AS472 .A8P7


















List of


of the Asiatic Society of Bengal on


3 1st December, 1870,

Appendix inFebruary Proceedings,


Abstract Statement of Eeceipts and Disbursements of the
Asiatic Society of Bengal for the year 1870,
in February Proceedings,




Proceedings for January, 187 1,


for February, 1871, including

Annual Eeport
55 80

and President's Address,
Do. Do. Do.



for April, for

95-1 18


for June, for July, for

119-13G 137-158






for September, „

for October, for


„ November, „ December, „
I to



Meteorological observations for January to December,


Appendix A,



sjit -










On the





Tb( * distiuguishes Non-Subscribing, the f Non-Eesident Members, and the t Life-Members.

N. B. Gentlemen who may have changed their residence, since this list was drawn up, are requested to give intimation of such a change to the Secretaries, in
order tliat the necessary alterations inay he made in the svibsequent edition. Errors or omissions in the following list should also be communicated to the Secretaries. Gentlemen who are proceeding to Europe, with the intention of not returning to India, are particularly requested to notif}^ to the Secretaries, whether it be their deBii'e to continue as members of the Society.
Uatc ol'Electiou.

.Date ol' Election.

.Date of Election.

Date of Election. .

.Date of Election.

Datu of Klection. .

J. M. B. Esq. B Europe Geol. B. C. Esq. S. Dr. Lieut. July 5.. fLow J. C. Manickjee Rustamjee. R.. S. S. J.. B. March July Jan. tMiles. 185G Feb. K. Api-il *Maclagan.. Sir H. Esq.. Europe Allahabad America Hoshiarpore Calcutta June April tMacauliff. G. C. G... Locke. F. 2.F. Oct. March 6. S. Macnamara. S.. B. Esq. H. Capt.. B. 6. S. *Liebig. C. 18G2 18G4 1869 18G6 1866 1854. N. B. J. S.. 11 tMuir. S. F. J... fMallet.. H.. Esq. Esq. C. C. Capt. 6. C. S. Esq. Esq. Dr. C. Juiy 5.. Dec. B. D. 6. Ai)nl ]\lay S.Col.. R. *Money. S. S. Esq. fMarkham.. Esq.. *M-iiir. Calcutta Bijnour Eui'ope Nov.. July Miller.R. H. Staff' Corps. J. Feb. tLyall. fMuhammad Hasan Khalifah. Siu'vey. S. Sii. A. *Morris. . R.. Kattywar Europe Calcutta Em'ope DarjeeHng Eui'ope Geol.Il. Staff. *Lindsay.. C.. B. Sayyid.. C.Col... Esq. B. S. J. G. tMedlicott. Em'ope I.. Major T. *Lockwood. Dr. Nov. Europe Europe Bombay Europe Calcutta Calcutta Europe Nuddea Dera Doon Europe Patialah Em'ope Allahabad 1862 July tNai)ier of Magdala. Markby. Lieutenant B. G... M. S. Esq. S. I *Middleton.. B. E. Office 1860 March 1855 1861 1871 1850 1870 1867 1847 1856 1867 1854 1871 1S37 1854 7. Esq. K. D. Esq. M.. 2. M. M. I.Corps. G.. *Maine. Dr. C. D. Esq. 4.. G. Sept. 1853 1867 1863 1867 1860 1862 1852 1867 1869 1850 1863 1837 *Macrae. Oct. von. W. 11. S. E. G. C. Esq. F. fLobl).. Europe Calcutta Calcutta Rajkote College. *Maii-. Mahendi'alala Saracara. A.. 7. *Marshman.. Sir W.. S. Esq. April *Miles. B. Lord Bishop of Calcutta. *McLeod. K. Esq. Geol. A. July April May April April Jan. Survey.. D.. C. S. Esq. Nov. B. C.. C. C. C.G.. Feb.Datu ot Election. General India.E. Dr. A. Major J. *Lushino-ton. C. Esq. June Mihiian. Macnamara.E. I. Macdonald. J. A. A.R. s. *Lovett. F.. 18(50 Jan.. A. Dr. C.S. G. Esq. JLyman.. *Melville. The Hon'ble W. C.. A.F. tMontgomerie.. Esq. S. Dec.. tMoney. E. C. Nov. April 7. Europe Europe Krishnagur Calcutta Europe Ispahan Alniora S. Sept. F.. Geol Nov. *McCleUand.. Office Calcvitta Jan. Lord G.. J. Esq. B. 4. D. B. fMacnaghten.. B.. A. c. fMainwaring..S.D. A. I. J.. B. Smith. The Right Rev. 1869 J Illy 1870 April 1868 1866 1848 1S67 1871 1870 Dec. T.

Date of Election. .

.Date of Election.

Yizianagram Balasore fYnndavanachandra Mandala. Dr. Royal F. Major G. Bahadur... Api-il *Thurlow. Col. Lahore Calcutta Calcutta B. I. R.. Esq. Geol. *Tlionapson... C... Eiu'ope *Trevelyan. Panjab June Mar. The Right Hon'ble SirC. S.S. Capt. Esq. S... J. M. Sm'vey 4. Svvinhoe. J.... Lucknow Sylhet Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta April TaAvney. Wahid All. M. Lieut.. Garden Reach Calcutta Bombay Em'ope Eui'ope Calcutta July July *Ward. Calcutta *Tremlett. *Wall.! Nowakhali 6. Dr. Prince Jahan 1865 1861 1863 1863 1862 1852 1859 1865 Nov. tWard. Barrackpore fVijayarania Gajapati Raj Mimnia Sultan Bahadui'. f'l'lionison....I. S. fVanrenen. Ai-tillery. S. C. Babu. 1869 Augt. 1862 July 1865 July 1865 1862 1871 1861 1863 1841 1861 1863 July Feb. Aug. S. Col. Esq. B. Esq. Esc^. Esq.. Burma May Feb. Dr. Babii.B. Major General. *Tlioni]ison. Maharajah Mirza. Calcutta . C. 1858 July 18G4. T. B.. A. May Waterhouse. 1843 May 3 *Strachey. E. F. 1. Tennant. fTavlor. J. Geological Survey. Jan.. H.C. C. Montgomery. Calcutta jTyler. TonneiTe. R. Europe Europe Europe Calcutta Eui'ope H. Europe *Trevor. W. B.. Esq. Tliuillier. Esq. B. J. Esq. D. Feb. R.. 1). B. Esq. M. June Mar. Mynpuri 1869 June 1860 May 1861 Feb. W. S. The Hon'ble J. fTheoljald.. AV. Waldie.. Esq. Fm-ruckabad Europe Eui'o])e C.. F. F G. Europe Tween. May 6. C.... Bengal Staff Corps. Calcutta *ToiTens. C. 1865 1865 1860 1871 1859 1869 1860 1863 1863 1817 Sept. Esq. B... A. E. . Major A. fWaagen. W. L Europe Calcutta 1869 Feb.B. D. K. C.. Em-ope Trefftz. S. H.. Oct. 1863 Sept. C. The Hon'ble T. Col. Faizabad C. J. L. P. G. A. M. Esq. J. F." H. J. Bengal Staff Corps. H.. 1870 June 1871 Feb. Qadi. 1. C... J. J Esq. S. Waller. H. H. D. S. S. D. Straeliey.. Oscar. C. T. S. R.. B. C. S. tSutherlantl.. Esq. A. L. S.. 0. June June Tenip]e. Geological Sui'vey.K.C.. R..-Col. W. W. Esq. Babu. C. Mar. *Tlu)rnton.. 1864 April 2 f Udayachanda Datta. F. fStuIjbs. M. R. F. I. B. Sept. S.S. Esq. fTolbort.. D. T. A. S.K.. R.. *Walker. Major F. 2. Royal Engrs.. A. M.. S. C.Mvdiainmad.. Moradabad Verchere. R. May May Oct. Esq. 3.Date of Election. Esq. Bengal Artillery.. H.. G. The Hon'ble C. F.TheHon'bleSirR. Syaniacliarana Saracara. *Warrand.. C.. H. W. S. C. Esq. 1859 Mar.

| .Date of Election.

xm Date of Election. .

The Hon'ble J. Dr. Norman. Esq. Thomas. J. I. WiUiams. A. Dr. Oudh Calcutta Eangoon S. T. S. Cock1)urn. J. Calcutta Eui'ope Calcutta Calcutta Simla Calcutta Banda Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Panjab Kanoo Kundua Nemar. Calcutta Calcutta . Lieut. C. M. W. Dr. Stevens. Central Provinces By the Nawab election BEnsra cancelled on ACCOTOTT of NoN-COMPLLiNCE WITH THE EULES OF THE SOCEETY.LOSS OF MEMBEES DUEING By Eetieement. The Hon'ble Sii. J. B.. Dickens. J. W. Lahore Dera Lucknow Darbanga K. Esq. F. C. Walker. E. Grey. E. Leeds. The Ven'ble Ai-chdeacon P. I. P. Esq. Sarmi Lucknow By Death. Esq. Wilkinson. E. Esq. 1 Madras Stkuck A. Amery. Macgregor. Esq. Esq. H. J. G. Pratt. Osborn. Onao. Fleming. Esq. Basevi. WaUace. H. Capt. 1871. D. F. Esq. W. Lieut. L. C. Bowring. E. Chambers.W. C. Col. D. A. J. B. Capt. J. C. Bonnerjee. J. A. Schroecler.. C. C. Warth. C. H. Esq. off. C. S.-Col. Mackenzie. Esq. E. J. Dr. E. Garrett. Junction. Sir Sheiiful Omra Bahadur. M. F.


Dr.. . MSS. Esq. Williams and Norgate. E.550 Ditto.703 2 9 Vested Fund. Less incom* Tax on ditto.. . Rs. &c. 1871. .STATEMENT Ahstract of the Cash Account RECEIPTS.. . 14.641 14 11Carried over. Stamps.. Sale proceeds of Books.558 12 10 . Ditto of Freight. 9 32 7 10 287 6 Conservation or Sanscrit MSS... ditto.. Subscriptions.. of amount paid for copying Midhatithi on the 27th April. Received Interest on the Government Securities from the Bank of Bengal.. Subsci'iptions to ditto..472 1. Refund of the .812 10 Publications. Sale proceeds of 7 Copies of Notices of Sanscrit Refund Ditto. Received on account of Loan. Rs. 656 6 656 Miscellaneous. 110 12 108 14 3 0.550 being the 2nd half of 1870-71. Messrs. . Refund of Postage Stamps.. ... E. Stoliczka...044 7 7. Received Commission on purchase of Postage .. V. 359 11 8 3 8 3 371 3 3 752 14 Secretary's Office. Ditto. for 7 copying Madana Parijat.472 8G4 Eeceived from Members. Quaritch.. F.044 7 8. Ethnology of Bengal. Col. Fine...729 8 3 1... Atkinson... Admission Pees. Esq.903 1 3 Library. Refund of Freight. ditto. T.. Fund.. .. T. Dalton. the 1st half of 1871-72. Eeceived from Members. 23 4 13 13 3. 706 9 952 8 26 15 3 8 40 3 1.. P. Wali-ooUah Sayyid. B.144 1 3. Ditto of Postage Stamps. . 1.. •• 14 1 7 10 1 amount from Narpat Sinha 10 12 Jemadar.. . 1870. 1871. Ditto of Printing charges. 3 6 10.. . Sale proceeds of Journal and Proceedings. 1. .. .. 1... Eeceived from the Accountant General of Bengal in part of the amount sanctioned towards the Conservation of Sanscrit MSS.000 5 50 6 548 14 6 6 31 4 3 8 10.

Ditto Salary of Pankhaman. Paid Messrs. Paper for plates. Commission on Sale of Books. Ditto repairing a Clock. Ditto Landing Charges. Ditto Petty Charges. Ditto Establishment. LlIiBARY. Williams and Norgate for purchase of Library Books as per their draft dated.. &c. 105 and Engraving charges. Ditto Donation to the Piddington Eund.. Williams and Norgato. . Ditto Subscription to the Anny List. . Purchase of Postage Stamps.No. Ditto ditto of Stationery. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Litiiograpliiug 1871... Ditto Engraving and Printing charges.. Ditto Book Binding. Ditto Bearing Postage. DISBURSEMENTS. Ditto Commission on Collecting Subscriptions. Ditto Bearing Postage. 1871. IBth July.. Ditto Petty Charges.. Binding charges. Printing charges. .. Petty Charges. Ditto for preparing a Teak wood Board. Paid Freight for sending Journal and Proceedings to Messrs. Directory... Ditto Purchase of Books.. .. . of the Asiatic Society for 1871. Ditto Secretary's Office Establishment... 1870. Paid General Establishment.... PUBIICATIONS. Ditto Postage Stamps.. Ditto Subscription to the Medical Gazette.. . . Ditto Salary of Mali.. . Ditto Meeting Charges. Ditto fee to the Bank of Bengal for stamp ing blank cheques. Secretahy's Office. &o. Ditto Purchase of Postage Stamps. Ditto Editing charges for the Annual account current of 1870. . .. Ditto Salary of the Librarian. 1. . Ditto Commission on Sale of Books. Ditto Advei'tising charges. Ditto Ditto. Ditto Insufficient Postage. Falconer's bust. Ditto for a Marble Pedestal for Dr.

Esq. Haughton. . F. . Esq...RECEIPTS.. \ 21 12 8 10 1 11 12 4 2 1 12 8 10 14 11 6 10. Babu Rasavihari Vasu. L. Esq. Rs. Schwendler. Esq... Col.. G. E. W.. G. Esq. Stokes. Major M.. Babu Rakhal Dass Haider. . ... . C. W. Esq. J.. Dr.opal Padye. Growse.. Carr.. Diithoit.„ W. J. . R.558 12 10 A. S. Foulkes..„ .709 10 6 CaiTied over.. Esq. Esq.641 14 11 14.. 1871.268 7 4 . .. L.. F. The Government Noi-th-Westeni Provinces. . Leeds... Harip.. [ ' Jagul Kisscre. Leitner. 1870. Heeley.. The Rev. .. E Ward. Gauffh. .. Brought over.. W. Ef3q. W.. Rs. 25. 10. .

1870. Brought over.DISBURSEMENTS.733 7 9 611 8 . 1871. 10. Rs.

Rs. 2 661 6 _ 1871.'. . Muir. 1 717 l Ditto Asiatic Society. Brought over. In the Bank of Bengal. . . account-current Dr..268 „ 7 4 ^ .277 1 ~ 9 Cash in hand. J.. Balance OF 1870.. ggg jq Ditto Conservation of Sanscrit MSS. 1370. 3 30....'.' 9 5. viz.XX RECEIPTS. ^25^^ Rs.671 8 4 . 25. ..

Ditto Ditto Ditto Bank of Bengal. . 1870. Triibner and Co. Asiatic Society. Balance. Conservation of Sanscrit MSS. in Cash band.. A.. Beanies. . J.. W. account-current Muir.DISBURSEMENTS. J.. Irvine. Dalton. Rs..slior and Co. Messrs. Baxter.. Messrs. Ethnology of Bengal. Brought over. In tlio Dr..091 10 1R71. 8. Babu Udaya Chanda Datta. Esq. Dr. B. ]"js((. Col. viz.

.000 9.. Babu Ram Chunder Bose.911 5 6 Government Alloavance.727 5 9 9 Less Commission and Brokerage on Selling Goverment Security..500 Premium on do. 2. Esq. . . A.000 87 8 Government Ditto Ditto ditto Secui'ity. 9.. W. Received on Loan... . .. ... Esq.. at 250 Rs.. . Jyanna. Oriental Publications.. 3. 81 14 1871. Esq.. . 1870. .. Babu Tarini Cliurn Chuckerbutty.. Babu Luchmun J. ditto Interest on do. 203 12 23 9 3. .. College...405 3 Ditto by Subscription to do..723 3 8 3. .581 1 1. . Bisch. RECEIPTS. 94 Ditto Refund of Postage and Packing chai'ges. .. . Babu Sadasakh Lall.. Paudita Chunder Kanta Tarkalanker.. Muushee Gungapershad. Esq. Singh. 8 175 274 9 Miscellaneous. Received Interest on the Government Security by the Bank of Bengal. Received from the General Treasury at 50O Rs. Pandita Damaru Vallabha. The Principal of the Dacca C.STATEMENT Ahstract of the Cash Account... .. .. . Ram Kissen G.. 3 14 3 6 7 Ditto Income Tax on the Interest.. Muller Row. Babu Nob in Chunder Roy. Macm. 6. Ditto by Sale of a new 5 per cent. Received by Sale of Bibliotlieca Indica. N. . per month... G..810 11 Asiatic Society of Bengal. 2... Roynoo Gopall. Esq. 3. 4 2 1 3.000 ~ Vested Fund.000 Ditto ditto additional grant for the publication of Sanski-it works.. per month.. Chib Ghanano Sarawali. .... Babu Pearilall.. Bhauder Kur...

Postage Stamps. 1871. Fee for Stamping Cheques. ... Petty Charges.364 8 Vested Fund.. . DISBUSEMENTS. Ditto for auditing the Annual Account for 1870. Paid Salary for Cataloguing Sanscrit MSS. AiN I Akbari.No.190 14 3 1. MiAiANSA Daesana. 2. Renewing a Government Security.. Paid on account of Loan... Copying MSS. Petty Chai'ges.. Commission on Sale of the Government Security. Stationery. Library. 1871.. Paid Munslii allowance. ORiENT. Paid Editing and Printing Charges... Paid Commission on Sale of Booka. Paid Commission to the Bank of Bengal for drawing Interest on the Government Securities. Asiatic Society of Bengal. Custody of Oriental Works.. Paid Parchase of Books. Packing Charges. Paid Salary of the Librarian. .. . . .. 1870. Advertising Charges. 12 10 2 14 9 1. Ditto Printing Charges. .. Tand'ya Maha Brahmana.. Ofdental PitbUcation Fund. Catalogue of Sanscrit MSS.vr. Publications.. 250 47 119 400 328 6 8 2 5 6 Bearing Postage. Establishment. Frci-ht. Printing Charges.. Paid Editing and Printing Charges. Book Binding. Paid Copying Charges. Brokerage on ditto ditto.

... Rs 1871. .. 12 8 15 163 14 6 Carried over.666 6 .. Brought over. . 15. . 5 1870. .83U 4 11 . . Lall Misser.XXIV RECEIPTS.... . Vadlamaunati Damsdarayya.. 5 M.. 150 11 6 15.. Rs. Sasha Ram Giri Sastri...

Paid Editing and Printing Charges. Taittiriya Brahmana. Ra. .. Paid Printing Charges. . Poems Chand.663 960 13 6 6 10 Maasir Alamgiri. Paid Printing Charges. Paid Printing Charges. Taittiriya Aranyaka. 6.. 1871. . Chaturvarga Chintamani.. Ditto Postage and Eegistering fee for return.. Editing and Printing Charges. ing MSS. . Paid Editing and Printing Charges. Matri Upanishad. Brought over. Paid Freight and Packing Charges ing MSB. .. Latyayana Srauta Sutra.. Paid Editing and Printing Charges. GOPATHA BRAHMANA.. for send- Farhang Rashidi. Paid Editing and Timting Charges.XXV DISBURSEilENTS..120 9 Brahma Sutea.. Sama Veda. Paid Editing and Printing Charges. . 1870. Paiv. Paid Editing and Printing Charges. Nrisinha Tapini.. Paid Printing Charges. 1. Paid Editing and Printing Charges. 550 .„ Paid Printing Charges. Taittiriya Sanhita.. Biographical Dictionary.

.. 1870.830 . .066 9 6 . .. 4 11 4 7 836 R3.. Balance of 1870. 16.. Brought over.xxvl RECEIPTS. Rs. 15. 1871. lu the Bank of Bengal...

Babu Ram Cliundor Bose.. Carr... Brought over. W.XXVll DISBURSEMENTS. Babu Brojo Bhusan Dass.. Ramkrishna G". ... Damaru Jctta.. . N. Muusheo Gunga Persad. Babu Luchmun Singh. Babu Tarini Chnru Chuckerbutty... . Damani Vallabha. Esq. Babu Heotalal Misscr. Esq.. Bhaudcrkur.. 1871. .... Bisch. Esq. Major C. . The Principal of the Dacca College. Rs K. 2 10 1870. Sadaskh Lall. Eoghnnath Row. . Miillcr Row. . J.

XXVIU ^ O O O O 05 O O .



von Haidinger an Herrn E. Schlagintweit-Sakiinlinsky for measuring curved lines on maps. President. F. for ballot at the next T. Presentations were announced. Home Department. Schreiben von 3. The Hon'ble Mr. Daukes. v. seconded by Col. S. C. Esq. Murkham. From Dr. Hai'kness... 1. EENGAL The monthly meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday the 4 th instant at 9 o'clock p m. at The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded last the meeting wore balloted for and elected ordinary members. M. Vanrenen. Esq. Esq. proposed by A. C. Justice Phear. The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. Isaac Newton. &c. From H. F. S. D. Esq. From the Government of India. in the chair. . E. P. Brough. revolving scale 4. Babu Ganendranatha Thakm-a. 1871. Doll. A.PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF FOR January. Newman five silver coins. W. 5 photo- graphs of the temples and inscriptions at Barsee Taklee and Pinjar. Prom the Author — Eiickblick auf die Jahre 1845 — —a Lis 1870. The following gentlemen are cantlidatos meeting. Esq. 2.

C. E. J. H. Tennant. was on the table before them. proposed by Dr. in May 1869. Proceedings of the Asiatic Societtj. Farr. P. dated 22nd May. there were certainly very substantial reasons to be urged in support When these of it.. Esq. *' The task was entrusted to Babu whom the Government had recommended for Notices &c. Capt.. the Council thought it right to inform the Society of the progress which had since been made in the matter. The Council reported on the progress which has been made in the collecting and preservation of Sanskrit MSS. He could not better explain the error into which the Government had here fallen. and the preparation of Catalogues. H. H. proposed by Mr. Hyde. In laying this correspondence on the table the President observed. P. Esq. 1869. " Notices" were submitted to Government. [Jan. Thomas. H. Blochmann. seconded by Dr. J.. and communicated the subjoined correspondence on the subject. T." had been published and One instalment of the it.. E. Esq. Dr. were communicated to the Society. lu conclusion . proposed by Col. F. seconded by Mr. but it appears that the advisers of the Government considered that it was defective in The President quoted a passage to this certain important points. Amery. Eajendi-alala Mitra. no objection was taken to the form of the publication. G. that inasmuch as the measures proposed and subsequently under- taken for the conservation of Sanskrit MSS. Hyde.. effect from an official letter of the Government of India. F. seconded by Col. It would be seen that this was not in the tabular form which the Government at first contemplated. Esq. F. C. Stoliczka. Seevens. He referred to the original instructions of the Government. of the Society than by reading the answer which the Secretary had written in behalf of the Council. E.. W. Hyde. but the deviation from it had been sanctioned by the Government of Bengal in their letter. Waagen. Stoliczka. W.2 Col. Basevi. and the few alterations which have been suggested by the Society. and whether or not every one would consider it judicious. The following gentlemen have intimated their desire to withdraw from the Society.

These gentleletter men must have penned Sanskrit. Esq. to be published. to whose very positive but mistaken observations the President referred. 1870. J lio Proceedings of it the. The slight alteration in the arrangement of printing has also been explained by Babu Eajendralala Mitra. explaining the Bubu liajendralala Mitra's report on the operations which have been instituted by the Society for that purpose. Asiatic Societifs Rooms. of Bengal. that the lists. and tho Council of the Society hopes that this change will be advantageous. during the latter half of the official year. Stoliczka. how tlie blunder came to be committed. Calcutta. Honorary Secretary. XT —Referring i. 1869 As. A specimen copy of No. Asiatic Society of Bengal. not only in the 8ecrotai*iat to the Government of India. 1863 Govt. 8th Babu Eajendralala Mitra's letter. No. COUSerVatioU of Sill. to the correspondence. Secretary to the Government of Bengal. 30y „ 1st May. of 1 of the " Notices of Sanskrit lists MSS. are detailed in tho accompanying and in submitting the Government of Bengal. regard-i eerwj i o/jo r r. I am of Bengal to request that the Society may bo sanctioned to draw a quarterly or same for the consideration of the desired by the Council of tho Asiatic Society half yearly advance. Soc „ „ Govt. „ 1949 „ 22nd „ „ „ .-i i. Hon'ble Ashley Eden. 3 said was almost iucomproliousible. No. To the D. 5557 dated oo tkt 23rd Nov. as well as copies of the noted in para. but also by a scholar like Mr.1871. I am desired by the Council of the Asiatic Socie- ty to forward a copy of subject. Government directed the principal matter of the inclusive of the very matter in question. collecting Tho expenses incurred by tho Society for the above MSS. Ph. 395. . bill. object of 18(i9 and 1870. A detailed statement of the half . their strictures without having read the and yet it was in Sanskrit. Chalmers. i^^n ° ^^i© records and purchases of Sanskrit Manuscripts in native libraries. 21 th June. noted at margin." is herewith enclosed. equal to one fourth or one half of the annual grant sanctioned for tho purpose... From F. Auaiic Societij. in accordance with the orders of the Government of Bengal.

The Eajguru of Benares of the Kalpa sutras and of the Sikshas. Two native gentlemen of the city. however. extant in native libraries. and my omitted in the present communication. at my disposal. each containing upwards of two thousand works.. yearly expenses will bo i^repared and submitted to the Government of Bengal. —I The have the honor to submit the following report on the operations carried on during the last official year for collecting in- formation regarding Sanskrit 2. . very obligingly placed the whole of their collections. as I liked. numbers of tlie Notices of Sanskrit MSS. of Bengal. Bated. and they are now at the disposal of the Government of Bengal. From Ba'btj Ea'jendeala'la Mitra. Asiatic Society Sir. for the favourable consideration of the Government of Bengal." the sold to the public at one may be Eupee per number. if desired. and several other pandits also ojQfered me assistance. 1870. and obtained much valuable information from some of the professors of the local Sanskrit College. MSS. I am desired by whom the Council of the Asiatic Society to submit a list* of names to copies could be sent. The spare copies of these "Notices. averse to allow their collection to be examined and analysed for the final orders of information of Europeans. as were availAlthough some ultra orthodox pandits were able in that city. Government on the subject were received I happened to be unwell at the time. To the Secretanj. Babu Eajendraldla Mitra expects to publish annually 3 or 4 .4 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society [Jan. of No. to the delicate state of * This list is my health at the time. and nothing in May 1869. and I soon had a total of upwards of five thousand MSS. disposal. With regard to the distribution of the Notices. Babu Haris- chandra and Sitalprasad. when I commenced to collect lists of such rare MSS. Chitpur. 24th May. Council woiild suggest. at my and Pandit Vinayaka Sastri brought me a few rare MSS. 1 of these Notices 150 copies have been printed. was done until my arrival at Benares in the middle of June following. Owing. I had no difficulty in inducing several persons to allow me access to their Libraries for the purpose of taking notes and copies of such MSS.

1871. . 1869. Professor Max Muller. Those wore mostly works of which the Asiatic Society possesses copies. Asiatic Society. fit to be tabulated. be found to be in has greatly economised space. in his history of Sanskrit literature notices only one of them —that to of Narada — and therefore. I believe. on the whole the form adopted every respect convenient. and . I imagine. mostly in verse. and other matter not 5. Alto* Procoedings. be new The commentary of Siires'vara on the Brihadaryanaka Upanishad and that of Sankarananda on the Atharva Upanishads are also worthy of note. It will. and placed at the disposal of Prohitherto been fessor Eamamaya Tarkaratna Tho rai-e. attention of the rare. Bengal. p. only such works as were not included in it. which l)roved was first and the concluding sentences. 127 gether 204 works have been noticed. suggested by me and ap- originally proposed unavoidably necessary by Government. in tho list annexed to Professor Wil- Hindu Theatre some of tlio medical works are also valuable.* the Catalogue of tho Society's Library for my I have taken and described guide. rendered a departure form the tabular form but none of the heads of information recommended by Mr. for publication in the Bibliotheca Indica. and obviated the necessity of printing. wiU. 5 stay at Bonaros having boon Hmitocl to seven weeks only. for May. of " Notices. most of which are and have known only through Duperrou's translation of the Persian version of Dard Sekoh. to be found in Calcutta. Stokos has been omitted. many works noticed are not included son's . Most of the dramatic scholars in Europe. Among the works noticed I would draw the Committee to the Upanishads." principle on which the notices have been The drawn up has already been explained in my minute of April 1869. are also and of considerable the others. Tho few that appeared to mo to be new have been included in the accompanying volume 3. were met with than are 4. From three to five copies of each of them have now been obtained. of which 69 are portions of et seq. in narrow columns. long extracts. and tlxe Mahdbhashya is remarkable for age and accm-acy. initial Tho plan of quoting tho as also the eijigraphs. little treatises on Vedic Phonetics (Nos. except when better MS8.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 132 to 136) interest. I could not examine more than about lialf of thorn.

and travelling allowances. and 14 codices On my return to Calcutta. rituals. Both these have been printed. it by 6. lists were obtained from the Home Office. one containing the names of 2744 works said to be owned by Pandit Radhakrishna of Lahore. advantage was taken of the Eev. 28. I have. The first contains the names of a great nvimber of scarce works. tion Vedangas 1 1 are on the Vedanta. a number of Tantras belonging to the Raja of Krishnanagar but few of them are of any great antiquity. and of medical compiare repre- lations but law. a pandit was employed on a salary of Rs. and he has since been employed there. 30 a month. however. but it has been much swelled out in difi'erent by inserting the same treatises under different names places. Much has not been done in the way of purchasing MSS. 26 are treatises on Vedic . Among these are included . and 8 parts of the 8 on the Nyaya. ed Pandit Rangachari Svami of Brindaban. and no work of any value has jQt been met with. and copies are herewith submitted for inspection. one of them being an exjDOsiof Arabic terms borrowed by the Brahmans. asked the pandit to return to Krishnagar. new operations at Krishnagar and in five short descriptive accounts of about months collected the names and four hundred to the Society. and 2 on astronomy. The field. ceremonials. respectively. 12.6 Vrocccdlngs of the Anniic Society. to proceed to the mofussil. Notices of these have been drawn up in the prescribed form. Nominal lists have likewise been obtained from the renown9. 8. treatises list. and from difierent 10. where trip to to Dacca send the pandit to that and in the neighbouring town of Nuddea. the most renowned seat school in Bengal. two MS. and course of next month. J. At . parts of Bengal. 7. The Nepalese list contains nothing of any value. sented in 6. the Vedas thereon. therefore. extracts from which will ere long be published. does not seem to be promising. or commentaries [Jan. He commenced MSS. poetry and the drama. will be sent to press in the Long's In March last. of the Nyaya there remains yet much to be done. district. In July 1869. Of grammatical 2 only are included in the 5 . and the other of works supposed by the Nepalese pandits to be rare in the Nepalese Libraries at Khatmandu.

.». Cliayanapaddhati.* Purchases. ^ Sikshas. rgyisiug the proofs of the Sanskrit portion of the Notices. The &Uowmg com. Eleven MSS. m o^ tti t i Archxkas of the Sama Veda. The saving The ex- duo to the circumstance of no measures having been taken to until after the rains of last year. i o. with paper.079-2-9 against the Government grant of Es. Bibliotheca work m the -rri i.. but n ^g ^j^q Sciety bas i resolved to print that Indica. codicos. Ps. Darshapurnanidsaprayachittakarika. Piiigala chhaiula sutra with the moiitary of Jlalayiulha. collecting lists of MSS. The is cost will probably amount to Es. 1.-i Sraiitapra3'aschittachauc]rika. ' A'tmapuiana Ahitaf^iioro Anteshtiprayoga. 121 11 6 Salary of Pandit for preparing. and preparing copies ^^g for press. sary to avail myself of eS:™ d. an abstract by !< Sauk hy ay ana Grihya Sutra.1871.. ^IgQ £qj. uiakiu|j. by Keslwula. '' copied. ^ offered for securing a cop y l j o of . *TatfcvannRan(lIiana. Kapila Sauliita. . in all 12 as per margin. 7 liavo Benaros I could obtain only 9 and tliroo since been l)urcliased in Calcutta. 85 1 6 70 &c.i I did not deem it necesit. catalogues for the press. 829 2 9 No bill has yet been presented for printing the Notices. Kama sutra. copying and correcting 147 64 Purchase of Sanskrit MSS. rmyojtasara. postage Banghy ex- penses and Contingencies. An opportunity Tuttvapmkasil^a Jiaiulliayana biitravirtti. have likewise been ^^^./ Saj'^oiia's i commentary On the .Ska. 196 Travelling allowance for ditto for the period ending March 1870. 3. is of the expenditure incurred j. and stamps for letters. BantUiayanas' somayaga. commence operations . Haiyiisikiulliiliarauaniala. Printing charges of forms for collecting materials for Catalogue.. 250 making a total of Es.200. Salary of Travelling Pandit from 14th August 1869 to February 1870 @ 30 Es. n the Society on account ol Cxovern- jj^e^t f^j^. Copying MSS. Dig-diiaya vivarauum akhya. inconiploto. Hiranya kesi sutra.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Socidtj. 145 5 9 Stationery.

and in reply I am to request that you will convey to the Society an expression of the Lieutenant- Governor's thanks for the trouble they have taken in the matter.. Secy. to Es. With is reference to paragraph 4 of your letter the Lieutenant- Governor pleased to sanction the payment of the bill submitted^ amounting 1869-70. with ations carried out enclosures. in Dacca. From H. 2. Under-Secretary to the Govt. The Lieutenant-Governor approves of the list proposed by you of persons and institutions to be supplied with copies of the " Notices of Sanskrit MSS. S..8 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. its 395 dated the 27th idtimo. . subject to adjustment half-yearly. and I am to request that of the balance. and will also be published in the supplement to the Calcutta Gazette. the llth July 1870. ••' Vide your letter No." wiU also be furnished to the Government of India. kul. Fort William. 1. His Honor also desires me to acknowledge the services rendered by Babu Eajendralala Mitra in this undertaking. aa and will also be addressed in regard to advancing the Society funds to carry on future expenses. J tiJ * ^. ponses during the current year of the amount sanctioned. To the Hony. Esq." and of " notices of Sanskrit MSS. A copy of the "catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. may be added to the dis281 dated the 10th May The number of copies thus tribution list. believed. of Bengal to the Ojfg. during the second-half of the financial year The Accountant-General will be instructed accordingly. Sir. Avill. A copy of your letter and Babu Eajendralala Mitra's report will be transmitted to the G-overnment of India. fifty-five copies may be forwarded to this Government for .079-2-9. it is [Jan. for expenses incurred by the Society in collecting MSS. take up the whole No. suggested by you. Beadon. 3." but desires that the Cambridge University and the Coondoo* family of Bhagyo„ „ ^. Asiatic Society of Bengal. reporting the oper- by the Society in view to giving effect to the wishes of G-overnment for the discovery and preservation of records of ancient Sanskrit literature. to be distributed is seventy-five. — I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 2017.

number after. to suggest that oilect might be given 11 to tho wishes of the list supphnuentary of tho manuscripts Government of India by adding drawn up numerically will with the additional information. the Honorary Secy. per copy. however.copies Oovornmont of India. I am.Sect/. tlie 9 uso and transmission to twent}-. It will be seen that the catalogues [" Notices of Sanskrit manuscripts"] are considered incomplete in some points. the places in which tlio pex'sons to whom they are deposited. 2. 3.i'We paragraph 3 of my letter above quoted. From n. In conclusion I am to invite attention to the suggestion made by the Governiueut of India in paragi-aph 5 of their letter regai'ding pri. but this of course not possible in tho volume already printed. desire the list to addf + The Cambridge University has idreiidy been iuchuled. dated tlio llth Jidy 1870. to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. To S. of the Society.! * am directed °^ ^^^^'^ to forward for the information No. Fort William^ the Vdth Septemler 1870. and point out several list typographical errors in the names in the 4. OjJ'if. 3963 dated tho ultimo. Sill. . it be noticed." the use of better paper and type in . 2734. 2017. Under. "Notices" are to bc circulated. Beadon. containing the in the Homo views of His Excellency the Governor-General in Council on the opei-ations of the Society in this undertaking. sire the insertion in the tlie aud the Government of India accordingly de"Notices" of the names and addi-esses of the manuscripts belong. The Government of India. to the Govt. —With reference to my tlie letter No. especially to European scholars. . sixteen names to of persons aud Societies to whom copies of the .. in The order to afford a ready means of identifying them heredirections can be easily followed in all " Notices" that is may be published hereafter.1871. of Bengal. tho remaining public at 1 being sold to tlio Ko.] rrocendiwjs of Ihc Asiatic Socict I/. and the peculiarities of the manu- scripts. the subject of discovery and preservation of records of an- cient Sanskrit literature.^-"ng the " Notices. the number of j)ages in each manuscript. which tend materially to lessen their value aud usefulness. No. Esq. of lines in each page. Society the accompanying copy of 2yth aud encio- a letter"^' from the Government of India Department.

to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. Stomczka.' ment of Bengal. catalogues received with your letter are incoinplete in some points. Secretary to the Government of to the India. to point out that the manuscripts are satisfactory. A corrected copy of the latter (here follows a list of institutions. — {No. the number of lines in each page. to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. list. &c. by direction of the Council of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Home Department. 3963.). with the opposite. Secretary To H. S. —I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your dated the 11th ultimo. to lessen their value and usefulness. to the Officiating Secretary Govern. and the enclosed correspondence. Sir. TJyider-Secretary to the— I have the honor. From Db. &c. and there are some inaccuracies in that is enclosed.) letter SiE. to especi- European It is very scholars. iWi August. The list of persons and Societies to whom it is proposed to distribute the notices may be also considerably enlarged.. Esq. dated Simla. of the manuscripts their still be drawn up names of the owners and addresses The number of pages in each manuscript. as should also the places in which they are deposited. should also be given in the catalogues. In reply I am directed to state that the efforts that have been made by the Asiatic Society to for the discovery give effect to the wishes of the Government and conservation of these Sanskrit I am. 2. showing the operations carried on by the Asiatic Society of Bengal in regard to the discovery and preservation of records of ancient Sanskrit literature. 4. S. which tend materially ally to 3.. the General Department. desirable that the names of the persons whom the manu.10 Proceedings of the Asiatic Soei. and the peculiarities of the manuscripts... 2018. Beadon. [Jan. however. Bay ley. C.scripts belong should be inserted in the notices. Esq. Hon. F. Government of Bengal. as a means of identifying them hereafter. 1870. list This might done by adding a supplementary numerically. No. C. . /. From JE.

" and that the Government of India accordingly desire the compi** lation of a supplementary list of the manuscripts drawn up numeri- cally" with the additional information. 1870. dated 3rd November. how that the Sanskrit portion of the " Notices" has been entirely over- looked by the Government of India. foi-warding copy of a letter from the Secretary to the Government of India. 1868. am directed to state that in the blank form. fore. 14th. the concluding words. 6th and 9th heads are given in the second para.1871. 4th for sulijoct matter and . the initial words or stanza. however. annexed Government of India letter No. In reply. it is now said. which was forwarded to the Society for its guidance. if has been supplied than was asked 3. No. it is From a reference to those clear that more information of an useful character for. had been given But the word- . is wanting in the it ' Notices. 6. dated Simla. information . in Devanagari 3rd 2. 4353. of author .' On reference. and stating that the Notices of " Sanskrit Manuscripts" lately submitted by the Society *' are considered incomplete in some points. Indian method in stanzas of 32 syllables each 1th. 5tli number of pages 6th for number of lines in each 7tb for substance on which is written and character 8th for names of place where and of pei-son with whom found. 11 2734. page under the heads 5. thereit has been made out that information under some of the heads had not been suj)plied. and 9th for remarks regarding accuracy and peculiarities. Of these. the date of writing' whenever available . Notices. history. (latofl tlio 19th Suptoinbor last. 12th. 3963. . 8. name . It might be said that it all the information in English. The 1 editor has likewise added (10th) the extent of the work calcxilated according to the . would have proved more convenient.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Socirfy. in Roman for cliaractor . there are nine columns 1st for mimber 2nd for name. to perceive The Council of the Asiatic Society fail. to the Sanskrit text will be seen that the required details regarding the 5th. the 29th August. Home Department. its contents. I to tlio : . for ditto. especially to European scholars. which tend materially to lessen their value and usefulness. and are di'iven to suppose and literary notices.. the title colophon which in Sanskrit works serves the j)urpose of the page. a full description of the work. and that regarding the 8th in the third para. and 15th. 9. under each name. 13th.

is to be found. (4." He carefully avoids all mention of where the MSS. W. in native Libraries should be printed uniformly in octavo. the Sanskrit will be the only part of use. These Notices are most unsatisfactory. he comments on are to be found. and has noticed only such works as are not to be found in (2. in the Nagari character. has been received from the Secretary to the Grovernment N.12 Vrocvodings of the Asiatic left Socicfij. The editor states that he has taken " the catalogue of the Asiatic Society's Library for his guide. He does not state who they belong to. ing of the original order of G(Jveramont in the matter. The scheme contemplated no quotations or not. . (3." and the editor could not depart from that positive injunction without laying him- seK open extracts. and the Nagari character could It be limited to any one particular part. Sanskrit " Notices of Sanskbit (1. at the suggestion of one of whom the work has been undertaken by Government. Indian scholars." The following copy of a minute relating to the cataloguing of MSS. It is there distietly laid no option to the Society that " all procurable down imprinted lists of Sanskrit M8S. and tlie placo where each MS. to censure. and to them the Sanskrit part of the Notices will prove more useful than the English part. much in who know nothing of Sanskrit will tracing old MSS. by RiijendTalald Mitra. may be added MSS. and for years to come the English will be of no avail. that those hereafter wish to identify the noticed. interest Better paper will be used for the printing of the future Nos. will be who will men conversant while to with the Sanskrit literature. in that language. It is scarcely likely that those themselves 4. what their value is.) it.) A catalogue of this kind to be practically useful should contain a report of the places searched for MSS.) *' MSS. of the "Notices. Provinces. therefore.) " Whenever he gives a sensible notice it seems to be taken from Max " Miillor's Sanskrit Literature. [Jan. or whether Government should endeavour " to purchase them.

or to his failed to qualify himself for the task he has assumed. 1st para. \_iii Mr. or transcribed. (3) what to is their value . and to send them to the various learned Societies of Europe. the I need not therefore no- value of which depends on what follows. The catalogues of the Bodleian." I have therefore only to refer to the re^jly lately forwarded to subject. and not found fault with mo for not doing what he as a . of the critique contains a general observation. my Preface. by reading the Sanskrit portion of the Notices which woxdd have at once shown him that the required information has been duly furnished. as you are aware. should be purchased. entirely unfounded — due either having knowing the Sanskrit language. are worth having. and to individual scholars in Europe andlndia. in order that Sanskrit scholars in Europe and India may point out what MSS. to print lists. India OHico and Berlin Libraries would shew this. accuses me of having (1) carefully avoided all to mention of where the MSS. »Sd. CUALMEKS. I am required by Government and nothing but lists." a letter addressed Minute of JJulu R'ljendraldla Mitra on the ulove to the Secretury~\.1871. J. letter are : The words of the Government printed lists "To print uniformly all procurable im- of Sanski'it manuscripts in Indian Libraries." have quoted this part of the letter in it.] (5. and as Mr. \'^ "It should also mention whothor the hook is availahlo or not to European scholars. with an intimation that the Government which of the manuI will careftdly attend to their suggestions as to scripts therein mentioned should be examined. Chalmers' criticisms are founded on the same imaginary shortcomings on which the Government of India commented on my unfortunate "Notices.) Proceedings of the Aaiatic Socidy. Chal- luurs has read he shoidd have suggested what MSS. the Government of Bengal on the The tice it. (2) whom they belong to . The last charge cannot be fairly brought against me. The first three charges are. The 2nd para. (4) and whether Government should endeavour to the critic's not purchase them or not. commented upon are be foxmd .

repeats the The 4th first charge of the 2nd. and to the contrary. without directly charging me with having cribbed from Max Miiller's ancient Sanskrit Literature. and from it.14 Proceedings oj the Asiatic Society. table The President placed on the diagrams exhibiting the diurnal oscillations of the barometer observed by him at Dal- housie during a portion of last October. nor were they originally relists The Society undertook to supply only still in the Nagari character of MSS. Chalmers that it was uncalled for. be glad calls for be shewn an instance para. in order that future scholars in Europe to compile a complete catalogue of Sanskrit may of literature. be enabled extant in the country. the only Berlin catalogue accessible to me. Chalmers seems not sible to quote to be aware that no catalogue of the India therefore it House Library has yet been published. Miiller I have given the shall name of Max to whenever I have quoted from him. is and not to supply that desideratum now. the "Notices" will not be found to be so defective as they are said to be. but the published portion of the " Notices" should have shewn to Mr. appears valuable. scholar and others are required to do. The 5th contains a suggestion. [Jan. Eost. and purchase for sell Government whatever. for they were only rough approxima- . not on account of the merits of these curves. gal are exceedingly averse to offer I never fail to Sanskrit scliolars in BenMSS.. I have quoted from Aufrecht's Catalogi codicum manuscripto- rum Bibliothecae Bodleianae. I cannot but take this as unfair. insinuates that I have done so. with brief notes of their contents. The 3rd para. and if this be borne in mind. to do. is impos- I have lately got a MS. Mr. and therefore no further remark. lie did so. The Government opinion that the time has not yet come for a comprehensive scheme of this kind. and intend to notice it when necessary.. but when opportunities do take advantage of them. The real cause of the misunderstanding lies in the expectation that the Notices should serve the jiurpose of a catalogue raisson^ which they do not profess quired to do. list of the contents of that Library through the kindness of Dr. and from Weber's Yerzeichniss der Sanskrit-Handschriften. in my humble opinion.

1-5 tions to tlio truth. Strachcy Logged to differ altogether from tho views put forward by tho President. lip to elevations of between 18 and 19000 feet. He said that the day maximum and minimum air over are un- questionably connected with the heating of the air by sun. and characterized tho doctrine which attributes the daily oscillations of the barometi-ic pressure solely to the iufluenco of vapour in the atmosphere as a dogma. lie mentioned the part which. pointed out that ihis country seemed to afford tho complete investigation of this extraordinary opportunity for Col. which are to be observed in tho plains. where there in the atmosphere. inasmuch as the same fluctuations in the total pressure. The actual tension of vapour at any place does not represent the portion of the total atmospheric pressure. tho presence of vapour a very generally rein had effecting the douhlo maximum. That this is the true cause of the phenomenon to the is also of indicated by the rises fact. and sultject. Strachey) had made in the plains of India and in the Himalayas. the Hon'hle E. but they are probably secondary results of the diurnal changes of temperature. according to ceived theory. in which the data for the above conclusions of his were given at length. hut in order to proRS on tho attention of niembors of the Society tho importunco of ohservutions of this hind in India. The explanation of the uoctxirnal maxima and minima is more dilHciilt. Strachey referred to a paper which he had published on the subject some years ago in the Proceedings of the Eoyal Society on the distribution of vapour in tlie atmosphere. speak entirely against this view which he thought had first been put forward by General Sabine. and its accumulathe east and west of the most heated area.1871. are equally marked at — — high elevations in Tibet. is extremely little moisture Col. that the time day maximum and minisets mum change according hour at which the sun and in different localities. The very nu- merous barometric and hygrometric observations which he (Col. and can be explained by the dispersion of the earth's tion to that part of the surface where the temperature is highest. due to the pressure of the vapour.] Proceedings of the Aaiatic Society. . and the difference between the total pressure and the vapoiir tension is not the pressure of the dry air. proved by observation.

with variations of condition as to elevation. M. and that the peculiar facilities of ludia in this respect were neglected. During the day. 20. to be observed in must be considered as purely local. and position of the coun- try for analysis of the elements of the problem and comparison of seemed to be in a great measure unheeded. M. Strachey attributed to him. at night the converse takes place and gives rise to an inferior current towards the plain. so great were oppor- making simultaneous observations pretty nearly the same vertical line. due to the unec[ual expansion of the variable Tliese depth of air over the plains and mountain slopes. and 11 p. the minima between about 3 A. Dr. m. and tunities of stations.. [Jan. to We be able to experiment in this subject. such could almost be said oiu' as could hardly be secured elsewhere. We had it in our power to make observations. Certainly the regular oscillations and 5 p. and found that as a rule the maxima of 10 A. and of the atmosphere in fall scarce- these regions could not be attributed to the existence of vapour. They could only . and are to be explained as caused by certain disturbances of the planes of equal pressure in the air. Stracliey. the President said that nothing could be further from his to set mind than any intention up or maintain tlie dogma" which Col. m. fell remarks which " from Col. In truth he had brought the matter forward solely for the still purpose of urging that observation and research were needed. Colonel Stracliey noticed certain modifications of the usual daily maxima and minima the hills.16 Procecdi7\gs of the Asiatic Society. the air is heated over the plain and forms a superior current toward the mountain. which again are followed by currents of air between the plains and the' hills. The annual rain to half to amounts In reply an inch. distributed over a largely at different heights in at variously situated earth. These changes are quite analogous to the daily sea and land-breeze. extended surface of the The advantages results offered by the character. for there ly is almost none whatever present. Stoliezka observed that he was struck with the great regularity with which the sure return at high elevation. humidity and temj)erature.000 feet. maxima and minima in the atmospheric presHe had made observations for two between 15 and about the hour 3 fell successive years on the elevated plains of Tibet. in the atmospheric pressures.

tious first stage of transition from wood to The author combats these opinions by a number of cj^uotafrom the Eig Veda a work generally believed to be of the — same age with the Mosaic chronicles — in which allusions are made to fortified towns. and they are not of a greater age than the middle third century before Christ. the E imayana and the at a Mahabharatha to prove the existence It is of masonry houses very early period of Indian history. and the Tolbort.] Proceedingn of the Asiatic Society. in which very impression was produced It is difficult to on the domestic arts of the Abyssinians. Quotations are also given from Panini. three-storied dwellings. masons. adds that the Hindus learnt the art of building from the Grecians who came to India with Alexander. Mr. On the antiquity of Indian Architecture. and the invasion of Alexander. who has adopted this opinion. believe that Alexander brought any large architects to leave number of quarriers. 17 tbis at pre- be elfeetivoly it mado use of by combined action. of the Hence an opinion is gaining ground art that the ancient Aryans were not proficient in the of building substantial edifices with stones and bricks. and that the primitive Hindus were dwellers in thatched huts and mud houses. S. The oldest remains that have come to light the pillars of As'oka. {Abstract. C. and that the oldest specimens of architecture in the country appear to be in the stone. . Esq. is comjiared to the recent British — — a mere little reformation of the old expedition to Abyssinia.1871. Notes on the district of Dera Ismail Khan. in natural productions of the district it will shortly appear Journal of the Society. W.. and of sent could hardly be said that there was any. archroology. by T. H. denied that the Buddhist religion Hindu faith could have any influence in originating architecture. This paper contains notes on the history. Fergusson.) by B^bu Eajendraare lala Mitra. pillars and other objects which could not have existed without masonry works of some kind or other. f(. 2. and of some behind for the education of the people . large palaces. bricks.llowiug papers The 1 wore brought before the meeting.

viii. so strong that it preserves intact forms long after the lapse of the exigencies which first lead to their production. and such evidence. cannot be accepted as conclusive. 55 et seqq. therefore." ** Ani- . Mr. des t For full to be due to the " anomalous retention of embryonic sc. like the cleft hoof of a ruminant. in a horse from Bagdad. 1 et 2 of pi. but the supernumerary hoofs of these were stouter and more irregular in shape. M. between those which might be said * Ann. 1. He next mentioned the fact that M. I). had given rise to a supernumerary digit provided with the regular number of phalanges and encased in an asymmetrical hoof the asymmetry of which was such. I) . vol. who is presumed would be absurd to sujjpose that to have originally lived in accord send for architects palace. in figs. Ai-loiug in a recent contribution* to our knowledge of the organiin figs.1 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. it is contended that they do not suffice to indicate the exact age when the transition first took place.. Benerjea made some observations in support of the views expressed by Babu Eajendralala Mitra.). the country in architecture. the hoofs of these only differed from those size. Wood-Mason exhibited an interesting case of polydactylism (see pi. that the presence of another of the same shape internally to it would liaA^e formed a symmetrical pair. it [Jan.. nat. a mannerism or a survival of custom in architectural ornamentation. (zool. and remarked that the splinton each fore-foot like rudiments of the metacarpals of the fourth toe (iv. information ou the subject of monstrosities vide Darwin's Tuals and Plants under domestication. like As'oka. Eev. The metatarsals of the fourth toe on each hind foot were by the law of correlation similarly afi'ected. would of his own and quarriers from Grreece to build him a In reply to the argu- ment founded on the ornaments of old Indian architecture being coi)ied from wooden originals. and a king. of the principal digits in their smaller He next distinguish- ed between those monstrosities! ^^^^ had resulted from injuries received by the embryo in utero or in^ the %^^. 5c Ser. 1 et 2) . pp. thatched huts. zation of the foot of the horse had described a polydactyle horse with the extra digits developed from the rudiments of the second toe (ii. K. pi. inasmuch as there is a spirit of conservatism.

2.Proceedings. Vig: 1 Tl Fig. 1. Asia.Soc BcnfSjai.for Jan: 1871.1 . .


" and those tliat took the form of tho re-development of visible iix rudiments of digits. but were reduced to . Front view of right carpus (mi)uts the proximal series of carpal bones) . F. 3rd and 4tli digits respectively in both figures. et 2). 1870. traced the Horses back in time to their threo-toed progenitors. The InstitutiojSt. by Dr. February. to wliicli affected This explanation applied to the polydactyle (I.1871. iv refer to the 2ud. finely pointed character of these same structures in an ordinary horse. and the obtuseness of their distal extremities as compared with the slender. Explanation of Plate Fig. Stoliezka. and in connexion therewith Prof.India (in the Sewalik-hills). of a polydactylo hoi'so ^ nat. parion the two outer toes of each foot possessed and America in JTipthe same number : of phalanges as the principal toe. F.. in figs. The following papers wore received. to the %* Part VII. ed tho great length and breadth of the " splints" 1 et iv. V. Library since the LiBRAllY.). Hlpparion and Anchitherium. by Dr. mere dewclaws show- and did not touch the ground in Anchitheriumy on the the other hand. Fig 2. Gaudry and Dr. Day. Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. The Society. foot figured on the accompanying plate Tho resemblance to the extinct IIippario)i^ on each foot had boon developed. Names of Donors in Capitals. whose remains abounded in themiocene deposits of Europe. Monograph of the Indian Cyprinidcey Pt. Leidy. they were nearly equal in size to it. Journal of the Chemical Society. or other structures. Iluxley'a Presidential address to the Geological Society of Loudon. normally present the individual some remote ancestors of the group belonged. 1870. Vol.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Sociei)j. 1. iii. On terrestrial Mollusca from the neighbourhood of Moulmein. Posterior view of same. Presentations. The figures sufficiently (ii. The following additions have been made meeting held in December last. Sept. I. * Vid-2 the magnificent memoirs of M. I. 19 characters. Tenasserim Provinces. lie would have been perfect if the two outer toes In illustration of these remarks. Tho Roman numerals ii. . size.

Tui'c-Arabe-Persiau Dictionary Annals and D.— Museum Heineanum by Cabanis. [Jais'. Selections from the Records of Governca. Palseontologia Indi4. der deutschen Morgeulfendischen Gesellsch. parts 3 5. E. The Government Records of the Geological Survey. . Government of Bengal. tlie Eoyal Asiatic Society of Bombay. Home Department. No. H. 268. by E. 3-4. Eahasya Sandarbha. —Zenker's —Lond. Vol. 81. — The Royal Asiatic Society or Bombay. Beddome.20 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Nos. parts 4-6. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Nos. 35. No. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. No. and Magazine of Natural History. Foreign Department. III. Monatsbericlit der Juli. Editor. Flora Sylvetica. Mason. 80. 9. Vol. Zeitselu'ift Band XXrV.— Akad. No. No. Journal of 26. by Major H. The Editor. Icones Plantarum India Orientales. 53—57. Heft 3. Eendus. Vol. The Pali Text of Kachchayano's Grammar. Editor. of India. K. The The Kamil. Theil I The Nature. 1870. part part 16. by Kissory Chand Mittra. Nos. No. Ill. Akademie der "Wissenscliafteii zu Berlin. The Author. by Major H. No.aft. Purchase. Professional Papers The The of Indian Engineering. 29.— Comptes IV.xclian(je. IX. 7. Memoir of Dwarkanath Tagore. 62.—The Editor. 1 — — — — — ment. Beddome. Philosoi^hical Magazine. No.

there were 28 ox'dinary members same period. rope.. tion. The Ilou'ble Mr. signations The somewhat large number of appears to be partially due to the introduction of the leaving for Eu- revised rules of the Society. M. the Society sustained a loss of 57 members. have agaiu to congratulate the members on the healthy condition has maintained. whether they wish that their membership should continue or not. Justice Pheai'. Council of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. in the chair. Formerly information on tills point was rarely given. by which members. at 9 p. The President called upon the Secretary to read the annual report of the Council. At 414 .mOCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL FOR FEUUUAKY. Tlio annual meeting of tlie Society \\'as held on Wednesday. 1871. the of those 2GG number is members was 148 al^scnt. when the . 1871. are particnilarly requested to state. uud to A marked decrease in these nuiubers be observed. while in the I'eview. and it was greatly on of ordinary this account that the member list had grown to unnatural dimensions. of activity which the Society During the year under elected. 1st February. Of 1 this latter number 45 are due to death or resignalist and 2 have been removed fi'om the for non-compliance re- with the rules of the Society. in presenting their annual report for the year 1870. were paying members. President. the close of the year. AxNUAL Report for The 1870.

J. Esq. Babu Kaliprasanna Sinha. J. Bahadur. Jardine. H. both in the way of subscriptions and of scientific communications. Eaja Sir Deonarayana Sinha. 0. the Council take pleasure in remarking that such trary. C. Avdall. demand and and for the puldicatious of the the sale of the Journal Proceedings having been greater than in any previous year. E. Dr. M. the Council feel is far from being the case. In no less a degree have the members themselves evinced their interest in the Society by the regularity of their contributions. Esq. Kavenagh.. S. Although accession of tions are it might at first sight appear that the decrease in the new members. Major J. 1861 225 55 82 280 311 1862 1863 1864 229 276 228 267 79 92 355 380 376 387 1865 1866 1867 1868 109 293 307 94 109 416 427 294 304 133 138 1869 1870 442 ... . Hovenden. 266 148 414 The Council regret to announce the death of the following ordiJ. Lieut. the Society having also received several scientific institutions for offers of various foreign an exchange of their publications. past. compared with the Payinfi. Esq.. as will be seen from the subjoined table Absent.. K. [Feb.22 present year is Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. : — Anderson.. Esq. The ac- tual income of the Society has exceeded the estimate by an appreciable amount. F. On the con- themselves justified in asserting that the in- terest of the scientific public in the working of the Society has in the last twelve months abroad. sensibly increased in India as well as This is particularly shewn by the largely increased Society.. nary members Beavan. D. Babu Eadhanatha Sikadara. Ormsby. LL. E. T. Total. and even with several of : the preceding years. I. S. and to a the somewliat numerous resignascientific efforts due diminishing apijreciation of the of the Society on the part of the public. L.

which the members of the Society for their valuable collections.. or parts of volumes. of in accordance Act to XVII of 1865. the Council of the Society. Society's coins. Esq. 1871. —the necessary accommohad a right dation. Many of these were obtained in exchange for the publications of the Society. benefits which the purpose of that Act to bring Coin Cabinet. A set of 17 silver been purchased. that the delay in carrying out the provisions of the Museum Act will be only temporary. cliielly the its moiiibers. collection of Coins received an increase of 14 coins has Copper presented by Captain A. tlie and their previous prac- have continued transfer all donations received in the Natural History and Arcluuological Departments. In the collection of mauu- . During the past with the provisions tice.3rd March. L. that the Govern- of India will not bo able to provide in the new Museum building to expect at the appointed time — 2. Ferrar. their great regret. year. Museum:. of the and for a considerable individuals and to number the the Government to tlie Society is indebted to private Detailed lists of India. and H. others were purchased. monthly accessions in each Library have been regularly published number of the Proceedings. 23 by The numerous communicatious. Rainey. — — tions in ceived. at this opportunity. the Library received an addition of 776 volumes. A tlie detailed statement of these donations for last year. M. and that the Government will spai*e no eiforts to give to the public and the Society it is at the earliest possible moment. entertain the hope. e(j[ually shew that the scioutitio interest in More than 50 valuable contribuSociety are largely increasing.1871. Library. J. to the Trustees of the Indian Museum. The Esq. Tlie Council. Proceedings of the Aaiatic Soc letij. Bloomfield. the about. has been published in December Proceedings it The Council ment of the Asiatic Society feel their painful duty to express. forwarded to the Society. Within the past year. however. various brandies of science and literature have been rethis does not include and many of the shorter papers printed in our Proceedings.

and medicine. and they have now the satisfaction to announce that the 49th volume of the Journal will very shortly be completed. as these constitute the truest indicia of active life in the Society. lexicography. accompanied by 36 plates. MSS. checked the Arabic. but they cannot take any effective steps until the Natural Ilistoiy collections Society's house. Tlie value of the improvements effected is clearly indicated tlie by the increasing applications for the various numbers of Journal and . however. have anxiously bestowed continued attention upon ther publications. endeavour to remedy this growing evil at the earliest possible opportunity. under the Secretary's superintendence. and Pundit Premchandra Choiulhari examines at present the Sanscrit MSS. it has been beyond their power to make it the Library as usei'ul as the moiabers have a right to expect to and as the Council would earnestly desire It to difficulty lies principally in the inadequate space make now it. Tlie Council appended further on. . Publications. aclditious [Feb. All MSS. and one volume of Proceedings was issued both 1200 pages. mathematics. The Council will. The Council regret that be. prosody. was chiefly on that account that the new con- templated edition of the Library catalogue has not been completed. Tlie collection of are removed from the last year. The Catalogue of the Pundit is to be a catalogue raisonne .24 cripts. and Hindustani MSS. A list of the Societies and other scientific institutions. has also been examined during Maulavi Abdul Hakim. . astronomy. Persian. but also to intro- duce an improvement in the illustrations accompanying the papers. with which is exchanges of publications have been made. he hasanalyzed about 500 works on grammar. will extend over more than It has been the aim of the officers of the Society not only to insure the regularity of issue of the various numbers of the Journal and Pn:)oeedings. have also be^u made there were 94 Sauiscrit manusci'ipts purchased or copied. valiial)le Proceedhiff^ of the Aftiatic Sock'fj/.. prose and poetry. aud 6 Persian works were purchased. rhetoric. received since the preparation of the old catalogues have been entered into the MS. The available for the books. catalogues of the Society.

. viz. was issued in 4 quarterly numbers. Maulavi Zulfac^ar 'Ah'. phitos.' by Maulavi 'Abdurrasliid of Tattah. amounting to Rs. will &c. Of the Quarto Text 'Ain i Akbari.. entitled Far- hang i Rashidi. a history of the reign of Aurangedition of . and from the Persian. 3 Of the Joiu'nal. extend over 304 pages and 13 plates. part I. Natural History. ately paged. viz.. BiBLIOTIIJCCA InDICA. 'All's introduction to the sliurtly A'gha is nearly^ Ahmad ISikanaarncUuah i Bahri completed and wiU be issued. whose death temporarily interfered with the pi'ogress of the book. other fasciculus will complete this important history of the AnMughul Emperors of Delhi. and of from the Arabic Works. fasciculi have been issued of Oriental 3 fasciculi 2 2 Arabic. or who knew Muhammad. A. Maulavi i Agha Ahmad tlio 'Ali has issued 3 fas- of the Maasir 'Ahimgiri. and includes 432 pages and for each is separiVc.1871. Translations. Maulavis Kabiruddin and Ghulam Qadir. Dm-ing 1870. eleven numbers larger tlian in any previous year. have issued six faacicidi. &e. Part II. 12 Persian. 30 Sanscrit. of the Calcutta Madrasah. 1903. Persian JT^orh. 1 Kiiglish Sanscrit. ciculi zib. of the Calcutta Madrasah. out one fasciculus of the Critical Persian Dictionary. There have been issued Procoodiiigs. and 5 &c. forty-seven works. Archajology. . and provided with a special index.] Pvot'codings.. &c. Maulavi 'Abdul Hai has issued 2 Biographical Dictioimry of Persons fasciculi of the Iqabah. Bloch- mann has issued two fasciculi and one fasciculus of the English has brought ' Translation. and in addition 98 pages of Meteorological Observations. Sprenger. (exclusive of appendices). Of Khafi Khan's History. (Pliilology. and continued l)y Maulavi 'Abdul Haq.. numbers wore issued and the 4th is ready for issue tlio purt . 18 plates. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society 2$ Tho sale of thoso has Loon during tho past your year 1870. Tho work was commenced by Dr. t'(|ual for tho of to 3-17 pages. Each of these parts can form a separate volume. Mr.

