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Liebermann-Burchard test: Formation of a green or green-blue color after a few minutes is positive. Ideally, the cholesterol solution gives a nice reaction, the coconut oil should show no significant color change, and the lard gives a weak reaction.
Solubility test: The difference is the functional group the cottonseed oil contains. An ether is an oxygen placed in the chain, so somewhere in the cottonseed oil there is a chain looking like this: R-O-R', R and R' being carbon chains. Ethyl alcohol is an -OH group on the end of a 2-carbon chain. So ethyl alcohol is in the cottonseed oil somewhere as this: CH3-CH2-OH
Test for unsaturation:
This test identifies the level of saturation and the number of bonds a oil, fat or lipid has. The more unsaturated, multi-bonded, the lipid is, the more it absorbs iodine. The less iodine it absords, the lipid is considered to be saturated,single bonded. acrolein test:
The principle behind the acrolein test is a specific chemical reaction. This reaction is utilized to determine the presence of glycerin in a fat. By heating the fat sample in the presence of potassium bisulfate (KHSO4), which acts as a dehydrating agent, acrolein (C3H4O, or CH2=CHCHO) is formed and can easily be detected by its odor. Whenever fat is heated in the presence of a dehydrating agent, the fat molecule will shed its glycerol in the form of the unsaturated aldehyde - acrolein. Acrolein smells like burned grease, and this toxic chemical was used in the first World War as a chemical weapon. Even in small concentrations, exposure irritates the mucous membranes and
(Potassium is also a soft. however. Saponificaton: The process is often termed saponification. hydrolyzed -.) Hard soaps are sodium salts. white metal obtained from common salt. and aluminum soaps which are used in waterproofing. The commonest soaps are the fatty-acid salts of sodium (sodium is a soft. Nowadays in industry fats are very often converted into glycerin and fatty acids -. and hence are never found in nature except in the form of their compounds.that is. cleansing) action.causes the eyes to tear up. white metal obtained from wood ashes or from certain minerals found in Germany.. and elsewhere.. .e. potassium salts. A soap is merely the combination of a fatty acid with a metal. zinc soaps which are used in ointments.without the formation of any soap whatever. It can incapacitate individuals very quickly at levels of only a few parts per million. Very few of the salts of fatty acids have the properties of common soap. The fatty-acid salts of ammonium are also sometimes used for cleansing. Only a few other soaps are of practical importance. Most of them are but slightly soluble in water. sodium chloride) and potassium. and therefore do not yield suds and have little or no detergent (i. i. The term saponification (instead of the more exact term hydrolysis) is.e. it is a salt. Both sodium and potassium oxidize with great rapidity when exposed to the air. for example lead soaps which are used in medicinal plasters. All are nevertheless termed soaps by chemists. soft soaps. applied indiscriminately and inappropriately to any chemical change of this nature. since it was first observed to take place in the manufacture of soap. whether or not soap is formed. Alsace.