You are on page 1of 11

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T.

(2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS USING RESPIROMETRY IN MALAYSIA


Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and HvitvedJacobsen T.**
* Institute of Environmental & Water Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Email: zaini@utm.my ** Department of Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholsvej 57, DK9000, Aalborg, Denmark. Email: thj@civil.auc.dk

ABSTRACT
Improving and upgrading the existing sewerage system was the main agenda in water pollution control in Malaysia at the moment. The present infrastructures include small and decentralised plants were inadequate in terms of performance efficiency, as well as service coverage. Improving and upgrading the existing sewerage system in the Malaysian context, among others, include a possibility of centralization of the municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this study was to analyse the performance of a waste stabilization pond (WSP) system and the possibility to upgrade the WSP for future centralized wastewater treatment plants. By wastewater characterization and evaluation, primarily using respirometry, it is found that the performance of the WSP in this study was not even met with the Malaysian effluent Standard B.

INTRODUCTION In the recent years, the Malaysian Government has focused on improving and upgrading the existing sewerage system and facilities, which is inadequate in terms of treatment efficiency. In many cases, the effluent quality has not met the effluent standards required by the authority. Untreated and inadequate treatment of wastewater has been the major factor in causing severe pollution of rivers and near-shore areas, which consequently increased the health risk for the public in Malaysia since the rapid industralisation and urbanization programmes in the 1980s. Improvements and upgrading of the existing sewerage system include, among others, re-engineering in management and financial system, development of new sewer networks and other sewerage infrastructures, as well as centralization of the small and decentralised municipal wastewater treatment facilities in major cities. The present Government policy is to change numerable and poorly equipped sewerage treatment plants to fewer, larger and more efficient centralised wastewater treatment plants to meet the effluent Standard A (BOD 20 mg/l, COD 50mg/l and SS 50 mg/l). Due to heavy rainfall, Malaysia has separated municipal sewer system from urban drainage. Municipal wastewater is led through closed municipal sewers underground, whereas rainwater is disposed of in open drain channels. In Malaysia, no industrial wastewater is allowed to discharge into public sewerage system. Municipal wastewater is disposed of in both connected and unconnected sewerage systems. Unconnected sewerage means that the wastewater is led either to private septic tank or discharged directly to the environment. Around 12 out of 23 million people in

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

Malaysia are severed by public sewerage system in 1999. The present connected sewerage system consists of approximately more than 10,000 km of sewers and about 7000 connected small wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The small WWTPs consist of communal septic tanks (55%), Imhoff tanks (13%), WSPs (10%) and mechanical-based plants which are mainly activated sludge type (22%). Besides the public sewerage service Malaysia also has 1.2 million individual septic tanks serving more than 6 million people [Hamid and Muda, 1999]. The objective of this study was to analyze an exiting WSP, located in a residential area in Taman Sri Pulai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia in order to understand the performance of the treatment processes. This was conducted by wastewater characterization in various points in the WSP. The primary parameter to be measured was OUR, in which a detailed information about the organic fractions in the wastewater will be provided. The organic fractions are relevant because it shows the biodegradability of organic matter in the wastewater as typically used in activated sludge plants (Henze et al., 1987). In addition, OUR has never been used to measure the performance of a municipal WWTP in Malaysia. MATERIALS AND METHODS The WSP in Taman Sri Pulai consists of a facultative pond and maturation pond, in which the degradation of the wastewater is performed by a combination of aerobic, anaerobic and facultative bacteria. In general, a facultative pond is designed to an overall BOD5 removal efficiency at 8095%. At the same time, a high degree of coliform removal is assured even with a 30-day-retention time. The maturation pond is designed to provide a secondary effluent polishing. Taman Sri Pulai is located on the foot of a small hill with the highest point in the northeastern corner and the lowest at the pumping station south of the ponds. The WSP covers the residential area of approximately 0.7 km2 and PE of 10,327 and receiving municipal wastewater primarily from toilets, bathrooms and kitchens. It has not been possible to collect detailed information about sewer slopes and lengths, but manually measurements performed at the northeastern sub-catchment area shown a slope of 13 to 14% [Frederiksen and Nielsen, 2001]. The sewer lines in this sub-catchment have a diameter of 32 cm, which supposedly is the same for all of the residential area. Most of the sewer pipes in the catchments area are gravity pipes, which are normally not fully loaded that allow re-aeration of the wastewater in the gravity pipes causing aerobic conditions. The minimum oxygen concentration measured in gravity pipe in the northeastern sub-catchment was 3.5 mg O2/L [Frederiksen and Nielsen, 2001]. This means that the gravity pipes may not contain products from anaerobic process such as VFAs, H2S and CH4. More than 50% of the residential area was connected with the pumping station and the pressure pipe, which makes the pressure pipe important for the whole sewer system. This pumping station was not leading a continuous stream, but occasionally emptied. Frequently operational problems with the pumps causes filled pipes in the lower parts of the catchments area. Due to this, large amount of the total wastewater flow is anaerobic, which causes a production of anaerobic products such as H2S. The WSP is located about 50 m from the nearest residential building. Very close to the ponds are a public school and a new residential area. The effluent from the WSP was discharged to Skudai River. The water quality of the river was slightly polluted in terms of heavy metals, grease and oil, nutrients and organic matters.