3000 annum. Pandita i^nandachandra Vedantavagisa has published 10 fasciculi of the Tandya Mahabrahmana. by Ibn Abdul Ilai. Arabic — A Biographical Dictionary of IX Persons who knew Muliammad. Babu Rajendralala Mitra has issued 2 fasciculi of the Taittiriya Brahmana of the Black Yajur Veda. K. against 9 in 1869 and 5 in 1868. Calcutta. Works. Both works are now almost completed. 2^er [Feb. and Rev. Pandita Chandrakanta Tarkalankara is now editing the Gobhila Sutra. Old Series. Banerjea the translation of the fasciculus of his Brahma Sutra. the publication of the The Sama Veda Sanhita Council have entrusted to Pandita Satyavrata Samasrami who has already issued the first fasciculus of the same with the Commentaries of Sayana. of the Sanscrit College. with the commentary of Visvesvara. made by Government of India for the publication of Sanscrit works. M. IV. He has also issued the Gopala Tapani of the same Veda. has published one fasciculus of the Nrisinha Tapani with Sankara's Commentary another fasciculus will complete the fasci- work. been published. VIII and . Cowell issued his translation of the Maitri first Upanishad. B. Babu Eajendralala's annual report on the work done by the Professor E. No less than 30 fasciculi have been issued during the past year.26 Proceeditigs of the Asudic Society. Nos. edited in Arabic by Maulavi of Vol. The following is a detailed list of works published during 1870. Babu Pajendralala Mitra issued the fia-st number of '* Sanscrit Manuscripts. the Sanscrit series the has made considerable progress. Pandita Harachandra Vidyabhushana has published three fasciculi of the Agni Purana. 225. and an index is in the coui-se of preparation. 226. Hajar. and one of the Aranyaka. Pandita Mahesachandra Nyayaratna has issued one culus each of the Mimansa Darsana and the Sanhita of the Black is Yajur Veda. Notices of During 1870. and eight fasciculi of the Srauta Siitra of Latj^ayana. Pandita Eamamaya Tarkaratna . Sanscrit In consequence of the additional grant of Es. and one of the Gopatha Brahmana of the Atharva Veda. and a fasciculus of the same soon to be issued. Fasc. announced at the last Annual Meeting." and a second number has just travelling pandit will appear at the end of the official jqht.

208. with the commentary swami. 195. edited by Anandachandra Vedantavagisa. The Maasir i 'Alamgiri of Muhammad Saqi Must'aidd Khan. editfcl l)y Maulavis Kabir Din Ahmad and Ghulam Qadir. Gopatha Brahmana of the Atharva Veda in the Original Sanscrit.. XIII to XVIII. 215. 206. Tlie Sanhitd of the Black Yajur Veda with the commentary of Madhava A'charya. 216. by Harachandra Vidyabhusliana. Fasc. Fasc. Pcrsimi. 180. 186. 202. 19:3. — Tandya Mali^brahmana with the commenIV to Xlll. Fasc. XXIV. The Taitteriya A'ranyaka of The Mimansa Darsana. 188. Fasc XI. 201. Gopala Tapani of the Atharva Veda. 211. A. with the commentary of Sayanacharaya. edited by Harachandra Vidyabhusana. Nos. 213. 182. The Faihang i liashidi by Mulhi Abdur Eashid of Tattah. 203. No. 189. No. I. a system in Hindu Mythology and Tradition the original Sanscrit. 21 7. I. 183. edited by Harachandra Vidyabhusliana and Visvauaof tha Sastri. No. Nos. 197. of Agni181. 199. edited by Eamamaya Tarkaratna. edited and annotated by Maulavi Zulfaqar Ali. edited by Babu Eajendralala Mitra. tlie Black Yajur Veda. Fasc. 224. Fasc. 209. M. 212. Nos. 210. 204. Mubarak i Alhmii. 196. Nos. 223. edited by Anaiidachandra Vedantavagisa. Fasc. 192. with the commentary of Sayanacharya. Sanscrit. Keiv Series. The Nrisinha Tapani with the commentary of Sankara Acharya. 184. Fasc. 207. No. XXIII. IX and X. Fasc. Nos.191. edited by Pandita Mahesachandra Nydyaratua. XXIII. 179. 178. with the commentary Fasc. Fasc. Ill — No. The Taittiriya Brahmana of tlie Black Old Series. Fasc. . Fasc. I. The Srauta Sutra of Latyayana. edited by Maulavi A'gha Ahmad Ali. Series. 200.1871. Nos. 190. No.Veda. No. 198. 185. Yajux. edited I to 111. II. Sanscrit. I. tary of Sayana A'charyya. 27 Nnv — Tho Muntaldial) al ul Lultal) of Kliafi Khan. Vol. Blochmann. edited by Tho Ain i Akbaii by Abul Fazl i H. I to VIII.] Proceed iiKjs of (he Asiatic Society. No. The Agni Purana. with the commentary of Visvesvara. 187. of Savara Swa- min. IX. edited by Mahesachandra Nayaratna. 205. edited by liajeudraldla Mitra. 222. XII.

New — The Brahma Sutras. . I. B. . The Council were anxious to secure this surplus for the benefit total of Es. because they expect that in a short time a considerable outlay will be required for the repairs of the building. of the Society. 214. Translated from the Persiau by H.327. • • Es Subscriptions. Actual Admission fees. the Society is The exi:)enditure has been as much as possible kept within the estimated limits of the The actual income has various items. A. added to the balance of Es. edited with by E. [Feb. Blochmann. 745. M. Sanscrit. Sanscrit. * Excluding Taipccs 8ij8-lU-0. the same as in the previous year.540. abstract of the accounts for the year : An 1870 is shewn in the subjoined table Income. . No. Cowell. Series. 1. . of Sankaracharya translated into English by Eev. 1. Library. M. The Council has already had cial condition of occasion to remark that the finansatisfactory. J. 582 was effected in the estimated expenditure.. remained Society in Government Securities. Coin Fund. while at the same time a saving of Es. . Finance. Fasc. with the commentary M. i Enylish Translations. K. Old — TheMaitri Upanishad with the commentary an English Translation of Kamatirtha. IV. 2. — Tlio Ain i AkLari of Abul Fazl Allaiui. thus making a total surplus of Es.* 1869. as soon as sufficient be devoted for the proper accommodation and arrangement of room for it can be obtained. I.28 Procenlin(js of the Asiatic Society. Series. Muir. to the library. and they are equally alive to the necessity of increasing the amount. . exceeded the estimated income by Es. 194. left to the credit of the Society at the close of The reserved funds of the makes a grand amounting to Bs. Fasc.867. 2000. regulated by the income. No. which. Fublicatiuns. Banerjea. bold in Iruat for Dr. Vol. A.

653 1 9 2.644 4 1 Col. .239 13 5 Library. J. .785 7 2 Expenditure. . . Miscellaneous.... . 22.000 1.. . . Dr. : . Miscellaneous. Muir... Conservation of Sanscrit MSS. 5...347 6 10 Balance of 1869.703 2 9 Conservation of Sanscrit MtiS.. 910 10 13 6 Coin Fund.411 4 1 7 Cash in hand. Dalton's Ethnology of Bengal. . Vested Fuud.551 II 9 . 1...854 15 8 Ethnology of Bengal. Es. .633 4 7 10 12. 5.. 24. Secretary's Office. in the Bank of Bengal Dr.. Asiatic Society..000 3. . . in the Bank of Bengal. . . T. 898 10 1. 898 10 1. .. .1871.438 4 Es. 29 287 110 6 . E. Publications.J.539 6 4 2. .Muir. 5. Conservation of Sanscrit MSS.. 128 9 1. tJie Asiatic Society.527 6 6 19. 4 4 Vested Fund. .. .] Socretary's Office. 914410 13....382 6 2 Balance of 1870.472 2. Procpedingn of . 2.585 3 3 3 3 2 Building.

725 6 3 Cashinliand.851 5 3 .30 Asiatic Society. [Feb. 125 15 2. 2. Proceedhufs of thfi Anidtic Society.

Colonel H.ot)0 Subscriptions. The Council desire to record their satisfaction with the good services which Babu Pratapachandra Ghosha has rendered to tho Society as Assistant Secretary and Librarian thoy also favourably report on the services of Babu Mauiiaia Bysack. Income. as likewise in the previous on by the Honorary Secretaries. and Maulavi Sayyid Waliulla.) by Dr.000 Es. . Mr.Hyde carried on the duties of Financial Secretary and Treasurer. o Building.000 Coin Fund. Rejecting.000 Library. assistants in the office and library._. 100 2.800 1. Council beg to submit tho following estimate of the probable receipts and expenditure. Stoliczka. Admission fees. F. The Philological Part of the Journal has been edited by Mr. Secretary's Office. have been.500 Officers. Stoliczka. Ijiochmanu. carried duties of the Secretary. Bloch(I. Expenditurr.] Proceedings oj the Aaiatic Society. 5. 900 8. Rs.500 l.) mann and Dr. including the publication of the monthly Proceedings. and other Institutions with which exchanges of publications have been made during 1870. therefore for the present. 600 2. H. Societe des Sciences des iudes Nederlaud 'ses. .000 1.000 Miscellaneous. The general year. Publications. 1.1871. Batavia List of Societies : — Berlin : —lioyal Academy. tlio the consifleration of this the question as atfycting tlio income of Society. and the Natural History Part (II. carryiiij^ 31 of the meiul)Grs of tho Society by out at aa early date this important change. 12.500 12.

Calcutta — Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India. : Agricultural Society. Madras : : —Nature. — Tattvavodhini Sabha. Munich Government Central Museum. : : . Cliristiania — University. de Belgique. — Oriental Society. of the Department of Agriculture. — Museum of Practical Geology. Lahore — Agricultural Society of Punjab. Lyon Societe des Naturalistes. Bombay Boston : Bordeaux —Bordeaux Academy. —Zoological Society. Cherbourgh. — Geological Society. — — — — Manchester — Literary and Philosophical : : : Society. . : — Eoyal Society. [Feb. —Natural History Society. . : : : : • : — Eoyal Geographical Society. Dublin —Eoyal Irish Academy. London —Eoyal Society. Bruxelles — Academie Eoyale des Sciences &c. — Geological Survey of India. Dacca — Dacca News and Planters' Journal. New York :— Commissioners Netherlands Paris : : — Eoyal Society. —Linnean Society. : : —Natural History : —Eoyal Asiatic Society. —Ethnographical Society. : : : : : : : Edinburgh. Dera — Great Trigonometrical Survey. — Statistical Society. Moscow Eoyal Academy. — Germany : : : : : : : . — Athenaeum. — Societe Imperiale des Sciences Naturelles. Buenos Aires — Public Museum.32 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. — Anthropological Society. Eoyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. ——— —Eoyal Institution. Society.

Esq. Peter — Imperial Academy of Science. and Mr. The President requested Mr. for want of standing ground whereon to range the cases. II. — Geograpliical Society. and seconded by H. The greater part of our house space is taken up by the Trustees under statu- table powers for the purpose of displaying the collections to the public. — Carried. Unfortunately. members. Washington — Smithsonian Institution. H. the position in which the Society has for some time been. Gentlemen. — Asiatic Society. the Presi- PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. will seriously cripple the however.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Locke. kept by ly reason of the non-completion of the of grievous embarrassment New Museum Museum building. J. — Zoological and Botanical Society. — It will be seen from the report of the Council that as to exhibit very satisfactory the administration of our finances during the past year has been effected with care. : : It \vas proposed by D. Locke. Mason to act as Scrutineers. in lent Financial Secretary. lists for Wood- the election of oiRcers and members of Council of the Society were examined. Our valuable library is rendered practically useless.. results. that the report bo adopted. Waldie. And we have no room in which we can properly set out the current literai'y . and still is. unless the So- current can be turned and our numbers be speedi- augmented by new accessions. : sLui-j^li : Vienna :— Imperial Academy of Science. During the time that the balloting dent addressed the meeting. Esq. — Imperial Eoyal Geological Institute. H. which appears to be imminent as a consequence of an ai>parently growing loss of ciety. : 33 Paris St. is one and disadvantage. we have to thank our excelColonel Hyde. and has been such great measure.. : — Anthropological : Society. The diminution of income. For this.1871.

I Actuated by this double motive. And the period prescribed by the Legislature for the completion of this building extended only to 23rd March. as well on account of the interests of the Society as by reason of their statutable obligations. however. and no sign was given by the Government of any immediate intention to resume them. And the matter therefore stands thus The Government to is under a statutable contract with building by the 23rd of next to receive the extensive natural the Society to complete the Museum it fitted month. is to on the completion of the building. The Council. "When. has been your Council matter of grave concern and regret. To this no answer has been returned : to us. the in reply a Council wrote to the letter. in their reply to the "while they communication of which I have spoken. I will not. dwell all. year it 1871. Thus it has on this account alone become the matter of jjublic concern. for after may have been less to design than to gaucherie and maladroitness in the State Secretariat. scientific periodicals for inspection [Feb. it became incumbent iipon the Council. the Society have a portion thereof . honourable venture to think on either part. alike. By the same contract. remonstrated against the attitude which the Govern- ment assumed towards them. so far as ferred to the render history and archaeological collections wliich should then be trans- Museum Trustees. Moreover. am sorry to say that the correspondence between your Counto and the Government has led nothing definite. that the existing state not be prolonged.34 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. and and daily reference on the of things should of 1866. then. and received it which appearing as does to ignore or set aside the origito nal agreement made with the Society. expressed their readiness to do all in their power to assist the Government out of its difficulties. to press the exigency of the case upon the attention of Government. bj^ Museum Act Council of the Societj^ was in a manner charged with the duty of seeing that the building to be erected by the Government under the terms of that Act for the reception of the Collections should be fit and proper for its object. it upon due I cil this unpleasant incident. Government of India. in the early part of the past was seen that the Museum building works remained at a stand still. the part of our members.

and will be carried on to some sort of say may completion at. this transfer took effect from it the time of passing the Act. no very distant date.1871. ty's remain in the Socie- house under the care of the to all persons desirous to Museum Trustees. It is enough to say that it is very great. if It will. 35 own accommodation. and should be open view the same under rules to be This term in the contract has been established by the fully Trustees. until the building was com- pleted. and embarrassment which I have already described. Tliese advantages to the Society were the considerapublic of tion for the transfer to the Govei'nment on behalf of the our exceedingly valuable. for was one of the terms of the Act.] for its FroceedinfjH of the Asiatic Society. and we have no right will to complain that has proved to be more heavy that the Government than Ave anticipated. imique collections. that the works wiU be resumed almost immediately. and fulfilling other property. that for some time past. to believe. There it certainly a choice of modes for the relief. And so far as tlie public are concerned. Government in which can afford us and I do not even now doubt that it will adopt one or the . ment venue for the reception of its Library and Our present house woukl thus. however. I do not wish to exaggerate the difficulty which the Council now experiences in nierel}' main- taining the existence so to speak of the Society. be a very serious matter to us. become an additional source of re- to us. thereto so far that the coUcctious of the Society and the additions (sub- sequently to be made) should. the Society has been in the situation of need. indeed I we have reason we know. as to be in a condition to receive them. complied with. on the Governits undertaking. at any it rate to the extent of enabling us to get free of the most heavy of I wish to assume that our obligations at the appointed date. By it our contract with the Government no doubt we were bound to bear this burden for a time. And the result has been. Although it is plainly impossible that the Museum building should be completed on the 23rd March. And there is no reason. in our present situation we should be compelled to remain until the building be made fitted in any degree to receive the collections. will do so. and increases every day. is why we should be called upon to suffer in this way. But we are entitled to expect perform its vside of the bargain. perhaps. and in many respects.

Mr. although at the time of his death still a young man. The salaried staff of the Society. other of them. for a short time one of the Honorary Secretaries And Lt. to Colonel Hyde for his exertions "VVe are not the less indebted to our other Stoliczka. He contributed several papers to the Journal. and I will only repeat or two of Of these. and always maintained a strong interest in the welfare of the Society. The names are one given in the Eeport of the Council. was of the Society. Ormsby. Avdall was our oldest member. engaged in the undertaking. Blochmann and Dr. It nevertheless mucli to be deplored that the Goac- vernment has not yet. in the Philological and Natural History parts respectively. had distinguished himself by his Bengali translation of the Mahabharat in 18 volumes. . Babii Kaliprosona Singh. and superin- tending the publication of the Sanscrit and Persian works which we have been able to issue under the Government grant for that and the other learned pundits. the past year. and was known as the author of Sketches by Hootoone. Mr. just terminated and have acknowledged how much we owe in this department. He had also translated some Sanscrit Dramas.3fi Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Beavn was a naturalist of considerable promise. to a high pitch of excel- lence. with Babu Protapachandra Ghosha at their head. tion. Blochmann have done great public service by most ably editing. and the application of their great literary and scientific acquirements have brought our Journal. have done their work in a manner deserving our best commendapurpose . Secretaries. Ho- norary. I regret to state. have performed their several duties to the entire satisfaction of the Council. Also both Babu Eajendralala Mitra and Mr. at tlie eleventh it hour I may say. is [Feb. I have already spoken of the success which has attended the administration of our funds during the year. sustained the loss valuable members by death during them here. He was elected so long ago as the year 1826. who by their unwearied labours. Mr. made us quainted with the course which proposes to pursue. of several The all Society has.

though at no great length. however. It is enough for my sent object to remind you that the immediate consequence of a calm or rather comparative upward movement air is absence of inflow horizontal motion in the air over the belt in question. than I could convey to him with the labour of many hours. becau. less We most all of us in a more or general i. sup- these simple phenomena. course for two reasons. that nearly the more important atmospheric cm-rents. the relative course upon it . tlio 37 If I strictly conformed to custom which generally regulates to set the character of the presidential addresses in Societies such as this. whom know I desire to address. Let me first. supplied with the Journals at the risk after all of passing over his particular est. a topic wliich I conceive to be of considerable moment to the interests of meteorological science througliout the world. at this point. I need not now describe the process (thougli that it is it is well to remember belt not perfectly siuiple) by which the air over this beprethis comes rarilied and is caused to ascend. the persistejit winds. are conversant with the meteorological facts relevant to my object. an of to- along the earth's siu-face from the direction of each pole wax-ds and up to this belt and a corresponding outflow above. owe their origin to the vertical displaceis ment of air which. endeavour of out in some detail the more remarkable stops during the past year. for I do not assume that all. gales and storms. The rotation of the earth introduces an apparent modification of of a free heavy particle. from following the usual Firstly. and indeed I may say chiefly. I should. because I wish to avail myself of this opportunity for the purpose of pressing upon your notice with earnestness.1871. If the surface of the earth were perfect- ly smooth. advance which have boon taken in science I refrain. and is now being done by the Savants of Europe and America. that any of our members can. by reason of the sun's our table is now so amply and Proceedings of the principal scientific bodies of the West. way e. however. subject of inter- Secondly. of the risen air from the belt towards the poles. acquire a fuller knowledge of that which L«3 lately been. by a glance at a few title pages.] Proceedings of the Aniatic Society. continually tak- ing place over a certain equatox'ial belt of the earth's surface. offer a few words of preface.

thus becomes an eas- wind in is both hemispheres. action upon such a mobile as the The horizontal motion of masses of air over the earth is much checked by friction along the surface of contact or more correctly by the obstruction which is afforded by the earth's inequalities of surface.38 Proceedinys of the Asiatic Sociely. the greater is its deviation from a polar direction. a particle starting with a given velocity. Still the effect of this disturbing cause . while the upper outflow or antiwesterly and in both cases with a certain exception trade current the longer the course by which the current has reached a given point. be such as to cut the successive parallels of latitude at continually diminishing angles on the eastern side and the case would be . [Feb. however. as it went on. more than a century ago. seem to observers at each successive point in its course to be coming from a more and more easterly direction. while conversely in passing from the larger circles to the smaller its • apparent direction would grow to be more and more It is true that the earth's surface cannot its "westerly. the well known veering of winds in the temperate zone ly the is now held to be referable to precise- same cause as is the peculiar constant direction of the trade- . I may say that the law which expresses the motion of a free particle relative to the earth. This explanation of the trade winds and of the intervening belt of calms was developed. terly The flow of polar air towards the equatorial belt. For instance. in passing from the smaller circles of latitude to the larger would. of which I have spoken. Or to state the same proposition somewhat differently. reversed for a particle receding from the equator. by Halley and all observations since made have served most fully to demonstrate its truth. tlie posed to be appi'oaching the equator and to be moving nnder influence of an initial velocity. It is comparatively lately. would in consequence of the rotation. is upon the whole of a subordinate character and speaking generally without regard to special localities or occasions. that Dove and others have shown that the atmospheric phenomena of the trade and inter-trade regions are but simjde eases of the air-movements which take place outside those limits. also gives with some degree of approximation the course of moving portions of the atmosphere. be considered fluid smooth even as regards atmosphere.

and makes its appearance on the earth's surface as a steady southwest wind in the northern hemisphere and as a northwest wind in the southern hemisjihere. as tion. rising The volume of vapour-bearing from the equatorial belt and escaping away northtlie wards and southwards. over which the trades prevail. advances or away from the tension place of ascent in consequence of the superio- rity of tlie horizontal pressure whicli is represented its by the sum of own and that of its contained vapour at the height. notwithstanding that every one present is probably more or less familiar with them.1871. and which is itself undergoing a converse or rather (for it Consequently the upper stream falls. The necessaiy result of this process is. result of gravita- corresponds to the it higher latitude of the terrestrial globe. And it is enabled to pass into and tlio to the gradually lessening spherical space which. We. The downcoming in this way of the anti-trades determines the outside edge of the belt. that onward fiowing mixture of air and vapour comes to be at some point specifically heavier than the comjiaratively dry air which tlie feeds the trades below process. so that on the polar side of this edge the atmospheric phenomena are the resultants of a totally new order of things. Proceedings of the Asittd'c Soviet ij. Tliere is 39 not mmh difficulty in perceiving tlio one great reaof the son why the problems furnished by extra-tropical parts globe are of especial complexity. simply by way of leading the members of this Society and indeed thi'ough them. It proceeds towards the poles. must. is of course at any considerable distance from the equator generally moving with a high relative velocity) drives through the lower stratum. namely. its because gradually cools by radiation on journey and as it cools contracts. it. adjacent portion fit itself where the lateral escajie occurs over that of tlie of atmosphere. therefore. the cm-rents constantly shifting bods inter se and alwaj's varying greatly in hygrometrical condition. persons outside our body to consider the singidar ad- . a conflict of currents of equatorial westerly winds on the one side with currents of polar easterly winds on the other. I have so far entered upon these details. constitutes shrink in volume as flows it anti-trades. air which. see ample rea- son here for the complexity and variableness of the atmospheric phenomena in the extra-tropical zones.] currents. so to speak.

while there are comparatively small spots of relative itself. The consequence of these conditions that e. The great peninsula covering is as it does scarcely less than twenty-eight degrees of latitude its in various respects so special in character. Not only does the southern trade come in up to and over it in the period of the southwest Monsoon. especially valuable to Again a consideration of the possible causes which give rise a separation between the simultaneous positions of places of minimum pressure and of maximum heat respectively. focus of low pressure which lies outside that annulus and at the opposite period of the year inclines away. thus bringing some of the principal phenomena of the extra.40 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. we perceive that the wind constantly and often ai:)parently blows directly. an atmospheric movement effected in approximately parallel currents towards an annulus which is coincident with the diurnal locus of maximum surface temperature.tropical region well within the observation of the Indian Meteorologist. ly to exist in the northern part of the peninsula a locus of relative maximum pressure. leads us to see another reason for rating highly the importance of . i. instead of a trade-wind in the ordinary sense of the term. from a centre in to pre- the upper part of India. So low as Calcutta we not unfrequently get warm equatorial breezes and showers of rain about Christmas time. where months. mark the locus of vation appears to summer minimum atmospheric pressure obserhave shown that this minimum prevails at that it transverses this part of Asia in the : time over an extensive area in Central Asia. but the other half of the year the polar edge of the northern trades lies far to the south of the Himalayas. vantages which India offers for meteorological observation and research. its Also neither of the trade winds preserves normal character in our region. [Feb. that the periodic shiftings of the equatorial its wind belts of which I have spoken. These recurring phenomena appear is sent such a particular case of a general law as for the purposes of scientific inquiry. we have as long as the sun is on the north of the equator a monsoon converging towards a local . The belt of highest tempera- ture does not. have a greater range above in its surface or neighbourhood than any where else probably in the whole belt circuit of the globe. minimum within the peninsula On the other hand in the winter months there seems commonis.

the tension of the vapour at that point under the conditions . and it would be impossible to say. the vortical atmospheric column is made up tlic radically distinct portions. As a matits ter of fact. if Now with us in India during a great part at least. namely. But in the trojiical and subtropical regions discloses considerable the case is different. constituting in lations. The height to at which the mercury of the barometer stands.1871. diametrically column which is vertically above it. one polar. something more than the mere amount of atmospheric pressure indicates us on the surface of the mercury in the bowl of the instrument. One explanation. almost universally over all zones of the earth's surface. well marked At periodic changes of atmospheric pressure during tlie the twenty four-hours. I need now endeavour still to specify them in detail. which has been very based on the particidar solar agency of •which I have just spoken. not the whole of two of the year. a lower and an upper. the other equatorial warm. extensively accepted. the barometric column exhibits regular diiirnal oscillations in height. various theories have been pnt forward to account for this phenomenon. It gives us the and tliis necessarily varii^s with weight of the whole superincumbent column of air the composition of that column. 41 India as an area of meteorological observation. I will. va- comparatively cool. a priori which would at any given hour prevail over the other.] Proceeding a of the Aaiatic Society. dry and dense. very shortly refer to two. opposite in character. pour-bearing and specifically light. an interval of air-material in the Also the heating of the surface time more or less short. in is immediate- by any alteration of the relations soil between these portions. The pressure simi at a given point in the atmosphere elastic (in accordance is with a well known law of pressure in fluids) taken to be the of two separate pressures. whole two not distinct oscil- different times. the barometer and. These two changes are. in order to indicate the veil of uncertainty which subject. ly speaking. obscures the and which we cannot hope is to pierce except by the force of exhaustive observation. ly affected The barometer has the effect. of diminishing the and of contemporaneously increasing the vapour therein as long as a source of vapour remains at the base. In the temperate zones these oscillations are comparativesmall. There. however. it is manifest.

to say the least of it. soniewliat earlier in this adto had occasion draw your attention which to the fact. On the other hand. The first may be calculated from data furnished by ob- servation at the supposed point. to the effect that. so to say under the sun more nearly becomes for a time. of the two great components of the resultant atmospheric pressure. Similarly the principal inflow is from the poles. and of tlie trade-winds in particular. is exceedingly incomplete. dress. And in this way conclusions have undoubtedly been reached. the two progressions being so related as not at any point to compensate each other. And from curves. having its pcjiuts of maximum and minimum non-coincident with those of the other. and the pressure its of the dry air alone at the same point exclusive of contained vapour. relatively speaking.42 of density Proceedings of the Asiatic Socictij. which there obtain. all proposition that motion of this sort takes place It is as I is beyond queshave before said the foundation of our theory of winds. The pressure directions which gives alike. Colonel Strachey. many accui'ate observers. I have already. Blanford has been so kind as to show mej it is apparent to the eye that the explanation in question. maintain that the facts do not bear out this explanation inasmuch as. each exhibits a single continuous progression in the twenty-four hours. exhibiting the at diurnal va- riations of the calculated vapour tension Calcutta for every month of the year. Colonel Strachey's own I believe. that the single rarifying action of the sun is sufficient cause to produce the whole of the phenomenon. And thus it has been thought that the phenomenon is sufficiently traced to its causes. that that por- tion of the earth's surface. where scarcely any vapour can be perceived to exist as elsewhere. the barometric oscillations are just as distinctly mark- ed at elevations. in general. As long as this condition of things obtains. among other things. [Feb. and notably our own distinguished meteorologist. and the consecj^uence it is is (I do not now enter into the process) that the air above tion. the air-material is less than the aver- . The tion. and temperature. at a given instant is the heated more than the rest. put into vertical moits and after rising to some elevation makes escape sideways. rise to the lateral escape must urge in all but the principal persistent outflow occurs towards the poles. which Mr. opinion is.

however. jjoint to point along a given meridian the antemeridional and postmeridional times approaching each other as you went polarwards until a point was reached at which they coalesced . as I have assumed be the general case. But would also seem low from this exposition that in general each of the diurnal maxi- ma would take place at an hour which would vary from . as we rightly may.1871. 43 gix'ator ago in the column of all ascx'udiiig air. and accordingly accounts very well pox'iodic minimum to fol- pressure. because to appears now exist be certain that that element is not a simple function. I am ashamed papers on this to say that I topic. and surrounding an area of j)rcssure less than the average. In the general at case. I need hardly say that the actual facts are very different from this. I plete. am not acquainted with Col. problem would shew that the maxima do lie not under this explanation to along a closed curve. my own point of am sure you will see at once what immense value a com- and connected system of barometric observations made . may he woidd be exceedingly glad to test wherewith and to fortify if And even we assume. to get extensively collected it. then. which occurs in the da}'. It into the conditions of the may be.nearly the converse tidal action of the sun. and does not afford a measure.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. and probably than the average in aziumthal directions at some point -where the two currents overlap each other. data. but that on the contrary the accumulation of material must be east and west of the sun in meridional lines. that in this matter a false importance has been attached to the element of vapour tenit sion calcidated at the point of observation. forming a closed curve round thejdace of the sun. how far does the local atmospheric pressure depend upon the existence of local soui'ces of vapour. of the total vapour material which in the superincumbent atmospheric column . may still for that very rea- son the question remains open. Strachey's and I do not know precisely how he works out to aifirm its the explanation. after which point no diurnal that a close enquiry period woidd be apparent. If I have succeeded thus far in bringing you to view. it would seem that we should thus be presented of any instant with a locus maximum pressure. of the for the it In lact this is ver}. that whatever But I think I may nevertheless venture be his confidence in completeness.

In places of western Europe near the where I may remark the source of vapour is unlimited. [Feb. both sets of maxima and minima are I believe invariably strongly marked. are not always insignificant in themselves. night and noon. beto cause they are both the type and the material of those annual va- which are serious enough be the governing forces in regard to the winds of this portion of the globe. as for instance the land and sea breezes of our coast flanks of mountain ranges districts. nental tracts. a cavise which influences the local atmospheric pressure in a direction con- trary to that in which the heat alone operates. and we find such conditions existing in notable opposition of extreme throughout the countries which are immediately subject to Her Majesty's Inconti- dian Government. are ineffective to cause anything more than very limited oscillatory local movement of air masses. by their very nature. nities for its parts. how- ever. These movements. throughout India would have for science generally. atmospheric pressure.44 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. under careful analysis and comparison ? Every condition affecting the supply of is vapour through the action of heat at the earth's surface. In truth we possess in India almost unrivalled opportuexamining and analysing the atmospheric column in all Doubtless the daily periodic changes of pressure. the plains and the mountain peaks which I may say are paired against each other from the Himalayas to Point do Galle (more than the breadth of the northern tropic) and from the west coast of Malabar to the Salween. We may in this matter lihen the year to one long day with the solstices for mid- The gradual to a increase of temperature which takes place over the greater part of the earth's svirface from a in the winter months in the case of a day of minimum summer months is (as 24 hours and probably for a common reason) maximum in the generally speaking accompanied by a double oscillation of the sea. phenomena of this class are especially important. and as means for the solution of this question in particular. being commonly . tlie winds on the outer and in mountain valleys and the diurnal modifications of the But the riations daily Monsoon which we experience in Calcutta. the Need deltas I contrast the maritime and the and the inland plateaux. the summer maximum which is attributed to the vapour.

depends upon the ma- but also upon the circurastancea the striking difference in this of the local situation. 45 tlio iibsoluto iiKixiiuuui. a deficiency in the supply of vapour are surrounded by places where sure at the same time stands relatively the atmospheric presTliere is is at a maximum.] Proceedings of the jUiudc Sovtcl If. Professor Tyudall tiie of opinion that the presence of invisible vapour in air operis ates to check the radiation from the earth's surface. sity of more than any other influential as a cause affecting the efficiency of the and therefore affecting the denI refer to the the superincumbent atmospheric column. diminished and the sinkthis ing between them increased the and hually on side of the Ural summer maximum disappears altogetlior. and so a principal ingredient in the varying circumstances upon which face temperature depends. which I have not yet mentioned.1871. the process of rarifaction prevails minish the material in the atmospheric column and consequently to lower tilt! pressure. But as soon falls as the suppl}' for this any reason wliicli may locally obtain to di- below amount. and which earth's surface as a heating agent. Thus it would hai)p(. i'ur iiistaucoat St. fouiul. This not only terial condition of the surface itself. is that which I tirst referred to in accounting for the diurnal oscillations of the bai'ometer.sviiiimor maximum divides itself into two subordinate maxima.n that all places which arc in this way affected by. so to speak. these two 8 are rehitive maxima are still but their absolute maguitudi . Poterrtburgh. It is argued with much force that the rise towards a maximum goes on as long as the additions of vapour wdiich are lifted up by the action of the suffie-ient to heated surface continue to be more than compensate for the increase of rarifaction brought about by the same agency. But with advaiifo into the interior of the coutineiit. sm-- That loci of maximum and minimum pressure do periodically manifest themselves as a consequence of the recurrence of the same local conditions is certain. Further on. an element. respect is We all know between the plains and a hill staticm. The explauatiim which is commonly given. I will repeat that we seem to have especial advantages in this country for working out the problem . the phuuomona cliango. as also that periodic winds or modifica- tions of winds are the result. the . as at Moscow. activity of terrestrial radiation.

perhaps. own Indian or rather having. I have already referred to this in menThe part which this region of low barometer plays in governing the course of the periodic winds and its possible inJiuence as an eleis only vaguely ascertained . there so far as regards the Gangetic of at one period year. [Feb.^ there must thus by a of the local sort of torsion such a divergence of currents in the body atmosphere as would be favorable to the formation of centres of minimum pressure and consequent vorticellary . be questioned whether there high level in any degree proportional . active but it may.000 feet only. much which difference at a is to that found to obtain near the earth-surface for assuming the relative smaUness of weight in the trans-Himalayan atmospheric column to be in any considerable degree due to the absence of vapour. it is probable that this element affects the density of the lower part of the column especially. One places of minimum pressure for the northern hemisphere in the hotter months appears to be a large tract of central Asia. If. ment in the generation of our circular storms has not yet. any difference which might is between the northern and southern pressures would become . locns of such of the causes of this class of phenomena. and to much For more than that proportion of the therein contained vapour. I believe. if assumed to to be of the height is effective height of 10. a motive force operative upon arise the upper strata of the atmosphere which has no effect or comparatively little effect upon the lower. tioning the cause of our Monsoons. strata exist above this height. trough and the higher part the Bay of Bengal. however.46 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. almost double would in truth be a dam at least one-fourth of the whole material of the atmosphere. (probably the effective this). The Himalayan range. extending down into. no doubt.what I may call outliers in. our peninsula. at any rate over those tracts which are comparatively close to the hills. It been made the subject of serious inquiry. would appear probais ble that the barrier to horizontal motion which presented by the condi- Himalayas must to a large extent exclude the barometrical tion of the atmosphere over Central Asia from being any significant element in the motion of the lower strata of the atmosphere over the peninsula of India. in consequence of the existis ence of the of the Himalayan mountain range.

This last consideration leads ofifect me to notice the remark- able mocliauical wliich is produced upon the course of the lower streams of air in our regions by the physical configuration of the land The peninsula of India acts as a wedge to divide the advancing stream of the southern trades into two branches. The angidar space marked out by left side deflection lies on the of the stream. the other passes along the eas- tern side of the peninsula a portion of the latter crossing the Bay of Bengal is headed by the highlands of Burma and by them along the flanks of the Himathis last diverted northward and westward layas. one of "which slides up the Malabar . It is I think apparent from the facts stated in the hasty sketch which I have just made. be uniform for the whole area and subordinate in all its parts to one centre of manage- . the atmosphei'ic pressure within the bend will be commoidy less than that on the outside. for the purposes of one at least of meteorological science. coast. and therefore hj an experimental law which the illustration of the free moving particle above given peralso haps goes some way towards explaining. that India proper.1871. if possible. to which Mr. If this valuable mine of scientific information is to be worked at public cost for the public advantage. Blanford of the Eoj^al in his valuable paper published in the Proceedings Society attributes the generation of these low pressure centers. It is it rich in the data of the highest problems of the science. the Bay of Bengal and Burma branch together. Within are to be found in the simplest form those materials for inquiry' and investigation which almost in certainly contain the clue to further great advances knowledge. And finall}^ we have the periodic occurrence of warm currents in the eastern portion of the Bay of Bengal. but which has been otherwise ingeniously explained by Dove. is it not evident that the organization for the purpose should. 47 movement. constitute a region which. and thus we here again meet with a cause tending to produce periodi- cally in the neighbourhood of our shores a locus of relatively low barometrical pressure. It is a most happily situated of distributed field singularly complete in itself. and so to originate a rotatory motion of the air. wliich are treated as a whole. phenomena mutuiJly inter-dependent and which cannot be separated without destruction of their value. demands to be taken and of view.] Proccedinffs of the Asiatic Societtj.

Every station should be furnished with the means of keeping correct local time at least. W. viz. Panjab. itself that The Government of to countiy has ah-eady satisfied meteorological pense. Need I point out that in any system which be the disposition of the stations must be matter of considerto ed arrangement. in Bengal acter and situation as can well be conceived. local system of meteorological observation with its own independent head. Madras. should be made in conformity with well devised directions adapted to secure results as complete The instruments upon the accuracy and uniformity of which everything depends shovdd be issued from one central station after comj)arison and adjustment with standards there kept and maintained in shoidd also from efiiciency.48 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. It is remarkable. that a carefully prepared system of observations cai-ried throughout this tract. I assume. too. of this question this ment I am haj^py to say tliat the hypothesis does not need to be argued out by me. in Madras the . is a separate . in the Panjab a member of the Medical Service. The observations as possible. N. Bengal. Bombay. ? [Feb. Provinces of&eers of the Educational Department. under the direction of one competent head. excepting Burma. e. It is. and the N. Central Provinces and Burma and in each of these. useless for the whole body of into scientific men. under tlie and tabulated for publicainstruction and superintendence of one directing head. tliat the gentlemen who are at the head of these different systems. of the higliest scientific importance to the is to ought to yield results whole world. British India for what have we ? administrative and other purposes As it is is divided eight principal districts or provinces. possess as little community of charThey are. Unless this be done. they are useless for com- parison with the results of observations made with ^. And above all. desirous at. the results of the local observations should be reduced tion and reference. W. the regular observation of phenomena be arrived is work proper be done at public exthe best available therefore. tliat results should Now I do not hesitate to say. Provinces. different instru- ments and under difierent circumstances. effective. having regard to the peculiar circumstances of situation which I have menon tioned.. Oude. They time to time be readjusted by reference to these same standards. with a view combined work.

the barometers are compared with a provincial standard at the Presidency towns. with one as- . ty' he experiences great and delay in obtaining them. a(. in- formed. can- barometers of several standards or aneroids. In the Panjab. 49 tliis Government Astronomer. and consequently the registers of observations effected by them are of little value whenever small differences are important. "W. as for example in the comparison of range instrumen- in the daily oscillations of atmospheric pressure. but certainly no attempt has yet been made compare the local standards if there are any. inasmuch as no data exist by which due allowance can be tal irregulaties. are employed indiscriminately. in the N. in Oude the Commissioner." Observatory. the kinds in xise are very diverse. (except Madras. There between these pn^vincial officers. I beliovo. the systems seem to vary considerably in the different provinces. in regard to organization. In Bengal and IMadras. And those of two stations ta standard. made for the and these are of the same order as the differences in question. and as a own. or for interrupted periods. As to the instruments. are forthcoming. have been compared with the Calcut- AVhether or not in the other provinces any compariwith a local standard I cannot say positively. seem to be somewhat irregular in matter of observing. if one of them requires the registers.1871. In Bengal and also a superin- ^Madras there is a paid observer at each station and tending officer (generally the Civil Surgeon) who receives an al- lowance for supervising the work. the 8iiperintondent of Scientific officer. Tlien again. the the}' officers who keep the registers tlie are all volunteers and only . and from a recent period Bengal) gets instance. The For head of the system in each province. under an obligation are no official relations and in the Central Provinces the Sanitary to do this work ex-officio. them whence and how he sorts. P. iu Boml)ay. though it is soii is effected I have heard that to not . ** all specially salaried for extra work .] Proceedings of the A f^iatic the Soclciij. or results of a neighbouring province for comparison with his for the purposes of scientific inquiry'. for stations.cording to the published reports out of 19 from 2 have continuous registers extending over 2^ j'ears been furnished from most of the other stations registers covering a few months only. or difficul- matter of fact. I am .

or object to officers. One or two especial instances of this have occurred unable lately. for this whom he has no control. curiously enough. hicus a non lucendo. and perhaps in Bombay. that to which are subject such drawbacks as these are unfortunately restricted in value. The result is. is the reporter furnished with a staff competent to relieve him of this purely mechanical daty. He moreover. I may add even to day. that most of the registers give the observations in their crude unreduced state .50 certained Prnceedlvp of the Asiatic Sociefy. Moreover. as our Council we have nothing that we can offer to the scientific Societies of the West in exchange for their publications in meteorology. The laborious. the central Meteorological Observatory is quite independent of the Local Reporter. for one reason or another Street. at Calcutta. who is thus not only powerless in regard to the province. who might any moment leave his post and so extinguish the station as a place of meteorological record. In Bengal again. but is also principal station of his own reduced to the alternative of either testing liis instruments himself personally. but the most important of these registers exertions. is kept up solely by the voluntary at and activity of the Civil Surgeon. special ex- way deprived of the means of carrying out any it perimental inquiry. elevation governing standard. The so-called Observatory in Park knows too well. . as data in extended investiga- In Burma there for is no established system of observation at all. yet indispensable work of reducing the observa- tions is but partially performed. I need hardly remark. over in this of entrusting them is. the of the barometer-cisterns above the sea-level has been determined for ex- ceedingly few stations out of Bengal. Only in Bengal. and therefore not generally available tions. that. is so placed that no effective observait. Observers at Akyab and Port Blair send registers to the reporter Bengal . however important of his may this be for the regulation own work. [Feb. but our official observers have literally been to notice tliem. registers of observations. tion of the sky can be had from I need hardly say that often- times the forms and behaviour of the clouds give most important information relative to movements and even to the constitution of air masses at high altitudes.

L. D.. Lord Napier of Magdala.. India. (Financial Dept. Oldliam. A. D. G. Stoliczka. Babu Eajendralala Mitra. Ewart..). scarcely thought of as falling within the work of any meteorological of instruments. I. Vice-Presidents. Th. The scrutineers announced the following President. Members of Council. D. Babu Eajendralala Mitra. J. T. (Natural History Dept. G. Blochmann. Oldham. H.1871. S. E. E. elections The Hon'ble Mr.] Proceedinjs of the Aaiatic Socicfij. Col. G. H Hyde. The Hon'ble Mr. Lord Napier of Magdala. C. E. Surely the time has come when in the place of this infirm and unsatisfactory system (or more properly want of system) a well planned simple organization inspired and directed by a man of real scientific power and acquirements should be put into action. If anything that I have said to-night should help to hasten such a reform as this. B. B. LL. I should scarcely go too far if I said represents a good deal of money thrown away : it very remote fi-om that which ought to be. C. M. cliaracter as those 51 Experiments of such a colotir of the sky. I believe.) F. Col. Hyde. Babu Devendra Mallika. P. And It I do not know that a single spectroscope has yet been intro- duced into our official collections seems is to me that the state of things which I have just decertainly scribed that is it most discreditable. Justice Phear. S. E. C. LL. General. E^q. M. G. D. Justice Phear. or to which would be necesof the azure invisi- sary to test Tyndall's theory in regard to the cause measure the retardative operation of station in ble vapour on terrestrial radiation. Ph. my object will have been attainei. (Philological Dept.. Secretaries. Esq. C S. . are. and G. E.) H.

. L. Bloclimann. Esq. Esq. S. — A copy of Antiquities of Kashmir. BlauforJ. G. The following gentlemen have been announced ballot at the next as candidates for meeting : . Justice Phear. Esq. Esq. Atkinson. C<d. H. The receipt of the following presentations was announced 1. S.. W. Tliuillier.. The meeting then resolved ing. F. 2. P. seconded by Maulavi unanimously^ to the Secretaries Thai che marked thanks of the Society be given past year. in the chair. [Feb. F.. The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded at the meeting were balloted for and elected ordinary members.. W. A. F. C. U. Waldie. as well as the very satisfactory hnaucial condition of the Society. last J F. H. F. and twentj'-one photographs of ancient architectural structures in Mysore. C.. Schwendler and J. E. have largely resulted. B. rrocccrlinjfi of tlu Asiatic Societi/. Harkness. From From the Govt. R. of India Cole. LL D.. Esq.. Bahadur. Home Dept — nine photo- graphs of the ancient temples in West Berars.. A. Esq. D. Esq. Abdullattif Khan.. Stoliczlca. itself into an Ordinary Monthly meet- The Hon'ble Mr. S.. W. G. Wood-Mason were appointed audi- tors of accounts for the past year. President. Waagen. C. Esq. the Government of India. Esq. W. C. F. W. Dr. Gay. It Hunter. Farr. E. H. and carried was proposed by D.. M. H. M. M. Tennant. Esq. S. A. T. by Lieut. H. I. E. Ph. Messrs.52 r. D . Innis. Col. A. for their earnest attention to the duties of their office during the from which the regularity in the issue and the value of the Journal. S. The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. G S. F.

seconded by Babu Eajendraliila Mitra. S. seconded by H. by Col. 123. Blochmann... Gough. LiBllAEY. The Report of the British Association for the advancement of Science. seconded by H. The 1. F. seconded by H. Cathedral Mission College. seconded by Dr. B. James "Wilson. Walter Abbey. Tue Eoyal . B. Esq.. Babu Govindachandra Chaudhuri. Esq. Esq. Kurz. Blaiiford.. Sir "VV. Esq. Blochmann. Presidency Circle. XIX. Supt. Pliear.. proposed by the Hon'ble J.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Esq. Esq. proposed by H. seconded by Bsibu E^jondralala Mitra. Proceedings of the Eoyal Society of London. Hyde. Isaac. proposed by 11. Engineer. seconded by W. Esq. Sherepur. F. Nawab Ziauddin Ahmad Khan. 8.. Blochmann. Oldham. Zemindar. Association. Sherepur. Surgeon.. Zemindar. 2. Esq.. proposed by n. Esq. Bhagulpur. Bfibu Ilarachandra Chaudhuri. No. Chief of Luharu. F. proposed by L. Benares. Esq. Blochmann. Oldham. #*^f of Douors in Capitals. by Babu Eashbihari Vasu. and L. Benedict. 3. by T. Babu Dvijendi-auatlia Thakura. seconded by H. by L. Bowring. proposed by II. Esq. proposed by S. Esq. Esq... Calcutta. Blochmann. E. Mergui. Esq. Botanic Gardens. Esq. Associations connected with various places situated in the sub-division Banka. receipt of the following communications was announced Arrangements for the discharge of long overland tolegrapli lines.. for 18G9. E.. A. seconded Schwendler. proposed T. by Babu Eakhaldas Haldar. proposed by "W.. Esq. Vol. Mymensing. Bahadur. C. A. Esq. Mymensing. The Hon. Grey. Mondari Vocabulary. Delhi.1871.. Stoliczka. Civil proposed by Maulavi Kabir uddin. seconded by Dr. have intimated their desire to resign the membership of the Society. H.. Tue Beitish Society. Locke. Calcutta. Esq. Esq.. M. Clarko.. Esq. Fresentatiuns. Stoliczka. B. Schwendler. The last following additions have been lield in made to the Library since the meeting January Names last. Atkinson. Calcutta. H. Esq. Blochmann. Queen's College. 53 C.

Purchase. 104. The Government of India. edited by Hemachandra Bhuttacharya. Cowell's Lectures on Illustrations of Ancient Buildings in Cole. 1870. 269. The The Numismatic OF London. The Athena3um. [Feb. 5. 16. H. anlautenden Personalenduugen. G. Eamayana. Thibaut Ueber die Entstehung und Verwendung der im Sanskrit mit E. OEuvres de Koutsa de Hirayastoupa.— The Geo- GEAPHioAL Society or Italy. by Lieut. Cachet's Worterbuch. 2. Collection. The University of Calcutta. —Vuller's : Grammatica Linguae : Das Jatapatala. . for Helfenstein's Comparative Grammar of the Teutonic Languages Persicse : —Etude sur le rituel du respect social dans I'etat Brahmani: que. Vol. The Numismatic Society The Smithsonian Eeport for 1868 Smithsonian Miscellaneous and 9 Smithsonian Contributions to knowledge. Bastian's te Sprach-vergleichende von Strauss' Lao-tse's Tao et King : —B. Society. Journal of the Statistical Society. Deaths of Madras. — von Th. of Naturalists of Moscow. The Government of the Panjab. : — Dr. 58-61. The Government of Bengal. No. parts 284. Bulletin (le la Societe Imperiale des Natiiralistes de Moscow. Eeview. November. The Nature. I. tistical Society of London.—-Philosophical Magazine. Schcebel. No. Benfey : Studien —V. von Dr. 1-2 Heft. Griffin's Paujab Chiefs. . The Sta- September. during 1868. 1 — Dr. Kashmir. Iconica. . Nos. — The Smithsonian Institution. Hindu Law. fasc. H. 1870. No. General Report of Public Instruction in Bengal during 1869-70 Annual Eeport of the Administration of the Bengal Presidency 1869-70. Semper's Eeisen im Archipel der Philippinen. The Imperial Society The Quarterly Journal of tlie Geological Geological Society of London. 285 No. JExchanye. 1870. Vol. January. 171 — Calcutta —Eeeve's Con. par C.54 Proceedimjs of the Asiatic Society. : Stickel's Handbuch zur Morgenlandischen Miinzkunde. No. 39. 14 Ileft Band —Dr. 5°. A. : —Deutsclies : C. Biillettins della Sociota Geografica Italiana. Vols. 8 Chronicle. The Editor. .

Dall. Gough. the Government of Nepal. Presentations were announced 1. meeting were balloted for and elected ordinary members. Govindacumdi'a Chaudhuri. Esq. in the chair. Legend I. with notes by the author. Esq. From the author — A copy of apampldet entitled : A revision of the Terebratulidce and Linrjulidce. . BENGAL Tho raontlily meeting of the Society was held on Weclnosday. Justice Phear. p. J. with remarks and description of some recent forms. Smith Lyman. Esq. A. the 1st instant. on Vaisha- sika Philosophy in Sanscrit verse. H. The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 3. Sri Sri Sri Nepala Savkara.PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OE FOR March. — — 4. by Benj. From the author General report on the Punjab Oil Lands. AVilson. Smithsonian Institution. C. Clarke. President. Babu Dvijendranatha Thakura. Pandit Chandrakanta Tarkalankara also Pravada Sataka by the same.. A. 1871. by W.. H Dall —Three Nepal coins bearing on the obverse in a square compartment the legend in Nagari characters '^Wt^'^TT^^^T^ and on tlie reverse ^Wl^^T-^f^^^TT^^^. 2. From the author — a copy of Tatvavali. B. From Eev. a treatise . Sri Sri Sri Sureudra vikramarka Deva (the name of at the last the prince). m. at 9 o'clock. The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded C. Esq.. II. M. . The Hon'ble Mr. „ „ Harachandra Chaudhuri. and at the lower margin on the reverse the date ^'sc^ 1789.

Hyde. "W. W. seconded by Dr. M. Esq. Graham. seconded by D. Ayrton. Bourn. N. proposed by Col. proposed by Hyde.56 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. secondwithdraw from Mr... J.. Captain A. E. Trustees Indian felt in respondence on the earthquake Siud on 28th October.. E. T. Esq. Esq. E. C. J. Macnamara (for re-election). C. E. Macgregor have resigned their membership on their leaving India. M. S. seconded by Dr. Esq.. seT. Bonnerjea has intimated his desire to the Society.. and Lt. proposed M. Benjamin Smith Lyman. Esq.. EundaU. -Col. Esq. Oldham. conded by H. The following gentlemen meeting : are candidates for ballot at the next Dr. seconded by Dr. Col. proposed by the Hon'ble J. Calcutta. Hyde. J. seconded by Dr. E.. Esq. Esq.. Walter Bourne. Eilgatte. Esq. Fedden. Schroeder. seconded by Dr. J. Major J. Col. [March. Oldham. Esq. S. seconded by Col. 1870. Col. H. E. Benedict. Nawab Ziaiiddin Ahmad Khan. Phear. by Col. Ho well. letters were read : — Museum. Esq. . Abbey. Oldham. Blochmann. Stoliczka. Stoliczka. Esq. Waldie.. Hyde. Oscar Treflftz. E. Isaac. H. ed by Dr. Hyde. W. C. in conformity with rule 14 of the Bye-laws of the Society. The following 1.. W. Locke. Mining Engineer. Esq. proposed by Tennant. Phear. F. E. B.. se- conded by Col. Esq. T. C. Phear. B. proposed by the Hon'ble J. forwarding a cor- From the Secy. proposed by H. Waagen. B. W.. proposed by Dr. E. Stoliczka.. C. T. Curtoys. Esq. Bahadur.. proposed by the Hon'ble J. proposed by F.. has expressed a life his wish to become member of the Society. F.

1870 . Esti. Wilkinson. and communicated by. lasting October.] Proceedings of the AHiatic Society. The inscrip- tions are very much worn The off. H. C. 1870. The earth- quake appears to have been experienced throughout the Talooka felt at Dadoo. was about 3 m. Mehur and Kukur on the 1st November. that in another 100 j'ears many will have probably altogether disappeared. on the same day. slighter p. and the shock is stated to have been more severe in the hills than in the plains. serious damage appears to have been done. 0. A second but slighter shock was again felt at Nusseerabad.— The Collector of Shikarpore reports that a severe shock of an earthquake was felt about a quarter to 3 r. Mehur and Kukur. . Esq. No J. From Mr. and also executed plans of the inscriptions appear to be in very old Nagari character. Lubdurza. Col. m. A third report records for a severe shock of an 5 earthquake at Dadoo. as various reports state that shocks have also been different times of the day and night on tlie 27tli. Mr. it lasted for about a The eartliquake was especially felt at Naushera. to the Secy. is 57 This correspondence a copy of one forwarded by the Bom>)ay Govt. that the The Council notified (in conformity with rule 13 B. Teje. J. on the 28th and a second felt shock. 1870. Larkhana. Samuells reports that the temples near Harchoka in Chang Bhokar are very extensive. but what remained preserved. Dalton. Walker. lasting for about one minute. 28th and 29th October. on the 28th October. 1870. minute. Another report from the Commissioner in Sind says that a slight shock was experienced at Jacobabad and Thoole at about 2-30 p. 1870. Samuells had taken rubbings dillerent temples. M. 2.1871. m. of. Samuells — addressed to. at 2 p. about minutes. Mr. of bye-laws) names of the following gentlemen have to be strucli off the list of members for non-compliauce with rule 13 of bye-laws. A. but unfortunately some of them are almost entirely in ruins and the destruction by the annual floods in the rainy season goes on so rapidly. of State for India. on the 28th October.

Philological. H. A. Mitra. Anderson. Gay. Tawney. Esq. A. Esq. WiUiams. Fund from the last named. fee celled for non-payment of admission — Bahadur. and Es. J. B. A. 204. Mohindralal Sircar. T. I. F. E. Esq. Esq. 5-10. dead. J. M.58 Proceedings of the Asiatic Societi/. Babu Eajendralala C. Oldham. the Oriental Publication due to off. Esq. Tennant. M. and Es. Dr. be written The Council reported year. E. D. J. L. Dr.. Babu Dr... NeviU. 1203 due from the above gentlemen. D. Wood-Mason. T. Library. J. due to the Society from Kaliprasanna Sinha. Bayley. E. Oldham. G.. Eajendralala Mitra. C. ^. C. Esq. Cliambers. AUan. Esq. Col. W. LM. Esq.. Gay. J. together with Es. Esq. C. Esq. be can- Also that Es. C. C. E. ex-officio members of all . And tliat the election of Sir Sherif ul Omara.srch. 57 from Eamanarayana Tarkalankara. LL. that they have elected the following gen- tlemen to serve in the several Committees* during the ensuing Finance. Martin. * The President and Secretaries of the Society are Committees. A. LL. Col. Duban. Esq. dead. Esq. S. Whishaw. Esq. Sherer. Babu Nundolala Bose. Garrett. Allan. J. Col. Esq.

G. LL. Dr. Stubbs. Oldham. S. T. G. Banerjea. Eev. G. MedHcott... Long. Hunter. Esq. Col.. J.. D. Esq. Delmerick. V. Babu Eajendralala Major F. E. Esq. C. Waldie. Mohindralal Sircar. Anderson. E. Moliindralal Sircar. T. M. Fayrer. Esq. Esq. Dr. Bayley. Schwendler. LL. S. J. T. F. C. n. Coins. F. B. Esq. S. H. D. Rev. Eev. J. . Esq. Esq. C. Esq. Wood-Mason. Ewart. L. LL. J. Esq. Esq. Mitra. J. Sherring. Physical Science. D. Dr. Natural History. G. C. Oldham. Dr. Esq. Esq. Tennant. S. C S. Maulavi Abdul Latif KhSu. Esq.. W. C. Maulavi Kabiruddin Ahmad. I. M. Esq. D. Blanford. Waldie. I. Nevill. Lord Napier of Magdala. Esq. L H. H. K. Atkinson. W. Thuillier. BaU. Blanford. W. Blanford. D. W. 59 W.1871. Dr. A. B. L. J. J. Col. I.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Societij.

not surprising that the Government stepped in and enquired into the whole matter carefuUy. Col. as deduced from the hourly observations recorded for 16 years at the Surveyor General's Ofiice. [Mauch. I think. and this caused such delay that it became impossible to complete the Museum within the appointed time. He regretted the delay which has been cavised in the construction of the building greatly due to the financial difficulty in and stated that it was which the Government of 3|- India found themselves a short time ago. Strachey made a communication that the Grovernment of India have hxtely resolved to place 4 lacs of mpees in deposit. H. Subsequently the regular 7 lacs. 1871. These elements are (1) the . to the effect. Strachey' s communication was most favorably received by the meeting. Col. However he (Col. and this rose up to about 1 lacs. Strachey mentioned that the original approximate estimate amounted to about rupees. there is no especial connexion between them each illustrates certain special points. It was. 23rd March. therefore. Beyond this. for the lacs of This sum had been sanctioned by up and it Q-overnment.60 Col. phic and readily appreciable form certain important features of our local Meteorology. F. . estimate came amounted to about After about 4 lacs had already been spent. Blanford exhibited several barometric and other meteorological curves and made the following observations The diagrams that I have to lay before the meeting this evening. which sum should be available for completing the new Museum building. and the work new building was commenced. Hon'ble E. Strachey) hoped that the present action taken by Govern- ment in the matter would bring the building to its desired comple- tion at as early a date as possible. the Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. some of which have recently been discussed in the Society. and they must be regarded as materials which have been generalized up a certain point representing facts which scientific may be of important service in any future treatment of our Meteorology. as they exhibit in a gra- will. sheet shews the The first mean diurnal variation of some of the principal Meteorological elements at Calcutta for each month of the year. a revised estimate was called for. be interesting to the Society. Mr.

M. and 4 A. the other a curve of vapoiu* pressure which has two at or maxima and two minima given about the periods of the maxima and minima of the total pressure curve. . and a minimum at 4 p. I believe by Dove.1871. and (5) the curve of humidity. Strachey* who. greatest in the difi'erence is months and In the latter this paratively small. the two crests having nearly the comsame height. having an absolute maxi- and an absolute minimum about 4 p. one of the dry air pressure which taken by itself has a maximum at about 4 a. that the curve is compounded of two distinct elements. m. and I will draw attention to the great regularity of the wave is curve wliich one of double curvature. M. (4) the curve of saturated vapour pressure corresponding that of temperature. the former being about an hour earlier mum and tlie latter about an hour later in the of the liot months then in the cold. and adopted by General Sabine and Sir John Herschell. The curves different of vapour pressure exhibit great variations in the rains. m. the pres- months of the year. m. And you will see that no composition of the vapour pressure curve of Calcutta with any such supposed curve will give a curve approaching in form or regularity to that of our tidal curve of total pressure. is The difference driest morning and evening inuximum least in the rains. or rather the failure of verification when the curve of ob- served vapour pressure is superimposed on a supposed dry air curve of a single periodic variation.] total Proceeding/t of the Aliiat ic Society.. M. Professor Lamout of Munich and others. (2) tlio toiuperaturo. minimum is always considerably lower then that of 4 The explanation of the double tide is a subject on which great diversity of opinion exists. (3) the 61 atmospheric pressure. has long since pointed out the insufficiency of this explanation in the case of the barometric curves in India. as you are aware has much attention to this subject. with a secondary maxinmm and minimum at 10 p. The explanation found in most of our treatises is that originally suggested. viz. The first shews the variation of the diurnal barometric tides for each month of the year. but the afternoon A. Col. M. year. Broun. vapour prosto sure. The hours of absolute maximum and minimum vary a little during the about 10 A. or there but a slight increase dui-ing * Similar objections have been raised by Mr. In the months of the is sure is almost unvarying.

forming a enrve of single variation. but with marked difference. and is stated to be distin- characteristic of mountain stations situated on ridges. This peculiarity of the barometric curve has been noticed by Planta- mour in the case of the Great Saint Bernard. The curves of saturated vapour pressure are given for comparison. It presents a rise for an hour or two after sunrise in most months a rapid and deep depression to a minimum about p. thus producing two crests. that in all is months except July and Aiigust the morning (4 a. 3 or 4 p. The curve generally for all these months may be described as one conforming to that of temperature. lift a larger proportion of the upper atmosphere above . and this thereafter (in the hot months) gradual to midnight. but with a deep notch cut out of it during the warmer and it is deepest in March. in the other months in the afternoon. In December and January.) the absolute minimum of the day.62 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. more then complicated. curves are of the same general form throughout in the absolute magnitudes . of which the earlier is the higher in the hottest months the later in the remainder. The temperature differing chiefly of their ordinates which are greatest in March. given. have to exhibit The next set of curves that I are the diurnal barometric curves for Simla. The exj)lauation by him is that the lower strata of the atmosphere being heated. deduced from Major Boileau's hourly observations for 3 years. after which the rise is very rapid to 7 or 8 m. From September to May tlie curve is . This form of curve is well known as characterizing a continental climate. but much and absolute magnitude of the afternoon depression. The absolute maximum is in the evening or at midnight from October to March. and the ratios of the two are shewn by the humidity curves which are almost an exact inversion of those of temperature. May and June. less in the relative and something similar.. (the driest month). the driest. [March. the absolute minimum is at sunrise. obtains at certain stations in the interior of Europe during the summer months. as guished from stations on plateaux and plains. the daytime and decrease towards early morning. From hour it falls again to sunrise. and in the morning in April. hours of the day. least in July and August the dampest months. M. I believe. m. They are as regular and shew nearly as great a range of tidal pressure as this those of Calcutta.

an absolute minimum absolute at or about 4 m. the southernmost Port Blair. in the afternoon. and bo dimi- nish relatively the h)8s of pressure due to overflow in the highest Plantamour's law of tlio dilferonco between stations on ridges and those on talde-lands is borne out by our lo(. than in Eui'ope. Buchan has pointed out that the registers of Scotland show a tendency to the recurrence of warm and cold days at certain periods of the year.800) feet and Iluzari- baugh (2000 feet) which are on table-lands. positions of Simla 63 and the 8t. have. be premature draw any such conclusion from the registers of only 15 years. Father Secchi has noticed a similar result on discussing the registers for a Roman much longer period. like (Simla. for the years The northernmost station is Roorkee. curves present rities.iil experience. as if there changes at certain periods. many years ago. both Shillong (4. was first pointed out in the case of European stations. in several regions of the atiuospliere. Professor Dauiell . in so far that while Darjeoling. the trade and antitrade currents which cross These presented here in the the variations being and alternate with each other in the Temperate Zone. tlio year lias. This correspondence of the barometric waves and the decrease in the amount of their variations in proceeding fiom north to south. however. depends on the prevalence of Polar and equatorial currents. however. by the mean daily values of these elements at Calcutta The temperature curve exhibits great irreguwere a tendency to rapid larities. 15 years. like Calcutta. by and the explanation of the plienomeuon given by that the alternations of the crests and troughs Professor Dove is. and decreasing in like manner as the stations are in lower latitudes . to It would. is the almost exact coincidence of all their ii-regula- these being greatest at Roorkee and least at Port Blair. The chief noticeable featux'e that these daily i)ressure at 1869 and 1870. I believe. months of A. at all periods of the year. I have here two sheets that shew the variation of the mean a considerable number of stations.. a ridgestation.] stations in tlio Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. curves shew that the same phenomenon is Monsoon region absolutely less. Bernard. and Mr. forming these irregular waves.1871. an minimum mean Tlie next sheet to which I have to direct attention is one shew- ing the as given for curves of pressure and temperature for the year.

