller. ASTM D4318. D560. Fitted with fixed shelf runners and removable chrome plated wire grid shelves. adjustable crank. Consists of a removable brass cup. It helps in the classification of soil when comparing the potential properties of soil material against empirical data.

steel rod. 18 . The Plastic Limit Set comprises of a glass plate. 17 Plastic Limit Set Standards: ASTM D4318.Liquid Limit Devices: Cone Penetrometer Test Standards: BS 1377. 1924-2 The Cone Penetrometer is used to carry on liquid limit tests on soil samples. AASHTO T90. mixing dish. BS 1377:2 The plastic limit is defined as the lowest moisture content of a soil that will permit a sample to be rolled into threads of 3 mm diameter without the threads breaking. spatula and moisture content tins. The test is based on the relationship between moisture content and the penetration of a cone into the soil sample under pre-set conditions. It is a static test depending on the soil shear strength.

spatula. 560. 20 . When the water content of a fine-grained soil is reduced below the plastic limit. mould body and base plate. 1557. shrinkage of the soil mass continues until the shrinkage limit is reached. includes collar. Moisture Relationship Standard / Modified Proctor Mould Standards: BS 1377-4. volumetric shrinkage and linear shrinkage. AASHTO T92. This method of test covers the determination of the shrinkage limit. shrinkage ratio. AASHTO The Moulds are used for determining the relationship between the moisture content and density of compacted soil. 1997-2. shrinkage dish. glass measuring cylinder and moisture content tins. The set comprises prong plate. 1924-2. 559. 698. 19 Dry Density. Made of plated steel.Shrinkage Limit Apparatus Standards: ASTM D427. BS 1377. ASTM D558.

Automatic Soil Compactor Standards: BS 1377-4. ASTM D558. 1924:2 The Sand Replacement is used to determine the dry density of in-situ compact. 21 Sand Replacement Standards: BS 1377:9. medium grained soils and for layers not exceeding 50 cm thickness.5 kg. all the soil from within it is collected. A circular hole is dug in the ground. The drop weight is adjustable to 300 mm drop height and is also adjustable to 450 mm drop height. Modified and CBR specimens assuring conformity with the reference standard. 1557 The Automatic Soil Compactors is designed to provide a uniform compaction of Standard. weighed and dried. 560. 1990. poured from a calibrated container for calculating the volume of hole. 698. 22 .5 kg. The Compactor is equipped with programmable digital counter which allows machine to stop at the preset numbers of blows. The rammer is circular faced with a 50 mm diameter and is adjustable to 2. fine. or 4. The hole is then back-filled with standard uniform sand or fine gravel. The height and weight of the rammer is adjustable to suit test requirements.

pressure gauge. 1/20 cu. (1600ml) capacity Standards: ASTM D2167. quick coupler valve.Sand Cone Density Standards: ASTM D1556. 23 Voluvessel. The model features a plastic cylinder. The Voluvessel comes with a pressurevacuum pump assembly. ft. 24 . double graduated cylinder. Complete set includes double cone. which screws into the density plate with the pump assembly mounted to the base. direct-reading clear plastic cylinder protected by metal casing. balloons and a density plate. plastic sand jar 5lt capacity and metal tray. AASHTO T205 Voluvessel determine the in-place density of compacted or firmly-bonded soils using a rubber balloon apparatus viewed through a graduated. AASHTO T191 The Sand Cone Density is used for on site determination of the degree of compaction of sand.

ASTM D1883.27kg. (152. Annular Surcharge Weight 2.416 in. Spacing Disc with T handle 5 15/16in. 1924.4mm). The CBR is composed by a robust and compact two-column frame with adjustable upper cross beam driven by an electromechanical ram with a maximum capacity of 50 kN. AASHTO T193 Product Description CBR Mould. C-spanner. The CBR is designed to load the penetration piston into the soil sample at a constant rate to measure the applied load and piston penetration at pre-determined intervals. CBR Solid Base Plate. CBR Extension Collar.8mm) x 2. Base Plate Tool. 1924. CBR Perforated Base Plate. ASTM D1883. 26 . Plated steel 6 in. Straight Edge.27kg Slotted Surcharge Weight 2. The ram speed can be set.8mm) body height. diameter (150. (61. 25 CBR Mould and Accessories Standards: BS 1377. Plated steel 150mm diameter x 120mm body height CBR Perforated Base Plate.CBR Test Machine Standards: BS 1377.4mm) diameter x 7in (177. Cutting Collar. AASHTO T193 The California Bearing Ratio or CBR test is used for the laboratory evaluation of the bearing value of highway sub-bases and sub-grade. Filter Papers.

D1883. BS 598:107. D1587. 924:2 The Universal Extruder has been designed for laboratory and field use to extract samples from various moulds. ASTM D1883. AASHTO T193 The in-situ California Bearing Ratio is used for the evaluation of the bearing capacity of soil from a vehicle on site immediately and with less delay. 1924.In-situ California Bearing Ratio Apparatus Standards: BS 1377. 28 . 27 Universal Extruder Standards: ASTM D698. The extruder head is for standard use with sample tubes. Also used to remove Compaction Moulds. CBR and Marshall Moulds. 1377:4.

AASHTO T296 T297 The Triaxial Testing Apparatus test soil samples for the following applications: · Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) · Consolidated Undrained (CU) · Consolidated Drained (CD) · Unconfined Compression (UC) The Triaxial Testing Apparatus consists of a Load Frame. dial gauge or digital transducer assembly. ASTM D2850 D4767. 30 . Triaxial Cell. 29 Direct Shear Apparatus Standards: BS 1377. AASHTO T236 The direct shear apparatus is used for determination of the direct shear strength of soils specimen. Platen adaptors.8 1924-2. ASTM D3080.Triaxial Testing Apparatus Standards: BS 1377-7. Base and pressure system. Comprises: Direct Shear box. floor mounted with carriage assembly and load hanger with 10:1 lever loading device.

The cell platform will accept the complete range of consolidation cells and is fitted with a central spigot to ensure accurate centering of the cell under the loading yoke. hydraulic cylinder with hand pump. The Basic test set unit is supplied complete with long datum bar.Consolidation Apparatus Standards: BS 1377:5 / ASTM D2435. pressure gauge. 31 Plate Bearing Test Equipment Standards: ASTM D 1194. connections and 300 mm diameter loading plate. 3 dial gauges. An integral water reservoir is incorporated in the cell which allows the specimen to be inundated when required. D1195. D4546. D3877. The frame is designed to load the specimen through a yoke assembly and one of three alternative beam ratios as 9:1 – 0:1 and 11:1. AASHTO T216 The One-dimensional Consolidation test is used to determine the consolidation characteristics of soils of low permeability. The fixed ring consolidation cells are manufactured from corrosion resistant materials and conform to the requirements of the relevant standards. It is also used for load tests of soil and flexible pavement components. BS 1377:9 The Plate Bearing Test is used to determine the bearing capacity of a soil under field loading conditions for a specific loading plate and depth of embedment. D1196. The beam is fitted with a counter balance weight and beam support check. 32 .

Expansion Swell Test Equipment The Swell Test Equipment is placed on top of the soil sample to enable monitoring of swelling. 33 . The swell test consists of perforated plate with adjustable stem (swell plate) dial gauge tripod and dial gauge.

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