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

Design The detailed design of the WSP could not be acquired from the contractor. However it is assumed that the WSP was designed according to the standard practices similar to other facultative and maturation ponds suggested in Metcalf and Eddy (1991). The WSP is surrounded by tall trees and thereby partly sheltered from the wind. This is considered to reduce the mixing of the pond volumes. The WSP is connected in series, where the first pond is a facultative pond and the second pond is a maturation pond. Figure 1 shows the double pond system. The ponds cover an area of 17,725 m2 and the depths were thoroughly measured in this study to be on average of 1.55 m and 1.40m for the facultative pond and maturation pond, respectively. The volume of the facultative ponds is 16,275m3 and the volume of the maturation pond is 10,115 m3.

N Inlet

2 1 Facultative pond 2 Maturation Ponds 2 2

Outlet

Figure 1: Outline of the WSP in Taman Sri Pulai. Note: (1) = Venturi canal. (2 = overflows. (, O, ,

) = sampling points

To analyze the performance and the treatment process of the WSP, the wastewater was characterized by the following parameters: oxygen uptake rate (OUR), temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, COD, SS and VSS, TS, VS, ammonium-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen, flow, transport time in sewer. METHODS Sampling For Wastewater Characterization Samples were taken for wastewater characterization from the sampling points on daily basis for the period of three months. Table 1 shows the parameters that were measured.

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

Table 1: Sampling frequency and points for wastewater characterization of the WSP Sampling for* further analysis Inlet Facultative pond Facultative pond outlet Maturation pond Outlet X1 X2 X4 X
2

Flow X2+5

Transport Time

Depths

DO X6 X5 X7

pH X3+6 X4+5 X2 X7 X2

Temp X3+6 X4+5 X7

X
3

X4

Note: * = Wastewater were sampled for analysis of CODtotal, CODdissolved TS, VS SS VSS, NH4+
1. 2. 3. 4. Measured hourly between 7.00, 07.30, 08.30,16.30, 17.30 and 18.30 Measured hourly between 07.00 to 19.00 Measured hourly between 7.00 to 19.00 Measured hourly between 8.00 to 16.00 5. Measured at 16.20 to the 24.11.00 at 11.20 6. Measured at 16.20 and at 11.20 7. Measured hourly between 9.00 to 16.00

Sampling For OUR Measurement Samples were collected from three sampling points i.e. inlet, facultative pond outlet and the outlet of the maturation pond. OUR samples have been analyzed in the period from 20 September to 5 December 2000. In this study 24 samples have been analyzed for OUR from the inlet, 14 from the outlet of the facultative pond, 7 from the outlet of the maturation pond, 2 from sludge in the facultative pond and 1 sludge from the maturation pond.
Table 2: The analysed parameters for the samples collected in the inlet facultative pond outlet and the outlet. CODtotal Inlet Facultative pond outlet Outlet CODdissolved TS VS SS VSS NO3NH4+