The land wind at Calcutta. which must have some effect. however. and even in the rains. It then diminishes in force and there a tendency to calm until about sunrise. cussion of 10 years' observations at the Surveyor General's Office. in the cold and hot weather months. SE. were much . and the maximum and minimum . m. viz.. in continues is till midnight or A.64 Proceedinys of the AHiatic Societij. M. E. it When the mean of the whole year is consi- appears that the and to increase in force the wind veers round rapidly which quarter it "WNW". are separated by a quadrant of the earth's circumference to but the effect is be accounted of the for as the diurnal oscillation. advance of the afternoon minimum from of the eastward. The case is. only.. &c. m. [March. while the southerly or sea breeze prevails or tends to prevail during the night. and it might be expected that as at coast stations.. 1 also small. after which to south. when is deduction made mean monthly or annual component. Finally I have to bring to the notice of the Society a set of curves shewing the mean diurnal variation of the wind for each month These have been drawn up from a disof the year at Calcutta. even when in some months amounts to The diurnal variation little sight somewhat anomalous. i. there would be a tendency to more than one point of the compass. since of the wind appears at first Calcutta is at no very great distance from the sea. precisely the reverse. to it shew a regular variation. wind tends to set in about 10 a. Strachey said that he thought the Society. and steadiness up to about 4 p. and a 1 little east of south. loci It is true that this gradient absolutely small. wind prevails strongly during the day. a AVNW. is being a predominance of greater than 2 or 13 per cent.. The owing coincidence of the prevalence of the westerly wind with the period during which the barometric gradient to the is from west to east. NE. and indeed all persons interested in the progress of science. and I may remark how this very rough method of obseris vation suffices (when so long a period as 10 years considered).. sug- gests the cause of this is phenomenon. the westerly tendency is still manifest . Colonel the Hon'ble E. and probably not may be accounted for by the cause suggested.e. N. when the variation is very small. dered.. The observations are recorded only to eight i^oints. a southerly or sea breeze during the latter part of the day and a land breeze at night.

state of our such a term could bo used in the present knowledge or rather ignorance. in the study (jf ilio ]\loteorology of India. tive force of all Here the great moatmospheric phenomena. after having made the suggested allowance for the variations of vapour pressure. gave advantages for enquiries into the condition of above the earth's surface. The mountains on the north of India. The great ocean that surrounded the Peninsula. in little disturbed by local causes. On the whole ho had no hesitation in saying that India was the country of all others in which meteorology could best be studied. Col. Cal- cutta observations just as plainly marked though some- what altered in form. tlio 65 iudoLtcd to Mv. was impossible for any one who had looked at the facts to have a moment's doubt on this point. as indicated . The great plains of India presented vast areas of laud over which the action of the atmosphere Avas remarkably and which thus offered special facilities for watching the principal phenomena attending that action. Blanford for tlio manner in -wliich ho was taking up in particular. would render their study in a corresponding degree easy. and to the juxtaposition of land and sea. First as to Vapour. Madras and as before. and it was obvious that. As ho had before said. offered similar opportunities for observing the special phenomena due to the peculiarities of a marine surface. if a student of Meteorological Science. fact that there and of Calcutta It was an indisputaLlo was no country to offer to world that had such great advantages as India. like manner. not the atmosphere at great heights equalled in any other part of the globe.1H71. He had on a former evening stated gener- ally his objections to the suggested dependence of the double diurIt nal tide of pressure on the variations of the vapour pressure.] I'roceedinijs vf the Asiulic Society. Blanford's instructions and observations. and advance it to that of a real Science. acted with an intensity lar and regularity that led to a corresponding intense and regu- development of those phenomena. Strachey said he would offer a few comments on the chief to- pics of Mr. agaiu. to subtract tlie vapour pressure. the double tide remains in the Bombay. the Sun. and to which we should look for the investigations which could rescue meteorology from its present somewhat discreditable position.

) had not had the means of at Calcutta. and and the condition of the vapour in the upper strata proved that this resistance of the was very great. Of course there were great local variations from any such rough general average.66 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. from the total pressure. S. roughly speaking. and a mini- As the temperature landward. was to commit an act of folly. indicated by the baromeIt meant nothing. After the sun rose. Blanford. Referring next to the local variations of vapour pressure at Calcutta. He (Col. once explained by the fact that at this hour the sea breeze became As the heat of the day increased. that the only satisfactory way of con- phenomena was in connexion with their physical and that most of the apparent pecidiarities. but the average might be mentioned to show how senseless was the air particles tension was subtraction of the observed vapour tension from the observed total pressure. the from over the sea brought in the afternoon. Col. was not the It result of the pressure of the particles of vapour in the different. the vapour commonly about four times as great at any place as the pressure from above of the vapour particles. fell. . critically examining the variations of vapoiir tension but he re- membered enough of him of the phenomena ciety the it the r. and the wind veered and when the land wind was thoroughly established. The vapour tension at the earth's surface sented no physical fact. the heat. the vapour became mum was But arrived at somewhere near the minimum of temperature. [Mahcu. were also certain subsidiary complications of this general rule observable. established.esults of such an examination made by at Madras. to be able to indicate to the So- kind of analysis of these facts that he had suggested. Thus at was observed Madras that at a certain hoiir of the day a very This was at sudden increase occurred in the quantity of vapour. the vapour became much less. but of something quite was the measure of the resistance offered to the air passage of the particles. It repreter. such as those noticed by Mr. radiated to the earth. in this manner. so that. might readily be explained when viewed sidering such causes. by a hygrometer. Strachey remarked. upper strata of the atmosphere. in wind blowing more vapour. vapour particles in an upward direction by the the superincumbent vapour particles together . and a maximum occurred less.

far as was thus and he hoped that all observers woiild bear this in mind.1871. and would show a into. made at various under his but necessarily each locality had come would have its own places that It all pecidiar conditions. it ccndd only bo of use in a scientific point of view so treated. was. He remarked that the explanation of the phenomenon involved the solution of a very difficidt problem in hyit drodynamics. but precise mathematical expression was quite a different thing. ai. special set of changes. he thought. The necessary result of its such a process could be generally stated with great ease. The Sun. regretted his He own want of mathematical knowledge and hoped that of India or some of the mathematicians an elastic Europe miglit be led tlie effect to in- vestigate tho problem. It was. &c. Like operations in the convei-se sense took place in the evening. and that he believed that was only by the aid of ma- thematical science that any precise explanation could be given. air to become relatively drier. and a general overflow of the upper parts of the atmospheric columns so expanded must take place to tiie east and tho 5 p. (on vapour atmosphere covering a sphere). Thus a becanio rapid dovolopuient of vapour began. by a source of heat gradually moving round the sphere.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. though •was we did not distinctly know how the result brought about. heated. A more record of facts such as was commonly put forward as a discussion of the Meteorological phenomena of any localit}'. in some such manner as this that cal Meteorologi- phenomena should be looked with the intention of ascer- taining as far as possible the precise physical causes of their com- ponent elements. next re- Col. and its But soon the air capacity for vaponr increased more rapidly than This caused tho the process of evaporation couhl sujjply vapour. Strachey said that he had little doubt that the dou- ble tide was simply the result of the heating power of the sun on the atmosphere. to ascertain produced. citlior dew or i)ools of water exposed to the rays of the sun. certainly caused the expansion of the portion of tho atmosphere and between the meridians say of 8 o'clock a. The ferred variations of the pressure of the atmosphere were to.. the source of heat. m. .. visible in Such results were more or less the observations notice. tlio 07 a deposit of caused rapid evaporation of any water.

Col. not intended to be put forward as sure. as a means of ascertaining the normal diurnal curve in its simplest form. which caused the diurnal movement of the air particles was a ivave movement. This was proved by the circiimstance that the tide of air pressure moved scientifically precise. causing a disiiersion of air and consequent reduction of pres- and a heaping up of air and increase of pressure at its two margins. and gradually faded away towards the poles. intense degree. exerted by the sun in creating the wave action in the atmosi^here.68 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. S. referred to various peculiarities in the form of the curve of diurnal of them. At the same time he must guard himself by saying that the above was a very coarse and imperfect explanation of the phenomenon. no doubt. near tlie centre of tlie heated space. forming the atmospheric wave as they revolved with the earth on its axis. and that consequently the impulse was accumulated in an and a true accelerating force developed. were due to such superimposed waves. As a fact the tide of pressure round the earth with the Sun and quite independent of the actual motion of the mass of the atmosphere at the place of observation. that at the equator the force. daily or other. and said that. ful pressure at various places. west. in an extensive sea area within the tropics. Also how the daily tide was best marked near the equator. As we equator this parallelism is leave the departed from. He noticed the well known mechanical law of the possible co-existence of any number of waves in a fluid body. Col. and offered comments on some He particularly suggested the propriety of making care- observations at some small island. This he believed to be the most likely explanation of tlie two maxima and the intervening ]niuimum of pressure. so that the impulse caused by the . the actual direction of the air particles of the atmospheric into wave being forced a small circle of latitude. and that what the scientific observer had to do was to se- parate these and indicate their several causes. Strachey pointed out how the diurnal variation of pressure was most marked when the diurnal variation of temperature was greatest. He suggested as a sufficient explanation of this. [March. continued constantly parallel to the actual motion of the air particles. many of the local peculiarities of the barometrical curves. and not a real permanent movement of translation.

These great fluctuations. and the propagation of wlxat called the irregular variations. is Tlio steadiness of the pressure in India which most marked. were manifestly in the natui-e of great waves. It certainly cannot be said that any such command has yet been ob- . or so to speak ripples. as The gradual disappearance of tlie regular daily variations of wo recede from the equator. may be from day to day. Strachey wished to say that in his opinion the If thing to do was to attend to the Science of Meteorology regularities. in which very little had yet been done. so strongly marked near the pole. it. and the smaller fluctuations afi'ecting smaller waves. Col.] Frocecdingt of the Asiatic Socict}/. and at loiigtli at the polo no can be exerted. it we were ever to make a we must do explanations of the observed phenomena. was pointed out to be a phenomenon analogous to the corresponding disappearance near the equator of the irregular variations of pressure. over the whole of India. by supplying physical The regular phenomena were without any doubt those attention. Tlio subject had long ago atti-acted Col. manner The constancy of the pressure over large areas. S. and he invited attention to it as well worthy of special examination. in 1836. and were of their peculiarities. were phenomena which had been noticed by the late Mr. This part of the subject was one of much interest. at the present time best deserving When we had thorouglily mastered them. were half the continent of Asia. and some very instructive diagrams exhibiting this had been published in the Society's Journal. pressure. extending over smaller areas. Blanford had directed attention were noticed by liim as indicating certain irregularities of Col. James Prinscp. fii'st of temperature to which Mr. and he hoped that Mr. 69 furco at all heat is not accumulatcil. breaking into the general fluid surface.1871. Strachey thought. in connexion with what he had said regarding the superimposing of waves in a fluid mass. and the change that takes place from the cold to season of greatest pressure to the hot season of least pressure.'s notice. Blanford might be able to throw more light iipon The curves importance. able to give a satisfactory explanation we shoidd be in a reasonable position to advance to the irregularities. were referred as phenomena readily explained in the suggested in the case of the daily variations.

and to the study of these. laws of the ordinary diurnal change of temperature. transmitted more with vapour. the Sun during the and the earth. (as before. and in truth extended all over Southern Asia up to the Caspian. was. The diurnal winds of Upper India were very well known to all persons acquainted with that part of the country.70 tallied over the Proceedings of the Asiatic Socief//. to deal exhaustively with the subject). made by the researches of Professor Tyn- and the result. That they were due to the daily variation of the pressure he had little doubt. took place. Strachey had examined the Madras observations with a view of ascertaining how the matter was. always to bear in mind that wind is nothing more than a consequence of •therefore. The correctness of this theoretical explanation of these diurnal westerly winds. riations both was drier. rather in illustration of the general scope of his advice. by reason of which its power of transmitting radiant it lieat varied. They were not confined to India at all. he would express a hope. and. quite corroborated the labora- tory experiments. filled As the it air was dry. and on the other heat into the air and the earth during the night threw off their celestial space. Col. Col. he thought. more or less directly of changes . commonly. said. and the great fall of pressure was to the of the crest. in the air. the westerly wind must be the best marked. changes were simjile enough. On the one day added to the heat of the air The primary causes of these side. transmitted less heat. sure east Of course as the actual course of the crest of the wave of preswas east to west. Very little was yet known of how these operations or wh}' it was that special laws of increase and decrease of temperature governed each season or each locality. if not always. incqualitij of pressure. than as an attempt was the quantity of vapour as it was Thus the diurnal va. by the circumstance that during the months of dry Avesterly wind a faint easterly wind was common early in the morning. that Indian observers would apply themselves. S. after the suggestion had been dall. One of the causes of such variations he might refer to. as above stated. [MARCir. showing that the high pressure to the east of the place quite confirmed of observation had a similar effect to that produced to the west of it. and by day and night would increase in extent as the air vice versa. It is important.

The study of the winds. but here. and certainly not one of with a the least important. and not permit himself to be blinded by the vague generalities which afflict this section of meteorology as they do all others. hj Louis Schwendler. with the view of obtaining is the precise explanation of their mechanical causes. In conclusion Col. much to be recommended. assist the ho would earnestly exhort every it one who desired to progress of meteorology. as in all other like enquiries. The following papers were read : On a One practical method for detecting bad insulators on Telegraph Lines. The President a hope that the cari-y briefly alluded to a few of the most important meteorological questions noticed by Col.1871. this phenomena with which meteorology and most involved was least understood. true. but on this all he (Col. Strachey. Esq. physical and mechanical forces which produce the phenomena that he studies. to abandon the misleading dogmatism that had hitherto obstructed all real progress. the observer must seek for true physical forces. . in all sorts of misconceptions of the grossest description of the physical forces that were operative in its production. is Closely connected with the winds the subject of rain. introduced during the last few years view of increasing the efficiency of the Telegraph Department.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Strachey has brought forward. and expressed tinae may soon arrive when it will be possible to out the many valuable suggestions which Col. Strachey said.) would not venture to say anything excepting that. wliich slionld scientific be studiously avoided in Col. of affected to deal. tial drop out of view the essen- change of pressure as the direct cause of wind. the S. It is a vulgar error to 71 of temperature. Strachey's opinion by every Meteorologist. to treat in some such spirit as he had explained. — of the many practical meaf^ures. and to seek for the precise.

Why is such insulators could creep efficient notwithstanding the care taken in England to secure a Telegraph Stores for India. The principle of the method is to produce magneto-electric test. and other j)erfect ones substituted with the least possible expense. only point out one important fact that has been established. it becomes always perfect. it becomes again "imperfect. [March. thing externally. all the establishment of a scientific system of testing- materials and instruments employed on the line. some fatal to such an extent as insulation to a degree lines. effect they have on the body of the * The cause for the low insulation of insulators seems to be the porous some porcelain. do exist and are distributed over lines extent. as it is required when the tester proceeds alojig a lino. It is clear that such a method. which arrangements could not be made easily portable. would necessitate a high electromotive force. if practicable. through which a minute quantity of water diffuses itself in time. may perhaps form the subject of future paper. when more data have showing noof such been collected.f After some searching in this direction. but which o. to be detected. has created the necessity of having a reliable method by which such insulators can be detected. t To use a deflection method is out of the question. but it is not the object of the present communication to enter into the details of this most interesting subject . question with which I cannot deal at present.72 is Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. I will. currents through the resistance of the insulator under and to measure these currents by the tester. must be very simand the instruments used portable and haudy. which have . The leakage seems to be invariably iu this part of a porcelain which is state of cemented in the iron hood. because the still compara- tively high resistance of insulators. A great many lines in India contain electrically defective insulators to loiver the . but immerging it a sufficiently long time in water."^ The very vast fact that electrically defective insulators. ple. the following method was found to answer the purpose most satisfactorily. Many practical results have already been obtained therefrom. When heating an impeifect insulator. lohich is to the direct and regular loorhing of long in. and a very delicate Galvanometer.

The whole arrangement is constructed light but strong. however. //. closes the circuit between c and c' at /. is insulated from c\ when pressed down. 7 is a magneto-electric macliiue. the two terminals t and which are insulated from each other and from the ground. to the iron hood of it is which t' c io which is and both the clamps.] Tlio subjoiuod Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. protectonly. A good insulated loading wire. are permanently connected with each other. m. ed from rain and can be carried along the line by one man . c and c'. 78 diagram shews tbo connections readily Fi^- 1. permanent contact with a perfectly insulated leading to be hooked. t t' of is in /. (or when not pressed down short). is in contact with the moveable platinum is in fixed a small platinum knob.1871. which is to be hooked on to the bracket of the insulator under test. permanent connection with the clamp wire long enough to reach the insulator. knob m' which. but which in its position gf rest.

. by which he defective. he can rest is assured that the insulator perfect for aU practical purposes. the metalic cir- between and m' opened. in his power to allow at short interval currents to pass through his tongue. If no current is felt by the tester most delicate galvanoscoi>. Siemen's well known dial the revolving bobbin of which had a resistance == 1577 U. The absolute resistance of each insulator was first carefully measured in the ordinary manner. he removes temporarily the line from the insulator and hooks the leading wire No. and consequently vnll be able to detect the slightest induction currents. while his hand still presses the this through knob mJ down. the tongue. Tlie tester proceeds as follows : [March After having cleaned tlie insulator carefully. will give the tester sensiat ble shocks. it down. If the tester does not feel (a comparatively rough galvanoscop). and the insulator afterwards tested by the method above described. I to the iron hood and leading wire No. has only to repeat the ex- periment by placing his tongue on the knob w. one finger to the and consequently. at the By opening and the tester has it closing the circuit alternately knob m '. and the positive and negative pass from magneto-electric currents have to other. as he touches with the other finger the knob m' of the e same time pressing is. while one finger of the other the knob resting on m at of clamp c. is once informed that the insulator under test is and much under the fixed standard of any current through his he fingers. insulation. II to the bracket of the insulator. currents in The these experiments were produced by one of instruments. S.74 Proceedings of the Asialic Society. resistance to ascertain the highest limit still The following experiments were made with insulators of known by which the tongue is able to detect induction currents. As soon clamp cuit c'. if strong enough. He then turns the handle of the magneto -electric mais chine with one hand. without water in the porcelain cups.

] Proceedings of Ihe Asiatic Societrj. 75 No. .1871. of Insulator.

no severe shocks can occur to him in the subsequent operation. [March. which. in such a acts as a shunt to the joint. Scliwendler's arrangement for detecting bad insulators it. Ayrton observed. it is besides the cheapest instrument that could be This method may also with advantage be used for It is then only necessary to the detecting bad joints in a telegraph line. U. the battery because it must be . the curis rent passing strong enough to be felt already by the fingers of the tester. Schwendler has not mentioned say a few words about. E. as Mr. he should like to Testing insulators by passing a current through them is not new. As it is intended that the tester himself should tui'n the handle it of the magneto-electric machine. never comes out of order and indicates almost . he always begins the testing by at sending the currents through his fingers. allows a current to pass if sufiiciently strong to be detected by the tongue . but the current used for this purpose has up to the present time been that obtained from a galvanic battery. the joint has a resistance of more than 200 S. because itself against carelessly rejecting the tester will certainly be it. because it is sufficiently sensitive. Now both a galvanic battery and a delicate galvanometer are in themselves most unpoi'table. and to observe such a current a most delicate galvanometer is required. There can also be scarcely any doubt that the tongue best detector in this is the particular case. to connect the two ends of the joint two terminals of the magnetoelectric machine. careful in having the insulator properly cleaned before testing in order to avoid severe shocks. Mr. and first as. The method has also a safeguard in good insulators. in W. momen- tary currents used.76 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [iVb^i?]. besides this. U. greater sensitiveness of the instrument would only complicate the method. he has entirely in his power to regulate the strength of the induction currents by turning faster or slower. that there is one point of excellency Mr. way that the body of the tester A but joint which offers a resistance of not less than 5 S.

There were also two other papers on the On a new genus British Forces. of bats. . with DEScnirTioN of a new species of II. B. It will Mr. B. i^o in the 3rd and three in the 2nd. The single. was tried by several members. The experiment. and. so mi- and second or terminal phalanx of the 3rd are rudimentary. Conse- quently what is required is a delicate portable galvanometer affect- ed by reverse currents. ly G. Dobson. the is The new genus. 31. and such a galvanometer Mr. do not add appreciably to the length of these fingers. in be brought to the notice of the Society at the next meeting. E. may be obviated by attaching to the magneto-electric machine a particular kind of re- versing arrangement. nute as to be scarcely discernible. M.1871. and also bocaiiso diminislicd.. Mr. l)y 77 effect is very largo. sends (rapid) reverse currents which would produce no effect on the needle of a galvanometer. described -pro&enco oi EL characterised by the sinyle plialanx ifi 4th finycr. being slialcon its greatly and a delicate galvanometer requires it is most careful ad- justment eacli time before used after being moved. even although the galvanometer were very delicate. therefore. Keuivoula. or practically no effect at all. Asst. but this is liable to get out of order. as described paper. Scliwcndlor Las suggested a magneto-electric machine which is much more portable and also has the same power as a very large battery. Schwendler has foimd in the ly is human tongue. for Mr. which is is most delicate and certaincurrents.. that The President noticed Chinsurah. however. An ordinaiy magneto-electric machine. A. Lethbridge has brought an to interesting communication relating the old Dutch records list. therefore is most portable and to affected by reverse most suitable be used with the magneto-electric machine.) in this paper. it is true. Schwendler exhibited the apparatus sistence of insulators testing the re- and explained in detail the advantages of the in the above practical method. terminal phalanx of the 4th finger. because the rapid reverse currents produce a quick succession of opposite effects on the needle. To obviate the use of a galvanic battery. Surgeon (Abstract. This.] ProceecUngs of the Asiatic Society.

1869. hitherto described. it. Geographical Society of London. 3rd and 4th fingers . vol. vol. The Eoyal Society of London. Nos. vol. partT. by Lt. it follows that. Hefte i-iv. made to the Library since the meeting. A. and the homologue of the 1st phalanx only in other bats. 0. was also The receipt of the following communication the announced. Geschichtliche Ergebnisse der Aegyptologie. XVI. of the ears &c. IV. in Central Provinces. Heft iii-iv . der Idee des Menschen durch die Weltgeschichte. Zoology. McMaster. 160. Wood-Mason. liainpti. ^*^ Names of Donors in Capitals. allied species The new Kerivoula peculiarities in the differs from other shape of the head. LlBRAUY. the author suggests to " Stenojjferus. No. Esq. ny 53 and —Transactions 1 of the same. 11.78 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. I. Bota54. [MakcH. As the greatest breadth of a bat's wing usually found by measuring along the 4th cies finger. part 4. On account of this remarkable narcall rowness of the wing.— Abliandlungen der Phi- . Madras Staff Corps. The tj'pical is number of phalanges in the 2nd. The Journal of the Linnean Society. —Die Entfaltung — Sitzungsberichte 1870.'^ the new genus by certain The specific The type species is from Darjeeling. held in February Presentations.-Col. The Linnean Society of London. Proceedings of the Eoyal Geographical Society. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 1870. is the is number less two. of a bat two in each digit this number is often exceeded in shoi-t many phathan genera of Insectivorous bats by the addition of another lanx. of London for — Eoyal Society Catalogue of Scientific papers. (the 2nd and 3rd phalanges being suppressed). but in no genus. the wing must be comparatively extremely narrow. parts and 2. by J. The following additions have been la^t. E. name aurata is proposed for On Indian and Malayan Teljjhmdce. Chikalda and Akola Perar. Notes on birds observed in neighbourhood of JVagpiir. 47 and 48. vol. XXVI. 6. XXVII. in this typical spe- where we find the terminal phalanx of the 4th finger rudimentary.

Pravoda Sataka. No. 62-65. III. Babu Eajendralala Mitra. 1870. The Author. General Eeport on the Paujab Oil-lands. Ueber das Eamayana. Annual Eeport on the Administration of the Bengal Presidency Eeport of the Administration of the N. — Mdmoires de la Societe Imperiale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg. Abhandlungen. Journal of a Voyage up the Irrawaddy to Mandalay and Bhamo. W. H. for December. with 11 plates. — — partment in Bengal for 1869-70. Band XII ALtL. Nos. The Author. . II dor Mullio Band X. Fossilo MoUuskcu dos Tertia)r-Beokons von Wien. Dall. — and LinguUda. Smith Lyman. Petersbourg. Akademie BuUetiu. Nos. von A. XIII and XIV. 63. Weber. The Author. Geologisciie Eeiciisansxalt. La Langue et la Litterature Hindoustanies en 1870. K. Societe Imperiale des Sciexces NaTUUELLES de CnEliBOUllO. Homes. The Government of Bengal. M. Tom XV. — 1869. by J. Monatsbericht. Wien. The Athenceum. K.] Proceed hi(j!t of (he Asiatic Socidy. par M. Tom XV. 1. Eahasya Sandarbha. for 1869. 1870. The Go- vernment OF the Panjab. 2.— Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. by B. by Chandrakanta Tarkalankara. III. Annual Eeport on the Convict Settlement of Port Blair for 186970. The Autuor. Bayeiiischk Akademie deu Wissexsciiaftex zu Miinclion. Garcin de Tassy. Abth. Eeport of the Administration of the Eegistration Defor 1869-70. Tatvdvali. . with remarks ou and description of some recent forms. T. The Author. matisch-PLysikalisolion Classe. Nos. The Aurevision of the Terehratulida A thor. Wheeler.1871. No. 79 losoi^Lisch-Plululogisclion Classe. 5-8. Exchange. Eeport on the Meteorology of the Panjab. . by W. The Nature. DEB WlSSEXSClIArTEN ZU BeRLIN. Provinces for 1869-70. Novr. —The CoochBehar Select Eecords. von Dr.— Memoires. Tom. The GovEKXiiKxx of India.

of Natural History. Philosophical Magazine. Bogen 51-60. Eeisen in Cliina A. —-The L. von Dr. Purchase. . Bopp's Vergleichende Gramniatik : : —F. E. 37 : No.Worter- Persan.80 Proceedings of the Asudic Society. Heft XVII :— Biihtlingk und buoh. D. Bastian : von Poking zur Mongolisclien Grrenzo. 270 —Annals and Magazine — Zenker's Dictionnaire Turc-ArabeEoth' Sanskrit. No.

From Major J. Mr. Graham —a group of rudely moulded brass figures. 27) regarding his trip on News Choduba island. Esquire — two charts of the Harbour of Bombay. M. Hamilton — a largo were announced : round Grold coin. the same during the reign of religion 446. memorandum accompanied * the donation : The group was presented by one of the Lushai' chiefs of the tribe of Nuttun Pooea' to Major Graham. then Deputy Comniis' " . 3. Hamilton writes that he received the coin from Mr. published in the Arracan In an account which Mr. king of Ceylon in the year of Since the publication of the account.PE. Pattissou. This officer states to have been informed that the tliat inscription on the coin is in Cingalese. 1871. A. Pattissou of 1871 (p. and the coin was struck Maha Paramat. Pattisson. behoves to in old Siamese character. Tlie monthly meeting of tlie Society was held on Wednesday the 5th instant at 9 o'clock r. H. in the chair. D. W. C. just alluded would nearly correspond with the year 108G. Latham. President. The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed Px'esentations 1. The Hon'ble Mr. T. Col. very somewhat more than an inch in diameter. to. Justice Pheai'. same on the island Cheduba. who obtained the thin.OCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL FOB APRIL. 2. District Superintendent in Eamree. From — Col. have ascertained that the inscription is however. M. representing " Lushais" Tlie following and their social habits. Prom G.

Major T. Capt. C. Miller. E. &c. as he represents a description of Lushai currency. [Apkil. Esq. M. Esq. J. Nicohariensis From esculans. Esq." " The Bison is kept for the sake of his flesh and. V. following gentlemen are candidates for ballot at the next . and sound. Bourn. Macnamara. Graham.. F." Hooluck. they will not touch milk. Bourne. or by. dancing. such as the Tou' and the long-armed black ape or "The method is of fastening the bison. N. wild beasts. Oscar Trefftz. E. buzzing chant. Capt. Falle. J. Eundall. W. M. E. nearly ten inches square *' wooden which and about l^^ inch thick. Col. shot off the Cape. Linn." 4. From Lieut. {Bos Gaurus) .\!!h. W. Esq." in acting. On the trees are figures of birds.82 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. — an egg of Megapodius from Kamorta island and the carapace of a remarkably shaped Pagurid Crab from one of the small Nicobar islands. The meeting: Curtoys. will also be observed.\(i\x animal domesticated by the Lushais. al- worthy of remark that. A. J. Filgatte. and animals. small Liquor making. W. It is also he is much used in barter. Ayrton. W. fishing. Amongst the figures will be found men engaged is consists in representations of fights. Esq. the proceedings of war parties.. eioner of the Hill parts of Cliittagong.' " " can. J. (re-election). while the Lushais will eat most anything under the sun. — a skin of the great Albatross. M. are also shown. E. arranged on a block. which they consider to be excrement. I. Their singing ous. The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded meeting were balloted for and elected ordinary members Dr F. gongs. It consists of a great num- ber of small brass figures and two trees. Biomedea at the last . often a low ftiouoton- accompanied by the music of drums. shooting. smoking &c. attacks on. and of a wind instrument which in appearance. strongly resembles the bagpipe. N. H.

of the shape of a broad chisel it is still by the Arakauese stick of a in being simply put through a hole at the Bajdey. Theobald in the Proceedings of the Society iii for 1869. garding a Goldmuhiu*.. The following members have intimated from the Society. Sanderson. Firiiz C I. resembles the Burmese and figui'ed by Mr. scriptions of 15 He also referred to to the de- new species of which two belong M Line-Edwards' . Mr. from both in use sides. Esq. their desire to withdraw R. is St. One of them has the lower edge sharpened only from one. (Abstract. Mackenzie. Ch. Esq. Bayley's notes. Phcar. — - On Indian a>. H. John — On some North Arracan celts described Celts. Esq. T. Esq. John gives outlines of several celts in his collection. r. Letters were road \. Blochmanu. male bamboo. in having a short abrupt shoulder. Two iii other celts are from the hills in North Arracan and are in form and size very similar to those figured in the Proceedings for 1870. C. From Mr. E. by J. H. C. Capt. B. 181 &c. struck by The coin appears to be unique.. seconded by Col. Leeds. Esq.d Malay^^jj Telphusidjs.. St. A Shah Ziifar in A. St. Dr. proposed by the Ilon'ble J. Esq. drawing of it will appear in the Mr. the other A fourth outline repre. proposed by Mr. pis. Kiilipi'asanna 83 Rajendraldla Babu Ghoslia.) The author gave a general sketch of the organisation of Telphusa indica and noticed its relation to the two other known species of the genus. Leschenaidtii and Guerini.. C. proposed by Babu Mitra. J. Bligli. also read fi-om A letter was Mr. S. re- end of a 2. Locke. and iv. seconded by Mr. Esq. seconded by J. and iv. seconded by H. J. One large form from Ux)per Burma and. B. pis. philological part of the Journal together with The following papers were read 1. B. sents a long iron hatchet.] Proceedings of the Aniatic Society. II. S. 791. by G. p. Rogers. Hyde. H. Nevill.. Wood-Mason. proposed Wood-Mason.1871. "Wood-Mason. C.

and carefully drawn up lists of those observed in various districts are much of needed. should stretching possess a fauna very closely allied to that of the Malayan peninsula natural and the neighbouring islands. T. along the slopes of the Himalayas up to Nepal. chiefly This was distinc- due to Mr. W. Dr. the fauna of India was at some remote period chiefly. It must have been somewhere about that time when a communication was established between India and Africa. Blanford's paper on the is. particularly in India. that we may be able to explain the peculiar phenomenon the isolation of the Malayan fauna in some parts of Southern India. while the intervening part of the lower country possesses an Indian fauna with a prevalence of Reliable data regarding the distribution of the animals. from the West must have been considerable. which remained preserved only on the more elevated hills. but it is difficult to explain how the same Malayan forms have come into existence on nearly all the higher ranges of hills in South India. Stoliczka observed that the results at which Mr. Dr. Wood-Mason arrived regarding the geographical distribution of the Indian land- crabs are particularly interesting. [April. Some remarks on the distribution of the various species were also made. It Stoliczka stated. Blanford in having pointed the tions existing between the Indian and Malayan fauna within the geographical area which details we usually designate India. published in last year's Journal. hills. along the Malabar coast. chiefly those consisting of gneissous and other metamorphic rocks. or altogether. Central Indian Reptiles. and that it had been more or less destroyed in those parts which were affected by the enormous volcanic eruptions. The immigration formation of Central and N. subgenus Paraielphusa. and when African forms were enabled to travel eastwards and attain a firm hold in India. Many of the on the subject are given in Mr. because they were obtained inde- pendently of the examination of other groups of animals. Eastern Bengal. for it seems to have greatly checked the further development of the Malayan fauna. characterized as the trappean It does not appear improbable that W.84 Proceedings of the Asialic Societtj. which province possess a decided Malayan character in its fauna. occurring in Eastern Bengal. are as yet very scanty. It is also . India. Malayan. and even on some perfectly isolated African types. enough that Burma.

or Frederiksnagar.1871. Torrens (the then Judge of Hooghly) beg to at the time of the transfer . however. The documents still preserved at Hooghly are contained in a large almira. Lethbridge. rian wealth. positories in As I believe is the case with all the record re- modern scientific appliances for the preservation of these papers and consequently most of them are worm-eaten and decaying. A. 89). and hardly any of them of any general scientific value at all. were preserved amongst the archives of the Judge's Court at Hooghly. except Venetian records. and that less elevated was more favorable ment of African than of Malayan forms. 85 highly prohahlo that the overflow of the traps prod uccd a gi-eat change in the climate of India. to and by the latter had been doubtless at once I have been transferred to the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. for Dutch records. fortunate enough to discover the list of these documents. Esq. (vide Appendix. made by . by E. A short time ago I accidentally discovered that some of the old records of the Danish settlement of Serampore. are generally considered to be more and detailed than any others. mit to the notice of the Society. I was allowed to examine these records and I expected to open up a rich mine of antiqua. and many are in a state of inseparable cohesion. them in the Government of the the order of Mr. tlio records of the Court supplied . . On some old Duxcn eecords M.. and a copy of this list I be allowed to subp. me with a very good explana1853 all tion of this fact I found that in scientific the Dutch records of any historical and value had been handed over bodily. and without even any proposal to retain copies of this country. and are covered with the dust of years. Netherlands' India by the Government of India. of the settlement of Chinsura . tliis climate to the develop- 2. particularly in the country. there are absolutely no . By the permission of the Judge of Hooghly. at all events the European full ones. and some of those of the Dutch settlement of Chinsura. Fortunately. . India. I was somewhat disappointed to find that most of the Dutch papers which I examined were of only local importance a largo number were merely protocolcs or registers of the ivills of the old Dutch residents. J rroccedlnga of the Asiatic Socicti/.

a . I and I venture to believe that the Society will agree with me that some of the series described in the accompanying list may probably be found to be of very high scientific value. 1853. but on have not been able tain certain information. On the death of this officer in 1852. and generally all those in Bengali. series of the from certain remarks of minutes of the Governors of latter must undoubtedly. which I have gleaned from the It may be worth while here to add a brief account of the circum- stances of this transfer— an account Becords of the Judge's Court at Hooghly. To be added (as is evident Mr. at the time may be remembered when Chinsura and other Dutch possessions on the Continent of India were exchanged for the British settlements in Sumatra. and it is very probable that. Torrens) a complete Chinsm-a. might be obtained without much difficulty from the Record Department It at the Hague. that. on the 31st Dec. records possessing any general historical interest should be sent to Calcutta to be handed over to the Dutch authorities . 57 is a book containing a Note of Warren Hastings on the capture of the Fort and Town of Chinsura in of. The Government of His Majesty the King of the Netherlands is well known for its liberal think. that office of the Fiscal of Chinsura. the Government of Netherlands' India expressed a wish "to be furnished by an early opportunity with the Dutch Eecords appertaining to the late respondence. under the terms of the Treaty. taken into British employ." After some cor- the all Governor-General ordered. were so retained. With regard to the contents of the more important records list : enumerated in the appended No.66 rrnceedings of the Asiatic Societ)/. copies of the more important documents trans- ferred from Chinsura. of the old all Many possibly to ob- Dutch Records were retained this point I in his custody . this list should [April. apparently to protect the interests of former Dutch subjects. if the So- should think the matter of sufficient importance to warrant being mooted. being retained in the Judge's office. a Dutch Ofiicer (named the Fiscal) at Chinsura was. have been of very considerable historical importance . Torrens says—" The encouragement of science ciety its . in 1824. all records having only local importance." Mr. This may very possibly prove to be merely a eoj)y or an extract from. 1781.

Burdwan and away and becoming lost to Dacca. No. tlio 87 Eecorcl of Calcutta Foreign OfRco. No. No. contains 21 administration from 1773 to volumes of Journals and Minutes of the 1805 this would in all proLahility . in the Bay of Bengal in 1G73.1871. With regard for all to accessibility. extensive research. I may perhaps be pardoned. Bome premises This Dacca from the French authorities I fancy. purposes requiring . a packet containing documents respecting transfer of at is. The India House Eecords (calendared by Mr. and Stewart says that the French settled here about 1C76.) which are yearly crumbling Bcience for ever. 42. with- .] Frocecdinrjn of the Asiniic Socidij. 3 contains copies of grants respecting lands at Pix^ley and attention of the Society to a fact which In conclusion. is given. stowed on the preservation of the materials for history and in no country is there a greater need for such precautions skill as can be devised by the of the archivist. 8 in 1674. I believe that in no other country in is the world. Bruce) mention the arrival of a French fleet under Admiral de la Haye. 6 contains two Perwanas under the seal of Vizier Sadoolah Khan respecting a house at Patna. AllahaLad. the immense many of our Mofussil Eecords (especially those of historical note like Hooghly. 12 is The dates are not No. which was ostaLlishcd in 1783. furnish materials for a fairly complete history of Netherlands' India for that period. our Mofussil Eecords are practically. and Agra. 4 contains documents respecting the land at Baranagore by the Dutch Balasore. in 1C80. absolutely closed to the student are scattered in scores of remote for whilst they and insecure hiding-places. through lack of the most ordinary precautions for securing their preservation. so little its care be. acq^uisition of No. possessing a civilised Government. if I venture to call the must have frequently at- tracted the notice of historical value of preserved at places many of its members :--I mean. a packet containing copies of 5 firmans permitting the Dutch to trade in the provinces of Oudh. in 1676. No. the earliest mention that to the Dutch of we have the French being settled in Bengal.

or through ignorance or carelessness . and to other causes. A memorandum. owing to the deleterious nature of some of the ingredients The dangers reof the ink generally used. stated last It was the week in the Pioneer that the Records of the cutcherat ry at Ermakulam are present inaccessible. climate. The Records are generally placed in common wooden almiras fastened by ordinary padlocks. it should be of Oriental manuscripts. The present methods adopted in the preit servation of all Mofussil Eecords are of such a nature that is impossible that any documents can long remain in good condition. inflicted either intentionally. that the evidence of held to be almost worthless . and I have heard many of experience state their belief that a similar state of things exists in many. book-worms. It will be within the recollection of the Society that a valuable collection was recently was issued by the Home Department. from fire &c. [April. It indi- and is printed in the Journal of the Society for July 1846. written by the late Mr. when a circular specially stated whether or not the whole of the property is safe and in good condition. ordering that in all annual reports made by officers in charge of public libraries. from mutilation. Moreover. (then Secretary of the Asiatic Society). white-ants. indexes or calendars worthy of the name. and in the custody little of record-keepers of no scientific skill and comparatively telligence. and other vermin from decay . he annual destruction of valuable documents that must go on in a must be enormous. owing to number of the venomous serpents that have taken up their abode amongst them.88 out Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. I believe that it was found. rats. Piddington. in- the search for a single fact would not unfrequently involve the waste of years. and years of hard labour. Torrens. that the Collectorate any of these documents was district officers Becords at Jessore had been so extensively tampered with by interested parties. cates sidting from the dampness of the climate . a short time ago. from the ravages of . or collections. damaged by rain . — all these are sufficiently obvious. as a paper of very great value. the property of Government. if not in most of the Mofussil Record-Offices. some of the peculiar dangers to which documents are exposed in India. like that of Bengal. museums. and placed in rooms of more or less . is noted by Mr.

being cased with iron and furnished with an iron-door which is thief-proof. Every room in the building is separately fire-proof. and placed in boxes for subsequent arrangement. so that an equal temperature is preserved throughout the year . both by the Department (an Officer and an office-keeper being resident in an adjacent house) and by the Police a police patrol is on duty througliout the night in the building. Water can be turned on at a moment's notice in any room for the extinction of lire. iu Dutcli and tlio riglit Persian respecting of the Dutch Authorities at Peply in some parcels of gi-ound 3. The perfect accessibility of all record. 1795. found necessary even in Enghiud. packet of papers or documents of Diitdi Government. packet of original document. Then a catalogue or general descriptive list is drawn up and afterwards the more important documents are indexed. Eveiy part of the building- being thus protected by every means that science can devise. packet of papers. during the administration of C. and copies of grants relating to the lIid<i. the is constantly watched night and day. be«illustrate(l The insecurity of such custody may perhaps by a very brief description of the method of custody which is much ter less injurious.s in Persian.s i^ j also well provided for. where the climate is and the fear of mutilation smaller. AVhen the work of arrangement is complete. they are cleaned. sorted. . 1 Van Citter. 1 at Balasore. 1. A2)2>cndix. 1 liccords Ukcly to be of any histoiiad ruliw. Hot-air pipes are placed aroiiud every room. dated the Sth July. Governor of Chiusma. they are placed in iron presses in the room assigned to their class. Ltd of Dutch No.reo. As soon as any sets of Eecords have been taken into the custody of the Masof the Rolls (who is ex -officio head of the English Record De- partment). and the most important are ultimately calendared. dated in 108 1.1871. 1771. . 89 best general resort.] Proceedings of the Aiiiatic Sccii-tij. and by this means damp whole is excluded and rot arrested. dated the 29th April. 2. Poply Factory at Balasc>re. bound or mended as far as may be necessary and practicable.

Order book in Dutch from 1820 to 1822. relative to the making over garden 1674. Eoss on the 21st 12. 1 . 1 packet containing documents respecting a house at Bala- 14. authorities in 1088. 19. 10. packet containing documents in Persian respecting transfer of some land in Buranagore. Account-current book in Dutch. packet containing documents. respecting transfer of a water-coui'se at Kalkapore to the Dutch Government. sore. T. and copies of two Purwanalis with seal of Yizeer SadooUah Khan. F. 1 instant. diiring the incumbency of W. Diary in Dutch from 1818 to 1823. awarding possession of the respecting the to houses to a Dutch General. Hidgree. 11. 1750. M. Dutch 13. S. land 9. 1 Khan (date and year not mentioned). to 1785. by one Eamepur Mozoomdar to tlie Dutch 5. 1772. Cassimbazar. 7. marked A. 1 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. packet containing copies of 5 Firmans permitting the of Oude. 1181. dated 19th January. 1793-4. 1 packet containing documents in Dutch. Van Citters from 1817 to 1818. purchase of two houses at Patua. B. respecting purchase of some land in Beestoopore. Bengalee and Per- sian. 18. 1 Prothocole in Dutch. 1 packet containing documents in Persian respecting the pur- chase of a parcel of ground. zillah Moorshein dabad. which formerly belonged one Mehdee AUi 8. 1 packet containing document in Persian. with premises at Dacca. title proprietory of a house at Dacca. [April. Dutch and Persian. and Agra. by the French Authorities. for 1823 16. B. dated the 23rd December. dated 1st February. of a certain quantity of land to Mr. granted and Bergalee. 17. to trade in the provinces Allahabad. and Bengalee. 1 packet containing a deed of sale and a pottah in Persian at Cassimbazar. 2 ditto in 1 1 Dutch of the Eesident and 1824.90 4. D and E respective to Patna and Cassimbazar from 1763 15. dated the 25th September. 1 packet containing documents in Persian respecting the 6. 4 Prothocoles in Dutch. 1 packet containing documents in Persian. (no name mentioned).

37. Ditto ditto for 1822. 28. 1 Register of certificates in Dutch and English respecting purchase of a ship and other property by a Dutch gentleman named 24. 34. 38. ditto. 8 Gastors or expense books in Dutch from 1799 to 1814. 46. 44. 32. 25. 23. Register of Minutes respecting Batavia in Dutch from 1820 to 1825. 35. Military Widow Fund Book in Dutch for 1817. 42. 31. &c. Ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto.s 12 letters received and copies of in sent in Dutch from 1775 to 1821. Orphan Account Books Books containing in Dutch from 1773 Dutch from 1818 to 1805.] 20. 1 1 1 1 Amsterdam Ditto ditto. 1 1 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 1 Book containing Instruction receipts in English of Despatches ad- dressed to the Governor-General of Balavi. 4 or Account Books in Dutch from 1789 to 1814. 29. L. 36. 91 Journal book in Dutch. 41. 1793-4. 1 1 Widow Fund Book ditto in Dutch for 1820. ditto. 47. to 1825. 21 Principal Ledgers in Dutch from 1773 to 1806. in Europe Courts. Register of Pensioners in Dutch. 21 Joiirnals and Minutes in 8 43. 7 Books containing orders respecting Batavia Seqiiestratic Dutch. 22. 1820. 1 Book of certificates in English regarding sale of Japan Copper. 1822. letter. 1 Regulations respecting Batavia in Dutch for 1819. 1 Book in Dutch (date and year not mentioned). 1718-19 to 1825. packet containing in Dutch rules for prosecuting actions 21. 39. Ditto Ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto 27. 30. 40. commencing from 28tli August 1818 to 7th Feb. 1 1 Widow Fund Regulation Book in Dutch for 1817. Ditto Civil ditto ditto for 1822.. ditto. 45. 26. 1 1 Book containing orders for the Police in Dutch for 1817.1871. . account-current book in Dutch for 1794-5. 33. Christianson on the 7th January. 1 1 1 Batavia.

[April. in Dutch. 59. Proceedings of the Asiatic 3 Regulation Sociefi/. 3. 60.92 48. Correspondence on various subjects in Dutch and English between the Dutch authorities and English Commissioners. (Abstract. Hon'ble Warren Hastings. 66. from 1819 to 1822. 20 Regi&tei's of letters in Dutch on various subjects. 65. relative to the captm-e of the Fort and 58. 50. 3 Books containing copies of Dutch on various subjects.) The method used up to the present time for testing a telegraph As. 6 "Various account Books in Dutch. 1781. Governoi'-General. 2 Registers of letters in Dutch and English of the 2nd copies of correspondence between the Resident on various subjects. 52. 56. 1 Book containing Proceedings at in English and Dutch of the Dutch Court 53. E. the electrical condiearth has been qualitative only. 2 Books containing statute for Batavia in Dutch from. 2 Books containing letters of Colonel Van Citters in Dutch. On a quantitative method of TESTiisra a " Telegraph Earth. tion of every "earth" is of great practical importance. in Dutch. 2 Books containing Dutch Governors of Chinsura and Batavia from 1792 to 1795. letters Book containing and receipts in Dutch from 1797 to 1798. Ayrton." by W. 1 Town of Chinsura. 1 Chinsura Police Regulation Book in Dutch for 1761. 51. it is . Register of letters and accounts in Dutch and English relative to the old Church at Chinsura.shewing the names of appointed by the Dutch Government of Chinsura. 63. 1817. 55. 62. 61. 1 Memorial of the Residents of Chinsura. One Book containing extract from the Proceedings of the 57. however. 64. 1 Batavia account-current book in Dutch. 1 Chinsura from 1815 to 1817. letters in Memoir Book 54. 3 1 Account Books in Dutch from 1817 to 1821. 1664 to 1669. Esq. officers 2 General Muster Rolls in Dutch . 49. Books iu Dutch from 1750 to 1766.

Mr. in order that every telegi'aph resistance office may ascertain whether the of their earth is liighor or lower than the maximum is resistance allowed.] Proceedings of the Aaiatic Society. relating to the Nicobar Islands . the same result not obtained.1871. Monatsbericht der Kouiglich Preussischcn Akademie der "Wissenschaften zu Berlin. however. M. would not hold true. Home Dept.. will be printed in full in the natural history The following paper was received B. of the philolo- first number gical part of the Journal which will appear shortly. Consequently the ordinary law for a Wheatstone's Bridge. This paper will be piiblished in the S. Ayrton's paper part of the Journal. Selections from the Records of the Government of India. December 1870 : Akademie der Wissex- SCHAFTEN ZU BeRLIN. details of is The instance some experiments are also given. by F. a Differential Galvanometer. Library. No. The following additions have been last. This difficulty. The principal difficulty met with is that. . S. has been overcome in this paper. if the resistance between two earths be measured successively with positive and negative currents. or Differential Galvanometer. C.. LXXVII Papers of India. Esq. or simply for a Galvanometer of which the law of the deflec- tions is known. *^* Names of Donors in Capitals. and formula) are develloped suitable for a Wheatstone's ]?ridgo. and a particular mentioned in which a much better " earth" was obtainof soil ed by burying the plate in the upper sti'atum ing it than by buryexisted much deeper. made to the library since the meeting held in March Presentations. Home : Department. — Govt. ou account of a bed of sandstone that at about fifteen feet below the surface. Growse. 93 necessary that some acourato quatditalivc motliotl should ho devised. A. : Notes on the Country of Braj.

1-8 Flora Sylvatica. The Geological Survey : Eeport on the Eevenue Survey operations of the Lower ProvinGeneral Eeport of the Eevenue Survey operaces. for 1869-70 — tions of the Bengal Presidency \ip]3er circle. and D. January. Superintendent of the G. General Eeport on the operations of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India. T. January 1871: The L. : Home Department.94 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Philosophical Magazine. Eeport on the Eevenue Survey operations in British Burma. No. 6. D. Vol. Eecords of the Geological Survey of India. 6. The Ibis. 1869-70 :— Selections from the Records of the Government of India. Vol. [April. edited by Hemachandra Bhattapart I : The Editor. part 2. The Calcutta Eeview. Purchases. Vol. IV. Band XV. — Sanitary Andamans. No. April 1871 The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. stration of the Salt Department 1869-70: : —Ptilaeontologia : Vol. Rahasya Sandarbha. of India. 1869-70. by Major R. 1869-70: The Sur- veyor General of India. Grimm's Deutsches AVorterbuch. No. 38 part 77 The American Journal of Science. 64 :— Babu Eajendralala Eamayana. . cbarya : II. Sur- vey OF India. No. part VI Blair. I — Eeport on : Eecords of the AdminiIndica. 271 : : — . Ill. No. H. for 1869: The Government of Bengal. Lieferung 10 Hewitson's Exotic Butterflies. and Medical report on the settlement of Port The Government of India. E. Beddome. W. the Bengal LXXII — Selections from the Government. Nos. No. MlTBA. P. — : — — : — 1871 : — Conchologia Indica.

P. „ Capt. Howell. Bourne. for M. p. S. Fllgate. „ T. „ » »> 82 „ 84 „ >» 32 2 7 „ „ „ „ „ ditto „ possesses „ It was „ ditto „ „ >> 5» » „ possess » This was . ". Esq. M. M. ". Filgatte. Esq. J. 22 „ „ T. „ Bourn. 56 line 14 from above read A. Esq. Howell.Errata in the March and April numbers of the Proceedings. ". A. On " » J. J. A. Esq. 16 „ „ Capt.

64 : Babu Eajendralala II. No. of India. for Eeport on the Revenue Survey operations of the Lower Provin1869-70 :— General Eeport of the tions of the Bengal Presidency upper circle. Vol. IV. Eevenue Survey opera1869-70: The Sur- veyor General of India. T.i. 271 1871 : : — The Ibis.f T. No. Philosophical Magazine. StTR1 Q«0 7n and D. — Conchologia Indica. Vol. " General Eeport on the operations of the Great Trigonometrical -. Eamayana. 6. 6. January. Cr.94 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.„ SSTTTa-CTaTwrxrwrnr'-NrT m? TTfV. edited by Hemachandra Bhattapart I : The Editor. [April. Mite A. . part 2. Eecords of the Geological Survey of India. The Geological Survey ces. No. Eahasya Sandarbha. cbarya : Vol...

Mr. but The was disputed by Dr. 2. 6. Blyth records his belief that the skull of Testudo Phayrei. From S. of the Society was held on Wednesday. W.— A minary Sketch of a arrangemoat of the Order Dococ/Ioasa. which was transferred from Dr. W.PliOCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OE BENGAL FOR May. — several copies of a Note on the contro- versy between Mr. B. Theobald and Dr. in Braj Bhasha.. Blyth. Esq. From E. belongs to a specimen of the same tortoise in tlie Society's collection . The receipt of the following presentations was announced 1. President. correctness Theobald. J. M. H. Dall. Sir A.. &c. Gray in one of the late numbers of the Athenoeum. 3. — a copy natiu-al of Yedai-thapradipa. . Mr.. m. Esq. Lewis. fact first was noticed by Mr. H. 1871. J. The Hon. — The monthly meeting the 3rd instant at 9 p. 5. Falconer's collection to the British Museum.. Commentary of Preli- I. in the chair. through Eev. Dall. E. Phayre from Arracan. E. Fasc. Justice Phear. The minutes of the last meeting were read and coniirmed. 4. From His Highness Thakura Giriprasdda Sinha. Esq. AUyghur. From T. Esq. White Yajiu. Gray. a copy of a Eeport on : — the Microscopic Objects found in Cholera Evacuations. From Akshayacumara —a copy The Eeligious Eaja of Sects of the Hindus. From W.Yeda. Besma. on the cultivation and of maniifacture of Tea. — a few notes Datta. it was its originally sent to the Calcutta Museum by E. Peal.

Blochmann. Morar. Alexander. 115). or the sandfish. seine is taken in the form of a paste mixed with cardamum and other leaf. and also the common green said to be of Greek origin. Hyde. and Note on transversely striated muscular fibre among the Gastropoda. proposed by Dr. European lizards. 34. which word is Seines. Babu Kaliprasanna Ghosha.. W. and is particularly highly valued as an aphrodisiac by the It is Muhammadans. In India the saffron. seconded by Dr. 0. From Babu Eajendi-alala Mitra —a dried specimen of a new species of Scincus. Oldham. February 1871). Eogers. H.. elected ordinary The following g-entlemen were members : A. I. had been formerly largely used by mediaeval European physicians. who attributed to them most wonderfvil medicinal virtues in all kind of diseases. Mitra from a Kashmir merchant. Esq. P. The following gentlemen meeting : are candidates for ballot at the next Capt. Babu Gangaprasad Siiiha. seconded by Col. Moulavi Habiburrahman. Esq. or in the form of a powder with beetle but it is never prescribed by Hindu physicians. C. spices. The lizard is largely used medicinally in various diseases. C. proposed by Mr. "Wood-Mason. Blochmann. T. proposed by Mr. (Extract from the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History) . F. Esq. Stewart Pratt. Capt.96 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. proposed by Mr. and suqunqur. [May. H. seconded by B§bu E'djendralala Mitra. Stoliczka. regzddah. Vol. I. B. Sanderson. N. J. — a copy of prospectus of a Malaya- lam and English Dictionary. Howell. seconded by Maulavi Kabiruddin. 7. This specimen was obtained by Babu R. Adjt. or the descendant of sand. Gundert. Bligh. S. who stated that he brought the same from Arabia. . Ch. (from the American Journal of Science and Arts. From Eev. (For a description of the species see p. 8. F. B. H. Esq. commonly known under the names of regmdhi.

The following 1. the President thought would scarcely be necessary to say anything more in support of the proposition of the Council. sent him to his apartments. (A. Few can claim such history. on the 22ud Shawwal. H. case. The ballot will take place at the next meeting of the Society. It was struck in A.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. The coin of which Major Stubbs has sent Mr. Partridge who has resigned his trustee- ship on leaving India. than to recall the very great influence which the works of the author of the * Origin of species. Blocliinann.. 97 Bibu Eamakrislma Dasa. on behalf of the B. Blochmann said a rubbing. is a most curious one. in the case of a proposition for the election of an honorary member. Shah 'Alam (II. side by side with Bedar Bakht. S. 1788) The reign of this puppet placed upon the tkrone of Dihb'. proposed by Mr. The President reported ciety. kino" who was a son of Ahmad Shah. So- Stoliczka as a Trustee of the Indian Museum.' whom he covered with abuse and ridicule. who is justly styled the naturalist of the day. H.) was still Ghulam Qadir. and three days later made descend. . as Ch. seconded by Moulavi Kabiruddin. He used to lounge on the throne. F. a thoroughly philosophical treatment of natural Darwin.. 1202 (26th July. 1788) by Muhammad Bedar Bakht. be elected an honorary member of the said that according to the provisions of Eule 6 of The President the Bye-laws of the Society. letters were read : From Major Stubbs : — on a Muhammadan coin. that the Council had elected Dr. D. whom the notorious — Ghulam QMir.1871. Society. sword in hand.' * ' Animals and plants under domestication' and the Descent of Man' had upon the study of its natural history in every one of branches. the Council should. The President that Ch. 1202. also communicated a proposition of the Council Darwin. "When he was first brought forward. was of short duration. Esq. it state the grounds on which the recommendation In the present is based. made him upon the throne. in place of Dr. and the new emperor inflict corporal punishment upon his venerable predecessor.

4. " I have at last seen the From Babu Eashbihari Bose. and distrustful of his Pathans. which is as follows :— Sangram Shah. he destroyed the same throne for the plating which still On On the 7th September. and on the 12th day the accession. 5. but instead of being a History of Kharakpiir. 1 7. Sambat. where he the Mahrattas under was confined and ultimately slain * A drawing of the coin will be published 2. The author (in of the work is one Brahmo Dutt Chobay. [May. ToralMall. Ghidam Qadir left Dilhi. Tahawwur Kaiqobad. caste. 172 to 183. Bedar Bakht was carried to Dihli. into his face . dated Banka. in the Journal. 1807. he to the fort of Mirat. Afzun. According to popular pp. Mogul Empii-e. it is unfortunately filled the Eajahs of Kharakpur. I Singh. 6. was attacked by Eana Khan and De Boigne. so le- named after conversion to Islam. 1788. 3. after smoked the huqqah adhered to it. a native of Ch'hetar my Sub- who wrote in Falgoon.98 as he Proceeditufs of the Asiatic Society. From the work it would appear that the Kharakpur Eajahs trace their descent from the Solar race of the Kendowar Division). and threw himself inthe 21st December. when the Eajah was living. Muzafi"ar 'All. sending Bedar Bakht before him. Hindu work on Kharakpiir. 8th April. he escaped the next day. It is plain from the above table that Toral Mall the is identical with the Eajah whom his Muhammadan Historians call Eoz-afzdn. line of succession 1. It is this last Eaj ah who owned 600 Eanis. 1871. Bihrtiz Singh. as I had expected it to be. * Vide Keene's . it with descriptions of the beauty of six hundred Eanis of one of The only thing interesting in it is the gives of the Eajahs. when he was caught and sent a prisoner to Sindiah. which I — have repeatedly mentioned to you. 2.

It Mahda. unless we suppose that. the suicide of his wife over a burning kiimar. . al ballads relating to — a legend which. about 4 miles north-east of Kharakpur. Khorgo Singh from whom some would like to derive the name of Elharakpiir. famous in the legend of Dobay Bhyrum. All the incidents related by me of this prince. 99 gends. there fi. was brother to Sangram Singh. 'Ali. a 2. is called is a place about 6 miles north from Kharakpur. It is gi'dm I am now in a position to reply to the queries contained in your letter of the 1 10th December last. when he was made a prisoner and converted to Islam. There are several other places in Kharakpur named successive Eajahs after the of the place. as mentioned in prince my account of Kharakpur. worthy of notice that Toral Mall's father was called SanShah (from Sangram meaning hnttle). after his father's death. and of his five daughters in the cataract of Panchin seem to agree it with what is related of him Muhammadan would appear that nearly all this happened during his father's lifetime. For instance. near a place called Dadi-i. his refuge in Musakhol. One of pargannah Shikarab^da. some other I intend to send to the Asiatic Society. I have not been able to ascertain whether there are remains of a fort at that place. aa the Muhammadan Historians seem to call him. such as his dreams. and carry on a war Histories. is There are two places named in — deified Brahman Astrologer who figures conspicuously in the his- tory of the Khetauri Eajahs. who way thereupon granted him several large pergunnahs as jAgir by of dowry. he contrived to make his escape from Dihli. and a prisoner to Dihli. Another is 6 miles south from Kharakpur. Mahda these after Eajah Bihruz. subsequent conversion and marriage. it was this war with the Muliammadans. together with severdeified personages. and not Siugram. and that he took a prominent part in his father's wars. his captivity. or Mahda Chak. and converted had to marry a daughter or a relative of the emperor. who carried on a hopeless being subsequently conveyed as to Islam.1871. But — with his father's enemies from 1606 to 1615. his flight.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. pile.-om is MuzaffarQadir- ganj from Muzaffar Faiz 'Aliganj Faiz 'Ali.

