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===Neutrosophy===

[[Florentin Smarandache]] extended the dialectic to [[neutrosophy]] which, roughly
speaking, is an exchange of ''propositions'' <A>, ''counter-propositions'' <Anti-A>, and
(in addition to dialectic) ''neutralities'' <Neut-A> (i.e. un-biased propositions, that support
neither <A> nor <Anti-A>), resulting in a synthesis of these three assertations (<A>,
<Anti-A>, and <Neut-A>) or in a qualitative transformation of the dialogue. It is
necessary to include these ''neutralities'' because they influence the dialogue.
Neutrosophy is a base for [[neutrosophic logic]], [[neutrosophic set]], and [[neutrosophic
probability]].

[[Neutrosophic logic]] introduces into fuzzy logic, besides truth and falsehood values, the
indeterminacy value which stands for hidden variables; all three components, truth,
falsehood, and indeterminacy are standard or non-standard subsets in the non-standard
unit interval ]-0, 1+[. In neutrosophic logic a proposition can be, say, between 20-30%
true, between 40-50% false, and between 15-25% indeterminant; because the sources that
don't know much about the proposition), the sum of superior limits of the components
could be greater than 100% (overlapping), as in [[paraconsistent logic]], or less than
100%, as in [[intuitionistic logic]].
One can apply these systems of logic in other areas of math such as [[fuzzy set]] or
[[neutrosophic set]] theories.

'''Fuzzy sets''' are an extension of the classical [[set theory]]. A fuzzy set is characterized
by a ''membership-degree function'', which maps the members of the universe into the
real continuous interval [0;1]. The value 0 means that the member is not included in the
given set, 1 describes a fully included member (this behaviour corresponds to the
classical sets). The values between 0 and 1 characterize fuzzy members.

For the universe ''X'' and given the membership-degree function
''f''&nbsp;:&nbsp;''X''&rarr;[0;1], the fuzzy set ''A'' is defined as ''A'' = {(''x'', ''f''(''x'')) | x
&isin; ''X''}.

A generalization of the fuzy set is the [[neutrosophic set]] applied in information fusion.
Besides the membership-degree and non-membership-degree used in fuzzy set theory,
one also considers the indeterminacy-degree.

A neutrosophic set is characterized by a ''membership-degree, indeterminacy-degree, and
non-membership-degree function'' and it is an extension of the [[fuzzy set]]. The
indeterminacy-degree, a new component introduced here besides the two ones of the
fuzzy set, leaves room for unknown parameters that may occur in the calculation of the
membership-degree or non-membership-degree.

similarly. as in [[paraconsistent set]]. its non-membership-degree is between 36- 42%. . and its indeterminacy-degree between 2-7%. or less than 100%. an element x from the universe belongs to a neutrosophic set in the following way: its memebership-degree is. as in [[intuitionistic set]]. ''non-membership-degree''. these three components. say. between 40-50%. 1+[. because the sources that provide information about this proposition may be contradictory or incomplete (they don't know much about the proposition). as in [[neutrosophic logic]]. And. the sum of superior limits of the components could be greater than 100% (overlapping). ''membership-degree''. For example. and ''indeterminacy-degree'' are standard or non-standard subsets in the non-standard unit interval ]-0.Using non-standard analysis.