OUR Measurements OUR of the wastewater was determined in two batch reactors of 6.2 liters each. The aeration was carried out by injection of compressed air into the wastewater, which was kept in suspension by magnetic stirrers. When the DO in the wastewater below a preset value, aeration of the wastewater will be started automatically. Once the DO had reached a preset value the aeration stopped. Time, temperature and DO were automatically logged. After finishing the measurements, the data were transferred to spreadsheets. OUR was then calculated from the measured time and DO values. OUR is the slope of the consumed DO versus time. An OUR modeling programme has been made for simulating the measured OUR, which enables the determination of the different organic fractions according to the model proposed by Hvitved-Jacobsen et al. (1998). Temperature It is well known that the temperature affects the rates of aerobic microbial process. Hence, the respirometer was set at a constant temperature during the analysis. The temperature was first kept constant using tap water temperature by circulating tap water in a water bath where both reactors were placed. The water bath was intended to keep the temperature constant. However, since the temperature of the wastewaters different by several degrees from the tap water, the temperature in
4

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

the reactors dropped during the first 3 to 5 hours. As a result the aeration was not sufficiently mixed in the reactors. Instead of keeping the water constant, the temperature was corrected using the Arhenius constant and the subsequent measurements were carried out without the water bath. Reareation Reaeration occurs by air diffusion through the water surface in the cylinder at the top of the reactors. Reaeration increases the DO concentration in the reactos. This affect the oxygen uptake, causing the oxygen uptake to be slightly lower than it would have been without reaeration. The reaeration was presumed to be negligible because the surface of the wastewater was small. Aeration The wastewater was originally to be aerated by two air pumps introducing air directly into the reactors through a cylinder. At the beginning it was believed that aeration directly into the reactors through the cylinder would influence the oxygen sensor. To solve this problem the effectiveness of the aeration was optimized by adding diffusers at the point where air was led into the reactors. RESULTS OUR Twenty-four measurements were conducted on the wastewater from the inlet. Twenty-one of the OUR measurements could be simulated to determine the COD fractions. The COD fractions found by OUR simulation have been tested for normality and found to be the normally distributed. Hence, all the results are assumed to be normal distributed. This complies with Walpole and Myers [1993] that states that most natural process were normally distributed.
25 15
OUR (mg O2/h)

Ss

10 Xs,1 5 Xs,2 0 5 10 Time (h) 15 20 25

Figure 2 : Example of a typical OUR measurements on inlet wastewater. This is the OUR measurement from 19.10.00 at 9.20 in reactor 1.

Figure 2 shows a typical OUR curve for the inlet, in the first two hours of the OUR experiment. Ss utilized for growth and maintenance of the biomass originated from initially present Ss and from hydrolysis as seen in this wastewater samples. The change from Ss non-limited growth to Ss limited growth was very clearly demonstrated. The fast decreased in OUR, which was seen when initially present Ss has been utilized for growth and maintenance of the biomass originated from the fast and slowly hydrolysis products. After 7.5 hours, Ss was utilized for growth and maintenance of the biomass originated from the slowly hydrolysis products.

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

The COD fractions of SS, Xb and XS1 were simulated and produced 21.76mg COD/l, 80 mg COD/l and 111 mg COD/l. The values for XS2 and H were then calculated: 263 mg COD /L and 4.9 d-1 respectively. Figures 2 and 3 show that the OUR values are increased after 10 hours. The drastic increase in OUR value was obvious in Figure 3, caused by the formation of microorganisms that have been acclimatized to the substrate limited growth conditions and were capable of utilizing a second substrate that the microorganisms did not be utilise before. It was not possible to simulate the drastic increase pattern with the tri-substrate model used in this study because more complex parameters have to be integrated.
Figure 4: Example of a 70-hour OUR measurement. This is the OUR measurement from 20.10.00 at 9.00 in reactor 1.