100 ganj from Qadir Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. semi-nudes. The pre- which is this opinion founded. Though the bulk Amaravati and Orissa are nudes or dresses. on Dr. of armour and mail clothes into never came to the idea of fashioning References are likewise made to dresses. and Iqbalganj from Iqbal 'All. appear to be untenable. with whom the line became extinct. It is also age. Afziiuganj from Afzun. mises. there are some which bear unmistakeable evidence of the antiquity of Indian made Among the Sanchi bas- reliefs there are several figures dressed in tunics which could never . and were in coats. however. The most overwhelming proofs on the subject are. some illegitimate cMldi-en of the last Eajah stUl surviving. knew not the art of preparing and it has since been adopted by Dr. Forbes "Watson. by Babu Eajendralala started the Mitra. 'All. Faiz 'All succeeded Muzaffar and was succeeded by Qadir 'All. Manning. following papers were read Sttxe of dkess in Akcte^-t Ixdia. 'Ali. their who were made able to forge. stiU. I may as well mention here the remaining Eajahs of Kharakpur subsetheir estates including quent to the table given above. John Muir and is others.) in his " Eastern India. Mrs. turn by Iqbal who again was : succeeded by who was succeeded in liis Eahmat 'All. needle -made dresses opinion that the ancient Hindus . 'All. — (Abstract. except on the sup- who used them knew and had what they it is meant. There are 3. the Mahabharata and other ancient Sanskrit works to show that they allude to dresses which could not have been other than needle-made and shaped. all by Mr. of the human figures at Sanchi. the E^mayana. Latour by public peror having been sold a fevr years ago There are auction. argued that very unlikely. however. that the heroes of the habit theYedic using." first Buchanan Hamilton. at present no Eajalis of Kharakpur in the the jagirs granted dis- by the emtrict. and the existence of those words in the language cannot be accounted position that the people for." The I. Mention made of the needle and sewing in the Rig era Veda. [May. met with in sculptures. \rliich led to long and harassing litigation. which dates from twelve centuries before the Christian according to the lowest computation.

and having sleeves down to the wrist. The dress reappears on some of boddicos. On a Buddhist rail-post from Buddha Gaya which probably dates from a time earlier than the Sanchi rail. . payajuma. The legs and the feet are enclosed in thick high boots or buskins. and such other vestments as the soldiers of Alexander brought to India. to the tailor's art. The dress differs so entirely from the chiton. and sides. holding on the a short sword. there are two archers. and coats. tunics plates At Amaravati. and which is now preserved in the Indian Museum. and the like of them has nowhere else been seen. the Amaravati bas-reliefs. Piliyuk of Benares. Over the chapkan there is a haubert or coat of chain mail.] Froceedings of the Asiatic Society. among the a statue 4' rock-rut caves of Khandagiri there — 6" in height. (Vide Fergusson's offer The Orissan is sculptures even more positive In the Queen's palace (Eani Nour). chain mail and boots at the time. the sleeves of which reach the elbow. 101 those of the two them the Buddhist King. . to siippose that such a foreign dress would at once be imitated in stone many hundreds of miles away from the place it was exhibited in India. cut out of the solid rock. Among the sculptures on the temples of Bhuvanesvara there are representations of ghagra. the chlamys. must be accepted as the most conclusive evidence on the subject. The age A light scarf is wrapped round the left side waist.' (plate xxxvi) are particularly remarkable. which is dressed in a close fitting chapkan.1871. even if it were possible. one of * have been fashioned without the aid of needles figures in a fully dressed from the neck to the middle of the leg garment which appears strongly like the jama of the present in day. kilts. and the existence of chapkan. it is believed. Fcrgussou's Tree and Serpent Worsliip. Ixvi. the himation. with the skirts hanging down four inches below the knee. some of them on gods and goddesses. that they cannot be accepted as Indian modifications of the Grecian dress. which where it is not. inasmuch as the chapkans there shown are peculiarly Hindu. figured in Mr. proofs. and they cannot but be accepted as other articles of needle-made di-ess. but there are traces on it of a twisted turban. its ends hang on the The head is partially mutilated. there are also several figures dressed which owe their shape Ixxxiv). of the figure is supposed to be the third century before Clu-ist.

the former predominating. the most remarkcliolaha. Biuldhists. and a mixed class. one. The former represent queens. Sculptures. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. and warders. themselves in when they did not put on chain mail. and Orissa. in a chudder thrown over their ordinary dress. When respectable women went out of their houses. On the one hand. was. it. and bear the distinctive title of needle-men. Sfc. and the other. the lawful issue of Vaisyas by Sudra women. The profession of the was of sufEcient importance to necessitate the establishment of a separate tribe. j)rincosses and ladies of rank in perfect . they generally wrapped themselves tions. equally authentic. angilca. Jcanchuliha. chiefs and warriors. it shown that in the Vocabulary of Amara Sinha. Sanskrit words are next quoted to show the names which vari- ous kinds of made dresses bore in ancient times able of these being cliola. Amaravati. . Icanchilca. and the personal attendants of kings generally dressed lOugs. [May. The question is. of the tend to show that made dresses long before the advent Muhammadans to the in India. in which he says that the Hindus had no tailors among them. according to tlie ancient law-book of Usanas. and is that there is no word era. The first indicated the modern ya??ia. tunnavaya. there in their language for tailors. princes.102 intligoiious. are in direct conflict with them. to general tailoring of the last word latter is given in Paniui's rules. the body clothes chapkan. guards. therefore. Tcurpam.cult to reject the testimony of authentic graven stones on the other. the ancient records of the Hindus and the . Among women. : applying to the derivation darning. and did use. in all cases. nivi. suchiJca. and they the Hindus knew. Meadows Taylor. however. something closely like a While ordinary people contented themselves with the simple dhiiti and chadar. destined to live by it. do not. wore a tunic. not unoften supplemented by a turban. consisting of either a sari or a ghagrd . raised as to how far those sculptures may be taken as evidences on the subject. sauchUca. support the above deduc- and nudity is the prevailing character of the bas-reliefs of Sanchi. In reply remark of Capt. also Among the Ajanta frescoes there are all traces of flowing dresses with sleeves. the boddice was in general use. which dates from before the Christian are two words for tailors. it is difiB.

But whether so or is would. but children are clothed. whicli made the males appear in dresses of diverse kinds state of nature. to the exigencies of art. Looking. There was likewise. but their presence alone docs not liarities noticed.] deshabille . art . however. . No doubt the Tamulian aboriginal races formed tho great bulk of Buddhist congregations. or those causes exercised a more potent influence on the action of the Indian artist than ethnic or social peculiarities in tho developing to human form in stone. or a prevailing desire to display the female contour in all its attractiveness . and a pruriency of imagination and design. as it would bo for the New-Zoalander of Macaiday to do the same with reference to the Eui'opeans of the 19th cen- tury from tho collection of modern statuary in tho Crystal Palace at Konsiugtou or tho Louvro. At Bhuvanes ''vara a boar upon religious that of veneration for the creative energy or phallic art. not to cover their modesty wives and mothers are loft men and even horses are covered with housings. represented on females. be as effectual draw our conclusions regarding the costumes of the ancient Indians solely and exclusively from the sculptures they have left behind them. such as has made tho sculptors of Europe prefer the nude to or the unskilfulness of early the draped figure. worship. therefoi'e. but female beholders of the highest rank. not so much rich jewels. suffice to account for all the pecu- It is supposed. a longing for variety. are .1871. to it effect highly offensive to good taste. is the many instances clothing . was evidently also brought to and to produce an not. and the females in a sentiment. modesty and covering to of the person as of facts that in utmost importance. or tho difficulty of chiseling drapery on such coarse materials as wore . standing in the verandas of two-storied houses and decked with a profusion of without any covering with the raiment of the concluded that the prevailing character of the basreliefs and statues of Sanchi and Amaravati is duo. it is be pre- sumed. but . and were more freely and plentifully represcantily clad sented on the monuments of their co-religionists than tho Aryans. or a combination of some. that a conventional rule of art. ordinarily accessible in this country all. the author of the paper of opinion. made to content themselves atmosphere it is to ethnic or social causes as. Proccedinij& of the Aniatic Society 103 wliilo tlio latter insist tlio upon doconcy.

— A HiSTOEY OF THE Gakk'hars. he must have i^ro- cured a copy of worthless. I had abeady seen a co^j of it. Mr. zillah Eawul Pindi. Blochmann read extracts from the paper.104 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. receives from the our age. presented some time ago by Major Pearse. fly-leaf of the There was a note on the MS. I believe the few historical facts contained whom it "Iconsider in it have been scraped together from various tales related histories. Eawul (Abstract. of the Journal. and comprise nearly every notice of the tribe found in the time of Muhammadan Ghazni Historians of India. by the donor. also mentioned that among the MSS. Esq. Karam Government a small pension as a sort of compensation for the losses suffered by his family during the traditional information obtained For the early history of the tribe. says regarding it an original production from the brain of Donee Chand. and there is facts no doubt that the principal District are reliable. and chiefly from the legends or ticularly by the Ihdts of the country. the author has used by him on the spot. and as Major Pearse was an A ssistant Commissioner there for some time. according to which the work is " an extract from a larger work found at Eohtas. on various occasions had conof the Society. The present chief. Sikh Rule.." merick.) by J. The work was compiled by order of Major James Abbott. Del- the book had been sent. Delmerick. II. mentions above forty chiefs ruled over the tribe from the Mahmud till Dad Khan. Delmerick are most interesting. [May. Blochmann later than local traditions. who. G. the head of the ancient Qanungo family. It is perfectly . par- from the family bhat of the Gakk'hars." it from the Deputy Commissioner. to Mr. He said — The historical notes collected who by Mr. Deputy Commissioner of Hazara. Pindee. was a short history of Gakk'hars. which is lished in the to be pub- forthcoming number of Part I. the grandfather of Eaizadeh Eatan Chand of Goliana. there tributed to the collections of the Society. zillah Eawul Pindi. for 1871. at Kiiri. places the final settlement of the Gakk'hars in the The AJcharnamah Eawul Pindi histoi-ical somewhat Mr. Delmerick Mr.

. Stoliczka this order of Malayan bats who. . MJ's British Forces. for examination and description. a very broad and mountainous region. it with regard to the occupation of interesting to note the similarity may bo between certain forms of tho names of the chief towns of the Gakk'hars (which are properly Dangiili and Pharwala). whose chief towns are Dcmkaler and Purhola. slatey-bluo with a greyish or fcilvery tinge tips of the hairs sooty-brown. Dobson said from the I take in —I have the pleasure of bringing Society four to the notice of the members of the collection of Dr. divided from Tartary by the ridges of the Caucasus. knowing what an interest species of at new Mammals.. tail short and slen. with the chief towns Dankalen and Binsola. the Nicobar and Andaman Islands. the specimens collected by him at Penang. Macroglossus. Dobson." Rennell tells us. De LaiJt. broad. the following short diagnoses of the species will suffice for the present 1. that. For these species I propose the following names 1. On some new species of OF De. and sometimes Tonker and Putala. Head." Mandelsloe calls the district " Kakires. writing in 1631. B. Lethbridge observed Tibet by tho Oakk'hars. . E. triangular der . fiu' bicoloured. 3. that the Tibetan capitals are sometimes called Barontkda and Putala. 2. which are Lassa and Putala. Cynopterus hrachysoma. Of these the insec- new species two belong to the frugivorous and two to tivorous divisions of bats. B. 105 Mr. Stoliczka. — hy Malayan bats from the collection Q-. kindly placed my disposal. : and Asellia. full descriptions As of these bats will be published with illustra- tions.1871. J Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Phyllorhina Nicobarensis. Macroglossus spelceus. Dobson. Moulmein. speaks of " Kakares. in the natural history part of the Journal. A. and represent four genera namely Gynopterus.. : Cy. 4. body very short . and of those of Tibet. Assistant Surgeon H. Asellia Stoliczkana. III. brachysoma. Phyllorhina. M. Mr.

tips. transverse portion erect.0. of the monthly Proceedings of the for the year 1867. . Peters of Berlin. I believe.52 . outer edge doubly emarginate immediately below the tip . Head long muzzle finger tvitJiout narrow. accordingly. Wing membranes attached to base of metacarpal bone of outer Length head and body 3". siibcutaneous gland on each 1".45 . Berlin Academy page 865.7 forearm 2". Ears acutely pointed.0 tail 1". 4". dark -brown. 2. having its apex divided into three points Fiu* pure by two narrow Length finger incisions. pointed . . spelceus. anterior margin. with purplish-brown : beneath dirty.6 . Phyllorlmia JVicobarensis. tibia 1". The discovery necessity of new species of Macroglossus leads to the an important change in the classification of the Ptero- pine bats. AselUa Stoliczhana. forearm 1". .9 .lOG Proceedings of tJw Asiatic Society. white. 4. Lengtb head and body 2". perhaps. toe.25 . more attention to the examination of this interesting order than any other living naturalist.55 side of the anal opening : fur short. 31. head and body. tail 0". the transverse portion forming an arc of a circle.white. 2". been. nose-leaf large. in form like an isosceles with an obtuse vertical angle. of the V'. Dr. sively accepted. Length head and body Dobson. . he arranges the genera of the Pteropine bats (with the exception of Pteropus. Dobson. 2nd 2". of wliieli he enumerates the species in a former paper in the same volume) thus : — . foreaim 3. and very exten- his generalisations have. as proposed by Dr. tongue very long . a prominent. Peters has devoted. 2 . 6.0. Dobson. In the Vol.75 2nd finger 4". . head .5 : .Q tail 0". index a claw . rolled is back on itself and overhanging the concave base which divided into tivo cells by a single longitudinal fold. : [May. upper triangle part of crest tri-acuminate. . nose-leaf with three small points on erect. perpendicular to the base. Head long muzzle its obtuse . head 1". . forearm 2". .2 2iid finger 4".6.

Index finger toith a claw. 2.1871. 107 A. .] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.

Tomes's surmise has proved though I believe in a far wider sense then he expected. Stoliczka at the Nicobars three specimens of Mimoptens Australis. 161. so that Mr." is the first time If. Vol. Peters's classification which depends on the presence or absence of a claw on the index finger must be abandoned. and in so recording I not only add a species to the fauna.108 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. teeth. as well as of Australia. Mr. and some other generalisation. and that the name of Australis was not to it strictly appropriate. and taking the name Australis literally. A rocks of the Western Ghats near living on the moist precipitous Bombay. but I have not yet sufficient examined a number of species to enable me to indicate this character. Therefore that part of Prof. arise But avoid the confusion which might possibly desirable from a change of name. the relative importance of which it is unnecessary to dwell upon. we are at once struck by the almost complete similarity of the sj)ecimens in these respects. * Annals and Mag. by Dr. F. substituted. [May. Nat. Tomes. it. 1858. was described by Mr. he might with almost equal justice have called the species se^tentrionalis. Among the bats obtained by Dr. Hist. Notes on the Anatomy of Cremnoconchtjs Syhadeensis. but also a fresh locality to its the species placed nearly as far north of the equator as locality correct. II. first was south of it. IV. p. examine and com- arrangement of the But when we come to pare these parts in the specimens of the two species. occur. Australis has been recorded from the Nicobars. Tomes in describing this species* says " the name under which I have described this species was given under the impression that It it was in exclusively a native of Australia. I have thought I believe this that it should remain unaltered. Stoliczka. peculiar amphibious shell. based on a more constant and important character. that I found it be an inhabitant of Timor (and probably of other islands of the Indian Archipelago). . was not to until after I had arranged and named the specimens in the British Museum and some other collections.

the latter having been preoccupied by Dr. for Septomljor. Troschel obtained a specimen of Cremnoconchus Syhadrensis with the animal dried in. and classed Lay- ard's Anculotus carimtus. Blanford as Cremnohates Syhadremis. Troschel. H. C. .'E. ^i. in Auu. however. p. N. Fairbank from the cliffs. Asiat. * ilonogi-aph of cretaceous Gastropoda. In this pai)orMr. p. &c. In my classed Cremnoconchus in the sub-family LACxmix. in the same genus. HI. Considering the very great importance which attaches itself to the discovery of every form. T. I. N. Mr. in the LiTT0iaNrD. genus. Blanford noted the species as representing. although ho was not able to discover gills. p. a connecting link between and CvcLosTOMiDyE. 1867. vol. but ho inclined to its classiin the former family. Bengal. agreed so well with those all of Littorina. Vol. Blanford added a new species to the with the variety canaliculatus. coniciis. 18G8.1867-68. now widely bleshwar separated. Palajoufc.i3 fication some respects. but portions of the radxda he could examine were detached these. Maha- The following notes will give an outline of tho principal anatomical characters of the species. Blanford and Prof. representing a link between two others.. Indica. . H. I. XXXIII.1871. Blanford proposed elms for for May 1869. Mr. 11.] Proccedingsof the Asiatic Societij. fiir Naturgesch. vol. In Journ. 90). 343. Prof. they appear to me be only varieties of Layard's carinatus. that no doubt remained as to the Littorinoid character of the species in question (vide Archiv vol. to substitute the generic name Cremnocon- Cremnohates. 109 W. but review* of the genera of the family Littoeinidje I have it appears that the species now known to constitute the genus shew rather more affinities to Littorina than to Lacuna. I was glad to receive several specimens of Cremnoconchus Syhadrensis through Mr. the presence of In Ann. 10. and Mag.. as the to named species . and Mag. p. XXXIX. Soc. in addition to those already noticed by Mr. Giinther in Ichthyology. 262. All three forms occur first at Mahableshwar in similar localities. I shall return to this subject of classification again.

shewing the Anatomy of a female specimen : sole of the foot —radula. —ovary. 2 series of teeth of the radula. with large. The shell of the largest speci- . and with a few irregular darker spots tacles usually blackish . which is . —stomach 5. muzzle . W. r Jc g gill. h i st — kidney. ut ov / a — vagina. mantle- edge very slightly crenated and somewhat thickened with the oral opening at the end. The sexes appear slightly to differ in size . Cremnoconclms Syliadrensis. with an indistinct median groove. side U — liver. (figs. — uterus. partially protruding out of the shell. 3. 1-2) view of the centre tooth. — foot. General colour pale whitish grey. o m — shell retractor. ten- the muzzle appears reddish on account of the red colour of the buccal parts. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. —intestines. 4. with a thick subcylindrical foot. slight lobe. of considerable length. ]pr —muzzle. View from below of another specimen. — ng — obsolete plume. without any appendage. rather far apart. perfor- ated at the end. just above the base . — heart. posteriorly with the oper- culum attached by a short. The animal of C. 2. not lobed tentacles subulate. Syhadrensis lias a short rather stout body. at least none of the males were as largo as the females. thick. sg — salivary glands. at the end. Blf. — anus. black eyes on their outer swollen bases sole of foot roundish or oval. slirhtly darker on the back. flatly depressed penis. at the sides of the foot. [May. Sexes distinct : male with a large. Side view of a male siJecimeu. pointed .

The fillets are on the riglit side very finely prolonged and partially become branched. total lioiglit 8 m. and of the inner or collumellar side of the body. situated. black . beyond which the salivary glands are Stomach largo. the \vith the usual cartilaginous valves internally. a greyish Intestines The uterus colotir . situated behind the The liver is greenish. have not observed a trace of a separate jaw.3.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. flesh}^. the female . siu'face In some specimens the of testis occupied the whole of the lies . testis is situated. gills. is The vas deferens along it the ventral (or columellar) side and filled of very great length was with well developed spermatozoa. The kidney is large. 3) does not essentially differ from that I of other Prosohranchiato Gastropoda. it is barely indicated in this The radula is narrow. flattened. smaller 7. consisting of two anterior smaller lobes while a larger. The buccal parts in the mouth The oesophagus passes inside. similarly to it is generally of a pale j'cllowish colour and the sperma- tozoa are rather short. grey. elongately ovate. composed of to tho fillets which are grown upper side of the gill-cavity. 8. of the ovarium very large. from 10-14 m. large. is generally stated to be a rudiment of a second plume species. : Ill cliaiu. with a large transparent. Avhich . very long. the greater . lobe occupies the terminal portion The thin gills consist of a single rather nari-ow plume. gradually thickened towards one end. The are internal anatomy (fig. in diameter. . In a full grown female. it had vegetable matter algfo. the ovary in tho In the male. nucleus. To the right . men of the latter moasurod larger diam. in the female is disc-like. yellow. through the nervous ring. of the gill is a narrow thickening. soft. animal having apparently been living on minute very long. excentric. extremely (examined in March) the eggs were somewhat more than one half millim. of the body. the terminal \\ whorls. much subdivided.m. enclosing a minute nucleolus. occupying the greater portion of the middle and also mostly of the posterior surface. resembliivj in this resj^ect the breathing organ of pulmoniferous Mollusca the same form is already indicated in several of the more terrestrial than aquatic Littorince.

with 7 denticles of which the median one is the largest. 5). Along the concave sides runs a very thin. rounded above. shell is either umbilicated or not clearly shewn by Cremnoconchis carinatus the genus. evidently an oversight on the part of Prof. and the to. laterally raised . below each other under a rather steep inflected. on the right side behind the moiith.1. a non-umbilicated shell and the median teeth with to Cremnoconehus. terized 94). (see fig. In the two points alluded and perfectly agrees with Littorina.3.. as ah-eady noticed. are perfectly similar to those except that the median denticles of the teeth are a little stronger and more pointed. lamellae. The upper edge is very strongly inflected. as compared with the adjoining lateral denticles. according to the same author. When we that of Littorina.112 portion of It is it lies Proceedings of the Asiatic rolled in Societij. The angle lateral teeth follow . Troschel. and Syhadreiisis. all have the upper edges strongly each having the median denticle the strongest and obliquely projecting. lateral lamellae. therefore it is and its size . while Littorina has. pointed.^ compare the general anatomy of Cremnoconehus with we find that both are almost perfectly identical. Troschel. its varieties. The statement relating however. The bases of the two outer less obtusely. is. characCremnoconehus as possessing an umbilicated shell and the median teeth of the radula without laterally raised lamellae. and less so at the base. the outer 3 denticles on each side decreasing. The general shape of the first lateral tooth is obliquely qradraugular. [May. carinatus. The centre tooth is somewhat longer than broad. . the formula being 3. (see fig. indeed not easy to find out sufficiently distinctive characters between the two. strongly emarginate at the sides. two * I have examined in connection with this suh^eci Littorina melanostoma and otlior species very closely allied or identical with undulata and intermedia. 4). and more or of The teeth of C. on the outermost tooth the latter are sometimes hardly traceable. lateral teeth are obliquely. composed of between 260-280 transverse rows of ttenioglossate teeth. and the projecting corners of the base are also bent upwards. The median as is teeth of Cremnoconehus have. posteriorly deeply emarginate and with the posterior half of the upper edge thinner and a little longer. raised la- mella. Prof. in the above noted communication (p.

). and must be classed near Bythinia and Amnicola. and that is with a very distinct olivaceous epidermis.E. the sole of which is only indistinctly grooved. to In the LACUNiN^ have provisionally Stenotis. with the exception that the former have the end of the muzzle truncate. and its allies must be excluded from the present family. Researches may increase this considerably. to all 2[oduliis. while the CYCL0PH0iiiD. and should be classed next to RiseUa {== Bemhicium). are in both often extremely similar. The operculum is also in both very similar. Syhadrensis it cimens of becomes in time quite testaceous. FossAiuif. while in Littorina there are usually only 5 present. and must be placed near Littorina. (Palseont. and Littorina.] Proceedings of the lisiatic Society 113 The form of the shell of botli to it. conchus dillers from Littorina As to animals. except that each has 7 denticles. Neritoides. Echinella. and Nicobars. et seq. that the one of it Cremnoconchus has a peculiarly thin texture. lacunin^e and littorin-in. Gyclostomits^ With regard Cychphorus. Subseof Indica. no peculiar diifcrence in the form of the teeth. Cremnoconchus. Cremno- by tlie subcylindrical foot.a: have it lobed. while Lithorjlyphus is appearance a Rissoid form. be For these reasons I believe. attention to the to the relation of their Cremnoconchus to it is and some of allies. classitication In the fii'st named sub -family only RiseUa can be regarded Fossar as a true Littorinid. p. II.e. worth while drawing many points of similarity which exist between the Littorince in general and these operculated landshells. remain : Lacuna.1871. RiseUa. 259. quent researches make a thorough change in the the family necessary. In my Monograph of the South Indian Gastropoda. the relative position of the lateral and central teeth being very similar in both. only in most speC. I have divided the LiTTORixiDiE into three sub-families. and their dentition. is so variable tliat no importauce covered can be attached the only dilfereuce beinjj. The LiTTORLNiNiE include in fossil conchology Gyclonema^ Spironema^ Ainherleya. The operculum in Gych- . that Cremnoconchus can regarded only as a subgenus of Littorina. and Lacunaria. Penang. &c. of an a^d by the males having There is the penis destitute appendage. occur on the Arracan coast. paucispiral and horny. list Hamus. therefore. at the Of RiseUa two species Andamans. The ani- mals.

or than are for &c. tion of certain slight changes in the organisation Crevinoconclius. this subject were. more definite conclu- In point of general classification. The gills of and particularly those of CremnocojicJncs. Blanford's general remarks* on perfectly justified. generative or. Further. of the former. digestive parts. therefore. where the gills have entirely disappeared. equally indicate a passage to the form of the lungs of true PULiroxATA. paiicispiral. shews in several points a greater inclination to Cyclostomus. or the radula. like the torince Cyclostomi. than the former. while no one . which may be said to be more terrestrial. Therefore. neither have but the Cyclojyhori. it but testaceous. in the loay in which it has been introduced for such a purpose in the systems of quote other Cuvier and others. it is not aclvisahle to use the breathing organ as an inqioftant character in the ^rincijjal classification of the Ilollusca. as for instance that of Cerithidea ohtusa. still as already stated. [May. and in of the sole are in the latter genus Cydophorus and others the groove has entirely disappeared. the foot it is grooved along the middle of the sole in Cyclostomi. operculum. indicates a link between the two genera and it also inclines to the latter by the males not possessing an appendage some LittorincB. possess a well-developed jaw. is equally so in the still only the two parts more developed on account of the arboreal habitat of the species. than do the common Littorince. though he was not in possession of all the details to base upon which he might have been able eions. the comparison of the ana- tomy of Littorince and Cyclostomi indicates. Procecdinf/s of the Asiatic Society. the structure to of the breathing organ seems to change. having occasionally a testaceous to the penis. however. that among the dif- ferent organs. though very probably this will not be found to be so much the case in the purely terrestrial ones.114 stomiis is Littorinct. Mr. I coiild examples in support of this view. The Lit- the have no jaw. Littorince. at least none distinctly developed. HELiciDiE and other pulmonata. be subjected instance the a greater variation. while is horny in Cremnoco9ichus. it can be scarcely doubted that there exists an intimate relation between Littorince and Cyclostomi and their associates and that the origin of the latter may be looked for in the esplana* . and become rej)laced by true lungs. similar. Considering these numerous points of structure which I have just noticed.

AnDERSOJT. conical from behind and pointedly unguiform. by a deep groove. anterior loreal. pointed behind. of moderate size. the first of which equals the length scales of the three succeeding ones. — 1))/ Dlt. the two below the * I liavc named this lizard in honour of my learned friend Bdbu llajendralala Mitra who obtained it under the circumstances mentioned on page t)6. to. Eight upper labials. occupying the place of a superior labial. The frontal large. placed obliquely. spatulate and fossorial. Internasal small. posterior end forming only a narrow sutui'e with the frontal its under sm-face broad and slightly shelving upwards posterior margin a to it. tral. forming a broad suture together. smaller than the vertical and contiguous. oblongly pen- tagonal. first Nasal crescentic. but with the lateral portion of in contact with the rostral. the anterior scale as long as the two be- hind the it. sp. Scincus Mitranus. pentagonal. anterior supranasal and small internasal. the rostral below loreal. sharp anterior margin its its its sides much convergent . defined fi'om the surface anterior forwards. Four rather large form the lower margin of the eye. DESCRirXIOX OF A NEW SPECIES OF SciNCUS. cutting ridge. nasal and thi'ee lower labials. nostrils and dilated them. Post frontrals large. first labial.* Head base. Tavo small postoccipitals. n. and contiguous by its hinder marVertical gins with the post frontals. nasal and supranasal. lying between the rostral. its anterior margins forming an ob- tuse angle lateral margins concave and slightly convergent. The supranasals and one large. large it. close relation existing between the marine Ccrilhidca the brackish Potamidcs and the species of above referred V. . 115 same time deny the Cerithia. the anterior shield in contact with the supranasal. Five large superciliaries with an internal lino of fom* small plates. broad in front. four of their sides largo very small.1871. rounded. forming sutures with the rossupranasal. Two pre-occipitals rather small. pentagonal. Loreal region concave. ratlior narrow. in contact with the internasal. crescentic. tail short and thick at the in front of Snout contracted behind the sliarp.] will at the Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. rather small and much pointed . . . J. not contiguous. Rostral with a broad. Two elongated loreals one before othei*. abruptly truncated posteriorly. Occipital considerably and wedge-shaped from before backwards : two rather large scales i:)laced transversely along its external margin. rounded.

: — or Legends and Ballads connected tvith persons deified.Persian inscriptions. or more or less rounded. and suggests the idea that fossorial habit of life. and Elir. each scale with a white spot in the centre of either side of it. by its more markedly fossorial snout and by the number. External oar completely hidden. Twenty-nine to thirty rows of large smooth. Hemp. 1" The nails of this seine are flat : and broad. and rather concave on the gives under surface the toes are laterally extended by the outward elonthe foot gation of the dorsal scales. or observed in the Wardha Valley vicinity near Chanda. Blanford. Syria. It is extremely likely that this term is a generic one applied to a number of nearly allied seines. behind the Eight lower labials tliree : a large shield mental succeeded by pairs of large shields. an arrangement which great breadth. the tip of tail 2" b'" last spot reduced to little more than a speck. Esc[. The reading of the next paper was postponed. The present descriptions species is distinguished from 8. Sides and under surface yellowish. T. Proceedings of the Anatic Society. Egypt and Abyssinia. was obtained by Babu Eiij endralala Mitrafrom a Kashmir merchant. Colour of dried specimen yellowish buff above. held in great veneration. posterior limb. Bloch- Notes on several Arabic and . and drawings of that lizard are correct. M. i-iashbihari Bose. row of three smaller shields. by Babu and its List of birds. Snout to vent 4" 12'" 8'" vent to anterior snout to posterior margin of occipital 2'".IIG eye the largest. . separated from each other by a median. Two preanal scales. Another species from Arabia is — — if the the Sc. in lihaguljjur and the neighbouring districts. collected. p. meccensis. inhabiting Arabia. limb 1" 1'" . Esq. officinalis. 2. . 96). deep red-brown spots along the side from the middle of the neck to above the thigh. and by its pecvdiar coloration. form and disposition of its cranial plates. by W. who stated that it came from Arabia and that it was the El-adda of the Arabs. its free margin with a brown spot on Ten vertically elongated. imbricate scales round the middle of the body. [May. mann. it is specially modified to a The specimen from which this description is drawn. longitudinal. A. The following communications have been received 1. .. . by H. (see antea.

Akademie. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens. Vogel. —Lefnadsteckningar efter K. XXVII. Journal of the Chemical Society of London. Vol. Kongliga Svcnska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Eiiljd. ber and December OF London. Monatsbericht der K. Atti della Eeale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino.\demia delle Handlingar. 1869: Eeale Acc. Appendiee —Notizia . *#* Names of Donors in Capitals. —Meteorologiska lakttagelser Vetenskai:)s. Preussische Akademie der Wissen- scuaften zu Berlin. i Scienze di Torino. — Vol. Vetenskaps. Sundevall cripsit — Conspectum Avium — Hemiptera Africana des. Session . 1865 — 68. Sverige utgifna af Kongliga Svcnska (ifver betade under inseende af Er Edlund. Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Parti:— The Geological Society Transactions of the Eoyal of London. —Proceedings. I. IX. January : NovemThe Chemical Society Journal Asiatique. picinarium. XXVI. The following additions liavo boon last : made to tho Library since the meeting held in April rresentations. No. Society of Edinburgh. Vol. 1869 . J.] Procredings of the Asiatic Societij. Ledamoter. IV. 18G9-70: Tue Royal Society of Edinburgh. Vol. . Eeptilien und Insekten von Carolus Stiil. Part I. 2™« Lie^ge. Ny- 1864-67 .1871. —Bollettino Meteorologico ed Astronomico del Eogio Osser- vatorio dell' Univei'sita di Torino. edidit. Band Hiilftel. Memoires de la Societe Eoyale des Sciences de Lioge. Quarterly Joiu*nal of the Geological Society of London. Vol. Carl. anstullda och bear1864-66. — ofversigt. 1864-1865 12-14. Ar 1 854 aflinda. — Akademion. V. Sundevall . Carl. — Die Thierar- ten des Aristoteles von den Klassen der Siiugethiere. Vol. J. Tom 1-4: Kongl. Disj). January 1871 : —K. 1-7. Tom 1-2: Socie'te' Eoyale des Sciences de . Serie. VIII. Paris. Stockholm. 58 : The Socie'te' Asiatique. — Obser- vation de L'Essaim des E'toiles Filantes du Novembre. Storica dei lavori fatti dalla classe di Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche. 117 LlHRAllY.

vative Hypotliesis of Life and Species. 65-75.) by Feizi. Eevue des deux Mondes. ^^'noTn '~n "' IHE Government oe - India. F. r ii r.^^^ ^^'O(^^o(^'^''0s of the '^^^^ AskUc Society. Dill— Thi. von Dr. November. Vol. The AtheuEeum for February. 1869-70 Eahasya Sandarbha. i t. DalL-Note ' H * . Haug :-TnE Dex.Iossa^. II :-TiiE Agricultural and OF India.-General Eeport on the Eevenue Operations of the Bengal Presidency. Dr. Vols I No 279 f Ti m ""'' 47"^' ^• V^''^"^''^'' European slSs'. Nos. E.j W. _^^^mayana. 1865 :— The Editor VII.' ^°-^ ' TH^luTHot" A Eeport on the tions. H.. Horticultural Society of India! Horticultural Society Arcluvo per L'Autropologia e la Etnologia. P.Datta:- by T. 1870.-The Authors unci die Brahmauen. Vol. 1:_H. Preliminary Sketch of a Natural Arrangement of the Order on the transversely striated muscular fibre among the Gasteropoda. by Prof. No' ^^^n anTlI ^V"~^''^'^'°^^'^ Ancient India. VedarthapradipaNo. M._Icones Plantarum Indico Orienf^'lf^^P'-^^^* tof T t'? 186 -70. and Dublin Philosophical Mao-azine on Synonyms of European Spiders .!l P Diamagnetism r-Galton's Disease Germs :-Jacolliot The Bible in India -BhaC'at^^^n !. Brahxaa Author liiE Author. Nature. H. PurcJiase.--Gould's Birds of Asia tory of Architecture. General India. : SoJSl PoTVV^r^ w . [May. ^"'' "' ''"" '^"'"'' '^ ^^^^^^'^^'— -. Einzi . during 1869-70 .^ ^ x»aa^avatgita in Persian verse. Tha'kur JExchange. Giriprasa'd Sinha. II. Lewis Microscopic Objects found in Cholera evacua- :— The Author No. 7. 15th Oetobpr Ts7n. \ -^l^bw^^"-^'^^^^^^^^ Hereditary Genius --Beale's D^?. Mantegazza. (MS. Edited by Hemachandra :-The ""'1"^" ^" '''' Topographical Surveys of Eeport on the operations of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India. by AV. y. -V VofirPtll'" !t^''T''^^' 01 li. Owen:- Author. pubblicato per Dr.

vations made in the St. Dall. one copper coin of Husain Shall of Jaunpiir of A. S. M. From M. by Wilton Oldham. Esq. Broadley. and a copy of 'Materials towards a monograph of the Gadimldie. 2 silver and 6 copper coins. ' by A. From Rev. 11. a Bengali MS. M. They a copper coin of Firuz Shah III.. President.' —A Radhamohana Sena. H. BENGAL The montlily meeting 7th instant. at 9 o'clock of the Society p. Dall. LL. W. 4. 1870. and fragments of two silver coius. was held on Wednesday the m. B... 887..PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF FOR June. Esq. of the last meeting were read and confirmed. The copper coins pi*esent no particular points of interest. The Hon'ble Mr. From the author. two copper coins of Ibrahim Sliah of Jaunpdr. of Dihli. S. in the cliair. Esq. From the author. by the late 2. The Proceedings Justice Phear. two defaced Bactrian copper cuius. copy of Remarks on the anatomy ' of the genus by W. 6.. From Babu Eamadasa Sena. Meteorological Obser- Xavier's College Observatory from Jidy to December. —English Legislation for India.^ by 3.. entitled Pas'u- pas'amolishanam. C. 0. E. IT. Esq. Presentations were annoimced. — 2 copies of S. — A copy of Memoir of the Ghazeepoor DisD. 1. trict. dug up are at Qanouj. Sij)hoiiaria. . Ferrar.' 5. From the author. C. Lafont. L. 1871.

Alexander. Esq. It had happened un- . Lethbriclge. seconded by Dr. Phear. Eeid. F. C. Esq. B.. &c.120 Proceedings of the Asiatic Societij. LL D. Hyde. seconded by Dr. [June. Stoliczka. S... the last The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded at meeting were balloted for and elected ordinary members : Capt.. Octavius Hamilton. Esq. seconded by the Hon'ble J. seconded by H. H. Blochmann. proposed by W. J... C... proposed by Maulavi Abdool Luteef Khan Bahadur. Esq. C. C. E. J.. : are candidates for election at the July E. Stewart Pratt. S. proposed by W. Oldham. Blochmann. Kurz. acting on the request of Dr. The following gentlemen meeting J. seconded by H. known to the Dutch in 1631. T. Oldham. Esq. LL. Babu Gangaprasad Sinha. Esq. Me- teorological Eeporter of the Punjab. Khalifah Sayyid Muhammad Hasan. Smith. S. Ghazipur.. C.D. he must ask the attention of the meeting for a few moments to a short correspondence which had passed between Dr. proposed by the Council at the last meeting of the Society was balloted for and elected an ^onorary Member. proposed by the Hon'ble J. Neil.. C. W. Neil and himself. E. Babu Eamakrishna Dasa. H. Hyde. F. Esq. Osborn has intimated his desire to withdraw from the Society. Phear. D. Maulavi Habiburrahman. by E. Esq. 7. Esq. W. proposed by Col. Ch. From the Society. — of the Muhammadan Literary Society of Calcutta. Darwin. as From the author. Stoliczka.. Oates.. Capt. B. Six copies of Abstract of Proceedings 8. Azimghur.— The Topography of the Mogul Empire. Esq. The President said that... E.. proposed by S. A. Esq. seconded by Col. Esq. Prime Minister to His High- ness the Maharajah of Patialah. M. C. C. Col.. Buckland. S. S.

Since January 1869. as •has already been given to your address. ditto.* from 2 only furnished.] ProceedimjH of the Axlntic Society. are being recorded in Lahore. that " according to the published reports out of 19 stations. Mcuj llth. 1871. Dera Lsmael Khan. . the baroregistrations of At present —Barometric Solar Temperature. at all of which places the observers are paid. Ludianah. Rawalpindi. Rawalpindi.1871. and accordingly that terms : gentleman wrote to the President in the following — Lahore. Dhurmsala and Murree. been I must ask you to contradict this statement. From Lahore.' ' From Midtan alone I have records of continuous registrations from 1862 to the present time. Direction of — . Neil to consider that it conveyed an incorrect rei^resentatiou of the state of Observations in the Meteorological Punjab. Max. I trust you will give the same publicity both to your contradiction and to this letter.. continuous registrations have been kept up since May 1866. have continuous registers extending over two and a half years. Dhurmsala and Murree. Ludianah. meters being. observations have been registered atLudianah." &e. Syalkote. in your Presidential Address at a recent meeting of the Asiatic Society. in the cases of those at Lahore. Multan. Rainfall. Dera Ismael Khan.' Hygrometry. of the wind. registrations which do not include records of atmospheric pressiu-e are kept as in Um- Gurdaspore and Dalhousie. * Dear Sir. —I was somewhat surprised to find you stating. Dera Ismael Khan. Out of three barometers (Adie's Merciirial) which I ordered recently * In tho Panjab. was so couched as to lead Dr. gistrations are * and for three and a half years continuous pressure. 121 fortunately that a passage in the Prosidontial Address. as it disagrees entirely with facts. mercurial which have been compared with a standard. re- on record at Shahpoor. The observations are recorded on the plan recommended by Glaischer the instruments are all good. delivered bofore tlie Society in March last. In some of the stations I have occasionally occur in had anemographs erected direction register for the continuous registration of the A hiatus will a from such accidents as breakage or disorder of instruments. In other stations. ritsur. and in doing so. Wind. and Min.

appear to me to cover a period now of almost exactly two and a half years. * Dear Sir. I merely speak here of the published reports. the reports for 1866. . That embassy one.122 oTily Proceedings of the Asiatic Societij. I need hardly say. [June. The report At any and rate. namely. And 1868. which you make to the effect.' has ah-eady cost Government three barometers and myself of Dr. —Your letter. and I must confess I cover on this review that am c^uite unable to dis- my original statement in reference to this period is in any degree erroneous. that I am nevertheless most ready (if you still wish me to do so) to comply with the request. for the moment he. I * was certainly not aware of its existence. Neil as follows \9th Mmj. or results of observations given. but three of these.' * You will observe that in this passage. Neil's letter did not bear The remaining portion President). 1867 1868. as to which I have indeed no information. for Ladalch. reached I regret me late in the evening of the l7th. 1867 and 1869 was (if I not mistaken) not then published. " According to the published reports. would abstain from reading : He at once replied to Dr. extending over two and a half years been furnished. August and September 1868. I find there are no observations. I do not refer to your records of registration. You quote from the Address the following words. out of 19 stations in the Punjab. there seem to be breaks of greater or less extent in the continuity of every abstract. and therefore it. carefully looked through these again. dated the 11th May.' The monthly abstracts in these three Eeports for 1866. from 2 only have continuous registers. much to learn from it that you consider you have occasion to complain of a statement lately made by me in the course of an Address to the Asiatic Society. for the months of May. I take for instance your own-principal station of Lahore." and you say that this statement disagrees entirely with facts. July. I have just in consequence of your letter. 1871. June. at the time when for I delivered my am address there were. that I should give the same publicity to your letter as was given to my address j and. upon the (the particular matter of complaint. however. In regard to all excepting 2 out of the 19 stations. one reached me which is destined. I believe.

Youi-s very faithfully.. and some time elapsed before I could get a proper system of regiThe breakage and damages that so often stration re-established. C. to be done in order to have a combined plan of I believe Col. PUEAR. Esq. was owing to my having had to leave the station for another. in great part at least. and I wrote to him about the same time as I addressed you. last year. To this letter he received the following answer : — it Lahore. Thanking you very much for your letter. Luliore.' ' I have since learnt from the President of the Society that he had not seen my Eeport (for 1869) before he delivered his ad- . 23rd Mai/. not so much remarks about my Reports. A. occur to inspections are a soiu'ce of continual anxiety to me. as because it contains my views. To A. S. of As. Soc. imlesa I hear from you to the contrary I will take care that your letter is read at our next mooting.' * As an explanatory last footnote to my letter. I should like to say. 1871. Neil. M. B. which you note in the Lahore Register for part of 1868.] Proceedings of the Aaiatic Society. am yours very faithfully J.' ' I am.' I thank you very much I for your kind words of courtesy towards myself. regarding the method of conducting Meteorology in this country. L. however. Baro- meters are an especial source of grief and annoyance. ' Dear Sir. 7th June. and * published in our Proceedings.1871. as I of course expected to 1)0. and what ought registration. Strachey has for some time had the matter under consideration. E. 123 accordingly. My Eeport for 1869 was out about the till end of but was not distributed some time after. —Tour reply letter to to my letter is. Pres. I shoidd like my be published. Neil. quite satisfactory. which will take place is also on Wednesday.' The hiatus. in the next issue in reference to yoiu* of the Journal. Benyal. dear Sir. but I have not as yet heard from * him in reply.

while immense tracts have an altitude as high as any . and the simpler the system the better and more accurate will be the results. than any words employed by him in his addi-ess could possibly have. Each should have his own province to manage upon the defined system. in it appeared to him to have a much greater tendency to discredit the Punjab observations. city of within the mental capa- one human being.' Phenomena was only commenced not heen for the A. a question is which hardly merits being argued. terpret the laws He has to do his best to inwhich regulate the climatic phases of a country.124 dress. but that the is is manage- ment. One definite system requisite and necessary. N. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. at least. The remainder of the letter was as foUows ' : I gather from your address that you are of opinion that the whole Meteorological Registration of India should be under one directing head. under the circumstances constrained to read the remainder. My It field of observation is. Neil's pui'pose. part of which has an elevation of only a few hundred feet above sea level. as being seemingly sufficient to satisfy Dr. I conceive. should have considered himself the meeting only that portion of Dr. He felt himself. is and each should interpret the data with which he cording as his better knowledge of his supplied ac- own province will guide him. This most desirable starting-point would. a tolerably large embraces about 10 parallels of Latitude by about an equal number of degrees of Longitude. he. The Registration of Meteoroloin the middle of 1866. Neil. [June. be best obtained by a conference of the present staff of Meteorologists. Within this area there is much for the Meteorologist to consider. justified in laying before Neil's first letter which he had already read. two had been made gical in and a half years of complete registration only 2 stations. I am quite of opinion that it should be as entire much as possible conducted upon one system. although before doing so he must premise that one passage. you will admit. however. (the President). with any regard to useful result. This of course explains the mistake which would necessarily find its way into most people's minds. one. that up to the time of his delivering his address. Had it especial request made in this second letter of Dr.

of Anatomy and Surgery. than could the past generation have anticipated the wonderf\il and glorious revelations of geology. . If the Meteorological Eeporter of the Punjab really entertains the persuasion. which * As in Fortin's barometers. &c. A. Lahore Medical School. President of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. — such it as Eobinson's anemo- I can generally form an idea whether the wind has been blowing high or gently. however directing head could so expand profound his knowledge of the general laws of Meteorology might be. Profr. Neil. therefore. Some object to the bother of reading two Verniers.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Meteorological Reporter for the Punjab. The Hox'ble Me. reduction to sea level &c. Pheak. read by two Verniers. The force can be obtained as required by a separate instrument meter.' I am. Our first and greatest necessity. yours faithfully.1871. I enclose one for your inspection. but to this I always say there is not so much trouble in reading two Verniers as there is — in m'aking all the troublesome corrections for capillarity. microscopy and electricity. as he seems here to intimate that he does. It only gives the direction you will perceive. that by taking the two readings of a syphon barometer. is to all the Provinces and Presi- expect a manifest impossibility. tract 125 known inhabited on tlie globe. foretell We may what the patient pursuit of this Science disclose. The form of barometer which pleases me most is G-ay Lussac's syphon. I conceive to be the correct registration of barometric and wind phenomena.' I have noted with great pleasure the evident * which can no you more take in the progress of Meteorological Science. he gets observations. or even whether lute has not been an abso- calm (we do not often have an absolute calm in the Punjab) interest by the straight ness or otherwise of the tracing. his To expect. that one powers of observation. temperature. as to grasp and interpret the masses of Meteorological facts which would pour in upon him from dencies of India.* The anemograph which I have in use gives a pencil tracing of the direction of the wind for 24 hours.

the same king of Bengal whose name occurs in the inscriptions at Satganw. J. and help historians to correct dates fill and verify events. Ghazipur Mr. Mr. Oldham. The following papers were read I.. A. Eawal Pindi. (Abstract. others were decyphered. the Society in the course of last year. Calcutta Madrasah. and Mr. when the emperor was at Hasan Abdal. Agrah. then hardly too his much to say that his letter discloses that vrhich makes own tables altogether untrustworthy. or settle boundaries. H. H. A. It refers to the building of a mosque in A. building of Fort Atak by . 2. Cadell. C.Mr. It is on black basalt. These inscriptions. Carllyle. "W. and was found at Sikandarpur. zil'ah 'Azimgarh. are yet interesting. .. Blochmann. M. S.) — Mr. Esq. : Notes on several Arabic and Persian inscriptions received FROM Members of the Society. hj H. Two inscriptions from Mr. Delmerick. . Blochmann said. LehnericJc. favour if I trust the members of our Society will continue us with inscriptions and rubbings. A. or inscrip- up gaps— and this is especially the case with old Bengal tions 1. are such as to free him from the obligation to reduce corrections as correction for temperature them by such it is and for the height of the place of observation above the sea-level before publishing. 1527 by a Bengal Amir.) the other to the construction of the Margalah Pass by Aurangzib. A. 1083).126 Proceedings of ilie Asiatic Society [June.. G. D. tion I obtained One to inscrip- from Burdwan. to whom the Society owes several most costly contributions. . D. The locality is here of import- ance. W. The inscriptions which I lay before the meeting were received by Some of them were forwarded in the shape of rubbings. Harrison. who lived under Nucrah Shah. S. —in the An lists of kings. C. inscriptioji received from Br. not always of historical importance. Its date is A.. One refers to the Akbar in 1583 (991. S. by various members as Dr. A. Bareilly College. Oldham. 1672 (A. Muzaffarnagar .

the Also distinguished by their elegant verses. Eoliiluli Cliief Hiifiz Rahmat. the formor in 1574 (A. A peculiar interest attaches to the Barlia Sayyids.] 3. Elliott in his Chronicles of Onao. R. From Mr. a personal fiiond of Akl)ar. S. and though praised witli the inscriptions several valuable genealogical trees. and Muhammad Sh^h emthey dethroned and killed Jahandar Shah and Farrukh perors and they blinded and imprisoned Siyar. liis and Mr. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 1622.. Elliot in his Glossary. * Sir H. in 1579 (or A. 0. Cadell. and 5. A. Humayun Baklit. Harrison. Mahmdd and S. but are an inscription fl'om the Ajmiri gate in Agrah. The Barha Sayyids first in the histories for their valour and firmness in battle. Mr. From Mr. who served under Akbar. Bareli. whom they had blinded . The latter died in 1559-60 (A. Report on the Castes and Races of the and Mr. Rafi'uddarajat. But under Jahangir they became more refined. CarUyle. 11. 982). A. they were sneered at for their boorish manners. H. Rafi'uddaulah.1871. 127 From Mr. 967). It refers to the building of a mosque by one Haji Sulaiman. and from two lyfirzai Also an inscx'iption from a mo«quo in tho Mahalof lah. H. 4.* speak of them. Several inscriptions from tombs in They do not refer to persons historiold cemetery at Agrah. . D. cally known. as may be seen from the fact that they made Earrukh Siyar. . in 1031 A. Leeds has a lengthy note in Muzaffarnagar District. J. A. whou tho Hakim was Faujdar Sambhal. They trace their origin from one Sayyid Abul Farah who tion in the beginning of the Muhammadan rule immiatten- grated from Wasit into India. Cadell has forwarded together served under Akbar. Princes A'azzuddin. 987). The clan has received much from historians. and in the following reigns their influence was very great. I draw the attention of the meeting to the beauty of the letters . 'Ali Tabar. H. built by Ilakim 'All of Gilan. Clihajhil. S. who up to the tlie present time form an important element in the population of Muzaffarnagar District. Mr. An inscription from tho jNIau- soleum of tho famous mosques. Two interesting inscriptions from the Mausoleums of two Barha Sayyids of the Kundliwal branch. Carllylo is a master in taking rubbings. or A.

ly Lieut. It stands over the tomb of a Persian poet. Mihrunnisa. J. Our library has a copy of his works. -Col. this year we have a is Total Eclipse visible The duration short. at Bardwan by the Persian it Prom the inscription appears that Saqqa died at Bardwan in A. however show that this is not probable. In December of in Southern India. Jagirdar of Bardwan in A. and wandered about the streets of A'grah as a bhishti dispensing water among the poor.12. and AS the excess of the Tabular above the true S declination. the tomb of Sher Afkan. The tombs of Bahram Saqqa and Sher Afkan are the historical is also Within his shrine sights of Bardwan. Hence also his nom-de-plume. if it is worth making a change.128 6. and stated that he died on his His tomb was discovered go. I have computed carefully the Central Line across India. Poeple often pray at his tomb. writer Khush- Persian literature. where I understand fine weather may be confidently expected. as the Line of central Eclipse passes over the Nilgherry Hills. a bhishti. H. and have added the extent to which errors of the Tabular j^lace of the moon may be expected to shift it. Saqqa. Memorandum ON the Total Eclipse or Deck. In the following Table Aa represents the excess of the Moon's time above the Tabular Eight Ascension in time. Bahram Darvish Saqqa. D. The last inscription I liave received from Bardwan. whom Jahangir had killed. In order to be prepared. P. P.. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 1871. Hewasafaqir. but in some respects the circumstances are very favourable. E. 982. E. . S. Tennant. or A. and later that of Nur Jahan. The figures. I hope to have before the Eclipse a knowledge what errors may be anticipated in the Tables and thus be in a position to choose a central spot. it is He is mentioned in works in way to Ce3don. 1574. 1606. [June. the principal result of an error in Eight Ascension being to shift the Centre of the Shadow along its path the deviation from which would be corrected by a small error in the declination which could hardly be foreseen. to whom he gave the title of Niir MahaU. in order to marry his beautiful wife. E. 11. D.

and if I +++++++++++ »fll>COQ0lOC0t^00I>Q0l> may judge I got in from the fall <^^ 3^1 result 1868 the real duration will between these. 129 of The i-i duration the Eclipse will be >« OT CO (M 00 t» i-l small. be as yet accui'ately predicted ++++ from uncertainty as real 05 oi CJ |-l to the 02 (>) X sc lo -< r-j -^' V I. then I find the duration gherries just in the Nil- 2 minutes. is.1> i> 1* i> j> t- enlargement by irradiIf the value of the moon's diameter deduced Eclipses. it is <^^r^ooC3»»I>^>•^>•^>• i I -* O I 3M l^ so OS lO <M o I iShort as this time I M enough with an 1 I I I adequate lung % (Mi>eooo>ooxiM'X) preparation to produce some results of value. ^^ and moon. from H +++++++++++ $£«23JeOOt^'-IOOoOO(N O5u5u5(MCOl>CD(M00*1U3 o i^ t^ t^ t.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. It is enough CO(M(Mi-lr-li-lOOOw>35 to allow Photo- graphs to be taken of the Corona. is more to be discover- ^H sort is There seems now no of doubt that the Corona as I stated in not only a Solar appenis.i.1871.> eo the Nilgherries wiU be IMCCCDTJICCI'-'OOFHr-lSq about 2 minutes. t^COCOCOCSWCDCOWOiXl The data of the Nautical Almanac give 2 minutes 7 seconds. it At O !.l^ 50 O lO oi (M -H OM diameters of the sun free (M "M c-i (M ri 'M !M . but this cannot. so far as I know. oa dage. as to whose structure there ed. by Oudemans from be used with that of the Sun obtained in the Greenwich X Transit Circle. when the tion. but .

Kirchit hoff in his theory of the solar constitution supposed surrounded by an extensive atmosphere lines and other vapours. [June. though they have detected a greater number of bright lines at the bases of the prominences. not been December 22. there have been additions made to the spectroscope which will allow more than one portion of the Corona to be examined. saw as far as he could judge every atmospheric line reversed. so far as I knowi the number of even the conspicuous dark lines. cold my Eeport on the of the Eclipse of 1868. by the absorption of which the dark Fraunhofer consisting of metallic were produced. Mr. This continues till the real contact of the Limbs at this moment the thread of light. I have but the scant information of this Council Eeport. therefore. 1870. point given in the Royal Astronomical Society's show me why this has not been seen before by observers looking out for it. as well as gases. Professor Young at the moment satisfactorily of obscuration. Observers have differed about the number and it position of the faint bright lines they have seen. To understand why it has not been seen before. It has long been clear that there was no such extensive atmosphere and some physicists have been satisfied that there is none such. and for one or two seconds later. whose explanation of has. made out. it must be con- sidered that the image of a bright object in the focus of a Tele- scope when relieved against comparative darkness is enlarged by a phenomenon known as irradiation the light encroaches on the darkness. appears suddenly broken : and vanishes Total Eclipse while in the Transit of a Planet or Annular Eclipse . This should be spectrosco- pically examined. but does not seem that any one has connected the variations with the position To do this appears urgently necessary. the comparatively farther atmosphere Sun. and its lines recorded during the short time is it is visible. and also to make me feel the imbut it is sufiicient to portance of verifying the observation. Lockyer and his coUaborateurs. size. and of the part examined. The sun thus appears larger and the moon smaller . At the Eclipse however. have never approached. than the real internally . There another subject too of spectroscopic examination. Pye.1 30 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. and this was con- firmed by Mr. which previously had in a considerable width.

I Home Secretary on the my views I may say am not yet in a position to but I have great hopes of being able plotting the its do so in afewdaj-s. AMien we are dealing with (it surrounding the true Photosphere. figure I have endeavoured to give some idea of this phenome- non in an Annular Eclipse. The spectroscopic analysis of the Corona. At A in this . T.. * This bus siucc bccu doue. the duration of Total phase can matter I have been in communication with the subject of observations of this Eclipse. —I may just mention that in 3'.2". require a correction of of 4'- The Longitudes of the G. In the search for. of the of the monthly notices Astro- nomical Society will be found ^ we cannot is Some i^^^' so thin a stratum it figures illustrating this in a Planetary Transit.* P.] tliero Proceedhigs of the Asiatic Soeiety. of them might well miss it. and we at the moment when the sun disappears. and |n 16. S. at page XXIX. 7". December The objects to which Col. Tennant that in sanction a scientific expedition to the Nilgherries on the occasion of the Total Eclipse next. a map it is necessary to allow for the error of a precaution often forgotten. Survey 11" to adjust them to and those of the Atlas of India one the accepted Longitude of Madras. and verification of this important observation. he need hardly of very great scientific interest so fur and importance. ^^'SSJ'i^J^^R^^sS^'^Ji^^v 131 appears tho "black drop" obsei'vors of tho Transit of of tlio Venus in 1769. as it see in sunshine. to direct obser- vation were. to learn The President was very glad the Grovernment is likely to from Col. submit a proposition to officially. for found only between the places where a moment before the so that the observer following either Sun a Moon's limb appeared. little. and have been most cordially received. Shadow Track on zero of Longitude. matj be partly visible in very large Telescopes where are very apt to lose it is it the irradiation very small). Tennant proposed say. Vol.1871. . is lost in the irradiation.

D. those of Col. who might have should. however. D first invasion of Chutia . pp. collected the scattered notices which are found in the historical works of the Mughul period. by persons. The inscriptions are in Sanscrit and Hindi. a Chutia Nagpiir Eajah of the name of Mr. —Babii Eaghunath is mentioned... II. 972). Blochmann read extracts from the paper. howevei'. who knew how Later in the evening Col. 641). [June. 1668. and 1737. and A few additional notes maybe gathered from Sarishtahdar Grant's essay on Bengal and Bihar Finances in the The the extracts will be published in the Journal. Mr. J665.) under Shahbaz Khan Kambu. one of Akbar's generals. ^ (I. of the years A. Tennant. not only regarding Chutia Nagpur. 317 Q^p. They refer to Nagpur (or Kokrah. Eakhal Das Haldar remarks on the information regarding Chutia certainly absence of authenticated historical Muhammadan historians give very little to enable us to verify the details of the family history of the Eajahs. which will be published in the second number of the In philological part of the Journal.. p. in A. exact endeavour to observe as carefully as possible the characteristics of the Corona. Tennant kindly consented to draw up some short the Society III. 491. as it is called. and trust they may throw some light on the history of these districts. . He only wished to suggest that those the requisite leisure and members of the oi^portunity. directions which might serve as a guide visit localities of to members of who might the Total Eclipse. Blochmann said Nagpur. 248 to 250. 1665). had been productive of no very certain The matter could not. hy Ba'bu Eakhal Das Haldaii. b. and p. 356 to 361) and the Alamgirndmali 649 to 660. Ttmih Jalumgiri (Sayyid Ahmad's edition.. 155) notices are taken from the Ahharndmah (Lucknow edition i III. The p. pp. apparent shape and He believed that data of very con- siderable value might be thus obtained to observe. Vth Eeport. the PadisMhiamah . Notes on thkee inscriptions found in Chutia' Na'gpu'r. D. Society.132 as it Proceedings of the Asiatic Societtj. had yet been effected. I have. one of them (A. the . be in better hands than results. even with the unaided eye. but also Pachet and Palamau.

u for a few years. The first Paujdar. H. governor of Bihar. and 1643. to invade the. 1632-33.1871. Tlioro are also some notes on the diamond washings as then carried on in the Eivor Sank. and Tij Eai. wlion Maclliu Singh was zamimlar of Kokrah. died in A. species of Persian bats. i\\Q peshhash and which tho Eajahs had pay to Shahjahan's trea- sury. were occupied. into by Dr. was fixed at a lac of rupees. his usurping Pratab was afterwards reinstated. 1661. to the notice of the Society two One of the species is the type of a its new new genus of Rhinolophine bats. (Abstract. still wore Eajahs. B. Assistant Surgeon M. The extracts regarding Palamau refer to the invasions. had to submit to the appointment of an imperial Paujdar. governor of Bihar. when the then Eajah.** 1585. A. 1866. and to the second invasion. and of forming for its discovery leads to the necessity as the characters given reception a new group. the fourth year of Aurangzib's reign. Dobson. and Kundah. . district. xuidor Ibrahim Khiin Fath-jang. who Eegarding Pachet we have a short notice of Edj ah Bir Narain.000. M. D. E. the anterior porconsisting of The nasal appendages are very tion of the nose-leaf is horse-shoe shaped. in A. On some nkw B. in 1616. the Choro. Kot'hi. Of this expedition we have am- residt was that the forts Deokan. D.'s British Forces. Dobson introduced species of Persian bats. son of uncle. whose name is not The given. IS. complicated. E. Mankli Elhan. alive iu 1647.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Sociefrj. was ordered ple details. and was Ih. two * Proc. to ^ 1641 Pratal). Tho Alamgirnumah says that the . or A. Gray of the four groups lophidai* which he divides the Bino- do not admit of its being placed in any one of them. 1042-43. 250. Daud Khan.QJama' of Palamau was then E. remained at PalanJS. and Palamau itself was taken by storm on the 14th December. by Shaistah Khan and Zabardast Khan. when Balbhadr. Zool. who defeated Eajah Durjun Sal. hy G.. IV. tbo Eajahs did not regularly pay the peshkash and in 1661.) Mr. Soc.

occupying the position of the all minute pores observed in nearly group. commonly seen in the species of the genus to which this bat is belongs. to and two it.134 lamina? . 2 —2 . fiu* above dirty buff. pm. -j- 2—2 . base of the tragus. tail 2".0 . c. of the nose-leaf arises from a thick root . TricenojaSj also remarkable. and sup- porting the anterior portion of a broad. similar below. 1—1 3—3 j—^ so The minute upper pre-molar. membrane. m. beneath pale r. On is each side of this hinder at its nose-leaf are six cells of which one side. and somewhat broader projections. V.25 tail 1". triangular. outer margin hollowed out below the and emarginate opposite the . rounded tragus and almost straight inner buff.2.Dentition. m. 2". flat. and the place of attachment of the outer peculiar shape of the joint. parallel it and nearly equal to in length. . lateral The crest is trident to lanceolate process.2 forearm. j—-^ . 3 j— —3 -g. ^-—^. . overlying lamina deeply emarginate in front. that consisting of a central. It approaches P. placed inside the line of the teeth. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. the opposite sides of the emargination turned upwards. margin . but longer. tip.—T In. faintly — Ears large. tip. [June. Gray. Length of head and body 2". terminating by forming a small lobe rather long with subacute. serotinus. situated behind and immediately above the eye. &c.8 . the animals of Gray's 2nd The form margin are of the ears. longitudinal crest which ends in a triangular head above and between the nostrils. imme- diately behind the nostrils the base is is hollow containing a single the opening to which guarded by a lanceolate process of shaped. Dobson proposes the name and for the species perst'cus. colour of the fur. ^-3^. 2 - 1—1 . pm. The hinder portion cell. the upper.0. Length of head and body 2". not discernible in either of the two specimens brought from Persia. but differs from it in the shape of the tragus. +•+• •n Dentition^r—T In. forearm 2". The second new species belongs to the genus Pipistrellus. as well as the bones of the arm in the neighbourhood of the elbow For the new genus Mr.

difference in as a rule. On the Death of Humdyun. Mserz. V.1871. The following additions have been made : to the Library since the meeting held in May last Presentations. will appear in Part II. Banka. . in four of the aborioinal l^vnouages OF Western Bengal. No. XIX. Antiqiiities of Jujpiir. Monatsbericht.. by C.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Tue VIII. Tumlook. . parts I-II. Esq. A com- parison of tho names shews that. 1871. #*^ Names of donors in Capitals. as in most other languages. The receipt of the following communications was announced. parts III-V. Legends and Ballads of the District of Bhagalpur^ by B^bu Rash Behari Bose. vol. The Zoological Society of London. Dobstm accordingly proposes for the new species the name " Shiraziensia. 126. Royal Society of London. vol. while on the contrary the names of the domesticated animals are. Febr. — K. This paper will be published in the Philological part of the Journal for the cm*rent year. hy V. Proceedings. Behari Bose.'30 foot near Shiraz in Persia Mr. Names of birds &c. of tho Journal. Ball. with notes on some others from the same region. for 1870: — Transactions. Rogers. derived from the same root. by Babu Ch. by Babu Rash Library. Ak^vdemie der Wissen- 8CHAFTEN ZU BeRLIN. 135 Tho spocimons wore obtained at an elevation of 47. Sikhur Bannerji. Proceedings of the Royal Society.''^ A full account of these now species. there is a great the designations of wild animals in the various languages noticed. J. Enq. An account of the antiquities of Jesar-Ishwaripur. list This paper gives a of and other animals in four of the names of a groat number of birds languages which aro spoken by the different aboriginal tribes in "Western Bengal.

The Topography of the Moghiil Empire as known to the Dutch by E. Ill. A.— Ibn-El-Athiri vol. Erich Hermann von Meyer. the — General Report on the Administration of Bombay Presidency. Heft I-IV : — Deiikschrift auf Christ. in 1631. by W. Ba'bu Ea'ma: — da'sa Sewa. vol. Dall. The Government of 1871. Dall Remarks on the Anatomy of the Genus Siphotiaria. Abstract of Proceedings of the Calcutta. [June. The Nature. 76—79. Oldham.— Cheref-Nameh. V. Nos. The Athenaeum for March. I. H. phical Magazine. Zittel. The Leepeedeepeeka. Lethbridge. Historical and Statistical Memoir of the Ghazeepoor District. by A. Pas'upas'amokshanam. — Comptes Rendus. Kongl. & D. The Westminster Review. C. IV. . PhilosoDeux Mondes. 1869-70.. del Commre Negri Cristoforo. The Author.. D.. 1870. The Author. Nos. the Lower The Government of Bengal. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. 1870. India. —Revue des L. bayer. Gulzar-i-Kashmir.136 Proceedingn of the Asiatic Society. M. English Legislation for India. 286. Literary Society. von DEPv Carl. Sitziingsbericlite. Records of the Geological Survey of India.— The Author. H. part I. 1871. 273. parts I-II. Mars. B. Materials towards the monograph of the Gadiniidm. part 78. Report on the Land Revenue Administration of Provinces. 5-8. April gazine of Natural History. vol. AkADEMIE Discorso WlSSENSCirAFTEN ZU MuNCHEN. Exotic Butterflies. by Kriparam. Muhammadan Literary Society of The M. Nos.S. E. — Hewitsou's —Reeve's Conch ologia Iconica. Palseontologia Indica. part 287. 1869-70. by Eadhamohana Sena. S. Broadley.— The Author. — The Annals and Ma- No XL. C. vol. VII part 3 The Superintendent : OF the Geological Survey of India.— The No. parts vol. LL. 1-12. Societa Geograpica Italiana. II. Purchase. The Author. by W. by W. Exchange. Pevr. Janr.

.J after In.. tail. i.' 2 . 106.. 17 .. „ .' tor . .ll".. ' —3 . line 23 from above read 107..' 9.2' for * tail C.. „ 134. ^ for . ...Errata in the two last numbers of ^Proceedings.. \". 29 30 30 „ „ ... . .. 'sun and moon's limbs' for ' siin a -li moon'a limb. .. . „ „ . ^ 1 X insert Q-yHI' . . 131. '-4'-ll"'for'4'.G.^ ' On page . ....../ . . „ ./ 'o-2 . Cynonycteris {or Cijnonycterus.


Beames. Esq. proceeding on leave.. Phonetic Journal for 1864. F. Reid. — —A copy of the Spectator. The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. Prime-Minister to H. C. by Major T. The following gentlemen proposed and seconded meeting were elected Ordinary Members J. C.. From Eev. C. II.B. Smith.Lewis. .' by the Rev. H. S. 0. Presentations were announced 1.PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENTGAL Fob. Tennant Member of Council and Financial Secretary. at 9 r. —A copy of the Christian Vol.. at the last E. I. by Sarabjee Shapoorjee Bengalee. E. Buckland. as The Ccuncil reported that they have elected Col. W. C. has resigned the task of editing Chand's poems. in place of Col. The Hon'ble Mr. Hamilton. 2. Blumhardt.. J.. No. 1871. C. —A copy of * Ilistorical Notice con- cerning Calcutta in the days of Job Charnock. that Mr. July.' Parsee Acts. Oates. the Maharajah of Patialah. S. C. T. C. -— The monthly meeting the 5th instant.. Esq. H. C. of the Society was held on "Wednesday m. A copy of a Manual of Geography in Maharatti. Justice Phear. J. Col.' * Holy Bible in short-hand. Long. J. Khalifah Sayyid Muhammad Hasan. Hyde. From Eev. Esq. J. in the chair. Cand3^ A copy of the ' —A copy — —A copy of tho of * Outlines of Amharic.' vol. Also. S. E. Esq. H. President. S. I.

nephew to the renowned Francis Xavier. 1600 as the year in which ten.138 Tlie following Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. the life of St. — hy H. Wallace lias intimated his desire to withdraw from the Society. written is a history of the lives of the twelve apostles by the same author. proposed by Mavdavi Abdullatif Kban. both works exhibit the same features. also ed J. the third year of Jahangir's reign. Peter. it ry. J. seconded by Babu Ea- W. him. Bahadur. Xavier in the Mirdt-ul superintended the translation of the sequel. following communications were read : Observations on a Persian MS.. the meeting was evidently written earlier. The MS. and seems to be unique. BLOcniiANN. I laid before the Society Quels. The I. was In point of style. however. has this history of the twelve apostles * * *" * been written in honour of his Majesty the present .. Deputy jendralala Mitra. The copy belongs to the Serampore College LibraFrom a remark in the book. assist- sentences run smoothly and are occasionally elegant. appears that it was composed in 1608 A.. A. Collector of Moradabad. and dedicated by him to the Emperor Akbar. A. D. and mentions A. before a rare and curious Persian MS. Xayier dedicates the work of Christ to Jahangir. It was a by Jerome Xavier. D. to and was dedicated Quds. therefore. so. Calcutta Madrasah. The first chapter. as the Latin translation of it by the writ- celebrated Ludovicus de Dieu of Leyden speaks of it as a distinct it work. The may. Esq.. says ** J. In the preface. At the meeting held life in May last year. The sequel to this work has now turned up. by Jerome Xavier. a candidate for ballot at tlie next meeting Babu Ganga Prasad. Lieut. conclude that We Maulana 'Abdussattar of Labor. M. on the Lives of the Twelve Apostles. He As the history of the }iis life was written during the title reign of late Majesty 'Arsh-ashyani Jalaluddin Akbarshah. who Qiids. entitled Mirat-til of Christ. is [July. receiving from him the of Mirdt-ul from motives of gratitude.

now Slialijalian] committeicfc.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. itself calls for no further remark. The name of the king has been compared coins. in the Christian Spectator. Thomas contains nothing new. I hope. p. II. on Abulfazl's death at the hand of Rajah Bir Singh Bundelaii (wrongly called iu nearly all printed histories Nar Singh) deserve the attention of historians. The second part of De Laet's woi-k. sed Bt pueroa Mahometanis invisos facoret eb eadeni levitate a fide Christiana qui Barampore discessorat Shiili and . known. . ." Thus we see tliat the title of the former work. whose indifference conferred a title to everything. i. the shadow of God on earth. but because he ivished his nephews despicable in the ei/es appear of his Muhammadan courtiers. I may mention that a notice of the first part of De Laet's work (the geographical portions) lately appeared in the Calcutta Review by Mr. 214). and receive a name from his Majesty. dignity'. rursus abstraxerat. the last fight with 'Usman. not because he to cared for the religion. is well lives of the twelve apostles. the Qdhib-qinm (Lord of the auspi- cious conjunction). e. upon the The work Lewis has Jiily. Christian religion and the Dutch us that De TiSLct^De Impe7'lo Magni Mogolis. p. 1871. lately written a J. We know from Muhammadan historians sons received lessons in the traveller (Badaoni) that Akbar's . Lethbridge of the Hugli College. Xavier's life of St.'^ Copies of both Persian works by Jerome Xavier have been for the Library of the Society. Sultan Klmrram. made * Jam onto retuHmns Regem qunra majorem natii filium Gousro [Kliusmn] minori siio filio Sultano Gorrn [nunc Xa Zialinu. and deserves to be translated His remarks on Jahangii-'s ilan^abdars and their Mancjabs. 139 emperor. unii commississe frati'ii sui Dhan Cha [Danyal Shall] filios. His mission to king Gondapherus of Hindustan and the establish- ment of the Nestorian Christians in the south of India are I'elated in several works. Xa-Ethimoreui efc Xa-Hossen [Sbali Tahmuraa Hoshang]. on Khusrau's murder by Shahjahan. and will.1871. non quod Cliristiauae religioni faverefc. save superstition. meet with his approval. is also irteresting and valuable. review of it The Rev. C. to that of king Gondophares who occurs on Baetrian Antiquities (Prinsep's by Thomas. 271) tells jahangir ordered the sons of his younger brother Prince Danyal to be baptized and instructed in Christianity. B. quos in ipsa pueritia Jcsuitia cominiserat baptizandos et Christiana roligione imbuendos. the light of the dynasty that rules over the ideal and worldly kingdoms. the Mirdt-ul Quds was given by Akbar hut there is no record to show that Jahinglr. the successor in power and the true son and heir of the late emperor. the historical portion.

and often misleading. has been appealed to by least half a dozen apocryphal Upanishads. and manifest in his addressed as the Allah of the prophet {rasul) called own light. nity of Allah as described to establish the divi- spurious document has lately been received from of Benares. and then describes Allah all blessings. has availed himself of to escape detection. and has ceased iat As the Sakha in question it to be so for several centuries. is very obscure. lions and aquatic animals. MiTRA. and notably by the Gopala Tapani. which form the vija mantra of one of the manifestations of the Mrini) goddess Durga. the author describes in detail a forgery which was committed about three centuries ago. A plural verb has been twice used for a singular nominative. He Muhammad Akbar. Proceedings of the Aiiiatic Society. no longer extant. with a view to prove. and gloried repeatedly by being Arabic phrase Alldhu Ahhar. apparently so style. "the great God" in the with a prayer for the It terminates preservation of men. (Abstract. The language of the MS. Even in his woi-k on India. and the adjectives do not always a cursory penisal of De Laet's work on Persia. His topographical notes on Bihar and Bengal are worthless. there is much that is copied from others. to serve for their parentage. made with a view to imitate the Yedic but the imitation is neither happy nor grammatically correct. in the course of which a female is divinity. A copy of this Babu Harischandra bears the titled of " Allah Upanishad.140 II. but is a compilation from other works on Persia. the destroyeress of demons (asura san- invoked with the Tantric mystic formulae hrum. the Lord of the gods (illah). It opens in the usual Hindu style with a salutation to Ganesa. during the last century. [JulY^ Notes on the Allah Upanishad. and the author of the work under notice." and prois be a chapter of the Pippaldda Sahhd of the Atharva Yeda. hrin and phat. cattle. I am inclined to think contains no original matter.) — hy Ba'bu Ea'jendrala'la After adverting to the imitation of the Yajur Yeda prepared by the Jesuit missionaries of Madras. that it From . all to the bestower of is is be both Mitra and Yaruna that he is and the supporter of the Universe. the authenticity of the Bible and the divinity of Jesus Christ. He . fesses to It by the Emperor Akbar. by Yedic evidence. proit bably aware of the circumstance.

but as there were several such officers during the long and prosperous reign of that monarch. a Hinduit is newspaper of Lucknow. too. If any of the three had written the Allah Upanishad.1871. it could only be the last. son of Bairam. 986. Khan Khanan par excellence of Akbar's to reign. A writer in the Oudh Akhhar. which of them was the author of Mr. unlikely man to undertake the edition But he. was a great Sanskrit scholar. anything else but a writer. he cori'espond with thoir nouns. Consequently. Mirza 'Abdurrahim. and many Hindus oven now maintain its authenticity. The late Sir Kiija Eadliakanta was so far taken in hy it that.] Troceedinya of tliP. Akbar had three. The work novertholoss. introduced in his great lexicon the words Alia and Ilia as Sanskrit vocables. was a most of a Hindu work. oij its authority. could be the only one whom the imputation could refer. mot with groat success. It is said in the A'ln i Alchari that Kadaoui. Mun'im Khan. People . The use to his of Akbar's name his suggests the idea that it was got up was. Aniatic Hociety. when first published. . 141 Tho collocation is also defective. Bairam was a bigotted Shi'ah. and freely stig- and was employed by Akbar Veda in Persian. Bair^m. and AUah the God to ridicule the religion of Muhammad Akbar believe is it and not that of the Arabian prophet. and Mun'im a brave. says the woi'k of the Khanhhandn of Akbar. I3abu Eaj endralala Mitra mentioned that the Allah Upanishad was ascribed to one of Akbar's Khan Khauans. Akbar had commenced to abjure Islam and Mun'im at Gaur in 983. and Mirza 'Abdurrahim. but as he matized it in his history of Akbar's reign . it is not at all likely that he would be guilty of of calling Akbar a prophet. pious soldier. H. unless Akbar. could only have been written after A. in translating the Atharva was a devout Muhammadan who looked with horror upon the new faith of his master. it is in the time of that emperor by one of his courtiers to give cui'rency new faith among Hindu subjects. the the book from which year but Bairam died in 9G9. Besides. but who it im- possible now to determine. the author of the Muntakhab uttawihikh. we was done with a view "which stani scarcely probable. Blochmann said it is not possible to ascertain this gross religious imposition.

James.. and as the have been Upanishad had been referred to Akbar's times. and there was. took Lim for a Shi'ah in Sunni garb. he might be the author of it. M. and nowhere does Badaoni. as Naqib Khan. Gradually these clouds spread over from I then observed distant E. knew little of the vernacular. that they had to get help in reading the Hindi versions. cutta ON the 8th June. are well written. 0. the entire sional flashes of lightning to S. III. 259]. N. the title page of which mentions Faizi as the author. . Memorandum on the Thundee-Storm which passed over Calhg J. I first observed dark masses of cloud rolling up at the time S. About 9 p. E. the slightest allusion to Hindu The imputation lately received therefore falls to the ground. p.142 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society' [July. weeks ago. having been made from Hindi. that I cannot bring myself to is that Faizi the author. and S. tlie censor of Akbar's tendencies in the age. and though especially some passages in there are in slips it the beginning. to print Mr. A few it. this subject. so many Hinduized Persian phrases and occasional believe in rhyme and metre. Blochmann said that this was a mere supposition the statement of Faizi being the first Muhammadan that learned Sanscrit was an exploded error [Elliot's Index. Blochmann said that as Muhammadan historians invariably re- present the translations which appeared during the reign of Akbar. By . m. from the even so Some of the translators. 1871. I examined the book. no evidence whatever that the great poet knew Sanscrit. and thunder with occa11 p. although the direction of the wind was from the N. Esq. to Maulavi 'AbduUatif observed that Faizi was known the iirst Muhammadan that studied Sanscrit. to West and N. Mr. W. Maulavi 'AbduUatif thought that under these circimistances Faizi resembled the works. from the south. putting their many Europeans who got their Munshis own names on the title page. besides. and not directly by the Maulavis Sanscrit. W. make Khan Khanan. I In connection with may mention that the Society from Allahabad a copy of a metrical Persian trans- lation of the Bhagavat Gild.

The was alive with sparks. W. observatory. appeared me) shooting in and out of the conductor over the anemometer Gr. W. as far as I could possibly observe. and I now to at top of the S. and felt sure that the storm was to close in my neighlightOffice. came from clouds from sleeping. flashing to and from it. and I distinctly rently lower than those coming from the N. first and N. Suddenly there was a streak of lightning from a cloud overhead which almost blinded mo. and all.. W. It my ed to south. W. This drew my at- tention to the north and I then walked out to an open terrace on was now midnight. 1.1871. Several crashes followed in quick succession on the north and N.. M. fig. overhanging the northern portion of the the north of city. A. the severe claps of thunder and vivid flashes of lightning were observed by me. The clouds from the south were appahouse. I now took up my position so as watch the ning conductors and observatory on the Surveyor General's distant from my house about 150 j'ards : — mo to to city At 1-20 E.. an irritation about the surface of the skin caused by my hair turning. I experienced a peculiar sensation of uneasines which prevented nie I got out of bed and walked into my verandah which faces the south. viz. this was A. while the roar of thunder was con- tinuous for nearly 30 or 40 seconds at a time. The lightning first was extremely vivid and the noticed. and had not been tliere above ten minutes. bourhood. plate II. while others seemed rushing towards them from the N. and north. 0. M. 14. At times the flashes of lightning followed with barely an interval of a second between each. sparks (as it thunder deafening.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. On these clouds meeting or crossing each other. followed on the instant The appearance of the conductor is given in portion of the conductor from A to A . Eain coming about I 1 on. when I was startled by a regular crash of thunder on the west. the wind had veerobserved black masses of cloud coming up from the south. the large masses of black clouds seemed to be traversing over the southern portion of the from W.3 sky was overcast with heavy black clouds and about this time. had often felt now experienced a sensation very similar to that when overtaken by storms in the higher HimalayI as. wind N. I returned to the south verandah .

and the horizontal After this there was lull for portions emitted sparks for an instant only. which shot back again into the cloud. was similarly afi'ected. to S. shewn in on II horizontal portions of the conductor from A to A and B to B receiving and emitting sparks.144 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. "What I witnessed will be best understood from the drawing given in figure 3. for nearly 4 hours. over Chowringhee and Park Street and south towards the Martiniere. and then turn round by east to north or N. East. discharged upon the Ofiice. This was momentary. Throughout this storm. there was a sound of metal striking metal. About i to 2 A. the lightning and thunder was incessant. each other. This seemed extraordinary to me. but not a spark seemed to touch the point. at each fiash and explosion the masses of cloud seemed to recede from rise and then fall lower towards the earth than before. The observatory appeared a mass of fire. and from W. and then flashed off towards the East end of Park Street this discharge I believe struclc No. that the horizontal portion of stair pi. a perfect nearly 10 minutes and then followed a succession of fiashes and detonations. east The conductor above the anemometer (A) and the one on the of the Ofiice (B) again appeared red hot. I again Again the conductor over the anemometer was alive with sparks along the same portion of it from A to A. of plate II. it from the observatory as roughly to the back fig. From Government . and as I was anxious to observe aU I possibly could. 22. M. 2. all overhead. and I observed the large conductor on the east of the Surveyor Generals Office looking as if it was red hot. This first portion of the storm seemed to me to pass away to the South and East. . While watching this. there was a flash of lightning and I distinctly saw a stream of electricity. case . I closely watched the streams of electricity discharged towards this city and really fancied that nearly every house must have been struck. and now noticed watched the observatory. which I can only describe as a blaze of lightning and a terrific roar of thunder. by a detonation wliicli made me shudder. [July. so I watched more closely to see if any other portions of the conductor were similarly afi'ected. from a cloud overhead. Park Street.

1 11 .Plate H.TT.' I M ^ F ^^' 'a' '^4 '^' 'v-i / Tt \ U 1 Tt \ . . r M r te L I r^r gTTSWT' mcogpaphed at tlw Surveyor GviLeral's Office CalcuXta.w.^. k4. .^. A. TTTTTj ' ^' U 3=^ ' xi. r^ . 111.w.

. 1871.^roceedin-gs of iJie Asiatic Society of Ben'j'al for July. ir7T7\rr7Tvi"T'./|\*" -< mumummmmm I rnraBis^aoiiaiioasss .. F%: 1. j \\/\ h U /J/ii /UlL/JL Fi^:2. Plate II..

Mr. that arrangements should be made similar to those already existing at Greenwich and Kew for the registration of the electric potential of the air. Jamos' note. I think cari-ied management of observations of the insti'ument . occur in the air delicate Not only during visible storms. therefore. in reading Mr. regularly. I would. been taken to register atmos- pheric electricity in this country consisted in two portable elec- . The only steps that have. strongly of the Meteorolo- recommend gical to those who have the management Department at Calcutta.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Hocietij. H. however. may be ascribed to an Mr. that atmospheric electricity can only be on with any practical when they man who can devote his • time to meteorological registration. I believe. This difficulty.'Blanford. can be overcome when to the sufficient attention and time can be devoted Therefore. 145 ITouso noitliwards and wostwards towaivls Howrah. and imfortunately the season when observations of atmospheric electricity would be most interesting. I think. electrometers as they are called. and as the storm advanced Southwards and Eastwards.1871. artificially is the very time when it is most difiicult to maintain an dried atmosphere. I observed the same circle phenomena extending. — observations too of this kind are in the hands of a are only valuable when made benefit. The zigzag flash returning from a struck object to the clouds and then back again to the earth optical deception. as nearly as I could ascertain to the Martiuiero from the Fort up Park Street in a and over towards the General Hospital. that : Mr. said thunderstorm. however. suggested that the appearance of sparks given off by the horizontal part of the conductor might perhaps be due to a discharge towards the falling rain drops. thoro ap- peared to nie an almost continuous discharge of the electric fluid. during the monsoon. but at all times there phenomena which instruments electrically more than our senses are able to see and measure. Ayrton. viz. that the air inside them should be kept dry . The best artificially kind of such instruments. require. James' paper It is. to less startling displays we must look for our physical information about atmospheric electricity. is certainly a vivid description of an Indian however.

Allahabad to Agra. to be unserviceable. tromoters being sent out about two years ago to the Indian Telegrapli Department. Indore to Agra. Agra to Umballa. and partly on the of this year.14 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Mr. it is just possible that they may be connected. but from an error in packing tbey were both so damaged as more suited observatory. than for making delicate measurements at an The instruments at present in use in Europe for this purpose are very perfect. As an example and of the importance of observations of atmospheric terrestrial currents I may mention that from tests 1 made partly on the 10th. occurred at Calcutta. These instruments too were at different places for mating rough measurements while travelling. visited as it is by thunderstorms doing such a vast amount of damage. so that the electric state of the weather. Woodrow observed that he heard several persons stating that they saw the conductor of a house appearing red hot during the late storm. And if in the observatories in Europe and Australia to carry it is thought worth while on a regular system of observations of atmos- pheric electricity mainly for the purjDOse of endeavouring to connect the results of these observations with the weather. In the cases where the line ran nearly due north and south the current was such as could have been produced by the insertion of about Calcutta to in the 8 galvanic cells in the line. that natural electric currents ly any connection with Earthquakes. it 2th of Pebruary appeared that very strong positive natural currents were flowing through the telegraph lines in the directions Deesa to Agra. still as we know very about either of these phenomena. In the other cases 16th of February it varied from about 8 to 2 cells. [July. air may act as how much more important a barometer to foretell the is it that such a system of observations should be established in a country like India. in all cases same direction from southward to northward. On the the earthquake Now I do not for a moment conclude from have necessarilittle this solitary instance. . and give on sensitive paper a photographic curve showing the electric state of the atmosphere. partly on the 11th. Eaneegunge and Calcutta to Sahibgunge. depending partly on how nearly the line ran due north and south.

F. n. Survey was protected iron rod. At Biuiuoo. but did not seem altogether satisfactory. But actual motion to the same angular extent of which is. Falling drops would. found on the ground as a fused mass of and liaving been re- moved was ning. in this way. Mr. James had to deal. pass in just as close proximity to the vertical portion of the rod as to the horizontal. A lower vapour-bearing current . James had eviand approach of two of lightning between them. and in a like condition. T. Some of the mentioned did not appear to be easy of explanation. No class of phenomena was so^diffieult of precise observation. Jamos assured him. apparent in tho instant of the flash would be something truly enormous The storm was evidently one of the ordinary typo prevalent oscillation as that ! here at this time of the year. James.1871. This effect was ascribed to light- The President said they were indebted to Mr. Blanford accounted for the manifestation of sparks or coruscations on the horizontal portion alone of the conductor ingenious. which before were not separable from a back ground connecting them. in another year found to have been fused like tho former.s kind. Blauford montiouoJ that ho had boon iuformod by Mr. In one particular. he supposed. it Without any disparagement might perhaps bo doubted whether he had been able to possess himself of the actual phenomena with complete accuracj'.] Proceedings of the Asiulic Socittij. ho was informed that an observatory erected for the G. both on account of the extreme shortness of their duration. tlie apparent connection was resumed. and when the light disappeared again. by a lightning conductor. The mental impression produced by this rapid succession of events gave rise most naturally to the idea of relative motion of tho two cloud masses. Jamos of a vory striking instanco of tlii. and the absence of a standard of com- parison and measui'ement. dently been misled. The mutual recession clouds upon the passage of a flash of which he spoke. as Mr. as that with which Mr. James for a very graphic description of a thunderstorm. merely illumined and so The flash revealed an interval between two cloud masses. 147 Mr. phenomena The mode in was which INlr. subsequently iron. to Mr. which was described as a thick This rod was. was illusory. which was frequently visited by severe tliunderstorms.

he would suggest by way of test for the future that a collar of wax or resin be kept continually surrounding the rods of all the principal buildings in the town.148 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society S. and S. He. Indeed this could scarcely ever be done with much acciu'acy except for a limited region near the zenith. or crossed by. Ayrton observed The explanation has just occurred to me of the phenomenon observed by Mr.. It was always matter of much nicety to determine the true motion of a cloud mass. James towards the east after the bulk of the storm had passed. This encounters. Somewhat later in the evening Mr. I will refer again to that subject. normal course of the monsoon current is rains. W. somewhat above the first. but not from the vertical portions of the lightning it discharges. en echelon S. With regard making it conductor to the extent of luminous. . is was passing over from the N. James of sparks appearing to issue from the horizontal. when the vapour-bearing not interfered with by a differently conditioned cross current. is seldom found to be accompanied by any great manifestation of thunder and lightning. the course of a condensing cause coming up from the The latter is no doubt a relatively colder and generally swifter moving current. often perhaps The result is a curious movement partially driving through it. was then almost impossible to the alleged heating of the with the eye alone to form even an approximate estimate of the geometrical dimensions. [July. the heavy storm masses as a whole gather first in the N.) confidence could be jplaced was afraid that little attri- upon the correctness of the path buted to the lightning flashes. "W. and seem to traverse the sky as if coming from that quarter. : while the lower clouds appear to be coming from the W. (the President. And he might make the same remark with regard to the behaviovir of the clouds spoken of by Mr. so if be not contrary to the rules of the Society. Many causes of deception existed with regard to this. W. Also the two atmospheric currents in highly contrasted meteoroloIn tho gical condition give rise to violent electrical disturbance. The apparent angular motion did of a portion of a surging mass at sufiicient a low altitude It not afford data for the purpose. however heavy the downfall may be. the precipitation of water.

AYRTON. Proceedings A.WE..S B for J-ul^ 18 V 1 FLin o -U^ .

expect eye no discharge along EF. KL or at the point J. or tendency to produce discharge at any point near portions of length. but sparks issuing from. by Lieut. per unit The electricity. F. CD &c. the horizontal portions AE and FG. Now by Faraday's law tlie portions of the conductor AB. therefore. but slit this light falling on the of a spectroscope would not be of any use. At the last meeting of the Society after the conclusion of the President suggested. J. to see -with the We may. 130. that all visit my Memorandum who might have the opportunity should the Neilgherries. [July. and least along the portions EF. S. GH.150 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. . and that those having spectroin fact scopes should use them. GM be a and the silent vertical portion KA. a charged body. directed nearly to the nor would it be impossible that any one so armed should see some lines of light or darkness which he believed to be unseen by others. therefore those EF. therefore. whereas along the length of the conductor it will be disruptive or in the form of sparks. sure on the air. The at this time comes about. will be most concentrated at the point J of the conductor and least concentrated at the angles But the resultant presy. Tennant. therefore the discharge will be greatest at the point J. F. 8. GH which are longest contain least electricity. The only difference being that at the point J the discharge although greatest will most probably one.. and should endeavour to contribute their share to the result. each contain equal quantities of electricity. IV. next greatest along the horizontal portions AE. partly from the Corona and partly from the Protuberances. and along the vertical portion KA. is directly proportional to the electric density or the amount of electricity per unit of area at that point. but unless we can distinguish the objects which emit each ray little we are really gaining knowledge.Col. E. There is no difficulty in seeing during the Total Phase of an Eclipse lines of light varying more or less in number and brightness with a spectroscope sun . while there is of course such faint diffused light as is We know to that this mixed light must vary with the point which happens be in the prolongation of the line of vision of the spectroscope. Sugyestions for Visitors to the Total I^dipse on I2th December. FG-. 1871.

without special means. now.] Proceedinys of the Asiatic Society. If he is in any degree anxious or nervous. and it is seeing so it is add no material fact to what is known. I purpose. to offer some suggestions to visitors who are not content with this. He may far then see what others have seen before. 151 An amateur (in up Lis one sense wo aro all so) then. Fauvelle moment when the gives the following from Perpignan. ly He has then only to mark his place accurate- on the Atlas of India. could not recommend any one going down . have no clear idea of what he pretty certain that he will sees in the instrument. out due preparation can see. but he can. and deliberately gives up the sight for the chance of being of use. help towards the problem of determining the These data Solar and will Lunar diameters and. Any person possessing a chronometer and the means of finding its error. however. must before maldng loses : mind to such a proceeding consider what ho I ven- ture to say that he will entirely lose the great sight. is of course quite different. As I explained before. if accurate. to the Eclipse-line with- to lose one of the most magnificent sights he and to miss the opportunity of appreciating how much it has been given to man to penetrate into the mysteries of nature. As Totality comes on if he does not mean to take the moment and of the Sun's disappearance. the contact is especially difficult to note. provides I himself with adequate apparatus. I periniensiti/ " ceived the ast rays of the sun to trndulate with great and . in pursuance of a promise to the President. and deduce his Latitude and Longitude and height above the Sea. I quote some " accounts of this from Grant's History of Physical Astronomy.1871. I would advise him to lay aside his Telescope. or some good map. will do a service if he will simply note the four moments of contact of the Sim's first and Moon''s Limbs. but the other three are comparatively easy. In " the 18-12. . they cannot be too numerous. At Eclipse was about to become Total. more likely that he will lose the real sight without much. In order to he must deliberately shut himself out from this. see with tlie spectroscoi)e. and look for the strange fringes of colour or light shade which mark the commencement of this Phase. The case of a man who having carefully made up his mind to objects and methods of examination. M.

The effect was ana- " logons to that produced by those moveable shadows which are " seen at the bottom of a shallow basin filled with clear water when " the surface. Hue or white. " he saw the Moon's shadow pass upon the wall." At Seyne. Lentheric at Montpellier says " A little be^'fluctuating light:' " fore the commencement of the total obscuration there were seen " on the ground and on the walls undulating shadoivs composed of a " succession of arcs. *' at the moment of the total immersion of an Eclipse of the Sun. Savournin ** says : " There were here and there seen shadows and luminous patches running after each other. others yelloiv. " The second observation is one which a curi"ous individual acquainted me with having made by mere " accident. the effect of which was similar to that produced by the passage of a " succession of small clouds over the sun.. [July. of rapidity on a white wall of one of tlie Military Establishments " the Eampart of St. is illuminated by the sun's rays. Poulain a . The same phenomenon appeared were at first at the emersion of the sun. Mr. tinged with different " colours. The effect might be compared falls " with that which is observed when the light of the Sun upon " a wall or ceiling after having been reflected from the surface of "water *' in a state of agitation. " remarked only a few instants before the complete disappearance Professor Grant quotes some Swedish observations of 1733. and trying to "put This extraordinary phenomenon was their hands on them. slightly agitated. some loerered. Having directed his attention to a large white wall. " during the few seconds devoted by his " the observation of such Arago states that colleagues and himself to of the great tower phenomena the facades " of the citadel of Perpignau appeared illuminated by a singularly M. These patches were not *^ all of the same colour. but "of the sun.^'' This phenomenon was also seen and drawn by M. him from however." they do not seem to me to refer to the same phenomenon." the undulations very intense and gradually died away. The " " children amused themselves running after them. The clearly accompanying quoted by refers to this. which seemed to turn on themselves. Delisle. *'M.152 *' Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 3 or 4 decimetres in length. but of *' much less breadth. Dominique.

but it was seen again. At the moment of the " falling of the dark shadow." nalist : One sees here the pen work of the American Jour- indeed Mi*. presenting an " indescribable richulfess with their back ground of sombre moun" tain.'s 2nd (the Queen's) Regt. unless I mistake. was the effect upon the clouds during **tho total obscuration. being on White Top" (near Abingdon.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Savournin's statement. Addison liad a large from memory)-^" more than one of his . in 1869. save (in the M. which we to describe. "till they seem " now attempt ** *' to meet. Colonel Addison and M. Charles Coale refers to it. Stretching along this semicircle of "mountains and in long horizontal lines. Those who have had the privilege of " all to us. To our vision it was as if bands of broad ribbon of every " conceivable hue had been stretched in parallel lines half round the '* " universe. I expressed as to the reality of the phenomenon which. Virginia and 5530 high) feet "and enjoying the westward scene. that the children ran after these shadows. officer at 1 . will remember the "grand panoramic view of mountains beginning on the north"ern and southern horizon and stretching away to the west. or astronomical " knowledge. Poulain are the sole persons I know. these clouds became arrayed in all the colours of the rainbow. In 1868. M. sheet hung up and (I quote Col. I think ono might have considered as absence of evidence to the contrary) caused while resting a weary eye. wlioso attention tlio Astronomer Eoyal called to to it. as if resting on their wings during the seem- ing struggle between the orbs above them. far below the Sun lay light fleecy clouds. so rapidly that they could not measure the velocity in in the direction which the Moon was advancing on the Sun. looked for this who have cription phenomenon. considerable doubt for matter at Aden. " The grandest of who had no astronomical ambition. officers saw these shadows passing rapidly across the sheet . and will appreciate the scene. * The papers were scut . Addison of 11. to gratify.5 3 French Goreo in 1861. and I believe that the following des- by Mr. Coale in another letter remarks that ho was to the Royal Asfcroaomical Society. I asked examine this Col. when naught was to be seen above " but the stars and the circle of light around the moon.1871.

154 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. by It is eminently fitted for examination those unaccustomed to use instruments. It is quite impossible notwithstanding exaggeration to compare this. as being colours he had seen. to it must be by special ai-rangements allowing large pictures be rapidly taken in some Eclipse of the future. descriptions to be written so as to enable drawings to be made and immediately afterwards. when found. plan will be to attack the first such object seen and adhere to it. The occasion will. be very favourable. purple. and and " a band of lilac." though not green or blue. will not deprive them of the great spectacle. The parts I would refer to are those which I have in my Report of 1868 called it flare. they should not allow their attention to go. probably the best . yellow orange. though if the air be steady enough high power would concentrtite the attention by limiting the space. was streaming from them into the general light of the Corona. It is alleged too that there are nodes and bands of light in the Corona of complicated structure and quite free of the Sun these too might be noticed. but was quite impossible to examine carefully my original negatives without a strong conviction. and. without great a sacrifice of personal feelings. which I take from Mr. Lastly. from which. I would urge on those who I trust may be induced to . while I believe worth investigation. As photography Indeed if will probably be entirely directed to the general Corona. phenomenon was the same that M. Grant. I think. luminous though much less so than the body of the protuberances. At present I would call the attention of draughtsmen to these spots. Moderate power would alone be necessary. these brighter parts will be to a great extent lost in detail. I would suggest the Belection of certain parts of the Corona and their careful scrutiny. without seeing that the Savoiu'nin saw at Seyne. I did not of course see them all then. To too those one degree more professional who may possess tele- scopes on mountings and seek to do some further service. that in those j)laces at events gas. they are to be done justice to by Photo- graphy. Proctor's late work and he j)roceeds to fiery red. all [July. probably extravagant in giving the clouds the colours of the rainbow (though he considers this allowable in country journalism) name " pink." on the Sun with the descriptions I have quoted from Professor .

receipt of the following communications was announced. H. Such as take an interest in the history of Orisa. V. and to concentrate them on the duty they have undertaken. interruption.* a description of the memorials of the Afghan conquest. of strangers. or A. lose all the great sight of the To suffer men who are content to day for work. 15G7. of Ihe Joiu-nal. if you accept the position. But the Akbarnamah gives A. The period of Orisa liisiory in the Akbarnamah extends from about 1500 to the end of the lUlh century. Possibly volunteers may be wanted for some work then. at a distance fi-om those who remembering that an involuntary motion or exclamation. do that work in perfect silence where it does not require speech but. Note on Lieut. The Antiquities of Jdjpur. &c. is in itseK a service work without though one which does not force itself into notice. II. MacMaster's of birds from Nagpore. D. The paper will be printed in the second number of Part I. . to rcmciuLov. Babd Chandcr Sekhar Banurji mentions piir. Pt. W. 155 go to the Eclipse track by curiosity or ledge. early notices of Jaj- (Abstract). 975. The EorroR. to do their to science. keep have. should read the beginning of the annals of the 37th year of Akbax''s reign as given in the Akbarniimah.. Monograph by of Indian Ci/prinid(e.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Blanford. and tliat there nothing so injurious to good observation. Day. Tlierearo most extraordinary differences between Abulfazl's account and that of Stirling. than many others about.1871. are obtainable. legends connected with the invasion of Orisa by the Af- ghans under Kala Pahar in 1558. and even the presence. from is A\liicli views can be got. . * This is the year mentioned by Stirling. by Surgeon F. you have no share in the worh. wliich professes to bo taken from the Piiii Vainsavali.-Col. provided tliat good MSS. may seriously disturb those to the who are endeavouring to close their minds surrounding circumstances. as the motion. The 1. the importance of Jajpiir as a place of pilgrimage. list 2. T. tliat well equipped parties (I liope the some hope of adding to knowMadras Observatory may send one) are not able as a rule to choose better sites. if . and a description of temples and several other works of nindu sculpture. — ly Babu Ciiundek Sekhar Banurji.

XIII Gregurs Gyula. S LL. else masodik. Else Fiizet : szerkeszti. B. BaU. and V. The Statistical Society of London. — Ertekezesek A. March 1871. . 1871. C. Abstract of Proceedings of the Calcutta. — 17: Masodik Evfolyam. XV. Fiizet Elso. Presentations. Library. part L— The Author. Kiadja a Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia As Osztaly Eendelete bol. The following additions have been made to the Library since the mooting hold in June last. Kiadja A Magyar Tudomanyas Hunfalvy Pal. The Chemical Society of London. . G. March and April. 1871. Notices. of London. Murray. IX. XI Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia Jegyzokony. :— Nyelvtudomanyi Kozlemenyek. July. 127. Akademia Nyelvtudomanyi Dizottsaga. D. szam 1. nomical Society of London. Hetedik Kotet. A. levelezo taq Tzam 1. 1867. Nyelvtudomanyi Kozlemenyek. Esq. Journal of the Chemical Society. 1st Maggio. Palmer.. Eoyal Society of London.156 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. . 1 —20.— Dr. Esq. I. Vols. Oldham. XXVIII— XXX Index to the First twenty-nine volumes of the Monthly Notices. February. Vol. Palmer. Eeport on the Hill of Mohendragiri and the native part of Barwah. by C. A. Vols. —TnE Eoyal AstroXIX. Societa Geografica Italiana. M.. Fuzet 1-2. Termeszettudomanyi Osztaly Koreleol. Magyar Tudomanyas Aicademia. XXXV XXXVIII .— The Vol. Society or Calcutta. 1869. Almanach 1867. 1871. Historical and Statistical Memoir of the Ghazeepur District. Otodik Kotet. Proceedings of the Eoyal Society. Masodik. Mahomedan Literary Society of The Mahomedan Lit. Harmadik Ertesitoje szerkesgti. Pest. : —A : — Elsd Evfolyam. volume sesto. No. The Eoyal Geographical Society Journal of the Statistical Society of London. Capt. Proceedings of the Eoyal Geographical Society. Hatodik Kotet. C. Fiizet. szam. W.. B. D. by W. . 1868. No. harmadik . Bollettino della Societa Geografica Italiana.. ^*^ Names of donors in Capitals- Memoirs of the Eoyal Astronomical Society.

3 — L. No. Holothurien. — Quarterly and 4. Eeeve's April 1871. the Eeport on the Financial Eesults of the Excise Administration in Lower Provinces. 274. 157 A Loeturo on the ^rodoru Buddhistic Eesoarchos by Babu Earn Diiss Sou. Long. in 1G31. Lctlibridgo. English Legislation for India by A. — Sarabjeo Shapoorjee Bengalee . Nos. —Semper's 1. — H. The Holy Bible in Short Hand The Parsee Acts by — —A . Blumhardt. Eeview Science. Uber dasEamayan von A. — Comptes Eendiis serie. Esq. 1869 70 Eeport on the Cultivation and — — preparati(jn of Tabacco in India. corum. by G.] rroceedwfiH of the Asiatic Society. The Government of Bombay. Government of Bengal. — — Christian Spectator. No. A. Purchase. Selections from the Eecords of the 118. 284 — American Journal of — 287. Lewis. concerning Calcutta. Historical Notice Manual of Geography by Major T. : Eev. — Phonetic Joiu*nal. Band of Man. Candy J. Outlinesof Amharieby Eov. The Authok. The Editor. — Yambery's Uigurische Sprachmonumente und das Kudatker Bilik. Broadley. W. Blochmann. Band I.1871. The Calcutta Journal of Medicine. M. 7 12. Conchologia Iconica. The Autiiou. Vols. 15 — —Peer's 17. Topography of the Mogul Empire as known to the Dutch by E. — Darwin's Descent I. Vol. Tlio Grammar of Arabic. Etudes Bouddhicj[ues. Nos. E. B. Bombay Government. and Dublin Philosophical Magazine. The Autuok. — De Goeje Bibliotheca Geographica Arabiin Hadramaut. The Nos. — Spiegel's Errmische Alterthums— Lexicon Latino-Japonicum. C. — Eeise kunde. pr. Eev. M. 2. 23 . C. lutroduction to a Philosophical Leitner. by Dr. . I. Weber. 119. Nos. H. Forbes Watson. The Author. .


Esq. Justice Phear. Blanford. Pettier.. proposed by L. Esq.. Stoliczka. proposed by Dr. Ehenius. Day. P. The 3. T. T. — and a copy of Tamil and English Dictionary at by Eev. F. Atkinson. President. p. The minutes of the last meeting were read and continued. Weduosday the 2ud instant. first — during the 2. Chatterji. Tlie following the last gentlemen are candidates for ballot at the next meeting. From C. Presentations were announced 1. Esq. H. The Hon'ble Mr. From H. found west of Bard wan. E. the Government of Madras. F. S. was elected an ordinary member. seconded by Dr. Esq. — a copy of * Memoir on the Indian Surveys.PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF FOR August. E.. gical Observations. R. — a copy of Tamil Grammar by Eev.* 4. F. C. inscription of the seal has not yet been deciphered.. Blochmann. Babu Gungaprasad. 1871. J. From Father M. in the chair. . Markham. a copy of Results of Meteorolomade at St.. Xavier's College Observatory. Schweudlei-. duly proposed and seconded meeting. Esq. Lafont. seconded by Mr. (for re-election). 0. at 9 o'clock. From Babu Prankissen — a stone seal. half of 1871. BENGAL The montlily mooting of tlio Society was held on m. Consulting Architect to Robert Fellowes Chisholm.

Henry Buckle. T. pro- posed by Dr. friction. And but not only is it difiicult to set a massive fly-wheel in motion. friction. I think. Tennant. proposed by L. Miles. Of all the properties of matter inertia is. but this can to a great extent be ovei'come by the bearings of the fly-wheel being well made. This property which is called inertia is best defined by Newton's law " Every body continues in its state of rest. E. or rather we should say. Schwendler. The friction certainly does in a small degree prevent motion being given. British. hy W. Asst. The weight too cannot in the least prevent motion being given to. since the action of tlie earth on each side of the wheel is. Commissioner.. Asst. he is perfectly familiar. by uniform motion we mean moving in equal times.160 Capt. Quader. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.. B. seconded by Dr. The following papers were read Some remarks on the connection between Inertia I. C. a well balanced wheel." to change that through equal spaces call those it may be compelled by impressed forces Now. F. he will probably say on account of the weight and friction. With weight. another property that matter possesses — its inability to change its own state of rest or motion. hardness. but because the ideas contained in it will jDrobably be new to the majority of those present. Esq. J. elasticity. Esq. but that matter possesses another property as important as any tioned never seems to one of those I have menIf you ask an to set a massive fly-wheel present itself to him. it is difficult ordinary practical in man why motion. we times equal during which a body unacted upon by any . AND Time. Bombay S. Agent. Ayrton. Stoliczka. Makran. is exactly the same. the one least understood by the general reader. seconded by Col. since the friction certainly is not caused by would tend to stop the motion. The following was written not on account of its actual novelty. Esq.. [Aug. Pol. or of uniform motion in a straight line. F. except in so far as state. Burma. S. or taken away from. There therefore. This itself it is difiicult to stop such a wheel when in motion. Oldham. &c.

for no person has an innate perhis inner consciousness arbi- ception of equal times. and partly energy depending dail}' on the two bodies being in motion. clocks are used in tically which the condition of a body is in motion. so that according to Newton's law those times are called equal during which the earth describes equal spaces. By is the standard body that has been selected to determine equal times by its motion. position of the earth and moon. energy deiiendiug on the relative kinetic. prac- unacted upon by any force. that is. And for comparing time without the aid of the earth's rotation. Now the earth's of the sea rotation produces tides by the mutual attraction and moon. that is. The earth and moon regarded as a mechanical system possess a certain amount of " energy. . and if a chrono- meter were now to keep true sideral time. One to effect of this loss of energy is to cause the jieriods of rota- tion of the earth round its axis and of the moon round the earth become more and more equal. Nobody can from say one time is equal to another. or better during which any particular meridional plane describes In fact equal angles. action of a arrived at by compensating by the compressed spring or otherwise for the inevi- table forces of friction. if compared with the then true sideral time. chronometer neither gained nor it to find at the was apparently too fast. we should exlost. This energy is partly potential. 161 force describes equal spaces. he tacidly assuming the of the inertia.1871. not a true time-keeper. The earth pect. and as the motion of the sea on the surface of the earth is retarded by tidal friction a certain amount of the energy possessed by the system must be lost in overcoming the friction or in generating heat. that of a minute too fast. Hours and minutes are as general consent the earth trary in their conception." or power to do work. or in other words to make the therefore. Such a chronometer it has been calculated would at the end of a century be apparently 0*4 1 end of a lapse of years. is when a person speaks fact of minutes earth's or hours.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. set period of the earth's diurnal rotation gradually longer and longer. if the is. and require just as much explanation as degrees of temperature.

pendulum per second are carefully counted now.44 of a minute in a century has been found by calculation. and in its generality cannot be touched by analysis.) would remark on Mr. we require. Such a time- keeper has been made at the University of Glasgow and consists of a spring pendulum truly balanced about in its centre of inertia and hermetically sealed tions of such a an exhausted glass tube. are of course not in pendulum left in The vibrathe least afi'ected by little air the earth. in addition to the sidoral a mechanical second which would be defined as the period. The whole tidal problem is of extreme complication. T. in a canal surrounding the earth equatorially Thus we have some knowledge of what the motion would be and of uniform. or a definite portion of the period of vibration of a body practically quite unacted upon by any force. [Aug. how our idea of inertia involved an idea of was the passive power by which change of state was resisted. . He (Col. or in similar canals passing through the poles . thought some account of on its axis. The motion of the water has been deduced on certain tides in retarding the Earth's rotation this hypotheses which are very far indeed from representing existent facts. Col. Ayrton's statement that an increase in the duration of a revolution of 0. when the number be apparently greater per second than In it will is now. and he might be interesting. and when a body was at rest there was no question of time involved but he had not come prepared to discuss The paper seemed to be mainly leading this point in detail. since a sidereal second then will really be a longer time than a sidereal second now. Tennant said did not see Inertia : He time. To compare. depth and section. time at one period of the earth's existence with time at another period solar second. and could only be influenced by the that has unavoidably been the tube producing some change in the metal of which the pendulum tions of the will The number of vibrais composed. and therefore. and be counted again at some future period. to the question which had lately been raised as to the effect of the . or great. this way the actual loss of speed of the earth's diurnal rotation can be practically measured.1 62 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.

it is theoretical result has been obtained. tlie which shows that a retardation would take place in deduce a numerical very residt. jealous of the honor of their countryman. that the time of describing orbit was was than formerly. J. and till very recently were accepted. Of course earth's ve- when on any such hypothesis a locity of rotation. Mr.1871. that mathematicians arithmetical exercises. Adams' reasoning was unanswerable and has prevailed maticians.] rroceedings of the Asiatic Society. This conclusion was hotly disputed. C. and the evidence the tides. He found that the true to explain theoretical value of the Moon's acceleration only served its about half of the observed change in to motion of which the rest had be explained. being quite impossible to represent old Eclip- ses by calculating from the known elements. It is quite unconnected with any investigations into after accurate observations of its was found very soon it the less Moon were taken. and as regards the former cases the conditions imposed by the necessities of analysis make the results rather repi'osoutations of the kind of phenomenon. however. who calculate such things occasionally give the results without those words of caution which would prevent their being misunderstood. Lately. that he thought himself justified in r. deduced a resxdt from this For long it found impossible to account for this phenomenon from gravity at last Laplace cause which so com- pletely coincided with that necessary to explain the old Eclipses. French mathebut Mr. and not as real deductions proved. His results were confirmed almost identically by Lagrange. upheld his results. This matter has of late received a great importance from the strong suspicion that there is a true retardation of sensible aniount.sserting that the sidereal day had not varied by f^g of a second between the time of Hipparchus and his day. easy to assign values to the constants and to but such results should be considered as It was Tennant thought. than capable of giving accurate values by calculation. Adams in the coiu-se of a re-examination of the Lunar Theory was led to a different residt. Col. with their consequence that any action of the tides wasrejectaneous. much to be regretted. it is acknowledged now that gravity alone does not produce the . The last case does not concern this problem greatly. . 1 fi also in canals of comparatively short length in canals and tide in various cases where the wave is dorivofl from a wave in the sea.

but Deacceleration of the ether supposed to launay suggested that the tides should produce a retardation of the Earth's velocity which might account for it. T. that the two ideas inertia and equal times are so intimately connected. Moon's motion. second half of the sentence refers only to a body at as regards a body in motion. Col." With reference to Colonel Tennant's it will be obvious that the a first half of this a sentence related to two things. and he (Col. is "What. and that when a body is at rest there is no question of time involved. that neither can be explained without reference to the other. Since then the theoretical discussion of the result of the tidal action has been in question. What follows in Colonel Tennant's remarks rather tends to show actual motion of the difficulty of applying direct calculation to the . body at rest and body in motion. whereas the rest. Ayrton replied : remark that " Inertia is the passive power by which change of state is resisted. however. Mr.) would caution all to hesitate before giving faith to figures on this subject. but that retards This precisely the opposite of the resvilt sought. inertia is Now the property it possesses to move uniformly. This or any thing similar is value of the retardation. as before. of seeing all the solutions. the result of using the order of small quantities only in the solution is that the friction it produces no the moon. [Au&. and whose sidered probable from the peculiarities of the motion of Encke's comet produced a similar though less result on the moon. reference to be made to time times. effect is on the velocity of revolution. but the problem it Tennant had not been in the way is very intricate even on analytically possible.164 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. if no reference is to tion ? meant hj moving uniformly if no Also what is meant by equal be made to the inertia of a body in mois ? I therefore maintain. the limited hypotheses which render The first Astronomer Eoyal has shown that on the supposition of a canal equatorially surrounding the earth. but he has also found in the terms of the second order one which very far from giving a trustworthy would retard the earth. I ask. It lias been suggested that the existence had been confill space.

than to show that a retardation of the earth does not exist or that the rate of this retardation couhl not be calculated. earth there must be Hoat produced in any system of boelies must to a certain extent be dissipated thermal envelope. that Laplace's celebrated explanation of the Moon's acceleration so complete as it was not nearly one half had been thought to be. therefore. But. Mr. And the loss of energy in the case in question must cause a retarearth's dation in the diurnal rotation. now many years ago. they arrived the Now the with reference to the general question. Adams and Prof. Adams. must produce heat. The connection. to discover the true cause greatest difficulty. I think. Dunthorne. Mr. as observed to tidal friction.1871. Adams demonstrated. heat is unless the heated bodies be surroimdod by a perfectly non-conducting Wherever. between tidal friction and the undoubted fact of the earth's retardation possesses. 165 the sea. The which calcuhition to wliidi I have alhidod of 0. It left about of the inequality unaccounted for. there must be a certain loss of energy. of this residuum was a task of the Any one of the who had practical experience in dealing with the formulae Lunar Theory would know quite well how complicated the problem was. produced. The best supposition one he believed that was at this time — .] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. tlio They started with assumption that tlio known difference between by by for the acceleration of the moon relative to the earth. Tait working together. as me that as long the sea moves on Friction surface the tidal friction*. appears to of independently of any calculation.44 of a minute and to Colonel Tennant objects so strongly was obtained in the following Avay by Prof. therefore. as calculated Mr. be intended ]\Ir. a high degree of probability. to the proportion of at moon and it sun. The President understood Mr. Thomson. and using a certain assumption with regard the retardations due to the result I liave given. was due and then by allowing the necessary consequent retardation of the moon's mean motion. a thing of course quite unknown. unless there exists some other cause not yet ascertained which compensates for this loss of energy. Ayrton's remarks on Inertia to to lead up to the pi'incipal topic of his short paper. and tlie actual relative acceleration.

[Aug. generally accepted. was not constant as it tide-action had always been assumed. if possible. however. Hence it becomes a matter of interest. — seemed to be that the earth's angular velocity of rotation. of the pivot of the balance wheel is The fi-iction. I would mention that Laplace proved from Fourier's theory of the conduction of heat that the acceleration of the earth's diurnal rotation produced by shrinking from cooling could not have amounted last 2. but was slowly diminishing. and serve to indisputable.ment. The arrangement can be best flat understood by imagining a straight piece of spring rigidly one end and having a mass of metal fixed at the other oscillates in end which mass spring. biit pendulum is is really more complicated than the principal of action as described. and independently of the action of gravity. As regards the President's remark that the earth by contracting may acquire sufficient acceleration to compensate for the retarda- tion produced solely by tidal friction. Ayrton said : The pendulum at the Glasgow University is to which I referred is made is. a horizontal plane by the action of the The actual arrangement of the this. On the the earth contracting in radius by a process of cooling denudation or degradation au acceleration of rotation to some extent would be the consequence. simply on the principle of the balance wheel of a watch. with the probable retardation produced by tidal .166 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. that a certain mass of metal made to oscillate by the action of a spring. The on the surface of the globe is considered by many sufficient to is eminent physicists other hand. Mr.000 years. if bring about such a result. Ayrton would kindly explain the particular mode in end was sought to be attained in the case of the Glas- which this gow instru. an ingredient in the calculation. to contrive au accurate time-keeper who shoiild be independent of the make its deviation from constancy glad if earth's rotation. obviated by the wheel and spring fixed at being virtually in one. He would be Mr. to -j^o^h of a second in the Sir William Thomson has acceleration from this cause also shown that the must be extremely small compared friction.

On their in height. if unopposed. F. and Starting from Darjiling on the 13th August. 14000 slope ft. They also passed. and thence marched. At Chumanako they found the Eaja of Sikkim. are entered at about tits. and the fi-ontier cross that to and to was guarded. M. They remained for some days in the Lachung valley at elevations of from 8000 to 16. considera- Their object was. choughs.. scrow. September.VNFORD. Tamhing and the upper Tista valley to Lachung. and Lagomijs. They spent a day near the Jelep-la which is under and then marched northwards along the west of the Chola range to Chumanako near the Chola. hy AV. a complete change taking place from the forests Malay fauna of Sikkim.000 feet. thus reaching the upper Tista drainage by a shorter and pleasanter road at this season than the hot and wet However. redstarts. C. ravens. besides the Yakla. Z. Nemi-tso and Tanyek-tso. frontiers of Sihkim in August. Lingtii. The fauna is distinctly Palpe-arctic. therefore. . crows. Bl. 167 II. when pine 8.1871. Account of a visit to the Eastern and Northern frontiers S. goral. larks. a pass leading into the Chiimbi valley of Tibet. Lsommergeyers. 1870. tree- creepers. W. OF independent Sikkim. pheasants and snow partridges are the commonest birds. and march up the Chumbi valley to the Tankra-la Lachung. larger than any hitherto mapped in Sikkim and known as the Bidan-tso. each 1^ to 2 miles in length. Cluimbi where the Eaja of Sikkim was staying.] Pnceelingi of the Asiatic Society. road they passed 3 lakes. (Abstract T. S. G. had to march round by enter Tibetan territory. pipits and finches. Ehinok. who had come to meet them. to the foot of the by Ph3'udong. Mr. to cross this pass Jelop-hi. they crossed the Ti'sta to Kfilingpung in the Daling Duar of Bhutan. T. an unmapped from Cluimbi pass called the Gnatui-la.000 feet and made a considerable collection of birds. they found. with notes on the zoology of the AXriNE AND SUB-ALPINE REGIONS. Blanford gave a brief account of a journey he had to the made in company with Captain Elwes Eastern and Northern October. and begged them not to attempt to They. bears The mammals are burhel. Chusachen and bly to the south of the Yakla. their plans were known at Ti'sta valley.

come into discredit with the Tibetans within the last 20 years. He tions. Blanford briefly the 5th October and. On at tempting to pass from the Lacliung to tlie Ldchen valley by the Donkiapass and the small portion of the upper Laclien valley which is in Tibet. Mr. described some of the traces of former glaciers which he had seen. and with much politeness said he was obliged to refuse to allow them to pass. marching back by the Tista valley. woiild appear. but in the upper Tista valley glacial markings descended to be- tween 5000 and 6000 especially noticed the great moLachen valleys. After two or three days negotiation. None were noticed on the Chola range below 12000 feet elevation. the difficulties . a much higher official. Blanford on only allude to one or two points noticed by him. tlie travellers found themselves again stopped by the Tibetans. as if the Europeans had. and 4 live Syrrhapfes Tibetanus for them. the Tibetan frontier in the Lachen valley. They left the pass on In conclusion. [Aug.168 Proceeaings of the Asiatic Society. raines of the Lachung and and expressed an opinion that the plains of Phalung. reached Darjiling again on the 20th. They were. were entirely composed of moraine accumulaft. but made by Mr. Dr. so to say. again met the Suba of Kambajong. seen. Around Kongra Lama they obtained a few birds not elsewhere amongst them a new Montifrinyilla. Stoliczka said of observations —he would not enter into the numerous details his interesting tour. compelled again to and make 10 long marches inKongra Lama pass or Djo-kongHere they tong. who had procured some Ovis ammon and goa skins. the most interesting of which was the absolute prohibition of all descend to the hot Tista valley. as Jigatzi he had just received special orders on the subject from and Lhassa. therefore. four miles long by two miles broad. stead of 2 short ones to reach imports of tea from Sikkim. difficulties Referring to the which every traveller has at the present time to encounit ter in crossing the Tibetan frontier. arrived. probably derived from the great glacier which passed down the Lachen valley. the governor of Kambajong. described by Hooker. They obtained from him a little information concerning Tibet. Some 30 or 40 years ago.

] wei*e Proceedings of the Asiatic Societij. they appeared to be The Chinese with the as rulers of the country have a monopoly in supplying Tibet with tea. far not so groat. are not directly hostile to Europeans their they invariably say that they have orders not to allow Europeans and that if they would allow it. With regard Ladak chiefly side. remarkable for instance that the two Kumaon and the Siitlej valley. of would by it- warrant the equipment It is to an expedition to these unknown regions. Stoliczka thought. And evoiy one who approached any part of the frontier of that vast unknown country will understand the anxiety of a traveller to proceed into the interior is of Tibet. he thought.. where nearly everything officers new to the observer. as this. sometimes under the greatest devoted their time to explore the sources of rivers of other countries. as for instance love for ruling or protection to a co-religionist. If his (Dr. It is allowed peacefully to cross the whole of Eastern Tibet and North China. but these seem to be of minor importance. or not. The Tibetans themselves to cross the frontier. difficulties. they refuse the country. while no one has as yet made an earnest attempt. but is not even perfectly certain whether Moorcroft had seen these sources. to discover the sources of the river from which India derives her name.1871. homes . Naturally there are besides these other reasons. even after they had been expelled by no means likely that a European would be still equally well treated at the present time. opium and all articles of luxury connected Bhudhist religion j and because they are afraid of losing Europeans access to this monopoly. that a range of hills separates the it sources of the Indus from the Mansarovara lakes. or at any rate not succeeded.') memory serves him right. Ifi9 by as several Europeans had been able to enter Tibet through IJhutau. attempting to cross the frontier from the of a commercial nature. self A subject of such general interest. Indian had. Kumaon and him to Dr. It i8 Roman Catholic Missionaries Hue and Gabbet were from Lhassa. be hoped that the endeavours of the Great Tri- gonometrical Survey to increase our knowledge of the geography of Tibet will sooner or later solve this problem. to the personal objections which Tibetans make to Europeans. that the only is knowledge we have of the sources of the Indus a state- ment by Moorcroft in his travels. reliable St. &c.

Spiti or Eastern Ladak is not opposed with force. vaginis diametro 1/180 ad 1/150 ternis v. In the Himalayas traces of old debris may be often seen 3000 and 4000 feet above the present river deposits.170 Proccediiigfi of the Asiatic Socieh/. in stagnant waters of the Lynglya eincinnata. on mud n. OsciUaria interru2)ta. arctis. would be burned down and they themselves killed or expelled A European when he goes into Tibet from ' Kumaon. 2760. articulis 1/360 lin. articulatis . Kurz. flexuosis. Ceespite atroviolaceo pellucidis . W. diametro triplo brevioribus. lin. S. The it is success of an expedition into these regions therefore.. and in water. crassis. principally in provisioning a party for a couple certainly not difficult to do. laya is equally remarkable. Kg. chiefly confined to the central range and to the north of valleys on the southern side of the N. communicated hy Mr. obsolete granulatis. Hydrocoleum violaceum. 2763. — Calcutta Botanic gardens. G. along the edges of tanks. submerged (Unicum. pallide violaceis. Bot. determined by Dr. with the same Leptothrix .. No. Kg. Botanic gardens. invested by Glccotila concatenata. but in- determinable. 2758. Martens. Kg. On muddy ground of dried-up tanks. W. — Botanic garden. Howrah.) Oicillaria Froelicldi. and colourless inarticulate filaments like Leptothrix. gardens.. : A FIFTH List of Bengal Algae. Blanford alluded was the absence of any large moraines in the lower parts of Sikkim. but these accumulations appear with very few exceptions to be common The following communications have been received III. he rests. in a tank. HimaHimalayas it. 2762. of any very extensive traces of glacial action in the N. . The absence W. as compared for instance with the Alps. inha- biting the culms of grasses. Thuret. of months. from the country.. 2759. on inflorescences of a Fimlristylis. level of the rivers. v. Calcutta. glacial dej)0sits are in the Large moraines and N. Calcutta. fills inclusis pluribus. Martens. in swamps and tanks. Anahcena mollis. JVostoc gregarium. Kg. — Seebpore. but is starved out. — Calcutta. Martens. sp. [Ara.. which Another point to which Mr.

2785. crassis. 2812. sp. floating in tanks near the station. On a ruined bridge over the Ganges. — Rajmahal. Scytonema eerugineo-cinereum. Ithizoclonium maj'tiscula. with Gomphonema dicliotomum. of Eajmahal. as raentionod sub No. etc. 1/400 lin.. . Scytonema cinereum. 1870. and other Alga.. on damp brickstones Oct. — Eajmahal. with. Octo- 2798 and 2803. — Calcutta Botanic gardens. crassis. obsolete articulatis. (3. Kg. in — On walls of buildings. Kg. 2762. Chcetophora radians. 2804. On the ruins of one of the Eajmahal Oct. DiafomacecB. occurs together with C/aefophora Kg. Staurospermum ccendescens. Oct. 1870. October. 1870. —Eajmahal (station). very common — 2817. S. Protococcus ancient gate. Kg. Eaglene.. Kg. concatenata. spiralibus . 1/350 in tanks. . Hypheothrix suhundulata.ways of Gour. Glceotila protogenita. on submerged brick stones.. Kg. 2785 b. condensatis. Men. . 1870. . 1870. Oct. on Paludina shells. floating in tanks. in tanks at and dead branches 2800. 1870. Kg. — 2813. 2792. vulgaris. Leptothrix muralis. in tanks. —Eajmahal waterfall at the base of the hills near Sahib- gunj. Glceotila . 2793. floating in tanks . in tanks. fasciis vaginis pellucidis. Spirogyra sulxequa hills.1871. hills. Microcystis olivacea^ Kg. floating on stagnant waters. Sahibgunj waterfalls. Kg. Eajmahal 2811. leviter undulatis. sordide olivaceo. damp walls filis . of the traveller's bungalow Oct. Kg. with single threads of Lynghya Harv. Strato compacto. 1870. pallide aerugineis. ruins of Gour in stagnant pools. 171 filaments. Kg. — Calcutta. 2815. —Eajmahal station. on rocks Lk. Botanic gardens. —Muhudeepore. n. ber. Oct. — Palmella bullosa. 1870. —Eajmahal. granidatis lin.] Proeeedintjf 8 of the Asiatic Society. On submerged bricks Eajmahal station Oct.. 1870.. on trap rocks Oct. . 2802. . — Calcutta. Botanic gardens. floating August. 1870. Kg. and around Calcutta. Spirogyra decimina. radians. 1870. Martens. Kochianum. Closterium. Kg. 2801. Gylindrospermtm spirale.