OUR (mg O2 /h)

Figure 3 : Example of an OUR measurement with a characteristic hump after 10 hours measurement. This is the OUR measurements from 21.09.00 at 11.20 reactor 1.

Ss

Figure 4 shows the OUR curve for 70 hours. For the first 35-hour of the OUR experiment, SS utilized for growth and maintenance of the biomass primarily originated from the hydrolysis products. The amount of initially present SS was small; hence it was not possible to determine H. After 25 hours, the production of SS via hydrolysis decrease to insufficient level for sustaining growth and only the maintenance energy requirement of the biomass are covered. If the concentration of readily biodegradable substrate produced by hydrolysis was insufficient for maintaining all the biomass, part of the biomass will be respired endogenously. This was not the case in Figure 4 where COD fractions of SS, XS2, XS1 were simulated: 10.1 mg COD/l, 59 mg COD /l and 126 mg COD/l respectively. XS2 was calculated at 137 mg COD/l. The OUR curve in Figure 4 was simulated for the first 24 hours, because it was only possible to determine the fractions of SS, XB, XS1 and XS2 with the applied tri-substrate model. For simulating 70-hour it would be necessary to extend the OUR model with a fraction more. This fraction, XS2 should be able to characterise the OUR curve from 24 to 70 hours.

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

XB can be derived from Figure 4 and was estimated using OUR(t) = qm.XB when the OUR was more or less unchanged with time, i.e. if no or only little XS1 was present [Vollertsen and HvitvedJacobsen, 2001]. After 44 hours, microbial transformation of organic matter XB was reduced to 38 mg COD/l. The COD fractions from the simulation of the 21 measurements of OUR were shown in Table 3. The average XB was 40 mg COD/l hence the OUR was more or less unchanged with time.
Table 3: The average maximum specific growth rate at 28oC and COD fractions for the 21measurements of OUR in the inlets with the corresponding standard deviations in the a parentheses.
H[d-1] & Std. Dev SS [mg COD/L] & Std. Dev XB [mg COD/L] & Std. Dev Xs,1 [mg COD/L] & Std. Dev Xs,2 [mg COD/L] & Std. Dev

Inlet Sri Pulai Characteristic value in wastewater

5.7(2.5) -

12.5(8.1) 0-50

65(30) 20-100

93(32) 50-100

309(163) 300-450

The COD fractions in Table 3 were in the range or typical values in wastewater. The average SS fraction was in the low range of interval, whereas the average XS1 was at the higher range. The low SS content could be due to consumption of SS in the sewers. The determination of the average XS2 fraction was uncertain, which was due to the variation in the COD total values. Figure 5 shows the average COD fractions variation from 9.00-9.20,11.20-11.30,15.00-16.15 and 17.00-18.35. The number of OUR measurements for each time intervals was 5, 7, 6 and 3, respectively.
SS Figure 5: The average concentrations of XS1 at different time intervals. The periods were 9.00-9.20, 11.20-11.30,15.0016.15 and 17.00-18.35.

The COD concentrations were relatively high in the morning, but decreased during the day and in the afternoon they started to increase again. This was in agreement with the diurnal pattern of wastewater generation. The concentrations of the COD fractions were expected to follow this pattern because of deposition of organic matters in the sewer when the flow was low. Then the flow became high, the deposited organic matters were resuspended. Another reason was that the composition of the organic matter varies during the day. XB was high at 17.00 18.35, which may be due to growth of biomass in the sewers when the deposited SS degraded. XS2 also decreased during the day, but in the afternoon it was not increase as expected. This may be due to the concentrations has not reached the afternoon peak yet. Figure 6 shows the average of COD fractions as percentages of CODtotal, Ss, XB, XS1 and XS2 account for 3%, 14%, 19% and 64% of CODtotal respectively.

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

Figure 6: Ss, XB, Xs1 and Xs2 as percentage of CODtotal. All 21 OUR measurements are included.

SS

CODtotal

The results in Figure 6 were compared with values of COD fractions by other researchers, as shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Comparison of wastewater characteristics with other studies.


Studies
1

Country

XB

Ss

Xs,1

Xs,2

X1

S1

% COD Kappelar and Gujer, 1992 Ekama et al.,19861 Orhon et al.,1999 1 Switzerland South Africa Turkey 12 _* _* 9 20 9 58 62 77 8-16 12 13 19 10 13 10 50-75 70 77 64 1 5 4

Denmark 3-16 0-8 H-Jacobsen et al., 19983 Malaysia 9 9 Talib et al.,2000 3 Ujang & Murugesan,20023 Malaysia 3 7 Malaysia 14 3 This Study3 Note: * Xb was included in Xs 1.Based on Activated Sludge Model 1 (Henze et al., 1987). 2.Based on bi-substrate model proposed by Dold et al. (1980). 3.Based on tri-substrate model proposed by Hvitved-Jacobsen et al.(1998).

The COD fractions are comparable with the values already reported from the inlet wastewater to the wastewater stabilization pond at Taman Sri Pulai (Talib et al, 2000, Ujang & Murugesan, 2002). Even though this study shows lower values of Ss and XB and higher values of XS1 compared with the reported values. The COD fractions are in the range of values reported by Hvitved-Jacobsen et al. (1998), although XS1 was a little higher than the Danish values. The results of the COD fractions, however, are also comparable with those found by Ekama et al. (1986), Kappeler & Gujer (1992) and Orhon et al. (1997). The maximum specific growth rate for this study was in Table 5 listed with values from other countries. The temperature corrected value for H was 3.6 d-1. Arrhenius constant
8

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

of 1.047 was used because it applied in the range of 15-32oC and at the same time it was in the range of other values reported (Zanoni, 1967).
Table 5 Comparison of the average specific growth rate from this study with other values reported. The values are given at 20oC but the values from this study are given at 28oC. Country Switzerland Germany Denmark etc. Malaysia, Sri Pulai Johor H 1-8 6.8 + 1.6 6.0 5.7*

[Kappelar and Gujer, 1992] [Bjerre,1996] [Henze et al., 1987] This Study

The results from the inlet pint are ilustrated in Table 6. The relationship between COD and the amount of organic matter was important, as it has almost constant value of 1.4 mgO2/mg organic matter for wastewater [Henze et al., 1992]. This relationship can be found in two ways: the ratio of CODtotal/VS and CODParticulate/VSS. On average, these relationships were 0.5 mg/mg and 2.46 mg/mg, respectively. This inconsistency means that the VS was too high compared with the COD measurements VSS is too low. This means that major uncertainties are connected with the measurements of the VS and VSS measurements. This is confirmed by the fact that the measured VSS is sometimes higher than the measured SS. The trays used for measuring VS might have affected the measurement, because the preservation acid damaged them.
Table 6: Average values for the inlet and outlet samples of the WSP. Parameter Inlet Outlet 28.7 7.28 132* 40* 0.04*1 0.754 0.439 16.8 1.2 ND 2 ND ND Standard A 40 6.0-9.0 50 50 Standard B 40 5.5 9.0 100 100 -

Temperature[C] 28.1 pH[-] 6.3 446* CODtotal [ mg O2/l] CODdissolved [ mg O2/l] 97* SS[g/l] 0.146* VSS[g/l] 0.140* TS[g/l] 2.197 VS[g/l] 0.834 23.1 Ammonium[mg NH4+ - N/l] Nitrate [mg NO3- -N/l] 1.5 12.5 Ss [mg O2/l] 65 XB [mg O2/l] XS1[mg O2/l] 93 309 X S2 [mg O2/l] 5.7 H [d-1] * Dry weather concentration averages; ND = not detectable