— Calcutta. etc. crassis. n. minalibus axillaribus ad costam aggregatis Calcutta. — salt-lakes. lin. Martens. — Calcutta. pulclire violacea. roots. salt-lakes Nov. in rubrum. serie granulatis. on sub- — Calcutta. 1870. Kg. Martens. on tbe culms of Cyperus and on submerged brancblets along Balliaghat canal Nov. sp. Conferva Antillarwn. gatis . Sypoylossum pygmceum. pallide . cysto- carpiis stipitatis urceolatis. catis. viridem. sordide virescente filis 3054. 3039 and 3050. cellulis frondis quadrangularibus. Martens. Ilyph. 1870. radicantibus. salt-lakes. salt-lakes. costse elon. diametro plerumque sequalibus. Lasi . and Polysi-phonia angustissima. Strato compacto lutescentibus. vaginis arctis hyalinis articulis distinctis diametro usque ad duplum brevioribus. 3053. Catenella Opuntia. Lynghya cinerascens. Kg. sp. Kg. Nov. n. nunc . filis on an old log of wood. with. salt-lakes. 3038.^. Nov. on Nov. 1870. on mud-banks. nunc virescentibus. duplici salt-lakes. salt-lakes lin. Polysiphonia polychroma. 1870. tasij)honeis. com- Ghatomorpha chlorotica^ Kg. 3 Fronde tenui purpurea. vaginis distinctis. Nov. sp. salt-lakos . investienti proxima. supremis brevissimis ramis divaricatis oppositis alternisque car- pocloniis lateralibus curvatis. Kg.. —Calcutta. crassis. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. segmentis linearibus. . 1870. vix semi-lineam lata. . merged culms of Pawmw. . sp. articulis diametro brevioribus. Martens. dense intri- obsolete articulatis hyalinis. cum vagina 1/300 ad 1/225 . Nov. mon . Polysiphonia angiutissima. Lynghyei. 3040.. pallide crassis. lin. Nov. in brackisb 3044. [Aug. Chthonohlastus Kg. Grev. Scytonema granulatum. —Calcutta. 3051.172 3037. dicbotoma . margine . superne complanatis articulis pencorticatis. . fuscis. n. Calcutta. Uypheothrix tenax. repetite ad 4 longa. . 3042 and 3043. fascum 1/20 et flavescentem colorem transiens filis capillaribus. Csespitosa. Strato olivaceo fusco. n. tenui. 1870. salt- lakes. pulverulento simplicibus cum vagina 1/300 ad 1/225 laxe intricatis . apice incisis et sporopbyllis soris in segmentis ter. lin. pollicaris. . — Calcutta. Calcutta. serugineis v. 1870. Avater. 1870.

of the Calvados. G. Journal. Nov. sp. crassis filis internis fascicu. 1870. obsolete articulatis articulis diametro ffiqualibus. 3058. Oscillaria brevis. filis . . Calcutta.. duplici serie granulatis api- — Calcutta. Oscillaria tenern'ma. salt-lakes.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.. List of Alg. Mr. of this species. on an old submerged log of a tree IV.. Burma and ADJACENT Islands. Eene Lenormand. on mud. Dept. .t. 1870. 1870. Nov. — Potamogeton. submerged. collected by Me. covering wet mud . and is on houses. Kg. n. and now found also near Calcutta. salt-lakes. 1/175 Kn. lin. by Dr. 3061. Nov. in the lower Godavari valley and neighbouring parts of . Menegh. Yaginis poUucidis latim contortis. Kg. at Yire. . violaceis articulis fuscescentibxis. S. — Calcutta. 1870. Part ii. 3057. Turpin. Blanford. which is many specimens occasionally seen not rare on trees. with some filaments of the handsome Sjnnilina oscillarioides. Kg. sp. Calcutta. hy William T.) Phorviiditim Lynghjacetim. Kurz in the salt-lakes (Unicum. amongst Algae . Nov. grasses. Leiblcinia Juliana. in the collections of the celebrated botanist. n. in Stuttg^ird. 3060. arctis. Nov. crassis. —Calcutta. This paper will appear in the Natural History Part of the V. 363. v. violaceo V. Martens. Oscillaria versicolor. xxxix. Strato tenui fusco v. 1/600 salt-lakes. on Najas. Kelaarti. Kg. I described a Gecko as new under the name of I have since obtained Hemidactylus marmoratus. Theob. H. siibgranidatis. interdum viridibus diametro triplo ad . on submerged from Java. by Mr. covering the mud with a layer of soft green. Martens. 1/100 lin. Hydrocoleum Lenormandi. salt-lakes. — Calcutta. — salt-lakes. 1870. 1870. AND Ablabes Humberti. p. In the Journal of the Asiatic Society for 1870. Kurz in salt-lakes. quadruplum brevioribus. Nov. —At first observed in 1866. etc. Leptothrix mamillosa. ad genicula cibus rectis. Ceratophylhim.1871. Vol. 173 3055. on wet mud. crassis. S. Martens. Note on Hemidactylus marmoratus. 3059.

they are usually 10 and 14. anltii. Theobald. I should add. Stoliczka Malabar specimen sent by Major Bedabout 210 in specimens from Ellore. mu. 42. attached a higher value to the presence or absence of enlarged tubercles on the back of this group of Hemidactyli. it is manifest that Hemidactylus Kelaarti. 39. scales across the abdomen are respectively 36. abdomen vary from 34 42. from the different localities is in the number which I find to be 155 in a . it is probable that some of are incorrect. the lower from 7 as either 38.) the to also be considered a variety of S. Giinther. As I had.2 inches of which the exactly one from the anus to a larger i8 half or 2. (usually 11 or 12. found the number of ventral scales to be 175.few are occasionally found with such is tubercles on the back. and This is less than 240 in one from Calcutta. In 4 specimens of the variety to marmoratus. specimens of a small snake near the lower Godavari which appears to belong to that species. in length. LeschenauUii grows size than this.) lower labials 7 to being the prevailing number). Madras Presidency. 39. tubercles. I find in 4 specimens of the latter that the number of 9. upper labials vary from 10 in number The femoral pores are quite as constant the scales across the abdomen or the labials. Leschen- with uniform or nearly uniform granulations. and the upper labials from 10 (8 to 13. 42. my other identifications on page 364 I (loc. than the character deserves. the scales across the (the 12. the majority rev'semble the typical specimen in the absence of any enlarged a . 39. 12 in each thigh. and I find that the same form occurs Calcxitta. Dr. . the snakes from and there a corresponding difference Bengal and Ellore being more elongate.174 the Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. near The only important difi'erence between specimens of venti'al scales. dome no to Dr. guided by Giinther and other eminent herpetologist?. to numbers are 34. cit. and that the form only a small variety of H.6. S. although. largest The specimens I have as yet obtained of Hemidactylus tail marmoratus measure 5. [Aug. and I find that. is a remarkable de- gree of variation certainly.) was in error in including Ablahes Sumherti in the fauna I have found several characteristic of the Malabar province. but occasionally vary between From these differences. Leschenaultii.

vol. The following additions have been last. 2. 2. Juillet . —K. TiieEoyal Society of London. Akade- The Zoological Society part 2. vol. of the Geological Survey of India. I. II X. Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia. 175 LiBEARY. SoDE Ge'ographie. lY. Erteltezesek. E. Pest. April. part III. evfolyam. Quarterly Journal Geol. evfolyam 1-12 szam A Magayar. Alapszabalyai. edited by Hemachandra. MIE DER WlSSENSCHAFTEN ZU BeRLIN. 3 fiizet. VII Kotet 1. 10. in alphabetischer Folge dor Yerfasser. XI. Markham. V kotet. Eottler's mar. A Memoir on the ludian Sm-veys by C. Socie'te' Impe'riale des Natura- LISTES DE MOSCOU.1871. . The Editor. Procoedings Eoy. 106. 9. London. Esq. 1. 9-13. 1. — H. Bulletin. Soc. 2. 2. No. Eamayana. vol. Paris. III. I. made to the Library since the meeting held in July Fresentations. No. Soc. E'vkonyvei. II evfolyam 13-20. No. XTX. The Supt. Blanford.— The Geological Society of London. Nos. Proceedings Zool. 4 fiizet A Torveny Tudomanyi E'rtekezesek. Palseontologia Indi- Memoirs ca. VIII Kotet. 3 ftizet.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. III. Soc. Monatsbericht. von 1710-1870. 12Darab XIIL 1. No. 128. of the Geological OF India. Bulletin. 1-20 szam. 1870. XXVII. vol. Akad. —Ehenius' Tamil GramSurvey E. — — — — — — — — — Professional Papers on Indian Engineering. OF London. XII szam Almanach 1869. 11. ^*# Names of Donors in Capitals. No. Tud. szam. 3. 4 Darab— Nyelvtudomanyi Kozlemenyek. Annee 1870. 2. The Author. 1871 —Verzeichniss der Abhandlungen. cie'te Decembre 1870. szam A Magyar Nyelv Szotara. Janvier Fevrier 1871. II. 1870 E'rtesitoje. Second Series. vol. Tamil and English Dictionary. The Editor.

Purchase. Calcutta Eeview. The American Journal of Science. vol. and M. of Natural History. E. Government of N. 1871. Pro- IV. 1871. " Nature. The Numismatic Chronicle. Botanischer Theil. 276. Gomptes Eendus. —Eeise der Fregatte Novara. 275. Jacut's Worterbuch. Lief." Nos. Nos. The Gtovernment of the N. No. Philosophical Magazine Nos. No. W. 1871. 45 Exchange. 50. tlie [Aug. Eevue Archeologie 1870. Band — BohtI. July 1871. Selections from the Records of vinces. Pbovinces. D. Jan. 42. The L. .17G Pi'oceedings of the Asiatic Societi/. lingk und Eoth' Sanskrit-Worterbuch. *' Athenaeum. Eevue des Deux Mondes. VI part 1. 18- — — — — — — — — 22. No. part I. iii — iv." April and May. No. 80-88. AV.— The A. vol. Dictionnaire Djaghatai-Tiirc.. IX.

S. President. Mason. proposed by the Hon'ble J.. M. Schwondler. F. gla- and Silver Mines.. Cooke. Buckle. Dr. H. 13. second- J. Miles. Esq. E. proposed by Col. at 9 o'clock of the Society p. snowy range and ciers. F. Tho montlily meeting 6th instant. was held on Wednesday the m. Tennaut. O'Kinealy. G-. Esq. in the chair. Esq. S. Ayrton. J. G. The following gentlemen meeting. A. L. Phear. Miduapiir. receipt of the following presentations From Captain W. F. proposed by the Hon'ble J. Esq. was announced Maitland— Two Thibetan MSS. seconded by Col. Captain S. Justice Phoar... Stoliczka.mocEEDiNas OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OE BENGAL FOR September. The 1. A. Chisholm.. proposed by Mr." The following gentlemen were E. Antiquities. F. B. Esq... Supt. its — a copy of " Kulu. Esq. Calvert. 1871. Esq. Blochmauu. Allan. of tho Naga Hills.. proposed by Mr. A. Esq. C. (re-election). given to him by an inhabitant 2.. From the author by G. Tlie minutes of tho last meeting were read and confirmed. J. J. H. The Hon'ble Mr. Aldis. U. sucondtd by Mr. elected ordinary members E. Atkinson. seconded by Mr. Esq. se- conded by H. VV. ed by Dr. Telegraph Dopt. Wood- . S. are candidates for ballot at the next A. including a trip over the J. Asst. T. Briggs. J. F.. Blanford. Laliore. Phear. C S. A. Beauties.. Neil. B.

But the Laharpiiris evidently mean Akbar's nowned minister of finances.. I this. Col. of Blanford. Evezard. Ferrar. 0. Seetapore. found a passage in that work. a large town of 11000 inhabit- ants in the parganah of the same name. Meanwhile. Blochmann said the receipt of Mr. Ferrar's — letter. I have been informed by a respectable . I think the point is worth clearing up. is I then asked Mr. Magistrate of Poona. though I have not yet histories. and shall let you know the result of them. " In Ease. F. proposed by Mr. D. T. whose birthplace is claimed by many places and secondly. L. of your translation of the Ain Akbari. in this district (Sitapur) and included in the Ain Akbari in Sirkar Khairabad' aU believe was a native of their town. and since my last.. where the Eajah's birthplace given. like Eam Chandr or king Birat. From M. Stoliczka.l78 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. yon record that Eajah Todar Mall was born at Labor. jahan's time. Would j^ou kindly inform ask me which of the native Historians gives his biography. for in the first place the Eajah was not a mythical personage." ly On Mr. seconded by Dr. Ferrar replied " I will make more enquiries from the Laharpur people about Todar Mall. there is a large community ofK'hatris (the Eajah's caste) at Laharpiir. Dickens lias tendered bis resignation as a member tbe Society. ' and found that the Iladsir til Umard and the Tafrih ul The Maasir must have derived ^Imdrat call the Eajah a Lahauri. A. I am inclined to think that they have good grounds for their belief. I looked up several MS. Todar as Mall's father. called after the Eajah. Mr. and having a year' that he — mela in his honour. to obtain more particulars re- garding histories. Esq. who is not mentioned in the I thought that the Laharpuri Eajah might be the a distinguished Hindii courtier of Shahre- Todar Mall Shdhjahdni. Ferrar. At the present time. hard by Laharpiir is Jtajdpur. regarding the birthplace of Eajah Todar Mall. [Sept. Col. G. Audh. The following letters were read S. W. as the people oi Laharpur. his information from the Akbarnamah. E. IV.

' xi pliioo that Todar Mall's fothor was a tlio Panjabi and eaiuo aud mari-iod daughter of a Ghapari K'hat- iu Lahavpur. a Passi. C. : Letter from R. the rock soft sandstone. T. whore the son was born." Mr. dently been chipped from pebbles. which will be published in the forthcoming number of Part I of the Journal.' having been founded by the Emperor Firiiz Tughluq (1357 1388. Forbes. It takes its — and name from Lahari Mall. flakes. Several were formed of white vein quartz. W. The latter seems to probably then have lived there during his boyhood. but also from quartzite being abundant. D. Communicated hy Col.1871. and at least as rejected on account of being badly made. and the implements. gravels. A.. (Abstract. Dalton. Blanford exhibited a Goddvari. Paxamau. and they varied from about 3 to 6 inches in That the spot where they were found was a place of manufacture was probable. who 500 it years ago invaded the surrounding country. evidently chipped from the The following communications were read 1.). I hope — that we may be able to settle the birthplace of such a notable personage as R. aud especially of the final . I. who passed through there on his way to the Bahraich shrine of Sayyid Salar.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. The forms of these im- plements were those of the kind most frequently found in French and English length. Blochmann read the letter. T. Esq. had evispace of about 50 yards square. not only from the occurrence of ill form- ed implements. Assistant Commissioner. tliat 179 * Bralimau of K'liatri. The particulars of the conquest of Paliimau by the Mughuls. as was usually the case in Southern India.) Mr. S. " Ldharpiir contained IIOOO inhabitants in 1869 15000 in the Nawdbi. an unusual circumstance. E. Todar Mall was. regarding the Mughul invasions of Palamatt. ' Up to had been known as Tughluqpiir. collection of chipped quartzito implements found about 40 miles west of Bhadrachalam on the The 35 specimens exhibited were all found within a many more were The place where they were found was in dense jungle. L.

is The tablet of Eanabhanja bears a date which supposed to be 56 Samvat. . the only discrepancies refer to the relationship of several Chero nnmah. as they refer to two of Mr. [Sept. In Mr. and the of Eamanghati.180 rroceeilinxjH of the Asiatic Hocidy. the son of Eanabhanja. Auraiigzeb's general. Indian Museum. and I can only account for their having been overlooked by the circumstance that they were originally published as foot notes to two consecutive pages of the Journal of this Society for 1854. Theobald's Catalogue. no mention is made of either of them. a family still extant in the Katak Tributary Mahalls. (Abstract. tary on several passages in the Padishahndmah and in one case. Forbes's details prove in a most striking manner the reliability of our Muhammadan historians . Mr. the trident. His geograjDhical remarks form a valuable commencorrect. 2.. &c. a and the ^Alamgirbad reading of the Society's edition of the latter work. Beng. CaPATOR. Anderson. Singbhu'm. by Dr. crescent moon. hy Pratapachandra Ghosha. On two Saurian Genera Eurylepis and Plocederima. chiefs. xxiii. 738-739. Blttii.) The copper village tablets were discovered buried in the ground in the They record grants of several vilto two brahmans by two princes of the Malages Bamanvasti. vol. with a description of a new species of Mabouia. Theobald for this Society. and signs such as the bull. BIyth's genera to the which have hitherto escaped the notice of Herpetologists. S. In comparing some of the Peptiles in the Indian — Museum it is with the catalogue of that Section prepared by Mr. war under Daiid Klian. I have lately made two identifications which desirable should be put on record. Rajabhanja. The species illus- pp. 3. I refer two genera Eurylepis and Flocederma. bearing the name of the donor.* * J. The plates are each surmounted by a seal. A. yurbhanj family. Pitzinger. are still remembered by the inhabitants of the district. Notes on and translation of two Copper-plate inscriptions FROM Chaibassa. is is the donor mentioned in one tablet and Eanabhanja the donor of the other.

paviHilaire mentattfs. tt Arch. prepes. pi. der Akad. 3. 49. fig. In he indicated that Eumcces was intermediate between 1837. 704. 135. Wiegmann"^'* in establishing the genus it. generic term and renamed by him P. Giiiithor places S. auratus iu § Schneider. Geoff. p. 132. D even according to Dumeril and Bibron's showing. 3. and that it differed from Eiqyrepes in the form of tongue and dentition.J Schneider's name auraium^ which. Geoffrey St. 18G4. fiir Nuturgesch. 288. V. zu Berlin. Aniph. Aldrovandi. 176. p. vol. Geoff. to but in the following yearff he pointed out that these two species did not belong to it. Mahouia and records it from Persia. but justly retained for P. Hilaire. pavimoitatiis. 7Ul. with pavimentatiis. X D. Berol. and B. v. U was the only species referable to its it. Is. Kept. rtifescens. As.1871. referred S. Before considering the affinities of these two forms I shall first point out the characters of the sub-genus Eumcce^ Avhich Wieg- mann. Soc. 36. and referred to Gray's species Sfellio tuherculahis. p. and B. 4. Petors|| by the priority to stand for the species to which they had affixed Aldrovandus. 4. St.. St.. Uoipl. Gcnl. et Amphib. vol. Lichtenstein. P. and the other species for which Blyth had suggested the Phcedervia was placed by Theobald in tho genus Zaudalcia. 4a. The history of the sub-genus Eumeces is as follows: In 1834. Is. pp. 11. Gongyhis and Euprepes and that S. Schneider. was the type of Wiegmann's sublast genus Etcmcces and Dr. fig. Hist. d I'Egypt. Merr.s' Museum Aldrovandi. (Wieg.) vol. published in 185C* identified Plestiodon D.] trating tho first Proceedings of the Asiatic Society 181 mentioned so-called goniis was referred by Theo- bald to Plesliodon of Dumeril and Bibron. p. and B. its author. ** llcrpet Jilcx. name Wiegmann of was the first after himself to direct attention to the fact that the S. ii.. but he did not regard these differences as of generic but only of sub-generic Nomen. Hilairof. was entitled Prof. punctatus. 1870. scutatus. c. t Desc. Stoliczka^ year brought Peters' observation to the notice of this Society.. vol xxxix p. p. Zoo. 48. Bong. p. regarded as only a subdivision of his Section Eu- In the Catalogue of the Berlin Lichtenstein Scincu. and S. 19. p. XX Wieg. 1. pi. wliich ho regarded as distinct from Stellio. Musei Zool. ilouats. * II •j] . 174. Journ.

Geoff. in however. [Sept. name simply 8. and another Section JB. punctatus. Cuv. in which he placed S. and which he also afterwards located in Euprepes. palpebra superior mediocris It is inferior scutellato squamosa: dentes the palatini numerosi. in. however. Merr. Hilaire. He states that the nostrils of S. and Plestio- don cyprius.and not as described * Herpet. They regarded Wiegmann's sufficient basis Eumeces as not founded on a retained his and they therefore group represented They. " naris in medio scidello sites (scutellis diwhus in tmwn coalitisy which would lead me to conclude that he doubted whether the character of a single nasal shield were a reliable and constant feature. for they enter into an elaborate criticism of his arrangement of the genus in his Herpetology of Mexico. Dumeril and Bibron* do not appear to have been aware that Wiegmann had corrected his original mistake and had removed S. but in his work on the Herpetology of Mexico be writes. Blyth's Eurylepis has the palatine teeth and palate as described by of Eumeces. v. punctatus to apply it to the by the type eyelid. Proceedings of the Asiatic Societij. is not in a single plate but is placed scales. and also the scaly eyelid and smooth The nostril. pavimentatus are situated the centre of a small nasal shield. contain- ing S.. punctatus from Eumeces.'^ scales of Eumeces therefore to be understood that {E. which has a transparent double fronto-parietal and a small unilobular ear. Genl. pavimentatus') were smooth the nostril in a single plate resulting ferior eyelid scaly. the in- and that it had palatine teeth. same volume described the genus Plestiodon which has all the characters of Wiegmann's first section {A) of Eumeces as represented by Eumeces pavimentatus. Schneider. a of Schneider.. as Eumeces has the prior claim to acceptance. In 1839. Is. between an anterior and posterior nasal shield. from the coalescence of two nasals. and B. vol. the Geoff.182 value. : At that time he divid- ed the genus into two small sub-divisions one Section. pavimentattis and S.. rufescens and S. the latter of which he afterwards referred to Euprepes. which Professor Peters states is synonymous with Scincus ScJmeideri. St. Wiegmann. A. rufescens. Under these circumstances Plestiodon cannot stand. '' The characters : of the first sub-division were these. D. . Plestiodon Aldrovandi.

182G. c. If to the small scales and the latter occurring on the largo : scales or plates the smaller scales have each these grooves were brought together in pairs. There is its this peculiarity in the scales of the this new form on that led Blyth to term it Euryhpis. in the area defined. while they have only the antero-x^osterior breadth of the scales of the sides of the back and of the lateral rows of scales. pavimcntatus results from the union of two. a scaly eyelid and forward and the palatine groove reaching that exists in if to the eye. . and is by J£. 1. The only character of import- ance in which from Eumeces as defined by Wiegmann. The scales. dcr Rept. but I am correct regarding that character as not of sufiicient importance to separate Eurylepis from Eumeces.. Scincus dilated which has palatine teeth is separated from Mahouia by toes and shovel-like muzzle. they woidd produce » None Class. 2}(ivimeniatu$. Wieg- mann. p.1871 •] Proceedhigs of the Asiatic Society. v. so that the only generic distinction is between them the character of the nostril. is from the number of stricted 3 to 10. are of the same size as those in the sides. by a single row of narrow. this singular difference therefore regard Eurylepis as another synonym of Eumeces. or 11. marked by shallow groovesf the first number being rea minute pore. Fitzinger. sides. large and small. in 18. f D. it cannot have more force when we compare group to- Mahouia and Eumeces and I am therefore inclined to gether these smooth scaled skinks with palatine teeth and scaly eyelids under the first proposed term Mahouia. j)alatine teeth. Eumeces thus defined would appear to correspond with ritzinger's'*'' genus Mahouia which like Eumeces has a single nasal. the occurrence of the nostril be- tween two shields) but keeping in view Wiegmann' s statement that can hardly be considered as generic. I the single nasal of U. that the scales the middle of the back from on a line with the axilla as far back as on a line with the groin. and B. The head plates are arranged as two lobes it dillbrs E. p. 702. hexagonal much transversely extended scales. Each dorsal scale.3 by Blyth and Theobald from three illustrated to a small separate nasal in sliiold. 23. imvimcntatus and the ear has anteriorly. between the occiput and the enlarged dorsal series. are so much transversely extended that each dorsal scale has the breadth of three The middle of the back is thus covered. viz.

Head conical. Jerdon. [Sept.. Mus. 25. As. times the interval between the shoulder and the snout and the vent : Tail Ifrds of the length between cylindrical. Eumeces scutatus. somewhat laterally compressed. 1868. elongate. Vertical lateral and posterior margins concave. Two small pre-occipitals not forming a suture together. conical. is that this form notwithscaled scink. because another and distinct species has recently come under my observation. Post-frontals pentagonal. Body rather elongated. Soc. As. limbs moderately developed and far five apart.181 rroceedings of the Asiatic Society. 5. Theobald. Rept. dorsal scales either of uniform size or enlarged. Plestioion scutatus. pp. in which there rows of enlarged dorsal shields. on either side . Limbs moderately or remarks may be The species which has given to these characterized as follows MaBOVIA TiENIOLATA. Palatine teeth. Fitzinger. regularly tapered. Nostril either in plate or between two plates. large dorsal plates in the form under consideration it does not appear to are two me to merit generic status. arrow-head-shaped occipital. Teeth numerous. a keeled character in the should be borne in so that it would appear that scales. to the significance of . facts before us Mahouia with the foregoing : may be defined as follows Mabouia. p. scales. Theob. Toes. they are perhaps luodifications of the cariuated form of It mind. broad externally but narrowing towards the common. Journ. Palatine notch broad on a level with the eye. xxii pp. with a moderately sized exoccipital shield. Tail long. each about half the size of the large scales of the type of Eunjlepis. Frontal transversely octagonal. round and smooth a single without spines . Proc. Blyth. rise 5. Aa. oblong . however. Soc. scale. Cat. 740. 1870. scales smooth and finely grooved . Eurylepis tmniolatus. 73. 26. mesial suture. Supranasals transversely elongated forming a suture behind the rostral. the distance between them equalling ear. Beugal. but separated by the point of the anterior extremity of an azygos. broad. rather for apart. Soc. Blyth. lower eyelid scaly. an anterior and posterior. 739. standing its grooved a truly smooth the To revert. well developed. however.

a Eur of moderate size with three or four strong denticula- tions on its antei'ior margin. 185 of it. Two transverse chin shields. and 28 maxillary teeth on either side. A postocular it. over the suture of the lirst An hexagonal postnasal and second labials. Tail more or less darkly speckled. as a whole and five palatine teeth The specimens much faded.1871. Scales on the under surface of the tail enlarged. . side from the eye and partially prolonged is This band at regular intervals with three longitudinal lines of whitish spots. one above the other between the oxoccipital last and the posterior margin of the between the two last labials. the size two uppermost being double the of the others. with small tubercles a line of larger tubercles on the hind foot embracing the smaller ones. Two large anals Anterior limb . These scales are as broad as the three lines of scales 1 external to them. and with a small postocular above and two small shields in front of superciliaries. when laid forwards reaches beyond the anterior angle of the eye es only a short posterior limb reach- way beyond one-third of the distance between the groin and the axilla. and spotted with whitish. separated by an oblique suture. of which the anterior pair form sutui-e. Centre of under surface of the feet covered . ornamented A dark brown band along the on to the tail.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. in the upper jaw. before the temporals. hexagonal scales from over the shoulder to on a line with the gz-oin. Two rows of very small shields between the upper labials and the scaly disk of the lower eyelid. while the small dorsal scales have three such scales fine sulci. but the coloration appears to have been a pale olive grey above with a dark brown band running along the large. the markings tending to form transverse rings. behind the mental. Twenty-one rows of round the middle of the body. and curving backwards from the outer to the inner toe. dorsal scales. oblong loreal with its upper margin wedged in be- tween the pra)frontal and postfrontals. first A A rather large pentagonal prseocular below the vertically superciliary. upper labial. the hiudermost being the largest and succeeded by three pairs of Jarge shields. and are obscurely marked by or 1 1 fine grooves. longi- tudinally narrow. Two temporals. those on the upper surface the same as ou the side of the body. Six the third from before backwards being the largest. About are 8 inter-maxillary. one before the other. A dorsal line of transversely broad. .

anterior large. Blyth also states that the has a translucent disk. Theobald more accurately describes as scal}^. hinder margins forming an obtuse angle. An azygos. the first to its anterior Six point- and last very small. Vertical elongate. one anterior two shields which lie one above the other. lateral margins slightly convergent posteriorly. Punjab. The former says lower eye- that the nostril is pierced in a small. with a transverse row of large plates. am wrong in my estimate of the value to be attached to the occurrence of the nostril between two plates. rather small . pentagonal. fourth toe Hab. margins forming an obtuse Posterior frontals hexagonal. forming a suture Prontal transversely elongate. but for the reasons stated. Prseoccipitals pentagonal. forming a broad suture behind the vertical. I do not regard these characters as generic. separate. posterior shield sub- quadrangular. Supranasals transversely oblong. and Blyth limited them If I to 19. have fallen into some inaccuracies regarding certain of their characters." [Sept. but both. who created the above named genus to There cannot be a doubt as their identity. 8'" . wedge-shaped occipital. A small . hexagonal. in contact with the supranasals. Ex- occipitals of moderate size. n."' hind limb l". then Blyth's Eurylepis will stand. however." 2'" Length :— snout 6'" . is He. Theobald in the Salt of the Punjab. sp. sa3^s the body surrounded by 23 rows of scales while the two specimens exhibit only 21 in the middle of the body. vent to tip of 4. along the upper eyelid third. but it Mr. Blyth their reception. tail 5.186 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Mabotjia Blythiana. Three rather large temlast porals between the exoccipitals and the two to the other upper labials. Bljth and Theobald. forming a broad suture. the former separated from the eye by a chain of small shields running from the anterior angle of the eye.'" . lid Mr. an error repeated by Theobald. its behind the rostral. nasal shield. Two Eange specimens were collected by Mr. Anterior nasal triangular. and the lower margin of the eye Buperciliaries. angle. and the presence of the enlarged dorsal plates. Salt Range. and presented by him to this Society and for described by Mr. Lead fore limb 10. Eostral triangular. to vent 3.

longitudinal lines along . to eight palatine teeth on either side. pentagonal plate behind ties of its with the concavi- two hinder margins directed backwards and in contact labials. the fore limb reaching to the tip of the snout. Two large prseanals with a small external pair. Scales on the upper surface and sides of the tail of uniform Ear moderately lobules large. and 36 in the mandible. with a large.1871. the seventh and eighth but one the largest. long and tapering. Proceedimjfi of tJie Asiatic Society. fore limb 1" 6'" . the last the largest. laterally compressed. frontal. Two longitudinal in the middle of the back. still smaller pair behind the latter. 3" 5'" vent to tip of taU 6". and commencing from behind the occiput and diminishing root of the tail. the former behind the latter. postfrontal and loreal. size. series extending fifth hind embraced by an enlarged first from the base of the to the base of the toe. 187 edly quadrangular. Limbs well developed. succeeded by another pair with a of smooth lines. Tail rounded. it. upper labial. the anterior margin of the last on a line with the posterior angle of the eye. supraaasal. azygos. and a vertically elongated. Thirty rows scales round the middle of the body. head 7'". the uppermost the strongest. Seven intermaxillary and 34 Snout maxillary teeth in the whole of the upper jaw. in size on the Ventrals of moderate size with their posterior mar- gins rounded. but more transversely elongated. Seven . hexagonal scales considerably larger than any of the other dorsal or lateral scales. pair of transverse shields in contact with the second and third labials and forming a suture together behind the azygos plate another large pair with a small azygos shield between the plates. with a large pentagonal loreal in front of them. hexagonal postnasal before the latter. hind limb 1" Olive fourth toe . and the hind limb when stretched forwards extending to the anterior third of the space between the axil and groin. posterior nasal. oblong shield along the an- terior third of the lower margin of the eye. A single row of enlarged sub-caudals. Seven lower labials. slightly. Eight upper labials. erectly oval. of transversely elongated. in con- tact with the 2nd.'" brown above three dark-brown. one and two-thirds as long as the body. to vent. with two pairs of A . 1'". Under foot surface of feet covered with tubercles. Mental like a labial. with from three to four strong those of the on its anterior margin. and a large. 6.

pale-yellowish band below it from below the the sides to the eye through one half of the groin. xxiii. One species tuherculatus has the scales considerably and generally smaller than the other and more numerous. it is necessary for me to remark that the two species recognized by Dr. UpAll per surface and sides of tail pale. Stoliczka has is to shown me from the rich materials in his possession. and which does not appear The examples of the genus tuherculatus. Stellio in the Indian Museum agree with Dr. scales of the dorsal region. along the side. the scales in that region partake to a certain extent of the nature of the dorsal scales and are prolonged more or less to the occiput. indicus which he afterwards referred to S. Gray. " a well marked second species of Dr. Beng. the under parts yellowish. Blyth* in a notice of some Reptiles from the Panjab writes of the next form which I purpose to consider.738. Hah. which he conit sidered generically distinct from to be. A broad. is I am inclined to the conclusion that Blyth's Plocederma a young individual of Dr. Gray. larger-scaled form. Giinther's figure of S. Stellio. and along the side below the yellowish band. 737. Stoliczka's large scaled form. founded on Agama of Hardwicke's 111. Soc. but the * Journ. tail. . following are the characters of Blyth's S. those on the back of the neck being scarcely enlarged. Ind. Gray's genus Laiidalcia tuber culata . and as he result of his observations. while in the other. nobis). this if genus affined to Laudakia (in which case Plocederma. to enable me to do so. melanurus. ZooL. Stoliczka are distinguished by the size and distribution of the enlarged *S^. [Sept. but. from the nape to the base of the A broader dark-brown band from the eye over the tympanum. uniform brownish-olive." referred This specimen to Laudakia is still in not rather a new may bear the name the Museum and was by Theobald tuherculata. I shall proceed to ters of the describe the point out the charac- type specimen of Blyth's supposed genus Plocederma.188 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. tympanum along A palish dusky band from the angle of the mouth. pp. the back. Amritzur ? Purchased from a Bokhara merchant who it stated that he obtained at Amritzur. There are. over the shoulder. however. As. two well marked species of the genus in India as Dr.

rated by its greater size from minute scales of the In the large central rows of scales. back. Theobald. the strong keels form longi- tudinal lines. vol. Blyth. there are no enlarged scales besides those of the central crest which begins where the enlarged scales stop. from within outwards. Ropt. with serrated free margins. Scalosof the back enlarged. while in those external to them. so that the scales are restricted to a much narrower area than on the back. them which number the 7 rows. with the exception of those in the middle of the under surface of the tail which have no keels. strongly keeled. and with a small apical si)ine. As. with it. there are 8 rows of the enlarged scales those external to On the middle of the much larger than abruptly sepasides. 189 StELLIO MELANURU8. however. 1851. Cat. with the exception of those on the tail. tuherculata. Laudalcia. keeled. there is again a to slight augmentation in their distribution. Blytli. a smaller one on each side of Nostril above the second and . Journ.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.1871. Beng. of the back and the shoulder. 38. but the scales having diminish- the lateral extent covered by them is not much in- creased. tail are large and arranged in verticils which are in- terrupted. The scales on the sides of the body are granular. smooth and without any trace of keels. on a line with the shoulder. their margins are serrated and each has an apical spine. Soc. tubercular scales. but generally have an apical spine. Gray. the rows increasing ed in size. p. the keels form oblique lines. 149 rows of scales round the middle of the body. xxiii. 737-739. A shox't rudimentary crest of enlarged. The scales on the are upper surface of the limbs. each with a minute apical spine and arrang- ed in transverse them. however. Beng. The scales of the of the tail. Lau(lalda{'Ploceder)rm)mcla. gradually decreasing from within outwards. the outer row.. 53 of which are ventral. 1SG8. lines. On the back of the neck. the Half way between the middle number of rows of enlarged but before the shoulder dorsal scales decreases to 16. imbricate. p. the largest. tuberculatus). As. Soc. about twenty.nvyra. and there are no enlarged it scales among I count (In this character differs from S. in their curve on the upper surface of the base All are keeled and have strong apical spines.

190 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society [Sept. the head and body speckled and also with some scales paler than the the long slender portion of the tail wJiite. and the hind limb just touches The third finger is nearly the length of the fourth which the proportion in the corresponding toes. green and changeable when alive over with dark scales. Theobald. and a similarly enlarged plate on the occiput. . long and slender and more than twice the vent. head fore limb hind limb spirit. the throat and below the marbled with greyish black. the anterior A group of tubercular. but that he believed it to come fi'om Kashmir. but separated from them by two rows of lower labials. The wrist reaches as far forwards as the snout. tail 7" 9. rest . " Olive grey. a smaller and more indistinct fold between the scales. with a prseanal series of two rows of callous == 6 scales. A pit before the from the upper anterior margin of which a on fold is prolonged over the shoulder to the sides of the back with small spines occurring it at intervals . . scales. tail is latter fold and the shoulder with a few large spinous of the ear is The opening very large and patulous. spinous scales at the ear. however. 2" 8'" fourth toe Colour in I quote from Blyth.'" 7'". probably blue in the living animal. those in the latter locality there covered with groups of spines. A small callous patch of about 20 scales in the centre of the abdomen. The slightly dilated at its base and depressed." Blyth states that the locality from whence the specimen was obtained was uncertain. margin of A fold at the under margin of the tympanum probeing here and shoulder longed to the neck. Snout to vent l" 8"' . 3" 2"' vent to tip of . who Catalogue that it collected the specimen states in his came from Simla. Two to three rows of enlarged spined scales from below the eye to the tympanum. maxillary teeth 3 The dental formula of the upper jaw -|. third labials. Seventeen upper and fifteen A median line of slightly enlarged keeled scales behind the snout. pre- maxillary teeth 1 3 -|- 3 =: 26 10'" . conical. Mr. on the under surface and sides of tvhich there are numerous folds. probably olive . . A 1 deep depression. total 32.3 . is behind the vent. dusky black and the shoulders beautifully lower parts pale and bufiy son apparently suffused with crim- when alive . is as long as from the snout to the vent.

11-12 on the indistinct . Of collaris. islands. 4 labials. Andaman -^^ of . Zamenis fasciolatus. — 19 rows of small. A unicoloured large variety is figured and described of the last species. T. little dark spots along the back. T. the same as T. plumbicolor also identical with T. . by Dn. pammeces. from Sind. leaden or mouth and about 390 below T. Psammophis condanurw. n. Blyth. n. Sikkimensis. rows on body. vinaceous on side. 485 transverse the total length . paler below and on the head . 406-440 transverse . . T. but the anterior frontals more ob- tuse in front. rows of . less the third larger than the fourth •j^jth little than of total length . T. tail head-shields regular . Notes on some Indian and Burmese Ophidians. Stoliczka. sharply carinate.) In this paper notes are given of the following species T. macropldhalmus. Kurz). porredus. Andamanensis. 140 ventrals. 5th and 6th enter the orbit. T. S. from Qualior. and T. Himalmjanus. 26 on the head-shields regular India. The N. —Ahlabes — Compsosoma — Tropidonotus quincnnciiatus. scales. n. Lcithii of Giinther. — 18 longit. W. 9 upper labials of which the 4th. tail . Anderson. eye very circumference olivaceous brown ^^ /f of length of body g j above. macrops. Provinces. Simotes bicatenatus. — T. rows of scales.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Societij. grey. Giinther. Hodgsoni. — subminiatus. TV. l-|-2 temporals. sp. 191 4. (Abstract. sp. T. . sp. with the posterior frontals •united into one shield. Pegu junceus. eye indistinct blackish brown above. one separate lower prre-ocular and one sub-ocular circumference a .1871. tail head shields above regu. and most probably T. sp. hellulus. — 22 long. head- shields like in the last species. scales. is . checkered with white. Sub-Himalayan variety is possibly the same as P. below. — this last species a variety is described and figiu-ed. 63 subcaudals olive brown all above with two series of ventrals black at the base T. circumference eyes perfectly indistinct uniform light brown . n. rows of scales . — 18 longit. tail pure white. . . bramitius : Ti/phlop8 Horsfieldi. rows on bbdy. Bengal and N. bothriorhynchus. Theobaldanus. (Mr. F. transverse rows on body and 17 on the lar .

Dipsas Forsteni occurs at Pankabaree. hy Dr. of London for 1871. Anderson appears to claim as his exclusive right. Bl. The specimen. Jerdon. B. or might. why should he be so anxious to apply Dr. has fortunately not yet been made law in the Indian Museum at Calcutta. A few points of minor importance in the identification of the species have beea afterwards compared by Dr. Jerdon. and ? Blyth. with the knowledge of one or the other of the officers of the Museum. cit.. for which the new name was proposed. I do not wish to repeat that presumptuous statement. not considered to be generically distinct from Leptorhjtaon jara Lycodo7i.) After some preliminary remarks. porpliyracem of Blyth.. and the allied species T. base of Silckim B. p. F. as recorded by him (1. whom I knew to be engaged in the preijaration of a monograph of the Indian Reptiles. the author gives notes on the following. Anderson upon Dr. was received during my temporary tenure of the office as Curator of the Indian Museum. which has justly elicited the indignation of naturalists at homo . which Dr. Tachydromus sexUneatus. ). But if he wishes to style himself a " Director" of the Museum. as recorded by the former in the Proc. of the Zool. quite distinct from T. Soc. allied to T. as suggested by Dr. Stoliczka. Anderson should. == Fseudophiops Jerdoni = Ps.192 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. T. Of all this Dr. hills. known or new. 5. but a reference to p. [This pax3er will be published with illustration in the Natural History Part of the Journal for the current year]. — Ophiops Jerdoni. that it was I who originally gave that information to Dr. have been aware. Bl. tnultifasciata. — . Notes on new or little known Indian Lizards. hexacjonotus. an Andaman species. hiibalina is common is in the low valleys of Sikkim. Theohaldi = Ps. Jerdon. trigonata from Qualior. [Sept. Anderson. 156. Sauffhtomanus* and T. I). which it was wrongly and identified by Dr. Jerdon. and as such I thought it right in communicating the information to Dr. meridionalis. Beddomei of * The naming of this species was the cause of a most unjustifiable attack by Dr. 72 of the Society's Proceedings for February 1870 will shew. Jerdon's statement " with the concurrence of the Curator" to himself? The monopoly of naming and describing specimens in a public Museum. Anderson. (Abstract. is not identical with D. Mypsirhina enhydris has sometimes 23 rows of Trimeresurus Andersoni of Theobald monticola with It is is scales. species : Lacertidje. The name Haughtonianus has been adopted by Jerdon on my suggestion. septemtrionalis.

Lutliaaa &c. Theobald CoctcBi Burma. W. mannomtus. 13. In this the more important : species noticed are . tlie general size being equal to that of Gecko guttatm. maculatus. . n. D. Geckotid^. Bedd. Ilttb. = . Bedd. = H. 10. 0£ IIemicl(icti/li 1. marbled and spotted with discovered by Godavari vallej' near Badrachalam. = H. 2. 12 \_Doryuru'\ Munddianus. reticiilatus. = H. Grey. 12. Similar to Coctcei. the latter with sharp lateral subtuberculate . H. given. Anderson. and B. Blanf. 7. Ainbala. large speci- Syhesi. entering the nostril. Mr. H. 3. and B. Bengaliensis. — Ophiops \^G)jmmps\ family microlepia. — 14 upper. on either side separate in prce-anal region darker. triedrus. from which Jerdon's JT. R. 8. IT. but much largei'. densely marbled and punctated or streaked with blackish and with intermixed larger pale spots in Pankabaree and Tista valley Lower Sikkim. 9. sp. maciilatus. edges . Jerdon). second smaller. H. I£. 4-5. on trees . scales.. (. gracilis^ Blf. No femoral pores observed. 10 — 12 on middle of lower labials first larger pair of enlarged chin-shields forms a suture. from Kuliurbalee. from near Agra. giganteus. Mortoni.1871. scribed. Body long. olive grey. Sikkim n. Theob. much depres- sed.] Proceedingn of the Asiatic Society. H. T. 15 species are distinguished H. aurantiacus. Blanford. = H. as is also the tail. 193 Jerdon. 36 long. 6. Acanthodactylm Cantoris. H. Blanford. Burma. (smaller form). H. H.^ and H. Kelaarti... Giinther. Leichenaultii = H. suhtriedrus is possibly- distinct.fretialus. \_Doryura'] Berdmorei. E. Pieresii. 18 First labial not of thigh. M. separated from each other and from the labials by smaller series of scales belly. — 20 femoral pores . 11. ? Kelaart men. sp. and a figure of Tista valley and Kumaon. pimctatus. it Blyth. This species is re-deTerai.. D. Oachar.

Lawder. is Nycteridium plafyurus. Beddome. (nomen Gym. vol. Beddome. Anderson. Euprcpcs moniic^la. apud' Blanford. but is may possibly be the same as J. nebulosus. andB. Hurdwar . series of scales across belly. Giinther. Shaw. = N. Kumaon by Mr. [Sept- H. [I). differs &c. pair of chin-shields forms a suture and by smaller shields 32 long. xxxix. discovered by Dr. nudum). sp. its longer tail and limbs. J. close together on prte-anal region pale greyish . Oymnodaclylus Lmvderanus. n. Stellio Bayanus. Peripia Cantoris and Peronii have generally a distinct minute seta on the inner toe. . 9 is . 1836. S.. JElliotti. Charasia Blanfordmia. from the varies very much in coloration. is = Gnot = G. is nelulosus^ Blyth. having been wrongly identified by Anderson with the Sitana Ponticeriana extends eastward to the Ganges and north- wards A. = Cli. B. marmoratus. Japalura variegata. 8 followed lower labials .. Einulia indicci. onicrolepis. Schneider.] carinatus has quite as often 5 as 3 keels on each scale. from Sahibgunj on the Ganges. Theob. dorsalis. marmoratus. n. Beddome. Himalayanum. sp. no enlarged scales behind the upper. [^Oriotiaris'] = Oriot. 1870. 368 . is distinct from II.~\ Gaudama and H. densely spotted with dark brown . [T. tricarinatus (Blyth) sp. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. CJi. two pairs discovered of femoral pores. Gra^ . from St. «&c.194 14-15. Blyth and . the latter first. G. \_Tiliqua] mactdariu^-^ Blyth. to Kurki and into the Panjab. not Gym. n. maculatus. A. larger tubercles Body covered with small and nostril. first . 1866. D. Schneider ianum. maculafa.~\ Karenorum.. = St. and by . indicus of Blyth. differs from the latter by its larger scales which are in 80 — 100 series round the body. E. = I^i/ct. 1870. is not = G. tuherculatus. muculatiis. quite distinct Euprepes next . Steind. \_I>. brown. has a transparent disc on lower eyelid. F. by the larger scales on the back.. Jer- certainly distinct from Jerdon's planidorsata. Bay. these being continuous on the neck by having only 40 long. series of scales across belly . don.

species lo9). Theobald. p. series of scales round the body and 40 transverse .] also distinct Proceedings of the Amtlic Soci'di/. Part of the Joui-nal for the ensuing year. It is named by Beddome H. but the coloration taken from a species which Theobald (Lin. Himalayanus. Gray. but scales. between the limbs . sub-caudals enlarged from near the anus Bengal. but which It differs from the former by species. as to leave no doubt or difficulty "the specific marked under the figures. and B. On the former are names in Buchanan's handwriting. blackish at the anterior side rest greenish white. bronze brown above with a few dark spots. under the name R. different Anderson (see Proc. n. D. and des- Malaharica. and fortj'-nine original. so in referring them to correfishes. its much by its coloration . ear denticulate in front ." (McClelland.) sponding descriptions in the Gangetic . from the latter by the structure of &c. but more slender. Mocoa Sikkimensis is redescribed and is not the same as Giinther's Eum. A new species of the very rare genus Rislella. . sp. with 22 series longit. Zool. In the Library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal exist several volumes of manuscripts and drawings by Dr. has included two Soc. Mocoa sacra. Lon. Soc. with numerous illustrations. new species.] On Hamilton Buchanan's original drawings of fish in the Library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Hist. 1871. Parisnath . W. 26) is distinct most probably noted from both these longer limbs. Jour. The specific name cyanella is proposed for this HardivicJcii. Day. has been figure discovered by Major cription of it is Beddome in South India. 1 95 from //. [This paper will appear. Riopa albopimctata and affinities as Notes on the structural well as on the geographical distribution of these two species are given. Characters of the three species accompanied by drawings are given. Eiopa anguina. Busumicri. The measurements and dimensions is are mostly those of true anguina. A given. Boringi.1871. Buchanan. in the 1 st number 6. chiefly p. of the Nat. coloured deline- and 45 copies. under this name Zool. by Surgeon F. Like Sik/cimensis. Dr. In two of these are one hundred ations of fish.

196 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. that Buchanan Hamilton on his departure from India was deprived by the Marquis of Hastings of all his extensive drawings and papers relating to every it branch of natural history. ' * * *' " drawings were transmitted * The Government with the following " letter. dated 18th February. I have been honoured with your "'letter of the 31st ultimo. : Excellency says ' " " *' it from Dr. niy object in requesting. Buchanan was employed and paid " having specifically been the furnishing Government with a know" ledge of the animal and vegetable productions of this country. on having resigned the ofiice of Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens. to the Court of Directors In a communication from Dr. His there occurs " Hon'ble *' the Governor-General of the 5th January. and desiring me to deliver them to you which I have accordingly done by the bearer. I apprehend that this collection as a present from him. Having been furnished with the original correspondence. " In a letter from the Right 1815." taking with him " collections of natural history. sailed for Europe in 1815 in the "Marchioness of Ely. that I «(<*** '< ' might be permitted to present the drawings to the Court of Directors. [Sept- In " Chambers' lives of Scotchmen. ' " the service for which Dr. Buchanan states " " ' his object request the Court of Directors to accept Now. to the Chief Secretary to the Government. Hare. a successor to Dr. 1816). (dated July 27th. such drawings of natural productions as ' * have been made at the Public expense. did not originate . coins and Hindu Manuscripts" which he presented of the East India Company. I find that Buchanan. withdrawing the permission of the * delineations are essentially included in this service. Dr." it is stated. appears that he proposes to carry to Europe all the drawings * by a letter ' of animals and plants collected by him during the tour whicli he * was employed that it is to make to in this country. (McClelland. " 'those drawings are already the property of the Hon'ble Court.) Since this period has been generally admitted that the Indian Government appro- priated the private collections of drawings belonging to that officer. Buchanan. Buchanan received here. the following passage.' to * *' * " " " " ' ' Hon'ble Vice-President in Council for sending to the Hon'ble Court of Directors. in the appointment of Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens.

probably on good evidence. E.. Giiuther observes of these drawings. General Hardwieke having had them " copied Some from the drawings of Buchanans/ Hamilton by that gentleman's* consent." The first consideration which suggests itself how was this collection obtained from Bengal ? It does not appear to have existed in the Museum of the Asiatic Society or in the Botanical Gardens. A collection of fishes from Bengal. p. 197 in " " " ' a view of claiming the merit of making a present to the Comi)any of its own property. Waterhouse : and It in fact the drawing is taken from the Hardwieke collection." (Richardson. one copy being allowed. to on several of the districts.1 '• ' Proceedi7igs of the Asiatic Hociety." Vol. B. that Dr. Dr. that they in the British also *' exist in trij)licate. Esq. E. the types of which are lost. Giinther had arrived at the conclusion. presented by G. S. 1839. p. Ill. Giinther observes of the Ophiocephalus aurantiacus. that Mr. where " It their free use is it He remarks : may be questioned whether desirable to utilize di-awings. Waterhouse. iv. In the Zoological Eecord for 1869.) Others have been reproduced by McClelland in his Memoir on the Cyprinicke of India. whilst the collections conveyed to Europe by Buchanan were presented by him to the India House." But have the types been lost ? In the " Catalogue of the Fishes of the British Museum." would appear from this. Dr.1871. 127. Buchanan's statistical ' reports copies of the originals. Waterhouse had presented * Blore probably with the consent of the Superintendeut of the Botanic iu whose charge they remained. but arose from a conviction that their * being deposited in the collection at the India House was the most probable means of rendering them useful to science. " the typical specimen is not prein the At page 471 served in the collection presented by Mr. but as a help to supplement the insufficiently published descriptions. in any other way. 1861. A. is. H.' " The drawings wore kept in India to illustrate Dr. of these drawings have been transferred to the Illustrations of Indian Zoology. Gardens . believed to contain many typical specimens of Buchanan Hamilton's work. of B. the receipt is acknowledged of " 6. and it was proposed to take which were subsequently to be transmitted England." is Museum. same volume.

such accurate delineations. as the Asiatic Society of Bengal possesses. propose enumerating the drawings which exist in the Library. in several places of specimens " probably it types or of the seems that the oi'iginal collection.198 Proceedingfi of the Asiatic Society. some part of exists in the national one. to which could scarcely have occurred." and I believe due to the drawing in question not being ainonsst those in the British Museum. to the second portion of the sentence. had Dr. {Ge7itropomus phulchanda). next the names as published in the fishes of the Ganges. B. Museum for possesses copies of all these original are. by Buchanan. Catalogues." By omitted I of course mean " accideutally" or " overlooked. and it is also supposed the remains of the typical collection. l^g. and to reserve his names than to substitute others. collection. first In examining these drawings in volume marked iv. it must be distinctly iinderstood that I mean " with the leave of the author" or acknowledged as " obtained from H. Irrespective of this the original drawing. No. and V." it. * By reproduced. have found a place in the B. H. several years after Hamilton Buchanan's death. = Amhassis ohlonga. as it is believed that that institution possesses copies of the original drawings. Hamilton Buchanan's In short still the British Museum he also . M. B. for the purpose of future identification. and his "work was published in 1832 or 1833. General Hardwicke returned to Europe in 1818. I was left in India in 1818. figures placed to the literary credit of of General Hardwicke. 60. ti/pcs to [Sept observes species. therefore. and died in 1829. cannot omit questioning whether the British drawings. the figures marked before each being identical with what 1 have placed in pencil on those of the collection.inches long. As a slight inaccuracy has " Fishes of the occurred. C. B.* Clmnda phula^ • 1. I have placed the unpublished names as existing upon them within brackets. : ." He published the Ganges" in 1822. with H. Catal. My reasons doubting besides that some omissions and wrong identifications. because Hamilton Buchanan could not have copied from the " Illustrations of Indian Zoology.. after each of them. and lastly the determinations in the Catalogue of the Fishes of the British Museum. B." as " I have been more anxious M'Clelland observed of the use he made of them to identify Buclianau's species than to describe new ones. instead Hamilton Buchanan. Giinther had access I. M.

— ?B. kanipabda). G. named P.«///•«/). erroneously batasio. Catal. M. 199 A. * — ? B. species of GalUchrous. ( = Macrones — muri H. spine serrated. chandra? B. 2 views. ( . arioides. 4. B. Flatg- stacus chaca. 12. 28. Zool. '2. 2 views. c. lary barbels reach to the middle of the total length. {Hgpostomus ? sisor). Blyth. B. * H = S.1871. reproduced lud.. Catal. Catal.?y<7. P. also probably 11. '16.. = Ailia H. 10. {Silurus chaica). f. Catal. 23. ? nihritaidus). = JIara • B. P. lagoda. ( hara).. 7. each 2 inches long. (Pimelodus mavggoi). {Malopterure hazali). Bengaliensis. murius and Psetcdeutropius megalops. rahdophorus.. 2 views. Catal. 2^^ inches long. we. B. 2 views. „ ??. telchitta. Anal fin with 48. Callichrous imho. ' H. each 4 inches long. 9. pi. M. 22. B. 6. . Sisor rah- dophorus. M. batasius). B. M. Ind. in Fishes of Ganges pi. hogoda). = • C. B. B. B.s). 8. Catal. 2 views. carcio.. = 3. B. Catal. Catal. f. M. hara. shorter than the head (quite different from 60. urua „ a?/r<7fe<. ( . B. ' 15. each 3^ inches long. 43.. B. 2 views. 2 short nasal. Giiuther. Catal. Catal. reproduced. B. ? inches long. fahda). M. = Amblyceps mangois. each Pseudeutropiiis atherinoides. Gunther. 111. 2 views. B. pahda. Pimehdus P. Catal. ( . Blyth. == GIgptostenmm G. C. vmritis. which is P. ( . B. M. = Amhassis hogoda. H. B. B. B. 2 views. bacicUs.. and 4 maxillary mara. H. H.. M. * IfV inches long. reference omitted in B. Probably Maxil- the omitted P. B. M. C. Gray. = Etdropius „ ( and mandibular barbels.% inches long. about 63 rays. Bl. H. ( Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.. Catal. f. M. P. P. H. each 9 inches long. M. B. Catal. changdramara). Catal. M. 111. each 3/^ inches long. P. -13. batasio.B. MaJaptenirus H. ( „ hatasi). 2 views. Barbels all pi. = Arius and V. = ( „ urua). B. Buchanatii.. Zool. 1. B. '14. mangois. trilineatum. each 2. . M. H. 5. P. = Macrones „ H. H. each 3 inches long.. each 3^'^ vacha). H. M. B. H. M. H. Catal. ( . coila. fii'st = Chaca Biichanani. 2^% inches long. B.

. '21... 3. a. Catal. it is a Hemipimelodus. ? corsula. 23. B. B. H.. xi. boro.. pi. ? nangra).. M.. tengana. however. . Catal. referring to a different species with a long adipose dorsal distinct.. f. it slowly moves its branchiae.200 *17. Tcurlii).. 20. B. P.. Catal. B. On holding its . species. published as P. hatasius and P. B. ( . H. sius . = Macrones P. cenia. Ophisurus horo. it is a Macrones. cavasius. o'ama tenggara). 19. kenia). C. 111. B- ' = Opliichthys horo.hafa- 31. f.. . H. erroneously figured pi. it in the water. carcio must be and may both be good viridescens. 55 == Pita ? B. M. the latter name. 31. one with long. ( kho7igta). pi. thus.2 views. M.. conta. and therefore P... 63. or by means of the air contained opening firmly closed. H. . Zool. M. cavasiiis. omitted in B. P. 59. H. ( . . M. rama. ( . tengara. = 60. B. Sykes 1. conta Blyth. 0. and V. fin. Gatal. B. reproduced in Ind. pi. 23. = Macrones f. xi. B. 22. = JIara ( . Catal. 58 = Macroreference it is nes tengana. Catalogue 24. -18. f. — ( . P. a Re- cavasi). pi. fish distends this The and do not communicate with each other. = Macrones trachacanf. B. [Sept. B. M. f. the other 56. ( . P. so as to to respire. tengganci). H.. B. Catal. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 72 = Macrones — 1. and it is placed in water. in B. H. H. The gills of this eel are contained in a large cavity on either side of the head. telgagra and menoda). appears to be able to respire directly from the atmosphere. H. B. mipimelodus. B. M. itchkeea. Catal. each 3 inches long. . H. If the gills are exposed by cutting away the gill membrane. Catalogue 25. H. pi.. hatasius.. it struggles until by its mouth should its its head is released. ( . it is P. 26. 1. it receptacle with air taken in by its mouth . cit. .. reference omitted in B. small gill takes in air mouth be held be able closed. B. c. M. 39.sP. M. pi. B. P. M. B.. and appears to feel no inconvenience in being unable to obtain air direct through its mouth. Catal. reference omitted in with short barbels. f. nangra.

B. omitted in B. 11. A. B. Catal. T. ( „ fuscus). ( . Catal. M. B. coloured drawing of this fish. Cynoglossus Hamiltonii. Catal. ( . H. 32.... B. lingua. ( •31. inches long. B.] '27. H. ' M. B. reproduced Ind. ' H. 8f inches long. B. B. (^Acheiris j'ihha). .. H. {Murccna bamach). Catal. H. = * C. rodratus). B. reproduced in raitaboura.''^ whilst no A. B. Forsk. B. tilehuiiib). Carcharias Gangeticus.1871.. is in the collection of . M. M. {Tricho])odm bcje). figured. pi. ( = . 78./a= 2'ri- sciatus. • raitaboura. cotra. = T. •30. H.. M. B. „ jrt^/(^<e). f. Zool. =2*. sola. B. „ reproduced Catal. 11. B. B.. Catal. M. tile. Giinther. perhaps O.. 42. T. long. T. A. lalius. fasciatus. shark = Moringua is it is M. with the IbUowiug remark. T. 35. 36. B. 33. satliete.. A M. apparoutly omitted from 28. cynoglossuSj \l. ( Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Cataloguo. 34. ( M. Catal. colisa. horo. Catal. P. Ind. II. Bengaliensis. T. M. 43. rahta loruya). B. M..). . '29. 2 inches long. H. Catal.. kukw jibha). = Murcenesox ( cincreus. {Pleuroneetes arsi). . 15. M. 201 1}. hijala. = Anguilla 111. 0. Jlurcena bagio. satliete. B. Catal. M. B. cmriilescens). B's name '^ rejected as " (not Lacep. 100. about 15 inches long. Catal. the same as M. vittatus).. • 37. D. M. Cg)MglosHUs lingua. ruber).'U lines long. II inches long. == M. This shark with a sharp nose was not described. Catal. 111. H.. B. (Squallus characias ? Kdrntd). Catal. Catal. 2^^^ inches M. Squalus carcharias ? H. T. Catal. Zool. chuna. M. 13. 40. B. l^'j inches long. B. J/". •41. haraii- • 0. ( M. Lacopede. H. = B. Zuol. • B. Catal. 2^^ inches long. cha. harangcha). II. X^-^ 38. M. B. = "a ' Pseudorhombus arsius. maculata. finds a place in the Catalogue. = . Ji. H. as M. Be^iga- liensis . = MurcB- 7ia tile. M. B. B. arsias. '39. nearly 12 iuclios long'. 111. ( . 40 = Tricho- g aster fasciatus. chogaster — ? B. luil. maculata. (Muranojjhis bazi). H. — ? B.

M. B. 45. Catal. 60 20. 96 = Botia 29. soaiurigina = H. toy a. 64. {Miigil bongon). halitora. = Nemachilus turio.. M. f. reproduced McClelland. gongota. guntea. turio. ( = Fsilorhynclms „ suhati). Catal.. Gobitis gongota. o Pseudeutropius. reproduced McClelland. B. M.!!. 35. H. reproduced McClelland. botya). B. hhoriha). H. Ageniosus viilitaris.. Gobitis gimtea. „ cJiota hihura). G. as G. B. 22.202 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. H. 51. — 54. ( . G. M. drawings. H. {Slolephorus halitora). reproduced McClelland. B. B. ( „ gunte). lorahle. Catal. Catal. ( B. G. corica.. aurantiacus. 59.. turi). H. M. barca. dari). G. M. B. = W. H. ( . 23. C. B. M. C. re])roduced McClelland.Q. reproduced McClelland. reproduced McGleHand = Zepidocuciira cephalichthys halgara. dario^ H. (_Sept. Catal.. ^ iV: 53. Catal.. ( M. 31. xi. M. = N. presented by General Hardwicke to the British Muse- um.2ii^. == 58. 0. reproduced McClelland. M. B. B. reproduced McClelland. 95 = B.'M. dario. = P. M. Catal. M.. Catal. 46. ( ( „ savo7% Jchuriha). B. Catal. ( reproduced McClelland. M. 49. B.. pi. 63. =: H. B. G. B. reproduced McClelland. unfinished. botia.. sncatio. Catal. . corica. dario. gachua ? in B. Catal. pi.. striatus. G. botia. savona^ savona. B. B. M. B. This fish does not appear to have been . botia. = Acanthoplithalmus 52. H. „ j^«»y?/a). Catal. C. hilturio. f. Catal. O. 17 = barca.'2>. M. Catal. 0. pi." 44. and 61 are the originals of OphiocepJialm f. = f. . reproduced McClelland ? B. B. bilturi). Gobitis gongota. 48. and 0. 50. 0. 47. and O. 62. M. Unnamed. H. B. q. B. H. 55. B. B. . pa7igia.. f. B. B. 57.M^"" {Colitis geto). Catal. B. pangia. == N. ( . pi. balgara. outline only. pi. ( . reproduced McClelland. N. = 56. ghorgota). Cijprinusbali- H. B.

Giiuther in B. the same species however. fMugillcevis). M. H. cascasia. (MS. Mugil albula ? H. 64. original description. as • (Holocentrus ? katkaya).. unless as M. the • with the remark *' a figure of it exists collection of di-awings of fishes by Hardwicke (M8S. B.. to " nepalensis. Gobius gutum. M. M. 70 and 71. I may remark that I have specimens of it in the Hooghly at Calcutta.). H. 65. 74. B. a inappropriate. Catal. ( Catal. another marine fish Therapon servus. = Trygon H. in B. p. C.. omitted M. Zool. lately obtained five H. H. B. 272) ? H. '72.. sephen. Esq. Raia Jluviatilis. — (No. Catal. collection the species 67.. is. Vol. Catal. appears to be described as M. Gohius chuno. H. sadanundio. Catalogue. lj\ inches. and I would suggest its being altered to M. cephalus The B. Presented by B. Cata- logue. = and T. one skin 8 inches long the " fresh waters of Nepal" presented by Mr. 2^^ inches. 1. and in i. M. Golius sadanundio. : is thus referred HaK-grown stuffed. 279. 73. B. B. c. who records. whereas this * Goitis trivittatus. sadanundi). Same as No. B. B. 203 ? described by Ilamilton Buchanan. Bl." Both these tidal influence. .. H.] Procee(Ung& of the Aniatic Society.. {Katchanda). =t= G. the specimen of which belonged to the Buchanan 111. (Nepal ?). of the British Museum). in B. {Mugil laakasiya) B.. from Catalogue. trivittatus. reproduced in trivittatus^ Pterapon considered Therapon servus. = M." . 68. As not a single example of the Family Mugilidce is found in Nepal. ^ o Bangon » in the Calcutta markets is M. M. 2y^„ inches. nepalensis for this Calcutta fish little Icevis. in M. Griinther. omitted in B. omitted from the B. planicspH. S/^ inches long. and V. of Ind. Unnamed. B. Hodgson. B..1871.—?. Catal. B. outline of head with inter- maxillaries protruded. the designation M. altispinis. •69. Ghanda? setifer^ B. H. 3 inches M. Hodgson fish ascend the Hooghly to within or a little above and perhaps the two skins were prepared in Calcutta. I think. ' " " {Cobitis chuno). = Q. appears to be = Gerres M. M.. B. is abimdant in Calcutta and Bombay. H. •66. Catal. was the long.

in the B. B. '76. B. which is not found in T. Catal. •79. . ( [Sept. Catal. Catal. M. 81. Zool. B. M. Cantor originally referred the descriptions to these species which probably he would not have done. ? = B. M. B. 85.'s work. raye) '83. a common species at Calcutta. '80. Galliomorus H. Unfinished drawing of Serranus. sele. {Cotttts ? ehaka). G. as Amhhjopus Giinther. 4^-^ inches long. omitetd in B. M. chaea. {Cheilodopterus hutilere) 4 inches. As a synonym of Amhlyopus Hermannianus. 4^^^ = Platycephalus itmdiator. G. Bl. is given... which similar to Blyth's species. S. 14. B. Boryichthys t) — . Catalogue that in the Proc. 84. tetra- 82. H. S. ruber ^ H. Giinther (B. B. Tricliiurus lepturus. ( ) = idem. B... P. Forsk. M. Zool. 7 inches long. B. P. Catal). B. Batrachoides gangene. = Try- 2)aitchen vagina. H. o f.. 77. = P. Catal. which latter is an entirely distinct species.204 » Proceedings of the Asiatic SocieUj. {Sygnathus kharke). B. Catal. cirrhatiis. M. H. . = Batrachus gruninches long. 1 considered Ainlhjopws Blyth. {Polynemus paradiseus) 8 inches long. Indicus. &^-^ inches long. Y% inches. = Meotris ( lutis. M. is Bl. M. fish whose name would have priority should the variety. apparently omitted from B. deocata. B.. B. {Gobioides squanmlosa).. ( 12 inches. . = IcJithyocampus carce.. 75. B. 8. nnnus. Catalogue. I cannot imagine how there could be any respecting the latter species. deohhuta). p. cceculus. M. H. Should a doubt exist as to whether the ruhce is a Trypauchen or an Amhlyopus. Soc. hraclujg aster. niens. M. Catal.^. .. M. earce. I may here remark M. be looked upon as more than a It is not uncommon in Calcutta. dactylus. 5^-^ inches. H. it is A. B. H. delineated in H.. Catalogue. and appears to be Amhhjopus tmiia. 78.. {Mahalkar) 8 inches. 518. B. B. . vagina. ricbicimdus. B. -86. 111. Catal. Catal. B..Lacep. H. In. B. It is a beautiful drawing of Amhly- opun Hermannianus.. G. B. * Dr. had he seen the drawings. . M. C hutis • H. thutkuri). = P. H. showing most distinctly the crypts in which the scales are imbedded. 1869. Catal. teria. pi.

pseudopterus. of The drawing is reproduced in the Indian Zoology under the name of C. 92. Gray. conchonius. H. 96. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. but under Chi/peoides pseudopterus quoted: "The which served for the figure of Corica guhorni. Corica soborna. {Cyprinus korikon). = Barilius— '101. Catal. Catal. finlets. is Illustrations = Clupea InIndian diea. omitted from the B. motius.. B. Catal. o = T. Catal.] 87. • M. Another illustration in the (1. 218. ( M. G. Indica. '93. Zool. C. G. M. 205 {Clujmnodon is ? suborno khorika). jauyali). conchonius. IE. = Eleotris — ? B. p. B. B. T. 91. reproduced McClelland. omitted is from 13. B. M. H. C.* ITifstus ramcarati. = -Z?atZ<> Buchanani. B. H. reproduced McClelland. Catalogue. Labriis badis. reproduced McClelland. Bleeker. reproduced McClelland. M. M. not E.. B. B.. am ( unable to compare . reproduced McClelland." Gray. danius. Catal. cutcutia. vagra. H. = B. 89. = • Pellona motius. Ind. „ ? punysi). 2 j8^ inches long. B. 5j\ inches long. B. M. ( terio. Catalogue. B. = Laheo— 99. {Atherina d/iani). guganio. 1^ 90. (Tetrodon kariya phoksa). cAflWjJtV). apparently not described. 111. roprodmod ' in Ind.. A. (Labriis darki). Catal. lj\ inches lonj?. „ gngani). it with H. reproduced Ind. 4^. M. B. Catal. Zoology sheet so I is considered as O. 94. 8 inches long. ( „ ? loya). Zool.. = Barbas— ? B. ectuntio H. H. = Laleo— 100. 9/10 of an inch long. B. 97. 95. teripungti). = Coilia ramcarati. and Gray. H. similar to Cl.. = Barbus ( . B. M. M. B. B. B. Catal. M.inches long.1871. ierio. Zool. Ir^Q inches. H. C. . joalius. unfortunately this missing from the copy of the Indian Zoology in Calcutta. Catal.'s drawings. B. H. H. M. {S!sox amjulatus). B. H. B. „ chajn'o). 98. B. C. B. cutcutia. 2^ inches long. C. Catal. ( ( „ ? B. • (Clupanodon mofi). chapra. B. was perhaps — it is also represented with separate anal 88. reproduced McClelland.. C. pausio. M. B. B. M. chapra. H. Catal. c). H. Catalofish gue. H. B..

.i. B. Gyprinus elanga^ H. ( •119. = Tylognathus hoga.'Q. Catal. L. pangusia. H. H. ( . G. 10 inches long. H. H. Catal. H. ? ( M.latius. ( 116. Catal. G. 113. 105. ( „ hoga). B. 110.'^\. B. dhe-nro). B. angra). Catal. Catal. 112. B. reproduced McClelland. ( H.'Q.'Q. = B. mrigala). ( ( godiyari). sada. ( „ morar). 115.. 6aw^«w«). B.. 6^^^ inches long = Rashora ? elanga. B. 92. ( „ . cocsa. = DiscognatJms sada „ H. 75 = Aspidoparia morar. Catalogue. B. 111. cursis. . M. pi. 108. ^\. ? B. G.. Catal. 18.. 28. ( „ ^a^«). f. G. 103. hiihrangi). M. cocsa. and ventral fin. pi. 117. ( . M. B. Catal. „ ^awy?wfyff). H. pi. ( <??/««^rfl! yoAfltwa).. G. 91 = Laheo Zool. • 114.. M. f. M. H. • M. reproduced McCleUand. G. morala. „ hhoTcsa). Grossochilus sada. = Crosxochihis latins.206 102. ( . f. H.. 80 — ? B. 22. Catal. M. lata.. 1.. „ 7cwm). 77 =: B. M. B. reproduced B. halitord). 31. B. . = ( . M.^. '104. G. M. f. ( „ B.. B. L. B. H. C. reha. chedra." Barilius cocsa. 1.. G. Catal. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. reproduced McClelland. B. f.^. 3. M. . = Girrliina B. morala). ? 118.-V^ti Ind. dero. B. [Sept. lamia.. B.. B.&. pi. Catal.. go- Grossocliilus gohama. = La- heo cursa. B. 14 rows of scales between Catal. H. lamfa. reproduced McClelland. M. morar. C. B. „ Catal. B. Catal.'l^=Glrrhinamrigala. — M. Zool. H. 1. B. = Tylognathus = Laheo — tr. B. reproduced McClelland. 111. reproduced (i. . Catal. c7«e<:^ra). 106. Catal. 3 inches. Ind. 78 = Tylogna- thus— 109. M. 0. Catal.. 13/?. ( it appears to be Cirrhina 111. B. B. M. B. M. reproduced McClelland. = hama H. cur dbati lata). B. = Laheo pangusia. 107. H.

M.B. 1. M. G. Zool.] 120. H. -125. . == Barhus McClelland. it B.. B. 127. . damaged by -135. G.. ( Catal. = Barbus = B. 130. tiki). mosal. H. gelius. jaya). B. • = Barhm ( ( . n.. L.. = Barilius 111. 12/? fin. G. G. reproduced McClelland. • 136.1871. = Laheo Dussumieri 1. B. Catal. B. M. M. reproduced = B.. tr. ( . M. 13 or 14 rows of scales between cursa.. Dyangra daniconius. titim. 131. tileo.. B. „ . 62.124. i)l. a distinct species. Catal. 121. Ind.. H. anjana). • = Barbus ( M. f. 1. reproduced 111.. = Ghelaphulo. Jcani punti). Catal. B. 4. „ pJtutwiio. \^^ inches \ou^= B. . B. Zool. cosuatis. G. aiijana. ( Catal.. appears to be identical with G.. B. B. ( termites. Catal. „ himaculatus). = i<Wa can i us. 122. 82. M. B. reproduced Ind. Zool. H. H. B. Catal. M. cursa and C. Catal. Catal. M. reproduced Catal. tor.. = B. ( Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. reproduced McClelland. . H.. M. . and base of ventral B. M. ffoha.. = L. 111. figiu-e B.- goha. B. B. Z^-^ inches long. L. Bl. however. and ? B.- nandina. 128. gelius. . = Rasbora H. H. barila. C B. 134.. Catal. Zool. cu/sis. c. H. Catal. 126. ( ffoha). ( H. B. H.'S. . = Bola 132. titius. M. B. The has been somewhat Aspidopariajaya. ( M. reproduced B.lnd. reproduced McClelland. M. . . H. H. B. „ cursa. G. Catal. gelius. B. G. B. ( cosuatis.'B. „ Catal. geli punti). McClelland. B. kosicati). „ UoJa). B. worarensis. reproduced lU. phutunio.. B. B.inches long. lU. . (jfoniios. Catal.. pi. M. Catal. Giintliei'. H. B. B. M.. B. f. 1. „ it is. H. 129. Catal. 123. lola. yhul chela). M. B. B. tileo. = Barbus 133.. however. B. y B. 207 8. Ind. 84 = Laheo mosal. mosal B. phulo. „ nandi?i\ G. „ barila). nandina. H.

B. reproduced McClelland. M. ( M. 39 is a figure 9^ inches long of Cyis prinus chagunio H. . ( Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. B.. C. 11 . reproduced McClelland. M. . M. . Cyprinus lauluca. . ( . „ Catal. . H. B. harna. „ ^ phahra). is . one li- gure destroyed. B. chitala. 28 122 30 = 82 31 = 103 32'= 126 33 a 7^\ inches 1 . ( and Eustira. ( yo^y/ff). . . ( Catal. (7. . H. — 36. B. the original of which missing. [Sept. danrica. B. vagra. „ cac/jiMs). H. = 70 4= 70 No. dangila). I. G. . B. H. B. = Cachius 143. Catal. B. .. Catal.. . B. Barilius rerio. 9 . duplicates of the foregoing. 141. . . B. fish. H. balibola). = 32 = 27 10= 8. M. laubuca. B. = C^cAiws The tail atpar. . = 65. Catal. harna. Catal. 5 6 7 8 . 146. flsifjsar. reproduced McClelland. . .. In fact originals all the rest are reproductions of the : now in Vol. 6 . danrica. 140. B.208 137. . B. Catal. siitiha). = B. = Chela = Cachim. H. dangila. B. B. „ yor«) H. 3 . reproduced Ind. is injured by termites.. Catal. H. Much damaged by termites. M. M. it is a Perilampm. reproduced McClelland. = Nuria 142. 111. others copies of some missing figures they are as follows. reproduced McClelland. . C.. Giinther. jogia... C. reproduced McClelland. reproduced McClelland. M. M. B. B.. . In Vol. B. ( . ( atpar. M. B. H. = BariUus — 138. Griiuther of Gatla Buchanani. of animals are 48 drawings of some of which are .. . ZerX-^' 144. Zool. McClell. 124 2 = 146 = 114. = CM«<7ora. B. reproduced McClelland. H. 139. Catal. . IV.. = 86. reproduced McClelland. except the following . and V. unfinished copy of No. 9 J inches long Dr. Catal. H.. . B. jongja).. =16 12 = 140 13 =92 14 = 15 a larger drawing of 123 16= 115 17 =28 18 = 118 19 = 61 20 = 14 21 =29 22 = 18 26 = 120 27 23 = 78 24 = 142 25 = 117 = 109 29 = Mysius H. C. is figure long of Sillago domina.. ^= Danio Giinther. ( ?rtyMX«f/«). . = 145. = Nuria rerio. B.

&c. His observations on the breeding season. 209 oi Bar- Zool. Etawah. Giiuther. 3 of the Nat. are particularly interesting. size. the paper appear in the number of Part II of the Journal for the ensuing year. If illustrations of the will newly described species 1st be supplied in time. with this fish has " large scales Cyprhms char/wiio.] in tliG Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. S. bill* less nifous tone and by having 4 plain primaries and the 5th marked with a buif patch on the outer Siita Cashmirensis. 8. Day. Esq. 48 Pohjnemus Indicus. Notes on the Ornithology of Casujiir. Theobald gives notes regarding various species of GyclopJiorus and Slreptaxis. Ham. Brooks. 9." In the figure there are about 41 scales along the lateral line and well developed rostral and maxillary barbels. E. Brooks notices several imperfectly known or new species of birds fi'om Cashmir. 7. C. Ill. is The species may be readily recognised from the drawing. Monograph of Indian Cyprinid^. This is Pt.-. hy W. [I would suggest that the ings in pencil be recorded in 7 numbers I have inserted on the drawink. \\% inches long. Hist. the two being exactly of the same . * This is very close to Edit. demurring to my identification bus Bcavani. in this many of the species The new species noticed of Certhia Hodgsoni. and a few other shells.familiaris by a much larger tail coverts. Notes on some land-shells from the vicinity of Moulmein. Buch. Record for 1869.. Part of the Journal it will appear in No. EsQ. paper are as follows : — diffex:s from G.. the wing is 3-3 inches no white edgings to the under tail coverts. 1872. 4 of the same Part for the current year. E. observes and minute barbels. . WITH descriptions OF NEW SPECIES. .'^ ])ut on rump and upper web. found in the neighbourhood of Moidmoin. hg — W. Mr. Mr. Day's Monograph published in No. Ilimahgana. This volume iv contains 50 coloured illustrations of fish. and that the original figures have the Society's stamp on each separate sheet]. a continuation of Dr. Coloration very like that of S. hy Surgeon F.. ccesia of Europe.^871. ThEOBALD.

Luzonensis. but mvicli wing 2'28 — 2-3. A. Assistant Sitrgcon H. wing 2*2. 4'75. unicolor. Gray. Total length 5*15. Sorites pallidus. and Mag. tail 4. Hist. Nat. tail a dull whitish grey supercilium . the black extending for 2^ . Sec. a pale brown streak . affinis^ [Sept. with' shorter wing and brighter [This paper will be published in full in the 1st number of the Nat. Length 7'6. remainder of head and back deep black. . a slight tawny tinge on the wings coverts lighter . » pertilionidje. M. J). mid-toe and claw •72 incbes. tarsus 0'7 inches. bill at front 0-36. bill at front "55. Part of the Journal for 1872]. In plumage resembling Ph. wing 3-55.^s British Forces. white. DoBsoN. tion of some other species of the same family. but smaller. from nostril 0-31. St. B. Like colours. Similar to Hodgs. tail 2-6 — 2-8 inches.210 Proceedings of tJie Asiatic Society. Coloration as in If.. Above light olive grey or greyisb olive with . M. tail 2*2. Alauda guttata. Notes on nine new species of Indian and Indo-Chinese Veswith remaeks on the synonymy and classiticahj g. tarsus 0-9 inches. 10.. Average length wing 2-3. Larger than gtdgula and not so rufous on the breast and with bolder markings.. viridanus. JSturnus nitens. through the eye cheeks and ear coverts brownish chin to abdomen greyish bill 0"33. Dumeticola major.* * Ann. wing 3*7 — 3-9. B. larger. — ScoTOPHiLiNA. . bill at front 0-5. Phylloscopus Tytleri. e.. tail 1-7. that the chin and throat inches from base of lower mandible white portion of head as in fer&onata. The following diagnoses of nine new species of bats are intended as prefatory to more detailed descriptions accompanied with illustrations to be published hereafter. lower back and upper . Hume. 1866. from gape 0*5. except are black. tarsus -97 inches. darker and of a more pointed and slender form than in the last species. Ilotacilla CasJimirensis. tail 2-7. sides of breast and flanks and lower tail coverts pale brownish grey. Hist. but of a richer and deeper olive bill much longer.

. Andersoni. the base dark ferruginous brown. Kasia Hills. to within a short distance of above. maintaining at most the same breadth from the base the tip.9 . dark ferruginous brown at the base. above. Anderson's forthcoming account of the Zoology of the Yunan Expedition. short. Nycticejus.^."o5 . Genus. muzzle very broad and short . 1".85 . thick and fleshy .1871. ear (anteriorly) 0. wing-membrane attached to base of toes. N. Fur. ^.'. Length. Head flat . Bias. be-" than the outer ones. Length. Incisors. outer flatly emarginate beneath the tip causing it to project outwards tragus moderately al- long.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. cui'ved inwards . tricoloured. Sub-genus. r'. Vesperus. Bengal. much larger and longer throughout. * More detailed descriptions of this and of the next new species will appear in Dr. 2".'tail. with broadly rounded tips .85. . Keys.6 Loc. immediately behind them a furrow extends from the anterior corner of one eye to the other ia front of which the fur of the head does not pass : ears triangular above .2 . teeth very mi- nute. V. outer side without emargination lower portion from below the level of the tragus tip of the tragus to the termination of the outer margin near the angle of the mouth very. 0"-65. EMAUGENATUS. — wing-membrane attach- premolars.* Dobson. DobsOU. Incisors. 2". . tlie upper lip largely developed. Vesperugo. slightly curved inwards and obtusely pointed. Log. ed to base of Glands of toes. head and body forearm. 211 Genus. thumb 0". with rounded of the ear tips. V. then buff. Nycticejus . PACHYOTis.6 ear (anteriorly) O. head and body forearm 2". dark brown neath. 2 . the tips light yellowish brown . minences between the nostrils and eyes head.45 tibia 0". Dobson. . beneath. Sub-genus. ? --. a lighter shade of the same colour. premolars. the remaining portion buff. glandular prominences of upper lip largely developed.2 . tibia. tail 2". Fuj. ears nearly as long as the side . forming rounded pro. Eafinesque. inner incisors bifid at their extremities.

forearm. Inner incisors long outer incisors very short and acutely pointed. Blyth.85. Log. Cat. Length. . the remaining portion ashy." I have examined the type specimens thus described . (which Dr. then convex and again emar. from Tenasserim with Temminck's description of V. fuliginosus. there are certainly tioo pairs of upper in- but the outer ones are. Ears moderate with rounded outer edge with a shallow but wide emargination beneath the inner margin straight. outer convex upwards . Vesperits atratus. Vol. 15 . placed in front of the inner ones and lying on their outer sides. pachypus from Sumatra and Java. Hodgs. Mono. for changing the genus appcarent. IV. 96. Gray ranks as a ScotopJnIus). Blyth. Momein. Hodgson. . A. as in many other species of the sub. Mamm.. species. is therefore. Vespertilio pachypus. A. Scotophilus fulvidus. V. fur. Yunan.212 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.6 . above. equally I think it very probable Mr. ginate opposite the base of the tragus tragus obtusely pointed. Schreber. Blyth. light grayish brown for two- thirds its length. dark brown with grayish and bifid tips beneath. tip. The following is Blyth's description S. their fore- arms correspond exactly with the measurement given. The necessity. The species is. XXYIII. Vesperus pachypus. Blyth has not been equally accurate in stating that they possess only one pair of upper incisors cisors. J. Mamm. but Mr. genus Vesperus. 700. The measurements agree in every respect with those and the colour of the fur. however. of this jSTo. tibia. head and body. fulvidus. [Sept. I have compared the type specimens of Sc. 293. of the latter feet. As. still quite distinct from 8c. &c. Nycticejus atratus. 2". tips. ear (anteriorly) 0". Temk. tail. very small and might easily be overlooked the the inner incisors are remarkably long. PACHYPUS. 2". S.75 . 0".) fidiginosa. — " Like (Vesp. 1".9. form of the correspond. Soc. but with only one pair of upper incisors- Length of forearm If in. Suppl. . Beng. species. Wagner. Mus... . J. but very unlike those which are so characteristic of genus Nycticejus. Beng.

ears pointed. brown . 1". above. Zoc. and along the thighs dirty white or very pale buff. 2—2 . Head upper slightly elevated . . tail 1"A .55 tibia 0". then slightly convex to the base tragus rather broad with a straight inner margin. he must. Yunan. forearm VA ear (an- tibia 0". length. Length. Dobsou. chocolate brown. specimens in spirit appear altogether intensely black. face hairy . Ears triangular with broadly rounded above for nearly half its outer margin straight . head and body 2". Zoc. sooty- brown throughout with grayish or ashy tips which give the fur . Bhamaw. P. Length. glandular prominences of lip small . Head flat . tail ear (anteriorly) 0". outer convex upof nine vertebra). Cherra Punji. . otherwise. Incisors nearly equal in length.9 . outer margin deeply hollowed out . acute. acutely pointed. Dob. The colour of the for of a . DobsOU. PipistreUiis. may be . as broad as long. tips. Bengal. with a straight inner margin. beneath the tip causing it to project considerably tragus long. Fur. forearm 1". flattened at their extremities first upper premolar minute. 65 . placed inside the line of teeth but tinguished from without. Gray .65 . head and body. placed inside the line of teeth and not distinguishable from without. P. ears. measured from behind. tips of the hairs light . AFFiNis.6. tail long. ANNECTANS. P. lighter on the head and neck. wing-membrane atSubgenus.0 teriorly) 0". outer edge without emargination . premolars. — tached to the base of the toes. inner margin of tragus straight. 6.6 . the last free . first upper dis- premolar minute. AUSTENIANUS.] Proceedinffs of the Asiatic Society. glandg of the ujipor lip so developed as to cause a deep depression between them on the face behind the nostrils . 1". dark brown with light brown or ashy tips on the pubes Outer incisors . inner obtuse. beneath.1871. on the ventral surface a grayish appearance cutaneous system black. at least. 213 Blyth did not possess a copy of Temminck's Mono^^raph when he described this species as. wards . have noticed in his description the close affinity of the species.SOU. inner incisors bifid .

black with shining tips . black for three- * Ann.— p. Tomes. on the back. first and second premolars in both upper and lower jaws very small and conical. Nat. its above. Length. placed slightly inside size. the form of the ear and tragus is almost precisely is similar to those of the next species which a true Veqyertilio. Vespertilio. Dobson. the whole ventral surface of specimens dried is from spirit appears white and the dark portion of the hair till not perceived the fur is raised. — . wing-membrane at- tached to the base of the toes. 1857. it to tragus long. brown with reddish . Outer side of ear with a deep emarginatlon about the middle cutting o£P the lower portion which resembles very closely the large anti- tragus of the species of the genus Rhinolophus face very hairy . black for three-fourths its length. Sec. tibia 0". 2.6. '^ outer margin V. Dobson. narrow. . I". beneath. tail 1". Dentition. beneath. dark brown "with lighter tips. ear (anteriorly) 0".214 specimen in tips . and Mag. Upper incisors nearly equal in size first upper premolar minute. Gren. Blanpoedi. on the top of the head. . Proceedings of the Asiatic spirit Societij. the remaining por- tion pure white . above. the line of teeth. . second premolar nearly equal to canine in This species unites the external foi'm of a Vesper tilio to the dentition of Pipistrelhs .35 . tail 1".6. the remaining portion light yellowish-brown.48 .m. ~. head and body 2".65 . Gray). [Sept. Gray. c. Naga Hills. deeply hollowed out project considerably tip causing . fur.0. — in. ear (anteriorly) 0". Assam. V. Hist. 6 forearm Loc. .8 . —. Katmandu. Vespertilio. Subgenus. head and body r'. and pointed tips . muzzle pointed : fur.75. tibia 0". black with brown beneath. appears to be above. Nipal. Length.m. Ears narrow and pointed immediately beneath the . Canines very short .5. —Vespektilionina. . NiPALENSis. forearm Loc. (as restricted. black for two-thirds length. 1".

1".7 . Bi'ownish olivaceous above. Hard- Horsf. * Wing 2-05 inches. supercilia white. Length. L. rictila.6.5 .28 Loc. .G . The new \- species are rhylloscopus pallidipes. Length. Lower parts silky white. the hairs tipped with yellowish-brown. which it resembles in some respects. Dalhousie. C. tibia 0".45 . Mandelli.) — This is a description of a collection of skins made by Mr. above chocolate brown with paler tips beneath of a somewhat darker shade of the same colour. fur. . line rump a little more rufescent. (Abstract. Eesembles E. sp. together with a few notes on birds obtained at low elevations in Sikkim by the others. Nat. T.fusca^ Dobson. tail 1". Ann. tail 1". 1858. picta very outer side of the ear there tip.5. S. tibia 0". Kerivoula. Bill dark above. mclcii. elongate. sides of breast olivaceous. K. and two Zosterops simplex. is closely in its general form . Blanford. outer ones earthy brown edged with olive. cen- same colour as tte back. lenf^th. tarsus 0*76. S. restricted by Tomes.1871. legs bill very pale coloured. pale below. head and body forearm 1". 215 first remaining portion ashy. ? Notes on a collection of bieds from Sikkiim.* Gray. head and body forearm 1". . hi/ W.5 .3 11. tail 1*7. Hist. and Eiispiza Pall. Swinh. Sikkim Simla . and colour and distribution of the fur.6 . G. in the form of the ears. writer.] fourths its Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. quills earthy tral tail feathers the brown with rufescent olive margins.. in the upper jaw they are still smaller and scarcely distinguisliable without a lens. . 1". Z. The and second premolars in the lower jaw are very small. are added to the fauna of ths Eastern Himalayas. ear (anteriorly) 0". ear (anteriorly) 0". nov. Subgenus. Loc. Under wing As white. M. and Mag. F. Thi-ee species are described as new. This species dijffers from K. on the a wide emargination which forms the and without which the ear would be regidarly broadly oval as in Marina siiillus . lores and a through the eye to the upper pai-t of the ear coverts dark brown.

its pale coloured tarsi. Female earthy brown. all the feathers with dark centres. a female of which was formerly assigned to P. wing 3-32. allied tristis. Chin greyish. Length about front 49. rump tinged ochraceous. and 3rd by 0-15 in. yan species. neglectus. ear coverts head above dark crimson with blackish centres to the feaand sides of neck a little duller. similar to those on the Wing 2*65. wings and feathers earthy pale rosy spots on the tips of nearly the same colour as brown with red edges. and the outer webs of the wing coverts full rose colour. Propasser saturatus. The 5th quill is the longest. Male with lores. in its is closely allied to P. and wants the pink rosy rump of the other Himala. exceeding the 1st by 0-87. ruficeps. Back with broad dashes of brown. rump and upper tail tail coverts the back. It is distinguished from both races by the much larger spots on the breast. and with a silvery gloss the breast deeper and darker red. edges of the feathers paler with a gloss of crimson. tarsus 0*95. TickeUi. from gape 0*55. sp. thers. spots on the sides from gape 3. which has a rufescent This is the bird. . narrower on the abdomen. breast. 6 inches. 0*75. pink. but differs size. P. and all its forms by size. . nov. nov. approximating in this respect to P. abdomen pink. edged with . tail 2-5. throat darker than the cheeks. bill from forehead 0-6. and wing coverts 3 last quills with albescent tips. the bases of the feathers brown . Blyth the male is darker and richer in colour than its allies. tarsus 0"95. Under tinge. and from most of them by This smaller smaller 1. parts fulvous. tail 2-6. Blyth. Pellornetim Mandellii^ sp. _ [Sept. broader on the breast. and of the last 3 quills. Swains. Bupercilia and cheeks pale silvery pink. from forehead 0-4.. and by having large and back of the neck. This species is distinguished from P. feathers of back paler edged. thura by Mr. bill from from gape 0-52. The birds obtained by the author at higher elevations iu Sikkim in 1870. all the feathers of both with narrow central stripes lower tail coverts brown. forehead.216 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. are described in a separate paper. second by 0*4.

hy W. Telegraphy to be able easily to measure the electromotive force and internal refrom day to sistance of a battery so as to see day that the former been practically does not diminish. — Ayeton. E. or power to impede a current. Blanford. and that the latter does not increase. AND Internal Eesistance of Telegraph Batteries. wound two resistance. 217 TER. (With plate IV. coils. galvanometer sistance coil coil In some instruments the low resistance was dispensed with and instead the high was shunted. and the greater the internal resistance of the battery other things remaining the same. A galvanometer was employed.1871. was inserted between the battery poles and the internal resistance could be found by comparing the deproduced of high resistance flections when the coils of high and low resistance re- were respectively used. I will first examine the way in which this has done up to the present time.] 12. or power to send its internal resistance. hy H.) The efficiency of a galvanic battery it depends on the magnitude of two properties a current. 13. Esq. It is therefore of great practical importance in the less the current sent. On A FORM OF Galvanometer suitable for the QUANTI- TATIVE MEASUREMENT OF THE ELECTROMOTIVE FoRCE. F. Note on the error of the Calcutta Standard Barojiecompared WITH THOSE OF KeW AND GREENWICH. its electromotive force. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. called the "intensity" coil. if The greater the electromotive force the greater the current sent the whole resistance in circuit remains the same. and point out the objections there on the bobbin of which were comparatively exist to this method. . and possesses. This short paper will be published in the 4th number of the Journal for the current year. one of a comparatively high resistance. and the other coil. Esq. of a low called the " quantity" The electromotive force was measured by observing the coil deflection produced when the .

as are necessarily in use in the Indian Telegraph on account of the great length of the lines) the internal battery resistance large. The electromotive forces. of such batteries can only be coil. The reasoning being with two coils.. which will fulfil the condition that the galvano- meter resistance shall be large compared with the battery resistance. This method will therefore answer with batteries of small internal resistance. therefore. G be to say very large compared with E then E varies as is G X ^ very nearly are directly the electromotive forces of batteries proportional to the deflections they produce on a galvanometer having a very large resistance compared with the resistance of the batteries. with such batteries is. consider n and a constant E varies Now that as (i2 II. [Sept. in fact. very roughly compared by using the so-called "intensity" unless the internal resistances of the batteries be in some way previously ascertained. and an internal resistance R then C = --— A+ —Or by Ohm's law G being the resistance of the galvanometer ••' or if = ">< F^g X " + G) d I- we if. it is impossible to use any cheap galvanometer. and a a constant depending on the form of the galvanometer and the size and power of the = is the magnetic needle. Let this current C be produced by a battery having an electromotive force E. The way: internal resistance. number of convolutions. by a current where n then for small deflections 7i X d G X a. in both cases virtually first the same. is itself Consequently. I will therefore only deal with the case —the galvanometer wonnd Let (I be the deflection produced on any particular galvanometer C. that a galvanometer not containing a large amount of wire.2\fi Proceed i)ujH of f lie Asiatic Sorieiy. could be found in the following . But in the case of batteries consisting of a large number of cells joined in series (such batteries. if high.

now the battery when then it is question be to determine simply the resistance of a the resistance is small. but in nevertheless the only which it can be done with the so-called " intensity" and coils if the " quantity" galvanometer Battery resistance be large. or of the same battery on ratio of their different days. we cannot compare the electromotive forces of two batteries with'jut previously determining their internal resistances if the internal resistances be large. E 77 d ~d' _ "" ~n -\- _ n' E of convolutions 'u\ where n and coils n' are respectively the number tlie n % G' y!. is for battery test- ing as Latiuier Clark's Shunt Gralvauometer which ally arranged virtuall on the principle I have been describing does not at meet the besides requirements of the Indian Telegraph Department. then a small percentage of change in R will produce no practical change in d. can be found in this way and then the II. Such an instrument.1 871 ] . and let d' bo tlie deflection given when the the " quantity" coil of resistance G' is used. as long as coil. d' — n' % G y. impossible to get an accurate result with the " intensity" coils. 219 tlie let coil d be the deflection given by the battery wlien of resistance " intensity" G ia used. And the instruments of this description that have been received are . that is to say. and. secondly. since both the coils are is wound on one bobbin and n magnetic needle the same in both cases. d n X d —n X d The resistance of different batteries. then from equation (I) we have. electromotive forces from equation This is is a very round-about way way If of comparing electromotive forces. it is small compared with the resistance of the " intensity" Therefore with the "intensity" and "quantity" coils we cannot find accurately the resistance of a battery if small. for and ** quantity" we see from equation (I) that if -S be small compared with G. that of one cell for example. rrocpdingn of the Asiatic Societif. when using the " intensity" coil the deflection will be practically the same whatever the resistance of the battery may be. therefore.

portable. and the thick coil only are in circuit. 40. Let then E be the internal resistance E 200 = tan » X tan — — tan s : to be found of the battery. if it will give independent accurate measurements in absolute units of the electromotive force and instrument will be internal resistance still Such an more valuable be simple. and a resistance of 200 Let the deflection be h°. All these requirements have been fulfilled in the little galvanometer arranged by Mr. . of a Battery. U. and also witli the " intensity" nometer to coil 30. ^ . or to find the inter- compare the electromotive nal resistances of large batteries. and which therefore I have considered of sufficient interest to bring before the notice of this Society. the thick coil. iv. thick galvanometer and similarly the 2000 resistance coil with the thin galvanometer coil. „. Remove plug from : hole marked 200. [Sept. and tolerably cheap. To To To (1) {see pi.^ .roceedings of the Asiatic Society. (2) the other (3) the other end of the thick end of the thin coil. Join the two poles of the battery to the two binding screws respectively of the galvanometer. Plug up holes marked A and 200 : then the battery. g. exceedingly unsensitive for small differences. The 200 coil can be placed or not at pleasure in circuit with the coil. but leave plug in hole marked A then the battery. Schwendler. are in circuit. or it is 50 cells all produce nearly the same deflection (90°) so that impossible practically with this galvaforces. What therefore is required is an instrument which of any battery. Let the deflection of the needle be a°. and the other of thin wire and having a resistance of about 100 Siemens' units. Forming part of this instrument are two resistance coils of 200 and 2000 Siemens' units respectively.) is attached one end of each of the coil. coils. 1 Siemens Units. 3° To o — . This galvanometer that I have on the is table is a tangent galvanometer the bobbin of which wound with two coils one of thick wire and having a resistance of about one Siemens' Unit. in To measure the Resistance and make the following observa- each case the mean of the readings with -f and — currents to be taken.220 F. tions.

(U/ ® .


. tests with the standard substituted for the q°. Eemove the plug from hole B : then the battery. tan r X tan m° tan q° tan 2^° tanj!>° X ^ tan P — tan q° —Tauw? S'. and plug up holes marked circuit. a standard cell as it is called.Electromotor. Eliminating E. cell Let the deflection be Eepeat these two battery. cell. To express the Electromotive Force of a Battery in terms of that of Standard cell. Join the two poles of the battery to the two binding screws respectively of the galvanometer.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Sucieli/. S. signals can be cells at read which are produced by ten Menotti's the other end of a line about 400 miles long consisting of No. p. and repeat the pre- ceding observations obtaining respectively deflections a° and b° then if r be the resistance to be found E -f- r = 200 tan Oy X ^ tan b° — — tan — 7 r-r 1 Siemens' Units. 221 To measure the Resistance of a Non. and that of the standai'd ~ gram. the thin on^.1871. shown in the dia- should be placed one on each side of the alumin- ium needle. on pi. from this and the preceding equation we have *" "" ^^^ _ / \ tan tan h° tan h° a° — tan b° of a \ q ^- -rj tan a°—1^[^7 ^• The most constant made use of is that such a cell is therefore electromotive force that can be practically new Menotti's cell with clean zinc and copper. e Let the two deflections now obtained be p° and if Then E be the electromotive force of the battery. are in circuit. B and Let the 2000 : then the battery and the thin coil only are in deflection be 1°. The electromotive force of taken as our unit of electromotive force. but leave plug in and 2000 S. U. 63 wire and havng an insulation of two millions per mile. Insert this resistance in the battery branch. ^' This galvanometer can also be used as a telegraphic receiving instrument but then the two copper stops. coil. iv. If well adjusted. marked 2000.

door G. Bloemlezing uit Maleische Geschriften. classe.-Hist. Journal Asiatique.-Natur. Copenhague. by W. Bd. XX—Phiinologische Beobachtuugen . Bd. LXII— LXV— Pontes Eerum Austriacarum Bd. 1-3. Nordiske Oldskrift Selskab. 2. LX. sxxi.iVbth. XXX Philos. Deukschriften. XXXIII. Sitzuugsberichte Math. The Trustees of the BRrrisH Museum. Monatsbericht der K. 1871. Avril. Library. Mars. Heft VIII. Societe Eoyale des Antiquaires du Nord. Wright. V. Bd. vol. Ireland. classe. 2. V. AlE. IV. The Asiatic Society of Paris.Abth. aus —Almanach. KUNDE van Nederlandsch Indie. Math. K.. The following additions have been last. Ite Stuk. 1869. [Sept. part I. Koninklijk Instituut voor de Taal-land-en Volken- Niemann.XXX.Abth-I-V. Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien. Volkenkunde van NEDERL^iJ^DscH Indie. made to the Library since the meeting held in August Presentations. I. von Karl Fritsch. ^*^ Names of Donors in Capitals. 59. The Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and The Eoyal Asiatic Society.Abth-. XIX. Heft-I-III— Eegister zu den biinden 51 der Sitzuugsberichte — Archive Osterreichische Geschichte. Geographical Society of Paris. Heft- LXI. Natuurkundie Verebniging in Nederlandsch Indie. . 1869. Memoires de la Societe Eoyale des Antiquaires du Nord. III-IV. Aarbuger 1869. Akademie DER Wissenschapten zu Berlin. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indie.222 Froceecllngs of the Asiatic Society. classe. Heft-I-V. dem Pilanzen-und Thierreiche. l. Bd. Bd.-Natur. LXII. Bijdragen Indie. III-V. Heft-I. Nos. Bd. Tilla3g til Aarbuger for Nordisk Olduyndighedog Historic. 60. The Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie. 2. Catalogue of Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum. acquired since 1838. 1870. bis 60 Bd. Akademie de Wissensehaften zu Berlin Mai 1871.. tot de Taal-land-en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch 3e Volgr.Abth. fiir l. Bd. Dl.

XX. M. Zoologisch-botanischen GesoUsfliaft.3. The Government of the N. PERINTEXDENT CF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF InDIA. volvmen IV. Paramanuvada by Kalivara. Provinces. Tabvlae codicvm dobonensis Manv Scriptorvm iu Bibliotlieca Palatina Vin- Asservatorvm. Practical Hints to Emigrants to Tasmania. Academia Caesarea Vindobonensis. 10. Babu Ramadasa Sena.— The Editor. —American Philological Association—Re— SuThe VI. 89-9. Proceedings of the Second Annual Session of the Araeincan Philological Association : cords of the Geological Survey of India. The Ramayana. Part III.ment of Bengal. Author. Rahasya Sandarbha. Nos. Sukla yajushi Vajasaneya Sanhita. Finsch. Geology and Zoology of The Government of India. W. Blanford. No. edited by Geriprasada. Part II. IV. Nature. 1871. The Christian Spectator. Nos. edited by Hemachandi-a. 1870. edited by Babu Rajendralala Mitra. T.] Proceedings of the AHiutic Societj/. The Calcutta Journal of Medicine. Jahr 1870. II. Proceedings of tbe Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelpbia. Exchange. vol. The Editor. Bd. The Govern. vol. Bd.— The Editor. Selections from the records of Government. 1871. Monographie der Gattung Certhiola. Nos 1-3. No. Hull — Report on Native Papers for the week ending 19th and 26th August and 2nd September. No.— The Editor. I. von Dr. in Wien. I. by W. V. The Flora Sylvatiea. by H. Kaiserlicii-Konigliciie Zoologiscii-bot. vol. 3. June 1871. 1-4 —Verhandlungen. The Editor. vol. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. No. Jahrbuch. K. XII. Abyssinia. Tlie Athenreum. No.v- NISCnE GESELLSCnAFT ZU WiEN. 7.1871. vol. Nos. vol. 0. — KAisERLicii-KoxiGLionE Geologische Eeichsanstalt. XI. 223 Verhanrlliingen der K. 1-18. . 66. XX.

24 Journal des Quarterly Eeview. Comptes Eendus. Juillet. 1871 The Edinburgh Eeview. 1871 The Ibis. July 1871 — — — The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. [Sept. E. . Purchase. The American Journal of Science. July 1871 Eevue des Deux Mondes. Juty 1871 The 1871 The Westminster Review. — — — Savants. July 1871 The L. June. Avril 1871 — — Hewitson's Exotic Butterflies. part 29. July. July.224 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 1871. Nos 23. and Dublin Philosophical Magazine.

. H.PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF Foil OCTOBEK. A. J. a member of their body. of which Mr. Esq. the 4th October. at 9 m. elected Ordinary J. J. Dr. Blanford. The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. — The montlily meeting of the Society was held on r. Foster. H.. stated that the Council of the Society. — — by Pandit Chandrakanta Tarkalankara. Neil. Esq. Wednesday. C. Aldis. H. seconded by Mr. D. will be balloted for as a member of the Society at the next meeting. LL. Chief- Justice. O'Kinealy. Esq. Dall. The Council reported that they have Gr. Assam. T. From Eev. King. in the chair. Vice-President. J... had. The following gentlemen were J.. at tlieir last meeting. BENGAL 1871. H. 3.. M. Cooke. recorded their own expression of the pain with ^\•hich . Oldham. A. Members S. 2. by W. M. Eeport on the Brachiopoda. Esq. E. Evezard... briefly referring to the sad loss The Chairman. Norman many years been an active and zealous member. F. G. J. The following presentations were laid on the table 1. Civil Surgeon. From the author a copy of Satiparinaya. Esq. C. proposed by Mr. a Sanscrit poem. From Eaj a Dhunapati Singh Bahadur A copy of Prakria Manorama Yyakuranam. D. Nazeerah. Escx. Col. AVood-Mason. DaU. elected Dr. which the Society had experienced by the Ivad for cruel assassination of the late Offg.. A. Briggs.

C. together with a letter of condolence. from a few months after his arrival in the country. from the feeling of the meeting. and a frequent and them of one much-interested attendant at their meetings. S. [Oot. and further. (Abstract. the meeting be adjourned. be unit necessary that this should be formally seconded. he would take the opportunity of proposing the following resolution ' The Society would desire to record the pain and sorrow with which they have heard of the cowardly murder of the late ChiefJustice Norman. Carried unanimously. G. The peculiar . tlie meeting. Z. intervening along the base and lower slopes of" the Eastern Himalayas between the fauna of the Indian plains ^nd the Palsearctic region of the higher mountains. Norman. that out of respect to the memory of the late Chief-Justice. visit to Account of a or Independent Sikkim with notes on the the Eastern and Northern frontiers Zoology of the Alpine and Subalpine regions. would be Carried unanimously. F. which has so suddenly deprived who was beloved by all that had the advantage of his acquaintance. and who had. as carried without the slightest opposition. they had heard of the murder. to Mrs. which had deprived them of a long- esteemed colleague and friend. liam T. After announcing the receipt of the following paper. M. that probably the It appeared also to the Council at their general Members themselves would prefer. to put on the records of Society a resolution expres- sive of their horror of the deed.' member of the Society. inhabited by animals with Malay affinities. The Chairman also proposed that the Secretary should send copies of resolutions of the Society and the Council. and a much He believed it would. been a member of their Society. — By Wil- S. This is —Part II. the Chair- man adjourned the meeting.) the second portion of the paper already noticed. Zoology. If this were so. an esteemed respected friend.226 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. in whom they have lost an earnest and truthseeking supporter. Blanford.. It commences with a short note on the Sikkim fauna and remarks on the peculiarity of a belt of country.

having the ends of some of the secondary Otocoris Mwesi. and the cross occasional replacement of those species which the allied Himaforms layas twice in the year. but distin- guished by the white of the sides of the neck intervening between the black of the cheeks and that of the breast. The general coloration differs from that of the three other species belonging to restricted Montifringilla. bill. nov. birds are described as new. the fii-st primary with the outer web white. which is visit the plains of ludia during winter. the outer web of the primary.. penicilkta. bill fi-om forehead 0.1871. and the an inch brown like the middle feathers. Lower parts white with two black diverging lines on the chin collar is brown behind and appears. tlie the quills brown. or of peculiar phases of coloration or plumage. tail 2.42. and the greater . longirostris.82. during Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. part of the smaller wing coverts white tail all the basal portion of the little feathers except the two middle ones cinereous. and by quills white.] paucity. of tlie mountains except as occasional stragglers. The black on the head and breast brown with is faint aljjesfris. back of nock. 227 summer. and the rump beneath the eye. the forehead whitish lores. of the tlie migratory birds. with occasional descriptions of the rarer species. a dark lino . Two These are Pale umber above with darker rufescent. This is near 0. middle rectrices the same . by which never leave habits. nov. wing In the female the ferruginous 3. pointed out. &c. Adamsi white on the rectrices tail proved by that bird having more and much narrower brown tips to the outer is its than the present species. noticed mammals and by the writer in the Palroarctic regions of Sikkim. to extend across the front of the neck. Mont ifring ilia from the latter first ruficolUs^ sp. in Sikkim. That it is not the winter plumage of M. Length 6 inches. of the paper birds is The greater portion devoted to notes on the range. and over the ear coverts sides of the the and the neck ferruginous . then a tips for half white. sp. but do not breed there.35.75. It is smaller than and has a much shorter arranged as in 0. a wing band formed by a large spot on the basal portion of the inner web of most of the secondaries. the back is pale fulvous dusky streaks and passing into greyish lilac on the nape. 0. streaks. rump and wing coverts. tarsus 0.

Journal of the Eoyal Geographical Society. Belgique.. 1' Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Vol. Tome XXXVIII. VII. ^*^ Names of Donors in Capitals. XL. lower parts white.75. Tomes des Sciences des XXXV. — Vienna. part Transactions of Do. legs black. The Eoyal Geographical Society of London.4 0. [Oct. all the rest blackish.75 inches. II. Memoires Couronnes et Memoires des Savants Etrangers.— The Eoyal Geographical Society cie'te' Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie. Society. K. Jahrbuch. Vol. Actes de 1' Academie de Bordeaux 1869. —Bulletin de L' Academie.2. Aca- demie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Proceedings of the Eoyal Geographical London. 1871. I. Academie des Sciences. Library. The following additions have been side edged and tipped with white . . Mai-Juillet. with its wing 4. made to the Library since the meeting held in September Frese7itations. Paris. the claw alone 0. XXX. Length 7. London. the two"outer on ea. in places where topyqia.K. No. Tome XV. of London. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. XV. Vol. No. Leucosticte Imma- and other Tibetan animals were met with.9. tail 3. London. — Annuaire de I'Aeademie Royale de 1' Memoires de Academie Eoyale de Belgique. XXIX. 2me Tome. trimestres. I. hind toe claw 0.228 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 129. Geol. Eeichsanstalt.38. 1871.6. The JtioYAL Society of Londow. Society. colour as the back. part VI. tarsus 0. from the gape Both these new species were found in the Lachen valley near the Tibetan frontier. Belles-Lettres et Arts de Bordeaux. XIX. The Zoolog. XXXVI. Let- Memoires de bourg. Lepm Tihetmms. Proceedings oftheEoyal Society of London. Cinclus sordidus. 1' Bulletins de Academic Eoyale de Belgique. No. — So- de la Geographie. 1871.. bill from the forehead 0. Peters- Tome XVI. Band XXI. 3e et 4e . — AcADEiiiE Eoyale TBES ET DES BeAUX-ArTS DE BeLGIQUE. Peter^bottrg. Vol.

Rata Giri Prasada Singh. Sungana. by 11. Tho The Tho Tho The Author.— The Heft 11. D. by P. 11 . 1871. B. Calcutta Eeview. Aug. J. by Babu Rajondralala Mitra. 229 R(*port on tho Brachiopnda. 1871. II. — Monographie de Thomas's Pathan Kings of Delhi. Heft I-VI. Theil 2.— The Athenaeum Pitrchase. Dall. Aug. The Nature. 1871. liaiuiiyauii. — and Magazine of Natural History. by Ileinachaudra. October. Juilletl87l. Baud . 1846-1871. Octr. Aug. Amenean Journal of Science. Philosophical Magazine. Registrar of the Calcutta University. Jeejeebhoy's Translation" The British Museum. Calcutta Journal of Modicino. Bengal Atlas. Codices Arabici. and D. Pehlavi Grammar. Vol. July. Sir Fund. — Candeze. 1871.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 1-10.. TuE Editor. Harold's Coleoperologische Forschungen. for July 1871. Vol.1871. E. — Catalogus Codicum Orientalium Musoi Britanici. Tagore Lectures on Hindu Law. Prakrita Manoramd Vyakaranam. by AV.— The Annals 1-5. part II. Cowell. The Editor. edit. Rendus. The Editor. II. — Tenesser. — 1871. The Trustees. The Editor. ter's — Burmeis- Handbuch der Entomologie. II. L. 1871. Christian Spectator. E'lat^rides. The Excltange. 89-92. Nos. Eeisen in — Comptes den Philippineu.


I my letter to you which accompanied the men- tioned to you that some singular looking pieces of copper had been accidentally found by a native of this district in digging for bam- boo roots on the top of a specimens I have. Pachum- ba. lielcl on Wednesday the 1st of November. which I can't help thinking battle-axe. T. the Man- ager of the Bengal Coal Company's mines at Kurhurbaree. LL. Samuells. known neighbourhood. Some who have seen it. m. Assist. others that and in his it is pure copper j but that it has been formed by moulding in . that Mr. pon I leave you to judge whether a man with such a weahands could not lay about him with some meaning. and hillock. think that it is made of bronze. BENGAL —• A meeting of the Society was at 9 p. and one day in talking to an old resident of the place on this subject. in the chair. line.PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF FOR November. Heyne. some three or four very curious looking pieces of copper. Commissioner. may have on it a handle in true primitive fashion. 1871. he mentioned to me that last year a native had brought Mr. but I managed to recover served as a head for a one.. ' On returning to Pachumba this year from the I set about making enquiries as to whether there were any ruins or rock excavations in the Eewah frontier. 1871. letter The following * accompanied the donation inscriptions. Chord In — Two copper axes. W. Oldham. Vice-President. D. —From Capt. On enquiry I found Heyne had given them I have mounted all away. L.. The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. which he had dug out of a hillock on the borders of this subdivision. Esq. I am sending you the only two may as well tell you the circumstances under which I came by them. The following presentations were laid on the table 1.

At all events. whilst a profusion of hair hung down his back from his head to his heels. and in the bargain offered hillocks to relinquish all claim to the treasure which he said lay buried under the other in that locality. F. he had a dream in which a aspect appeared before him.. But he refused to point out the locality. Geological Survey of India. whose name is Amip Tali. having further excavations made vmder I. cultivated land about this very hillock. was and an interesting one. of terrible spirit. He wanted in exchange four hairs Anup's right knee. and I cannot refrain from relating as it a curious instance of superstition. He was no ordinary looking but of prodigious proportions. and I was consequently induced a few days ago to start off from here with the intention of visiting the locality. and there he says. therefore. about 10 or 12 cottahs are. F. Stoliczka. and he told me that the night after he Ihiit found these things. went last Friday to the village where the finder of the articles lived. . and gave a whole string of frivolous excuses for not doing so told is . by Dr. several some larger and some smaller. covers an area of about 4 local cottahs e. But the much-coveted hairs Anup So the hhut mounted his tiger.* one to Mr. but when I got him to myself he it me the true reason. I think tliere not a doubt of. The native informed me which he gave had found (District five pieces altogether. each hair being as thick as a man's wrist. ' It appears that this man. of the Bengal standard measure). Heyne. the find sand. three of to Mr. he produced another of the piece of copper (3-^- same weight as the supposed axe-head this lbs). Peppe. the manager of the Gawan Estate fifth Hazareebagh) and the he that day put before me. but the hhM off was for none of them.232 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society is [Nov. PalDeontologist. but elliptical in shape. he entered the hut and pointing to the copper pieces. his skin being red and his clothes black. my own superintendence. other hillocks near it. would not part with at any price. * Two of tliese were taken io Calcutta. at once expressed his willingness to give Aniip them up. and on his appearing before me. in- formed Anup that they were his (the hlmfs) property. Hav- ing dismounted from a tiger which had carried him to Anup's door. He got them all within a cubit's depth of the surface of a hillock which {i. What can have been that he it is hard to conjecture.

were. was entirely it It bore all the marks of the earth or sand into which \\as run. one entirely its so. and took up his residence in the village where he now lives. specimens which he would send round. he carried thoui off in great secrecy to Mr. to of where he had found them. he says. For this reason he said he never would tell another sold where the hillocks were and much less would he venture near the locality to point them out. and even offered him Rs. that the any remarks which the members if desired to offer on this very interesting lind of Captain Samuells. as I at thought. aud within a few days which he possessed died also. said. still remained. most unusual trait being under ordinai-y circumstances a of native character. Upon this he deserted that place. in withholding tho information from me . his little girl sickened and died. but he begged me not to press him aud assured me in a whisper that Mr. clear that the man had no motives of personal -gain. proves that his fears were in soliciting at all events genuine. one of his bidlocks dropped tho remaining two bullocks down stone-dead. 20 on the spot. 20. little ploughing before resuming excavations at tho hillock but as he passed that spot. intend- ed for weapons or implements of auy kind.' Tho Chairman. fresh troubles on . if he disclosed anything further that would lead others to the place for I used every kind of persuasion without avail. a rudely circular or slightly . Heyne knew the exact place^ as he had made a * . I believe the man from his demeanour to have been thoroughly sincere in his belief that evil would befal him. which he believed to bo gold but thinking j he might then realise something by them. aud of which little smeltiug pots examples so. simply the bloom. This. 233 Auiip aud trotted off in to high dudgeon. tine One. whom But he imparted the information brought this littlo indiscretion him for when he returned home. When tho day broke. whilst the fact of his refusing the Rs. of the rudest form. and till last year ho concealed these copper pieces.' 1871. There coidd not be a doubt that they wore. note of it is fii'st it in his pocket book. and the other to the extent of more than half siu-facc. Hoyne. Finding now that such is the case. as he said. derived from the small copper furnaces which wore kuowa to have been in use with the old smelters or workei*s in copper in the country. liis proceeded do a .] Proceedimjs of the Asiatic Society. happened three years ago.

that those who knew so well shape.— From J.234 oval tliin ^jlate Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. but a very considerable quantity of copper must have been extracted from this place in olden times. line. —I say if this were the intention. *' I believe the metal has not been examined as yet. or of the application of any tool. probably too diffused to pay for working now. that is. was not a trace of The second on the first for other hand. Babu Pratapa Chander Ghoshe. though precisely similar to the one half its the two ends of this being had the other portion beaten and hammered up hammered out into two shoulders or to a straight two semicircularly curved recesses. hoped evi- that the discovery may stimulate others to searching for such dence of the state of metallurgical knowledge among the ancient dwellers in these lands. though not a cutting tool. stretching for In this the ore is nearly half a mile on a local lode of copper ore. there is a very large excavation.. how to hammer this part so neatly into have hammered out the edge. But the curious part of it is. " I may mention that within a few miles of where these copper blooms were found. Assistant Secretary. just as the melted metal would natur- ally spread little out.' No . ' [Nov. as Captain Samuells has applied it. if these were so intended for the application of a handle.' and the two smaller that of years are mwtioned. so that 1 am unable to say whether it be pure copper or not. and with such a handle unquestionably the heavy mass of copper would form a rude.. Esq. it is doubly strange. D. ' Sri Gaurina. and it is while. should not also sharp cutting surface. through Mr. Foster. M. Wood Mason three Asam small silver coins. of copper. but it looks as if it were '* so. The discovery of any copper implements is of high interest. out in the semi-viscous state in which such pots would yield On this piece there hammering surface. if poured it. said that the largest of the three coins contains the name of Sri Brajanath — ' ^ingh. J. which would be admirably suited for the api)lication of a handle formed of a split bamboo or stick." the king. axe or club. M. so as to form a This edge now remains with all the roughness and thickness of the old bloom just as it flowed from the melting pot. but very effective. thanking Captain Samuells for this contribution.

Leonard. without any respite. in editing the Journal and the Proceedings. proposed by Mr.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Esq. seconded by Chord line. By this rule. therefore. J. Blochmann. such a recess here the words. that with the seriously increased duties now devolving on the Secretaries. L. Dalton.. D. who it must be remembered are purely hon- — orary officers. E. C. S. M. W. H.1871. Nazeerah. it was that they had found that during the mouths of September and October. however." Voting papers will This being an alteration in the rules must be referred to the Society at large. and rarely has been that on one or other of the meeting evenings in these months. S. proposed by Col. following gentleman duly proposed and seconded for. for Scientific Societies to and it is have a certain recess during the considered that it will be desirable to have also. Peal. for ballot at the next The following gentlemen are candidates meeting. T. Practically.. Wood- The Chairman said he had to report on the part of the Council had under consideration the terms of Rule 29. Assam. Asam. seconded by Mr.. Mason. it was exit tremely doubtful whether a sufficient number of members could be brought together there to constitute a meeting. where year. Foster. Sibsagar.. Assistant Commissioner. to keep their time so pressingly occupied during It certainly is the rule else- the whole year. Capt. Pachumba. at the last J. I. as there was not a quorum. Blochmann. and as the time re- . ' The Council. had not been an adjournment. E. as now worded. recommend first that excepting in : September and October' be inserted in Rule shall 29 after the woi'ds " The Society meet on the Wednes- day in each month. it was compulsory on the Society to hold a meeting in each month in the year. meeting was balloted and elected Ordinary Member M. Samuells. 235 The President mentioned of that he had seen a complete coUeetion Asam The coins with Mr. Further than this which is the practical result it has been felt. Esq. it was not just or fair to those officers. Mr. be sent out. H.


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.


quired for the rules will be given by



meeting on the





be made the

meeting for the discussion of the question.

The following letter was read From Capt. W. L. ^x'MvsjAji^, fonvarding facsimiles

of inscriptions,

and a draivhig of a roch

cut temple





I send you by dak banghy a parcel containing facsimiles of
inscriptions which I foimd cut on the pillars of a rock-cut


temple at Harehoka in the Chutia Nagpur Tributary Mahal of

Chang Bhokar, and which
settling the frontier line






season in

between Eewah and Chutia Nagpdr.


inscription (

marked E) I got amongst some very

remains of rock-cut temples and monasteries near the village of



These temples were visited by a Capt. Blunt

in 1795, and

are mentioned

from Chunarghvir

by him in his "Narrative of a Eoute Yartnagoodum" published in 1801 in the 7th




Asiatic Eesearches.



73 and 74,


mentions having taken sketches of these temples with their measurements, which makes me anxious to know whether your Society

in possession of those sketches,


if so,

whether I




voured with a view of them
fore unable to



press of work, was, I regret to say,

Mara temples, from a very hurried one. I was therevisit to


a plan of

I had had the time. I should be very

them as I should like to have done, But if Capt. Blunt's sketches are to the
assisted in writing




report on these

temples, if I had these sketches to refer to. Capt. Blunt states that he was unable to find any writing or inscription, and as far as the temples and monasteries go, I was similarly disappointed. But

I doubt,
tion is


he noticed the remains of a stone aqueduct, as no menof


in his narrative.



in following

up the

remains and fragments of the aqueduct with a view to ascertaining from whence and for what distance the water had been con-

veyed by

this artificial channel that

I came to a spring which

issued from a rock in the side of



and found the rock

excavated so as to form a grotto of the following dimensions
length 16' 4"; depth 6'; height

The roof

horizontal with


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.


a plain friozo
bearing in

and cornice along


wliolo frontage, the former

and Biiawani with a cobra's hooded head rising above them. The height of the frieze is 2 'G". The shape of tlio grotto is rectangular, except that at one end the side wall forms an obtuse angle with the back wall from whence the spring of water issues. It was on
centre sculptured figures in relief of Siva

found the inscription marked R. was for some time puzzled to think what the singvdar device which is seen on the right was intended to represent, till it
this side wall that I




that something similar to


might be got by


ing two blades of the long broad jungle grass in a particular


substitute for the grass

each to

as a and put a coloured line along the centre of represent the mid rib, and coloured tlio edges also to mark

I therefore cut two strips of paper to be used

the lines which woidd indicate the breadth of the grass
in stone.



In an envelope attached
paper figure

to tlie

copy of this inscription


will find the

I allude to,

and on examining


will observe


exactly the directions of the coloured lines on the

paper correspond with those shown in the copy of the inscribed This may be a mere coincidence, but still it is natural to device.
suppose that the carver of the inscription had something in his
mind's eye that suggested to him the device I
and, that


alluding to



was something of the nature suggested by me


more than probable.


I have termed


appears to



bear some

resemblance to the primitive wells of Thrace which are described
as consisting of arched excavations in the sides of rocks where the

water was directly obtainable from springs
only, that the


with this diflerence


" well" or grotto, whichever




rect expression, has a flat roof instead of

an arched one.'

Babu Pratapa Chandra Ghosho said "The inscriptions are in old Nagari characters, but are that the characters are identified with much difficulty.

so rude,



have read them, are names of perhaps the donors of particular portions of the temple. They bear no date. I suppose they are Buddhistic, but I must not be certain before I read all the impressions sent by Capt. Samuells."
so far as I


Proceedings of the Asiatic Sscieiy.


Mr. Bloclimann said that Capt. Samuells had kindly promised

forward to the Society explanatory notes which would appear

Journal. The sketches taken by Capt. Blunt could not have been sent to the Society at least there was no record shewing that they had been received.

together with two plates in the


The Chairman
from Mr.
J. J.

also exhibited several

drawings of



Carey, Executive Engineer,

Khangaon, regarding

the following notice had appeared as a supplement to the Central
Provinces' Gazette, dated 4th September, 1869.


stone circles lately found

by me near the
in the


of Khaidistrict,

warra, about

miles east



were opened


Mr. Morris,

Chief Commissioner,

Central Provinces. The stone circles are on the east bank of a nullah running due north and south, the ground rising very
rapidly, 12'


1,400 feet.


should think, there are quite

150 of these mounds dotted

about in no regular form, along the

edge of

this nullah.

In outward form they are precisely the same
Captain Meadows Taylor's book, with large

as those illustrated in

stones rather evenly placed round.


of these stones


peared to



have passed through stone -dressers' hands, they
rudely shaj)ed, which makes


five sides


think they were

originally intended to have been placed upright, not in the position

however, nothing was found

to indicate that

any building

was erected


strange that these five-sided

should be there, and found lying

on the ground.



The mounds in every case were hollow at the top, making me think that a chamber would be found underneath, that the stones forming the ceiling had probably given way but, on opening two, nothing was found to guarantee such an idea. I commenced digging operations on the principal mound in the place, 40 X 43 in diameter, there being more cut stone surrounding very great care was taken in it, and three or four in the centre digging and removing stones. The top of one of these five-sided stones was hit upon close to the surface, and in the centre of the
they were never intended to be placed in that position.
; ' ;

on up


was carefully


standing, while operations were going


one foot deep.

Nothing but loose stones and earth was


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.


removed, until about 15 inches from the surface broken red pottery



show on the south






leaden colour-

ed clay was found, fast binding pieces of pottery, and on close ex-

amination large quantities of teeth were found, which evidently

had been put

into a gtirrah

and imbedded in




are, I believe, the

back teeth of horses, in very good pre-

This clay then began to be found in patches, in which,

as a rule, you always find pottery

and other implements, and ap-



no other place than on the south side.