Effluent Quality Eight OUR measurements were conducted on the wastewater from the effluent of the WSP. Figure 7 shows the OUR curve of the effluent. The SS utilized for growth and maintenance of the biomass was products from slow hydrolysis. No initial SS and XS1 were detected. After 11 hours, the production of SS from XS2 started to decrease to a level insufficient for sustaining growth and only

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

maintenance energy requirement of the biomass were covered. After this point the only fractions present were XB and XS3. The overview of the effluent quality of this WSP is presented in Table 6. The effluent was partly complied with Standard B in the context of Malaysian wastewater quality standard. For CODtotal, 83% of the measured values were not able to meet the Standard B. However the SS parameter was within the Standard B. Since there was no nutrient standard required in Malaysia, therefore no effort was made by the sewerage company on nutrient removal.

OUR (mgO2/l.h) 6

10

15

20

Figure 7. Example of an OUR measurement on WSP effluent.

Conclusions From the performance analysis using respirometry, it can be concluded that organic fractionation shown that the biodegradation was not able to meet the designed target, particularly for hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable components in the WSP. This result was not expected since the retention time was sufficient. The high concentration of XS components also could be due to maximum specific growth rate was found not to be temperature dependent, as it was expected. This indicates that bacteria living under warm temperature conditions have almost similar capabilities in degrading organic matter as bacteria in temperate climate. Acknowledgements This study was conducted in UTM under the research collaboration between UTM and Aalborg University, funded by Danish University Consortium on Environment and Development (DUCED). The fieldwork has been conducted by C. L. Christensen, L. Milwertz and M.H. Thomsen. References Dold P.L., Ekama G.A., Marais G.v.R. (1980) A general model for the activated sludge process. Prog.Wat.Tech.,12(6)47-54. Ekma G.A., Dold P.L. and Marais G.v.R. (1986) Procedures for determining influent COD fractions and the maximum specific growth rate of heterotrophs in activated sludge systems. Wat.Sci.Tech. 18(6)91-114. Frederiksen C. and Nielsen A.H. (2001) Viability of domestic sewer systems in Malaysia. Unpublished report on DUCED Project in Malaysia. Aalborg University, Denmark. Hamid M.H.A. and Muda M.Z. (1999) Perspective on sewerage services in Malaysia and challenges ahead. Proc. Nat. Symp. Advanced Wasteater Treatment, UTM., Kuala Lumpur. Henze M., Grady C.P.L., Gujer W., Marais G.v.R and Matsuo T. (1987) Activated Sludge Model No.1. IAWPRC, London. Hvitved-Jacobsen T., Vollertsen J. and Nielsen P.H. (1998) A process and model concept for microbial wastewater transformations in gravity sewers. Wat.Sci.Tech.37(1)233-241.

10

Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002) Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia. IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.

Kappeler J. and Gujer W. (1992) Estimation of kinetic parameters of heterotrophic biomass under aerobic conditions and characterization of wastewater for activated sludge modeling. Wat.Sci.Tech.25(6)125-139. Metcalf & Eddy Inc. (1991) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, Reuse, McGrawHill, Singapore. Orhon D., Cokgor E.U. and Sozen S. (1997) Experimental basis for the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable substrate indifferent wastewaters. Wat.Sci.Tech.39(1)87-95. Talib S.A., Ujang Z. and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2000) Sewer design A shift from the conventional view. Proc.6th Int.on Pollution Control in Metropolitan Cities. Kuala Lumpur, March 2000. Ujang & Murugesan (2000) Wastewater characterization in tropical countries: Model, procedures and analysis. Submitted to Wat.Res. Vollertsen J. and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2001) Biodegradation of wastewater A method for CODfractionation. Second Int. Conf. On Interactions between Sewers, Treatment Plants and Receiving Waters in Urban Areas INTERUBA II, Portugal, Feb 2001. Walpole R.E. and Myres R.H. (1993) Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists. Prentice Hall, Singapore. Zanoni A.E.(1967) Wastewater deoxygenation at different temperatures. Wat.Res.1(8/9)543-566.

11