I was standing one evening looking on, when all of a sudden I saw a " find," and immediately jumped down into the hole, and

with the greatest care dug out of the

clay, well

cemented together,

two copper


two round copper



opinion) ear-rings,


an iron axe

these I handled witli the utmost care, vainly hoping

that the whole would remain in this solid state

but after a few

the heat of

came detached.

and the whole beThis and a few iron implements and a gold ring

June soon

up the

were the only things found.
2" 6 feet.

This excavation was carried


notliing but iron

In the other we went down over three feet from the surface, and was found, very rust eaten. The only implement


good preservation was a kind of saucer for holding oil, which had a handle with a hook to hang by, and a spiral spring, which must I think have been wound round a stick.'


following papers were read

— On a new Photo-callographic Printing Process. — By



Assistant Surveyor General.

I have the pleasure to bring to your notice this evening a


process of photographic printing, I have lately worked out, which,



can scarcely be called original,



some respects new
of the

and, as I believe
scription of it

has never before been worked in India, a de-


not prove uninteresting to
especially as the



of this Society,



process will be used for

the reproduction of photographs and drawings of
illustration of our Journal.

kinds for the

Bufficient to

The few specimens I have with me, though very imperfect, are shew the capabilities of the process. I have hitherto

chiefly practised

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.

myself in

on subjects in

line in order to perfect

manipulations, which were entirely
trials I






from the

have already made, that the process

will also give

excellent results in half tone as soon as I shall have been able to

master the


of the printing, and to obtain proper appli-

I am, therefore, unwilling to delay the publication of a


by which absolutely permanei^. photographic reproductions class of subjbjt with great perfection and economy by means of appliances which are within the reach of all. In principle my process is similar to that introduced in 1866 by Tessier du Mothay, which was afterwards modified and improved by Albert of Munich and other Germans, and still further perfected by Ernest Edwards of London, who has brought it into extensive use under the name of Heliotype. Many of the members present

may be made from any


probably have read descriptions of it in some of the English

Berials, or

have seen specimens and Industrial," which

in a publication entitled "Art, Picis illustrated entirely





distinctive feature of all these processes

that the printing

composed of


hardened in such a manner that


stand the wear and tear of printing, and they

depend upon

the well

known property

peculiar to a dried film of gelatine


with an alkaline bichromate of becoming insoluble after exposure
to light,

and repelling water in the parts exposed

to light exactly

upon them, same time of acquiring a corresponding affinity for a greasy substance, such as printing ink. Although this property by itself has been most usefully applied in many photographic proin proportion to the action of the light

amount of the


at the

cesses for the reprodu.ction of subjects in line,


would be quite

incapable of giving the required

resiilts in

the processes

now under
soft state

because the unexposed gelatine remains in a pulpy

incapable of withstanding the wear and tear of printing, and more-



would be
It has so

liable to dissolve entirely

with any

rise in


ature, the consequence of

which would be the

loss of all the lighter


been found, however, that the chromated gelatine
hardened or oxidised by certain substances, such as


may be

the alums, especially chrome alum, tannin, chlorine, bichloride of


permanganate of potash,

and other suitable oxidising

agents, that

Proceedings of the Aniutic Society.



quite insoluble in water, though


of retaining a certain amount of watov, without interfering with

property of attracting greasy ink in the parts exposed to light and

in the


parts, so that if

such a film bo spread

upon a

surface of glass, motal, or other suitable material



exposure to light under a photographic negative, be washed
the chromic
salt is




obtain a printing surface possessing
is to say, it

the properties of an ordina^.^ lithographic stone, that

absorbent of water in some
others, but, as I


and absorbent of greasy ink ia

have mentioned,

has another most valuable

property which


not possessed by the lithographic stone, and which

has been most aptly termed " a discriminating power of absorption,"
80 that


it is

inked in with a


the ink

wiU be



the parts representing the deepest shadows of the picture, and

which have received the most exposure
will take less, the lighter tints
still less,

to light, the



while the high lights wiU
It will readily

take none at


and be represented by white paper.

be seen that in


an exact transcript of the original photodelicate delineation of

graph may be obtained, shewing the most

detail with as perfect gradation of tone as in a proof

produced by

the ordinary process of silver printing, but possessing the great ad-

vantages of a lithograph or engraving over a silver print in respect
of undoubted permanence, cheapness and rapidity of production.

The above
very simple,


the principle upon which these processes depend

the practice though presenting some difficulties of manipulation

mixture of gelatine and bichromate of potash, with one of the hardening or oxidising substances I have mentioned,



also a little glycerine, sugar or other substance, capable of

preventing the gelatine film from being too brittle

poured upon
preserve a

the surface of a perfectly level finely ground glass plate, and carefully

dried in the

dark in

such a manner as


very even surface.


dry the plate

ready to be exposed

under a reversed
under surface



usual manner.

surface has received sufficient exposure the plate

turned and



the full power of the light for

a short time

thoroughly hard and insoluble and prevent from swelling too much in the after washing. The plate is now



Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.
till all



the bichromate


removed and


then rolled in with
the course

soft printing ink.




printing but in

of working out the Heliotype process Mr.

Edwards found that
between the negato obtain


was very difficult and the gelatine

to obtain pei-fect contact


and thus


was impossible

the sharpest results,

so he thought of preparing a tissue
like a sheet


might be printed upon just

of sensitive photographic

paper or carbon tissue and afterwards transferred on to a zinc
plate or any other suitable surface

which would stand the wear

and tear of printing.
but in the course of

This was a great and valuable im.provement,


experiments I found


difficulty in

transferring the tissue, and as I find that with

proper precau-

sharp results

may be

obtained by printing on the

original plate, I have

abandoned the use of

I have


worked out the
failures I


I will

now briefly describe the mode of working which,
have found most successful.
well cleaned


such as

some pieces of


ground plate glass

ordinarily used for looking-glasses,

and having carefully

levelled them.

I prepare a mixture composed of


Honey Soap,
Distilled water,

30 to 60 grains.
10 grains.
.... 8 ounces.

I have found 10 grains of tannin to
to render

ounce of gelatine sufficient

quite insoluble, and I think even less would do






has the effect of rendering the film insensitive to

The object of adding the soap is to render the film tough and prevent it from becoming bi-ittle and breaking up when dried, its use for this purpose was first suggested by Mr. Johnson, in
working the autotype process.


precautions are necessary in

mixing the solution

so that


will give

an even transparent film



I have tried


kinds of soap, but I have found that
of London, such as
is commonly The soap and tannin must be

the honey soap exported by


by the boxwallas,


the best,


Froceedlng!} of the Asiatic Society.


separately dissolved in about

ounce of


water, then

mixed and

added very gradually, and with constant
dissolved in

stirring to the gelatine

remaining 6 ounces of



The mixture


filtered tlirough coarse cloth

and poured on the




bubbles be formed they

may be removed

with the point of
find the film

a pen-knife.
is firm,


gelatine soon sets

and as soon as I

I turn the plates face

downwards and place them out


in the open air on suitable supports.

dry in from 12 to 24
I think

hours or longer according to the state of the atmosphere.
out the addition of the sensitive bichromate

the plan I have here adopted of preparing the gelatine film withis

advantageous in



It enables the plates to be dried in the



quickly and evenly and I find that

when turned



dust settles on them


another advantage

that a stock

of plates

may be prepared and


required to be sensitised for

After sensitising the plates dry very quickly and heat

may be

used without any fear of the film becoming dissolved and flowing
off the plate.


I tried Mr. Edwards' process of mixing together the chrome alum and bichromate of potash according to his

published formula, but I found that the plates so prepared took a

very long time to dry and required to be kept carefully level in the

drying box, besides this there were other disadvantages which Jed



abandon the use of chrome alum and substitute tannin with
thoroughly dry I immerse tbem in a solution

which I had made some experiments so long ago as 1866.

When the plates are

of bichromate of potash about


of the salt to 20 ounces of water

and then place them in a drying box. As the gelatine is quite insoluble thtre is no necessity for keeping the plates level in this
second drying and
in 2

necessary heat

may be



plates dry

or 3 hours and are then ready for use.

expose under a


negative for about 10 minutes in the

sun for a clear line

subject and about half an hour for a subject in half tone accord-

ing to the density of the negative.




I remove the negative and expose the back of the sensitive plate to
light for a few minutes in order
to thoroughly harden the under and prevent swelling and it from

surface of the




up during the





then thoroughly


Froceedinya of the Asiatic Society.
wateitill all

is re-

washed in several changes of

the bichromate

moved and is ready for printing. The printing is the most difficult part of the whole process and success appears to depend entirely upon the composition of the ink. In printing line subjects some inks are too tough and cannot well be
cleaned off the plate, others are too soft and are liable to be rubbed off


the plate


cleaned with a cloth. Then again in printing sub-

jects in half tone a stiff ink will

only take on the shadows, while a soft

thin ink will take all over the plate

and by giving a
of effect.

slight tone to

the high lights destroy

all brilliancy

In printing subjects
of ordinary lithogra-

in line I roll in with a tolerably stiff ink


phic chalk ink thinned with olive


instead of varnish and before

printing, clean the surface of the plate with a




half tone subjects, the plate must


be rolled in with

ink in

order to obtain depth in the shadows and the detail of the half
tones afterwards brought out

by the use of a


and lighter
left clear.

ink which should just be of such a consistency and tint that the
half tones



be well developed, but the high lights

The inking
formed by

may be done with

lithographic rollers, but rollers of

india-rubber have been foimd better.

The printing


best per-

pressure in an ordinary type printing press

which should be furnished with an india-rubber bed to prevent the glass plates being broken, and the plate should be covered with a padding of felt, so that the paper may be well pressed into the
hollows forming the deepest shadows.

Enamelled paper



best for printing on, especially for subjects in half tone.
I have with

The proofs

me have


been pulled in an ordinary copying press

which I


answers the purpose


it is

it is


required to print on a tissue, a plan which certainly possessgreat advantages, a perfectly polished glass plate




instead of ground glass, and the surface

rubbed with a solution



in ether, so that

with ease.

when it is dry, the film may be stripped off The composition I have described above makes an exdetails

cellent tissue.

Such are the




as far


I have gone,


very imperfect in


but I




Proceedings of the Asiatic Societ I/.
to perfect


and hope soon

and bring


into practical use in the

Surveyor General's

office for

the reproduction of fine delicate draw-

ings in lino or brush shading, which are not susceptible of being

reproduced by photograi^hy, and also to replace the costly and
dious process of silver printing for ordinary photographs.


The experience I have already gained has shewn me that the
in time

perfectly practical,
in material.


also exceedingly economical both


It is true the preparation of the plates

takes a long time, but once the plate
pulled from

prepared, copies

may be

at the rate of

from 100


200 copies a day, and as

the plates

may be

kept ready prepared, the time taken in their pre-


really of little consequence.

As regards the
a mere

cost of

materials, I find that the preparation of a square foot
costs about 4

of surface

annas and 6





when the

great advantages of the process are considered


in being able

copy drawings or other subjects in line with a sharpness and delicacy equal to the finest lithography or copper plate engraving,

and 2ndly, in being able to print copies of shaded drawings or ordinary photographs, which shall be permanent and perfectly reproduce all the gradations of the original, and I need not point out

how immensely
circulation of



will be for the repi-oduction

and cheap

photographs illustrating various branches of science.

I would only further add that I do not put this forward
original process of




as I

must acknowledge

my obligations

former workers in the same direction.

I can only claim to be



have worked out a practical process suitable for use in

this country,

and hope that the subject may be taken up by


of our Indian photographers.

Note on


Arabic Inscriptions ly early Muhammadan Kings of


C. from A. Broadley, Esq H. Blochmann Esq., M. A., Calcutta Madrasah.

S., 13ihar.

— By

The three Arabic
C. S.,


which I have the pleasure

to lay

before the meeting, were sent to



by Mr. A.

Mr. Broadley has taken rubbings of a


of inscriptions,

which he found on ruined buildings
a town,

and shrines

in the

town of




and and inscriptions. [Nov. of the early He compiled a valu- able list Muhammadan Governors. Thomas's excellent Essay on the Bengal'' Initial Coinage (Journal. it. for 1867).246 Proceedings of the Asiatic Societtj. S. extended. name time. prove 1. tories at kings of Bengal and to fix Bihai'. had yet attempted various of to the limits to which the kingdom of at times. is the short chapter by Nizamuddin iu the Tabaqdt late as A. up in the elucidation of Bihar and Bengal history. we have only MS. histories of the Dihli empire. I explained what progress had been made. coins which I laid last year before the Society. the first attempt connected history i known Alclari. of a king and a date on is of value. which was composed so H. . Broadley's insci'iptions before is the meeting. appeal to stationed in that province to send rub- bings to our Society for publication. of whom tion the same king as having reigned in 1313. higher rank than no^y-a-days. Every inscription with the At a former meetto the present ing. menTribeni near Haglf. whose names were not be found the existing histories of Bengal. The information which coins yield. Thomas found The inscriptions at struck between 1315 and 1322. A. D. and I hope that he will find leisure to publish his large collection. and also collect the district. 1592. to direct attention to officers Bihar inscriptions in general. Broadley's inscriptions will considerably add to our knowledge of the beginning of the Muhammadan period of Bengal History. or A. does it is From the rubbings which I have examined. Two of Mr. their proper places. I may Mr. As an example. and that no historian . to and assigned in to several kings. numerous legends. will ' be of found in Mr. Bengal. still current in the regarding the early Muhammadan invaders of Bengal. D. E. his dis- Broadley's inscriptions coveries. hisa Bengal . A. certain that Mr. or Lak'hnauti. 1001. it period of Bengal history held a much. — and this will shew the value of that Firdz already reigned in 1 309 over (Western) Bengal. A. ' occasional notices in the coins For the beginning of the Muhammadan period. There exist no MS. mention the king Shamsuddin Firuz. and add archeological notes on the old buildings of Bihar. I mentioned list that we do not even possess a correct and complete of the Muhammadan Bengal. us. D. My and to object in laying a few of Mr.

and in one of its inscriptions the year 1532 Bauiyana nearj^Afura is The old tank frequented by numerous pilgrims. look upon Arura as their original domicile. Samvat is legible. characters of all three inscriptions are Tiighra. Tali^il Jagraon. the latter to a is mosque. the author of the Tahaqdt him Hakim. Broadley. — By Attar. under whom Arura floiu'ished. D. Arura lies is a little north of Bhaddaur. and that his descendants are still inhabitants of the town of Bihar. 1242. or Governor. and hence most likely during the intervening was governor of Bih^r. and 1315. who in 1309 That Shamsuddin had a son of the name of H.] 2. epithets. it would also appear that portions of Halim Khan's palace still exist. Sfc. Brahmans. ul and assumes other regal Nagiri merely calls Khuqan Mu'azzam. states that ZiVah Singh. of In old times. by 'Izzuddin Abulfath Tughril Kluin. seems to have belonged to a sarai. Arura was inhabited by Eajputs the Pramura Many of the inhabitants were killed district. as who styles himself Sultdn. and mentions an edifice built in A. H. whilst That South Bihir undor him belonged to other insra-iptions show thatBihdr in 13o'2 again belonged to Dihli. and contains several intei'esting The writer Eajpiits. though i his contemporary. when invaded the and many emigrated. Liidhidna. The III. Durrani. The writer then mentions several legends of Rai Firuz. 640. or A.1871. the Kaligotra Brahmans of the of Chintapuri. is written in Hindi.ilim Khan. which was then looked upon as belonging to the Dihli empire. His tomb still exists. 3. CniEF op Bhaddaur. Of the three inscriptions before the meeting two belong to Halim Khan and contain the dates 1309 and 1315 the former inscription years. The third inscription of a still earlier date. 247 Bengal. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. —A History of the Village of Ari/ra. This paper facts. and hence that certain hills for example. khnllada-Uahu muJhahu. Muhammadans Among the fugitives the it is were clans. and eight hos south of Jagraon. called . of Lak'hnauti. also several families of as. From . and inhabited by IMiihammadang and The decline of the place dates from the time of Ah- mad Shah clan. I lately had from Mr. a letter.

1866. E. wing vivid green. that ed at the time of Mahavira Swami. and . Under him the town was Bhaddaur and connected with the adjoining villages were the suburbs of Arura. the twenty-fourth incarnation of Buddlia. In conclusion. There is no apparent light- coloured coronal streak. also on birds Dhurmsala and Kumawith others procured on the Nepal border by Mr. represents undoubtedly the North. Dr. sions New Species of Alrornis. bright yellow green. as are also upper tail coverts. C. This drawing is very accu- . D. so large. coverts bright yellow bill and feet coloured as in the other species. Jerdon was acquainted with this bird. bill at front -35. which used by the Piija tribe in the it dis- In the 15th chapter of this book. —By Dimen- — The 3|^. Bescription of a W. but the slate colour of the head and shoulders is very dark and without the greenish tinge observed in the other species. and People say that the ancient name of the place that tied trict. dark slatey-headed Abrornis. .. its ruler. E. Bkooks.. rate. perfectly accords with Cashmere. Ahichatta. all the coverts Lower back Upper part of primaries secondaries and tertial as well as tail feathers edged vivid yellow green. is [Nov. who died in A. the white of the outer one being is penultimate one clouded with j)ale brown tail but that of the lower surface of body from chin to under . Two outer tail webs . measure 3f about *5 . is mentioned that a reign- former prince of the city of Ahichatta. feathers white on their inner spotless. while that of the S2:)ots . enti" is still Dharma Katha. . which extends to Cashmere.248 Proceedings of ihe Asiatic Society. from gape tarsus '72. XantJioschistos. Eta'wah. I therefore name it after him but he confounded of the latter with Abrornis XanthoschistoSy Hodgson. named Kanaka Ketu. and he procured the specimens which Mr. Hodgson's dimensions of Xrt«- Yeatman.Wes- I have examined Mr. Esq. IV. Abrornis Jerdoni. Hodgson's original drawing with dimensions . Mr. the writer mentions a few facts Bhai Bahadur Singh of Bhaddaur. Eaja Buddhamati composed a work in Prakrit. Colors similar to those of A. — length J of skin but the bird in the flesh would probably tail 1-57 . wing 1-82. in the cold season. but a greyish white supercilium. and find it tern bird. Hume it and I have.

I hope to describe it more fully. Tern. but if so. The specimens anxious to exhibit include Ist. tarsus ^. T tried the effect of injecting them with common disinfecting fluid. tail If. I have no hesitation in putting Alho-superciliaria as a Abrornis <71vy?ow> is synonym of sentativo of Xanthoschistos. and said " I wish to make a few remarks upon some birds which I recently captured in the Red and Arabian Seas. 2nd. it I have not yet had time to ascertain whether belongs to a known —A specimen of the somewhat rare Sanderling. Hypotrior- Briss. when on board the Mail Steamer Mongolia. The head and species. it presents a very unusual phase of plumage. —A species of EoUer (Coracias) It distinct from both the Eurobut it pean and Indian from it comes nearest plumage. . CaUdris It arenaria. has a more subdued coverts is coloration.] thoschistos aro Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. —A male and female of the common Tinnunculiis alaudarius. Garnila. Notably a small party of six owls . I observed or resting many other land birds flying about upon the ship. Jerdon's dimensions oi Alho-superciliaris are 2J Hodgson's bird. as in C. Mr. —A bird which I rather think may be L. differs in many details of Speaking generally. Xanthoschistos. Dr. — West species. Having neither the facilities nor inclination for skinning them. and being unable to procure any pure carbolic acid. tarsus j. to the former. tail 1 J wing 2^ to 2 -^^ . and the violet blue of the lesser wing- not continued. 249 . a Hobby.. Ball exhibited several birds captured by him in the Rod and Arabian Seas. came on board in the Arabian Sea in a very exhausted condition.1871. bill from gape \ . the eastern i*epre- A. length 4^ wing Inasmuch as these are the dimensions of and as his drawing exactly rejiresents the North. Srd. Besides the above. on to the shoulders. Ath. time. chis suhbufeo. —leugtli 4| .' I am more particularly — ' them as they have been cured by a process somewhat novel. At some future birds. The result has been that the birds have kept admirably and are only now gradually drying up into mummies. neck too are a dirty green rather than a bluish green.

Journal Asiatique. The meeting then broke The following up. — Comptes Eendus. Band xii. — by J. No. Socie'te' Asiatiqtje. Paris. Their markings and size resembled those of that bird. Selections LXXXIII. of India. by Col.250 wliicli Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 10. Jahresbericht iiber die Morgenlandischen Studien. July August. (]Nov. 62. —Eevue Deux Mondes. during doch. J. additions have been last. 1871. Walker. Akademie der Wissenschaften. LL. July. kept up with the ship for two days. von Dr. Government of India. of London. T. Heft. Library. E. 9. General of the India. 1871. 107. made to the library since the meeting held in October Presentations. "Wissenschaftlieher The author. Monatsbericht der K.D. 1871. The author. and July. No. Akademie der "WissENSCHiVFTEN zu Berlin. Govern. — American Journal des of August. Band XXV. June. 1. 1 Eeview of Christian Literature in India. capture a specimen. Gosche. they had most decided ear-tufts. May. Socie 'te' des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg. the The Surv. —The from Eecords of Purchase. September. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. "70. vol. The Chemical Society 1871. Pr. Survey of India. Part II. 1862 bis 1867. K. Indische Studien. Gmel. Mur- Account of the Operations of the Great Trigon. certainty to am unable to say with any degree of it what species they may have belonged. 1871. Sept. Home Department. The author. E. Numismatic Chronicle. Pr. —Tna Geological Society of London. 2.. I. — Journal des Savants. Science. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenliindischen Gesellschaft. Memoir es de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg. A. "Weber. Journal of the Chemical Society. *** Names of Donors in Capitals. — The Editors. 1871. Tome XV. •! in vain tried to they were observed one by one to drop I exhausted into the sea. . E. but think just possible that they may have been Otus Iraclujotus. No. von Dr.

Esq. A T. From Arthus Howell.112.111. negatives. uud Euclosuic. aud Euclosures. 272. l^"-Nand also ^«' dated 22nd July. of Bengal No. aud oue iuset. Suh-Dt'jnifi/ Ojjmm Agent of Chota- Nagporc. stant at 9 o'clock M. miuus Nos. . 6. 19. 1S71. 38. tographs of the antiquities in tho viz. set of photographs of temples. 3. * U-8 picfcuiea. D. set of those 109. 23. ^ /? u i together with No. I have the honor to forward herewith a concise notice of the phoWith photographs. 1871. Under-Secretary to the Govermnait of India. LL.. &c. meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday. 16. -1. of 20tk copies of the papers noted on tho ' . Behar division. in Bihar. 21t)l. F. 22.1i. July. Oldham. a . Esq. one complete .} containing a short ac- count of each subject by the photographer. The following correspondence accompanied the donation. 39. The minutes of the lust meeting were read and confirmed. Esq. The following presentations were announced 1 From the Government of India in the Home Department. complete Nos. 1«71. lu8.PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OP BENGAL FOK December. From T...1'i:'^floI: lUG. as called for in your 7i:7^^9'80. ono complete set. for the use of the Asiatic Society.. Vice-President.. Fiom Govorumont t From Ditto of the Anti- quities ol Jiehar. a set* of photographs . Peppe'. in the chair.111. 26. of whicli I have 15. the Gth inp.. from 1 to 123. of 30d1i Jauuuiy. margin. 28. 107. I am directed to forward.

122. ^ . I would beg that an advance of Es..-...-.. at once . as it has been a place of considerable importance for this time.. I also forward some duplicate copies. There are a great many interesting structures and remains of antiquity in and about Gya. In that case they can be returnto and so much of the description as applies them may be cur- GvA. east of Girriak. ^^S *^® descriptions... The rock sculptures 5. Unfortunately. and would beg to mention them for your guidance The tower at Girriak. few of the older structures are now intact for as the buildings of the deserted faith were at hand and readily available. on mentioned and numbered accord- Total sent— Lfirge . at Pabuttee. ed. I have also included some copies of negatives of Chumj)arun. mi As soon copies 2. all .. as they are received. included m the above. which will be completcoj)ies ed as soon as the remaining complete. ™ . which are probably not required. during have been at least two changes of religion. there — many centuries. 600 be given to enable me to have them printed. This therefore makes three copies of the photographs more or less I regret to state the sets could not be supplied complete but as this could not be done. care will be taken that the missing ones are hereafter sent.. j)i'evalent materials. . 4.:.252 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. tailed. On rare occasions only was a new With the exception of the temple temple built of fresh of Vishnu Pad. ..105 Total .. I would beg to state that I have been put to considerable expense in having them printed in Calcutta. and very . as I have unfortunately no copies of them.i t . are received from Calcutta. 102 Small . . The fort at Behar. 3. 207^ The Shahabad pboto^raplia are not . [Dec. they were used in the construction of buildings belouging to the religion. In the meantime. 123-39 which will be sent their arrival from Calcutta. and that as so many more are still required to complete the seven copies of each. My transfer to Chota-Nagpore has prevented me from taking still negatives of some of the antiquities remaining to be photo- graphed. the and descriptions will be forwarded.

which must have been a fine stone temple.— The old town of Gya is picturesquely situated on Pliotographs the whole river front of the old hills. No. Nos. temple of Gadadluir or but has raace-bearer. 15 and 16. peculiar priesthood of Gya. and 14. Nos. 6 and 7 conjointly show of Gya. 4. and Nos.— The temple of Vishnu Pad. is the holy place where the pilgrims bathe in the Fulgo. 12 is which commands the greater part of the a view looking north from this point.1871.— The without whose assistance no ceremony have their houses . although greatly disfigured by ragged pur- dahs. 12. 13 and 14 are views looking south and west. It ftonts the east. tlie pillars No. 8 and 9. although comparatively modern. Nos. —In front of the Vishnu Pad and Gadadhur temples visit. and No. and almost touching are let into the solid rock for a foundation. 1 and est 2. 5. 13. 10 is the view looking west from the high bank of the river. and the village of Selempur in the foreground. is effective. Nos. — Are views of the old town from the Eam Gya on the opposite bank of the Fulgo. but its coufiucd situation prevents a good photograph being obtained of it. a handsome pillared hall. been modified and renewed at a comparatively late date. the view looking north. PhotograpJis Nos. is 3. and No. —To the south of the temple. the Gyawiils. 1 1 is Nos. a rocky ridge running along the bank of the Fulgo. is the it. and the facade is very striking. of Buddliist figures are collected in and around it. 10 and 11. and 7.— The southern extremity of the town occu- pies a rocky eminence town. is a most imposing structure.] Prdceedings of the Asiatic Socieii/. buildings. or built \rith the materials obtaiuod from Buddhist. the larg- and most important in Gya. where the bare rock shows itself in fact. for annually Nos.— The town extends from the banks of the Fulgo whole valley between to the foot of the hills. to the north. 6 which so many pilgrims Gya from all parts of Hindustan and Nipal. 253 the other temples are either convortod Biuldhist. and a number No. — Alongside. occupying in fact the No. with its town background of and the nearly dry bed of the hill river in the foreground. which forms a principal part in the ceremony of Pind. &o. there .

— Another Kund place which must be visited by all pilgrims is the tank. sites on tho banks of the the city. — Gives the relative positions. are restricted to certain portions of Photographs Nos. as fixing the date of that event. but they. Societt/. The 450 feet high. close to the Rukmini tank. Nos. many of them five and six stories high and Very old. Tlie present buildings are ai'e modem.254 Proceedings of the Asiatic river. This is is only a short distance Grya. There is a temple on the — Bummit dedicated the name. 24. Ms. The Achyber temple Very and must have been a monastery chapel. and 28. there is an old temple much in the same stylo as the temple at Budh Gya called Mungla Deva. although mostly rebuilt and altered. JVb. JVbs. and in the most prominent within it. which of great value. or quite Fetta Mahaswar. To the south of the town the range of hilla which surrounds the town ends in a conical hill called Brahmajoni. 25. — The final ceremony of Pind is is performed at the Achyber temple which hill situated near the foot of the Brahmajoni is and old. as the present buildings. and five A great number of mutilated statues are let into the walls on either side. 21. which is considered of great sanctity. It a prominent object in approaching principal places which Gya from every must be visited one of the to by the pilgrims who come perform the ceremony of Pind. 26. 27. pillars ten feet in height. The vestibule is formed of two double rows of pillars in each row. It is to the sakti or female energy of Brahma. but of — . — Another of the principal places of pilgrimage the Suruj Kund and temple. which runs down to the Eukmini tank. is 19 and 20. [Dec. 17 and 18. JYo. 22 and 23. seem to have beea originally a Buddhist monasteiy. from the Vishnu Pad. and direction. I believe. Higher up the same hill. inscription dated in the era of a valuable is Buddha's death or Nirvan. The temple one of the oldest in Inside there is and evidently belongs to Buddhist times. but a great number of Buddhist statues collected in and around them. hence flight of stone approached by a hill itself is steps leading is is up from below. 15 and 16 are some of their houses along the banks of the Fulgo. JVos.

is Proceedings of the Asiatic SociefAj. 35. as these railings bear inscriptions in the an- cient Pali of the time of Asoka. however. modern town of Gya. Near this is a fine sculptured doorway. In a few years the aspect of porch in front has arch of portion its is The now nearly disappeared only portions of the peculiarity of this roof adhere to the said walls. in which iho Buddha Pad. 33. Ceylon. and 50 feet square gives the at the base. &c. and by pilgrims from Burmah. extended very considerably to the north since then. is — The and great temple faces the oast. — The front of the temple which faces the east this side will is in very bad repair. 34. situated six miles to the south of Gj'a. The the Lehra or horizontal arch to the third story. and tho radiating arches on the second story. No. arch. It is said to have been rooted out by a Brahmanist king. — The Sahibanj. Buddh — This is is place. Colonel Cunningham date of its erection by Amara Deva about 500. and large masses come down every rainy season. Path Bahiidur. . 160 feet high. No. 255 and on tlio tlio same hill lower down. Sasanka. Excavations made some years ago under the auspices of the Asiatic Society showed that the whole temple was surrounded by a Buddhist railing similar to the one at Sanchi. This shows conclusively that the present temple occupies the exact site of the original one. or more properly The largest tomplo is a doublo-spirod one. contains few structures of any antiquity. another of same stylo facing the Sarasvatti tank. Nos. and renewed by his contemporary the Buddhist Purna Varmma.] later date. has. —In front of the building there is is a small arched doorway or impres- leading into tho courtyard.1871. D. on the eastern side. be entirely changed. . 32. famous throughout the Buddhist world as the tree under which Sakya Singha sat for visited six years. 29 and 30. A. built by a wealthy Kaist. No. — To the tree west of the temple itself the famous Bodhi Drum. still It is remark- able as being the finest brick structure standing in India. No. — Over Qija one of the gateways of the town there is a fino It This was the limit of the city as originally enclosed. Only one large branch not last is now alive and from all appearances it will much longer. so celebrated in the annals of the Buddhist world. is still or of knowledge. 31. is No.

very it than that the Hindus did understand the principle of the arch. —The south side of the temple still is in the best preservation. through the arched passage in front. as it is quite anomalous to find arches in a purely Hindu structure of such an early date. are some Buddhist figures. 36. principally on the fact of these arches. as at present. The arches first in the front supporting the entrance and roof of the it and second story have attracted considerable attention. but No. and some two miles from the bank of the Fulgo. —To the east of the great temple there style. but Both these it is still a problem how they came to be built. and there seems no other solution to to it in structures of brick. Buddha tree. but only resorted are few of which now left. representing Buddha himself is seated under the Buddha tree. and many of the niches in contain plaster figures of Buddha. and it has cast great doubts on the assigned age of the building itself. many they are wanting. Fergusson has decided. remains. that the building cannot be of the age assigned to by Colonel Cunningham. but noue of the orthodox enter the temple No. No. 40. there — Inside the little cenotaph. and the suiTOunding part was considerably above the plinth which must have been approached steps. and whether they were part of the original doubts have been cleared away. No. 37. and building. of 39. The it fact. however. 38. It showed that the general level of the courtyard. a smaller one something of the same but much later. BuRRABUR. has been doubted whether they were true radiating arches. [DeO* all classes sion of Buddlia's feet. to the left of the entrance.256 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. as also to the itself. excavated is — The group of hills in which the caves have been about sixteen miles to the north of Gya. On the same — side a deep excavation made to follow the railings disclosed the original plinth of the temple in tolerable preservation. No. The most westerly hill is an isolated peak — called . by instead of descending to it. This has since been filled up. to which offerings are made by of pilgrims. dedicated to Tara Deva.

five caves excavated in the solid granite rock.. Dol. which. is No. and svibsequently polishing the compact granite must There are three of these caves iu one are cut in the western No. and an outer one 32 feet. measuring eight foot high. the walls are 6 feet. No. which has a plain doorway. to the south. by 196 total inches in breadth. six feet. 9 inches in height from the vaulted roof. but the roof imfiuishod while the wiills . some few which are still standing. in the twelfth year of the reign of cut in It records the excavation of the cavo. Sudama to the north. — On the east side of the hill there must have been a pillars of large temple. but now standing somewhat apart from the shrine where the gigantic Budh is. C. and been in cutting. Whether more than one structure existed here it is difficult to say. and the whole group called Burrabur. 42. 3 iuclies. has the pillur.s. still iu its original position. of Asoka himself. an inscription in the ancient character of Asoka's the side of the doorway.' or the crow's swing. To the Kawwa Dol there is a group of is hills. making the height of the chamber 12 feet. a circular one of 19 feet. and a gigantic figure of the ascetic Budh. Eajah Pyadasi. — The Sudama and Lomas Eishi . with part of the original brick wall behind — The temple itself must have been a large one. 41. &c. 43. the highest being Burabee.] * Proceedings of the Aniatic Society. the cave therefore dates as far back as 252 B. groiip. but a great many mounds are existing in the neighbourhood. that is. it. face of the rock to the south.1871. 6 inches. 11 inches in dia- meter. which has a rise of 5 feet. cave both iu size and arrangements. with a breadtli across the shoulders of No. — The Lomas Eishi similar to the is Sudama . which seem to have fallen from the top. It consists of two rooms. Many of these are sculptured with rude lingams. 257 Kawwa There are a number of Lirge boulders at the foot. have and the labour expended have been enormous. is nearly illegible. and the Lomas Eishi The Sudama cave. however. and on one to the north-west angle of the hill there is a short inscription. and a large village there are only a few pillars must also have existed east of the to the north-east. Near the centre of the group. 44. 9 inches in length.

inches high. a It is 33 feet. about 50 The cave itself measures 46 feet. rise of 4 feet. an abode lasting as the sun and moon. and flight approached from below by a of the cave doorway. this porch was executed at a later period than the cave There is an inscription in the porch over the doorway. 5 inches long. 1|- The sides of the cave are 6 feet. [Deo. as the two preceding. both ends being semi-circular. beloved of the Devas. executed in a most artistic manner. is The largest cut in the southern face of a rocky ridge. Indeed the di-awing of the elephants contrasts favourably with the popular modern representations of this animal. and was executed by Dasaratha on his accession to the throne. 0. —-The group of hills nearer the Fulgo river. are liiglily pulislied. Colonel Cunningham is of opinion that itself. on his accession. . there the third cave of the group called the Kama Chopar. The back as 245 B. On the outside of the doorway. " The Gopi's cave.258 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 45. above The height feet. in the inscription on the doorway in the ancient is character of Asoka's edicts. remark that in the representations found on the bosses of the Buddhist railing at Budh Gya. there an inscription in the ancient of Pali recording the excavation of the cave in the nineteenth year of the reign of Eajah Pyadasi. No. 2 the level of the plains. 9 inches. Asoka himself. and roof of the Sudama cave The doorways of both caves are of the Egyptian but the porch of the Lomas Eishi has been enlarged and ornamented. the cave called the * Gropi's' cave. To the east of the scul]3tures doorway the rock has been cut away. therefore. and the vaulted roof has total is making the height 10 feet. feet. dates as far is. by 19 inches broad. is this group. — On the northern side of the is same granite rock by 14 feet wide. of the third It is curious to or fourth century of our era. and several rude have been executed on the scarped face representing a linga and two rude Brahminical figures. No. 8 inches. 6^ inches long. and about is half a mile to the east of the Burrabur group. style. and represents the gable end of a thatched house with a frieze of elephants surrounding the doorway. called Nagarjuni. w^as caused to bo excavated by Dasaratha. is There are several caves in of rude stone steps. there is a similar representation of the gable end of a thatched house forming the doorway of a cave also. 46. and. that cave.

C. in which the cave called Vadithi-ka-Kubha. There is an inscription on the porch in the ancient character of Asoka's is edicts. The cave is itself is 1 6 feet. the accession of Dasaratha must have taken place in 214. like all 1 the doors of these caves. by it. so In front of the cave there is that the date the same. the kings Sardula Varma and Anunta Varma placed Brahminical images in three of them. according to the Vishnu Parana. ridge. running parallel with the Nagarjuni there are two its caves. and the doorway is 1 1 Egyptian. About the third or fourth century of our era. it and there a rude brick wall running across dividing pant. one to the west being nearly hidden in a recess. and has entrance facing the east. and on the soiithorn face of a rocky hill. . Nos. 9 inches long the roof vaulted. 259 (Buddlii. 6 inches in total height. is There is an inscrip- tion in ancient Pali. in which the cave inscription is called for word is Vapiya-ka-Kubha. Nos. —The eastern cave has a small porch 6 feet long is by b^ feet broad. C. —Alongside some little the Yapiya cave there is a curious boulder poised on two others. 4 feet. and the cavity thus formed had been built up into a grotto no doubt for Buddhist ascetics. and as the son of Asoka. a large well 9 feet in diameter. only reigned eight years. B. or the well cave. 214 B. by 6 feet. the rest being letter for letter the same as the inscription in the Gopi cave No. 47 and 48.] as Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. it From various inscriptions on these at various times occupied caves would seem that they have been by Buddhists and Brahmanists. The cave itself is feet. and have been for many a herniitago for the most devotod Bliadantas ascetics). — The other caves in the Nagurjuni group are situated in the northern side. 4 inches. in the third century B. but were oi'iginally excavated for Buddhist ascetics by the kings Asoka aud Dasaratha. The word the same as that on the Gropi cave. 3 inches.1871." Dasaratha. was the grandson of Asoka. sion of them. Sayasus. The Nagurjuni hills are distance from the Burrabur group. uninhabited. 3 inches. 50 and 51. the date is therefore the same. 10 feet. aud subsequently Mussulman fakirs took possesThey are now. C. . into two rooms. which has been done by some late occu- said to have been a Musalman fakir. 49.

There is a pillared temple close to the road very much in the same style as the temple at Poonawa. and about twenty miles from Gya. and a large tank called Chandohur teries little which is some 2. is [Dec. that the temple dates about 700 A. Judging by the size of the mound. 51 front of the JSfo. near which there a fine standing figure of the famous Buddhisatva Avalokiteswara. 58. is but very now standing . 52. with the and temple Dharawut. — Shows the temple from the east. —Is the view of the Burrabur group from the rocky ridge Burrabur peak in the centre. —Nair is on the Patna and Gya road. The temple little or shrine behind consists of brick of it is mud ture cement. The bricks It is probable are large and well made. It consists of three rows of monolithic is pillars. pillars in each row. 53 and 54. Nos. Nos. west from Dharawut. 55 and 56. mounds in and around the present large Tal. tlie and No. There are village. Nair.000 feet long by 800 feet in width. a linga now occupies the shrine. — Dharawut 1-J lies immediately to the north of the Burrabur large and extensive about miles distant. some curious sculptures were obtained by the villagers searching for bricks. evidently as old as the Buddhist monas- which existed here. No. representing various objects of Buddhist worship. On the banks is of the tank there is a temple. and there a mutilated figure of Ganesh lying outside.260 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. the shrine and mound . No. hills. Fronting the temple there a further row and of four pillars. with the remains of of brick rubbish. although inferior in this respect to those used in the construction of the Buddha Gya temple. the temple must have been a lofty one. a view of the Burrabur group from plains in Nagurjuni cave. which covered with brick and stone rubbish. and the part of the shrine remaining. the Tibetans. 57. in which the two northern caves are cut. is —Prom the little hill to the south of the tank. and none of the temples of form are Buf&ciently complete to allow of a conjecture as to their original form. ten. D. The roof of the portico and the shrine is composed of large is granite slabs. and is Pudma Pani of tho always represented with a lotus in his hand. the superstructhis entirely gone.

Near the above there this is a large four-armed figure sitting on the shoulders of another squat- ting figure. is — About seven miles nearer Gya. which it it is to out to what belonged. Nos. it is and although much of considerable interest. and surrounded by in every direction. Near this is a large slab with a representative of the same group of figures as at Koch Dapthoo. . is it not later then 200 A. 59. as that is invariably inserted into the yoni. by visited the Hwen Thsang Son Bundar' cave. D. No. there is a village called Genjan on the top of a large mound. KisPA."] Froceedings of the Asiatic Society. there a largo mound with &. it is known to what it I'efers. for insertion.c. this case there is no place No. No. — This 'place is nearly west from Nair. Here there a very fine statue of Buddha the it. whereas in Genjan. by Ajatasatru. famous in Buddhist annals as the spot where the first Buddhist synod was held in a temporary building in front of it.1871. This figure to is quite unique . teaching. its identity. A email elevation in the centre marks the cite of a monastery chapel. View 65 is looking east from the door of the cave.' 261 Pali. and death or Nirvana of Sakya Singha in small figures surrounding district. —Pajagriha They both one of the few places about which there can be no doubt of in the sixth century. 63. 'and about six miles. is Pajgeek. No. and cut in the solid rock. on the Patna a small modern temple. there. but neither smoothed nor polished. No. with representations of the birth. 62. and was * visited by the Chinese pilgrims.. —The cite is of tlie ancient city hills is now overgrown with brushwood. 60 and 61. being the only not specimen of the kind be found in the district. Pajah of Magadha. difficult —There make is also a curious sculptured block. 64. It could not have been the base of a linga. but the cave 1 itself is It measures is 7 feet wide. —About is a mile and a half from Kispa to the north-east. 34 feet long by There is an inscription cut on probably older. road. 65. This is one of the best-executed sculptures in the mutilated and broken. Fa-Hian in the fourth century. There are large mounds a veiy fine standing statue of Sakya Singha as a teacher with the Buddhist creed in an inscription round the head. ascetic.

composed of loose unsquared stones loosely put together. is now used as a dwelling-place by his descendants. although still in possession of his descendants. and a Buddhist monastery existed. . a rude dome. It is now rapidly falling to pieces. —The modern temples round tlie hot springs are situated at the opening of the valley. judging The original temple must have been a large by the mass of brick rubbish in which the shrine ia it. were scattered about some years ago. but great numbers of Buddhist votive stupas. Shamsheenagar. must have been in early days a place of some importance. geers in this neighbourhood. one. —Is a view from the same structure overlooking the hot flat springs and the country beyond them. however. leading to the site of the ancient city. No. a and who received ja- soldier. No. comparatively modern. 67.362 ^0. represents one of the gate-ways of the serai. 69. many of which. and 66 is a view of the temples with a singular fort-looking strucIt is ture on the hill behind and above them. to the early Buddhist type. was founded by The town Baud Khan. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. only part of which now remains. where great numbers of pilgrims assemble to bathe in the koond or tank. have lately been covered up. He erected a fortified serai for the subject to robbery on the road who were along the banks of the Sone going to Patna. It about 25 miles. and some distance inland from the Sone. which The photograph. 70. subsequently. — This place is situated to the west of Gya. 68. sunk. Deokoond. and has been converted into a Brahminist temple. and forty miles west of Gya. and a linga placed in the shrine. and a road had to be excavated to allow of access to shrine is The is now surmounted by and belongs No. [Dec. as a reward for the conquest of PaMmau. A fair is held here in the month of Falgoon. is Daudnagar. About eight miles lower down the Sone from Daudnagar there is a considerable village called Shamshernagar. protection of travellers. 66.. No. but the lower part still intact. who signalized himself by his bravery. founded and — nephew of Baud Khan. and a very pleasing structure was built by him after a named as his tomb. which Pathan is — Daudnagar a considerable town in the banks of the Sone. &c. Daud Khan died about 200 years ago. Shamsher Khan.

about 100 yards to the north. 9 feet by 22 wide. and the beauti- much the same .1871. 77. — The opening into the upper chamber is also on the Lehra principle. and the temple itself is . The west side of the temple has been much damaged by the heavy rains. wanting. this fine temple will soon be a mass of No. —A porch had been added to the original building. 72. figui-es have been inserted or ranged along the many of which are figured in Mai-tin's India. showed that they understood both kinds of as suited their requirements. a drawing of which This building closely given in the 1st volume of Martin's India. — To the north of the temple there are two cenotaphs is over the remains of former mahunts. 76. 74 and 75. The lower chamber is 10 squai-e. but there no monastic comnot considered munity settled here now. and represents probably Surya. extensive figures Between the two villages there are mounds of brick rubbish. but tho head is The principal one is life- sized. is done. — Unless something rubbish. or more likely. resembles in style that of the great temple at construction fully feet is Budh G^'a. and used them No. beautifully carved. this courtyard and porch a great many walls. Nos. 71. No. the materials are the same moulded bricks and mud cement. — Passing through the village proper you come to the large temple mentioned is by Buchanan. — Higher up on the mound there are two purely Buddhist figures with the creed in inscriptions round the head. No. — On tho road between is Daudnaj^ar and Gya. In In front of . It consists of two parts. about sixteen miles from the latter. it a small courtyard has been added also 9 feet by 22 feet steps led a flight of up from the level of the ground. 79. so that the four sides meet at the top. In the construction of this bulding the Hindus arch. probably Surya. and 73. the original porch had become ruinous. and large masses keep falling year by year. of a later type. the village of Konch.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Nos. 263 KoNCH. and has an arched roof as in the Budh Gya temple. 78. In the upper chamber the walls are gradually contracted. and two others. and had subIt is sequently been repaired. and a groat many Buddhist and statues are scattered about. . the bazaar on the road side and the village proper.

. the temple a distinctive No. style as those at Nair and Poonawa. —Inside there i. [Dec. Notwitlistanding that there is the shrine. (a generic name for Hnga now occupying tradition the work of the aboriginal races). the light half of the dedicated to Jagarnath. occupied by a linga.264 orthodox. and was is lighted by these side balconies. 83. and marks a transition from the open pillared portico which had previously been the rule. in excellent preservais The height feet. 85. 86. on Thursday. 82. its Buddhist origin. No. the building itself Kol Rajahs iVo. rroceeclings of the Asiatic Society. <?. there is a where there must have been some large temples. D. is a large slab of black chlorite with a long inscription recording the building of the temple by Bhairub Indra in Sambat 1496. and was Subhadra. of the temple from the rock to the crest east to west is 68 feet. village of Seharee. It is now the pride of the hamlet where stands. cross brackets. and was completed at Chunar and little down it fit for erection. as at Poonawa. part of which a tree close by. and moon Bysack. — The temple is built on a rocky spur of one of the highis est hills overlooking the grand trunk road. 1439. only a few pillars of which are of the now standing. the interior has a very imposing ap- pearance. A. of — This place situated within a mile of the dak bungalow Madunpore on the grand No. —Four miles — The village called Pali. Nair. This bad is a by popular odour with the orthodox would seem to prove 80. . is OoMGA. It must have been lying under same 8 1 . and the monolithic pillars with bracket capital a deci- ded advance from plain column with No. sculptured doorway. however. — About eight miles west of is Kouch. near the . there it is a small stone temple on the roadside of constructed sent entirely Chunar stone. and is built entirely of squared granite blocks without cement and tion. east of Konch. about 60 feet. is No. on the same road. Seharee. closely resembles the fine one at Poonawa. the extreme length from and the breadth 53 No. and fourteen miles west of Sherghati. give —To the north and south there are balconies which cliaracter. and Pali. Balbhadru. 84. trunk road. The shrine is. — The large porch in front was entirely enclosed.

faces the west. Under the boulder sacrifices of kids and other animals are still made. but No. which mean little stream. . but as the whole of the rainfall between the Sone and river. On tlie hill opposite the dak bungalow there is a small temple and tank which are of a semble those at arched roof. — This k. In this case also is bricks and style rethe chamber has an Deo. rroceedings of the Asiatic Society. quite modern. the Poonpoon river. No. and there are this also a great hills. 89. it There no inscription on the temple.— To is the south of the temple there is •with a flight of stone steps on the east side nearest the part of of whicli still standing north and south of the tank. Morhur rivers. and the Budh Gya. and on the summit of a higher ridge. 87. there is No. s. is also the residence of the Maharajah Jai is Pergash Singh. On the path between the two temples there are several in- scriptions cut on the face of the rock. Bridge over the Poonpoon Eiver.] j^Tq. and also facing the east.1871. 90. Every available ledge and spur on this hill seems to have been occupied by similar structures. its source. and in style. same style as those at Oomga and like however. may be of a somewhat earlier date than those at Oomga. i. This temple. where it —The bridge over is crosses the grand trunk road between Muddunpore and Baroon. place c. is these built of squared blocks of stone. 265 a fine large tank fort. Several mounds indicate the position of the town. — Higher up the same hill on which the temple is built. 88. but nearly the whole of the superstructure has fallen down. here only a few miles from it collects is given simply to show the character of the scenery on this part of the country. His palace. nearly as large as the one lower down. are the ruins of another temple. a large rambling building. 92. it becomes towards Patna a largo which lays the coun- try under water for many miles to the south-east of Patna. and It is in the a very fine temple here. much earlier date. is a The Poonpoon. but from the texture of the granite they are nearly illegible. the same — Still higher up. number of figures and lingams both on and the adjoining No. there is a curious little altar with a huge boulder alongside it. 91. and has been highly ornamented. — Deo twelve miles to the west of Oomga. No.

and 97. there a cave about half way up It is a natural hollow which has been built up enclosing a chamber feet some 10 by is ' 12. — To the is south of this temple. Nos. Nearly had little structures of some kind on their summits.266 Cheon. flight of rude steps led up from below. —Is situated north-east of Oomga. And on the north of the hill a bund has been thrown j^o^ 100. life-sized four-armed statue with many fragments of others. and to the east of a little hill there a fine.' There also a figure of Mahamaya. thus showing that the had been one of some importance. Inside there a figure of Budh surrounded by is a seven-headed snake called lungabeer. only part of the shrine and doorway remaining. —To the east of the village of Cheon there are the It is ruins of a temple of considerable size built of squared granite black without cement. caUed Puchar. now in ruins. by a linga. 96. also several mounds and masses of brick rubbish on every side. the mother of Budh. thus forming a large tank. Most of them are filled up. — About a many mile to the south there is another cluster of little hills within the boundary of the village of Deokillee where little there are caves similar to the one at Cheon. on another the hill. little hill About 300 yards is to the west. No. large Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 98. — across a hollow. about eight miles. One curious altar-like structure crowns the summit of a ridge between two hills immediately above a natural hollow in a rock which was used as a tank. and there are no inscriptions but from its general resemblance to the temples at Oomga it may be considered as of the same date. with a doorway supported on bracket pillars. [Dec. the remains of whole locality . All these hills must have literally swarmed with Buddhist ascetics. little platform has been constructed in front of the and a 99. of isolated little hills A number are dotted over the country for some distance north of the grand trunk road.— A cave. every one of these hills Many of these large masses of granite are not shown in the revenue maps. Judging by the great number of little caves and structures. 93 and 94. 95. The cave faces the south. jSfo. Nos. The interior of the shrine is occupied .

it is 26? which now exist. according to Major Kittoe. fourteen miles from Poonawa. and it is remarkable that an inscription should have Its date been omitted. and fourteen miles east from Poonawa. The form of the doorway and the polished interior are conclusive.1871. no inscription could be cut. to light. was not the case when he Visited it in 1847. being 1 foot. I think.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Socieiij. and the rock as compact as those in which the caves are executed at Burrabur. The whole of the inside highly polished. — The . and The roof vaulted. 102. no inscription could escape notice outside. even to enquirers who devote themselves to such pursuits. . No. KuBKiHAB. 2 inches at the bottom. 104. 8 inches along the and 15 feet along the roof. — One is of the doorways is beautifully carved in black and the finest piece of sculpture of the kind in this part of the country. and there is no sign of any such recess. inside or out- from the high polish every where. is Curiously enough there side. The village is situated about a mile south-east of a village called Nadgurha on the Nawadah and Gya road. The pasfloor. on this point. cave is excavated in a large block of granite on is an open plain the doorway of the Egyptian form. natli. 1^ in width. which it so closely resembles. Its construction at any time must have been an achievement of no ordinary kind. and the principal antiquity a pillared temple of Trilok- which has no superstructure left. which seems to have escaped the notice although only obtain the antiquaries who have visited this district. No. —Is situated about three miles north-east . No. at which still time a considerable portion of the superstructure was perfect. shows how difficult it is to information of the whereabouts of antiquities. chlorite. to be regretted that no inscriptions have conio is is PooNAWA. 10 inches at the top and 2 feet. Seetamukee. No. 6 feet. cannot be less than those at Burrabur. 5 inches The chamber itself is 15 feet. without a recess being cut for its reception. Inside. is and springs at once from the is floor. and long. and 11 feet. sage leads into the cave at an oblique angle. 101. no trace of an inscription. is 3 feet. —This village situated fourteen miles west of Gya. of all —This place. is 4-^- high in the centre. 103. but which.

[Dec. representations of events of liis life on either side. 110. —There is also a Jain temple in the same style as the Budh G3'a one. The ruins are very extensive. the eighteen viharas of Behar. 105. Grya. D.268 rrociedlngs of the Asiatic Sdciefij. Chillob. this district scale. all India existed. nearly life-size. on giving the names of the 109. covering a space 1. are so — There no place in where the ruing the extensive. is No.600 feet long. or on such a large Unfortunately. cipal ruin is that of the great temple of Baladitya. really which may determine what the figure The expression . Tliere are largo and extensive ruins at this place^ and a great number of statues scattered over a large area. and is therefore of much the same age. -with. 106 and 107. is —The principal one by Major Kittoe is of a beautifully carved one. temple was most It is in a sitting posi- and is now collected with a number of smaller figures in a small courtyard at the foot of the large mound. and although the place has been used as a quarry for bricks for many years. said to be a representative of Siva. greater part are hidden under immense mounds of brick rubbish. by 400 feet in width. —There are a series of lofty mounds some 60 feet high. and must have been this built be- —The statue enshrined in now called Bhairav. with several attendants. as there a small figure of Buddha is. Nos. BuRRAGAON. where the greatest monastery in JVo. —To the north there inscriptions is a large statue of the ascetic it Budh. 111. —At the adjoining village of Jagdespore there —Major Kittoe notices this place as the site a very fine large figure of the ascetic Budh surrounded by demons and of one of alluring females. The place is the site of the ancient Nalanda. ofPoonawa. 108. The is prin- which said to have resembled that at Budh tween 450 and 500 A. the outline of an antelope forms the upper edge of the dress. likely the gigantic one tion. the foundations are not yet reached. according to Colonel Cunningham. but this is doubtful. and a small inscription is on the pedestal. with many figures and sculptures. JVo. in the head- dress. The principal one is a figure of Sakja Singha sitting under the tree at Budh Gya. con- mounds. JVo. sisting of large JVo.

— The continuation of the same hills. as is the women universal custom amongst the Xol tribes of Chota Nagpore. only differently arranged. 112 and 1 13. which I have no doubt were caused by the of the aboriginal tribes in husking their rice. although I believe the revenue surveyors failed to do No. 115 and 116. so commonly in use elsewhere. The south of the district of Gya is bounded by a range of hills which form the boundary between Gya and — Palamau near Maharajganj. Nos. and where the tlie Koel slopes river runs round their base. southern temple is The door is of the shrine in the figured iu the very fine. These stones are said ' Bhimsen' for his ' chula' have been collected by the popular hero or cooking-place. sculptvu-es. and about fourteen miles from Gya to the north. and a large figure — Both temples seemed to have had a pillared portico in front. extensive. On the sloping rock which dips into the river there are some curious worn hollows. Some of these hills are composed of huge masses of granite of very suggestive outlines. i^artly stand- and the remains are ing. The most conspicuous of these like is the ' kotila' or granary. 269 than is and attitude of amongst ancient Davtiiu. The northern one was dedicated of the same is still standing inside. but which has since been built up with brick. This seems to have been the site of a large Buddliist community. as to the I could never obtain any clue until I meaning of these depressions had seen the practice . 114. same curious group of a prince on horseback with the same dants. &c. ment of the three boulders as they closely resemble the three stones used by travellers to rest their pots on wliile cooking. three large boulders block the path. — Is situated about a mile inland to the east of the Fulgo. and at the point where to rock down into the river. 117. as at Konch. Nevertheless on certain occasions a light is observed on its summit which would show that some one has a knowledge of the way of getting up to the summit.] Proceedings of the Asiatic this Societ/ij.. the curious dome- peak of which is nearly inaccessible.. as the wooden instruments for this purpose. &c. There are two temples to Surya. figure lias more life iu it general — Nos. which the arrangefavours. and has been the atten- Outside tliore first volume of Martin's India. so. No.1871. are not used by them.

1 1 — by a lion. 1 A brick wall of four feet thick by a further thickness of feet of mud. and it is known that the aboriginal tribe of Mhars were in possession of the country until dispossessed by the ancestors of the present Eajput family of Sonpura. the ancient capital of Mithila. This place is famous in Budwhere the second Buddhist synod was LoTJRYA NEAR Are-raj. dhist annals as the place held. It has and the and sharp as if only done a year ago. 120. but found no inscription. 18 feet above the present level of the ground. there No. is — On the borders of Nepal. inside this was the palace and principal buildings. and. 118. comprising about five acres . The bricks used are large. statues. well burnt. and 37J inches at the top. so that the whole length above the water level is 32 feet. and of the same polished comit pact sandstone. and 27 fields. Withiu the outer enclosure there is another. which is one of the banks of the Gandack or Naraini. is Lourya. or 14 below the present surface. The ruins cover an area of sixteen square miles. there a ruined brick stupa with a fine old pipul tree growing on the top. several of Asoka's edicts neatly engraved letters are still as fresh sides. is and outside the courtyard in which the pillars stand. including the statue and capital. 10' X 7' X 2'. JSfo. This place. the fort of Simroun. carvings. — Between Bukra and Betteah. 41"8 another of Asoka's It is pillars. of the Kol women. The palace and many of the principal . The principal antiquity is one of Asoka's pillars surmounted It is only feet. on both is inches in diameter at the base. SiMROUN. must have been a place of great importance. No. 119. at a village called and twenty miles north-west of Kesariya. 36^ feet high and has no capital. Between the two enclosures a great number of figures. surrounds the whole. 44 feet 2 inches. [Dec. inches above the level of the surrounding Colonel Cunningham made an excavation down feet to the water level. Bukra. and has been identified as the ancient Vaisala. and finely fitted together. and large wells built with stone are scattered aU over. — Immediately to the north. but are so overgrown with dense jungle that it is almost impossible to make out anything.270 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. north-east of Motihari. and had not then reached the square base. TiRHUT.

also the scarped rock to No. par' cave. and the south. and in consequence the inscription not readable in either of them. No. and showing the general appearance from the east of the immense granite block in which the cave has been excavated. 121 and 122.. little — Some Some large figures ai*e collected near the modern temple. curious slab with some carved figures. No. is grand trunk road twenty-four . There are side. 123. which are beautifully carved.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. The figures represent a seated figure in the centre. is probable that these stones are the work of a diilurent race of people fi'oui the . three specimens of this emblematical stone in this district . They consist of several figures enclosed in scrolls of lotus stem in a most beautiful and artistic manner. —Is a sculptured slab with a representation of the nine the wall of the porch of the temple at Konch. near the temple of Oonga temple . is of these stones are nearly similar.1871. has been excavated. and executed in the very best manner. same place which no doubt formed part of a doorway. but from the irregularity must have boon rebuilt. 124. viz. and seem represlabs of sandstone are collected in the sentatives of Surya. so that little remains to show what the structures original were Nos. and surinscription in Sanscrit Avatars let into No. — This at is a view of the rock in which the Kama Chow- Burrahur. . the other one under a tree near that All the and the third is on the temple of Gajadhur at Gya. with male and female figures on either The emblems above are an open hand with a rosette in the palm the emblems of the sun and moon on either side. the present one the is from the banks of the large tank at Madinpore on miles west from Sherghati. but I am convinced this stone had an older inscripto receive the which must have been obliterated modern ' one. —Is a : mounted by some singular emblems with an underneath unfortunately the inscription is too much worn to be decipherable. 126. and the stone case. tion — An inscription let into the wall of the little temple is quite modern. something like a Budh. From the style of workmanship it and the peculiar selection of this soft stone. biiilt 271 buildings were of squared blocks of sandstone 3 feet by IJ. same in each is a soft soapstone. still Some part of the walls are of the upper courses they standing. 125.

133 and 134. No. "with part of the Maharajah's palace to the left. the teacher. in good preservation executed she is represented as four-armed. 128. side. No. the Vishnu —Is Pud a view of the old town of Gya looting west from temple. was at one time a place of great importance. figure of and well To the south of this temple there is a fine standing Mahamaya.west of the town in . Proceedmgs of the Asiatic Society. giving the whole of the upper portion of the temple. from having been selected by Sher Shah as his residence. a pillared enclosed. No. at Deo. Chiller. — Is another view of the beautifully executed figure at showing the standing figure of Budh. Shahabad.272 carvers of the district . which is situated to the. Is another view of the YishnuPud. at Gya. from its very confined situation. but was subsequently The shrine has now nearly fallen. No.—The principal building is the tomb of the Emperor Sher Shah. and there are very although from inferior work- manship many of them are in a very dilapidated condition. their being photographed. along- No. 130. numerous statues and figures generally found in this manner in which the hair is arranged in the figures It is difi'ers also from the usual Buddhist and Hindi figures. it is the larger of the two temples. Nos. giving a better view of the south side of the temple. most of them in very good preservation but the want of light in the interior prevents there are a great . the mother of Budh. which. Sasseram. 127. and as hall. stands at present consists of which was originally open. 1 32. —Is a view of the southern temple it at Dapthoo it . and in the enclosed porch number of figures collected. — No. with the Brahmajoni tfimple and hill in the distance. cannot be photographed as a whole. —Is another view of the fine old temple. 129. still interesting buildings in existence. Ibelieved that similar emhlems are found on some Canarese inscripthe tions. one hand holdJ — ing a water vessel. 131. [Dec. and in a few more seasons some of them will have fallen.

of his father Husain Khan Si'ir. the son Harishchandra. that it some time subject to his descendants. Above this is a wall raised by steps from the level of the water.1871. — Sher Shah also erected a large monument to the memory town . was worshipped the time it is at this place. A. 30 feet high. but like consists of a large hall surrounded by an arcade and covered with a handsome dome. and that on its capture he immediately set to work on strengthening its defences. it is enclosed in a large area by a high wall of cut stone it the tomb is not so large as that of his son. island. in the most remote period of Hindu His image. but at this time belonged to Pratapa it Devala. on which the race is placed obliquely on the cult to say. D. 12th he further Aurungzeb. forming inside airy apartments. not known it in whose possession continued for the fortress remained. a king of the family of the sun. 135. In the centre of the great hall : is the grave of the king op- posite the nithe for prayer the other graves are said to be those of favourite officers. surmounted by battlements six feet high. either side supported There are by stone brackets two balconies projecting on supported by four stone pillars.]| Troceeilhga of the Aaiatic Society. The came under the Mussulman rule in the time of Sher Shah. No. and is. 273 tho middlo of a largo tank. in Martin's India^ states that this important fortress derives its name from legend. Rohtasgarh. until the time of From of Harishchandra until the century of the Christian era. The terleads to the island. The tomb itcovered by cupolas self consists of a great hall surrounded by an arcade forming a gallery. but that the works projected were never completed owing to his having discovered a more favourable situation at tradition . —This fortress is situated on the banks of the river spur Sone. of the tank a bridge tomb stands it has partially falThe island is len down. father of the last Hindu emperor. and is replaced by a mud embankment. 1539. at a distance of some thirty miles south of the grand trunk road. and occupies the whole of the crest of a nearly isolated of the great table-land. Buchanan Hamilton. says. From tlic north side . for what reason it is diffiThe four corners of the battlements are formed into octagonal buildings. in the middle of the . the young prince llohitasiva.

through this gateway the passage leads into a sort of courtyard. Shergarh near Sasseram. and also on the gateway of the fortress leading to the main table-land or A. It . one behind the other. and was called the Barahdoware or twelve and it divided into two principal halls. and also giving a light. which is wanting in the principal front. [DeO. No. The fortress occupies the whole of the plateau. and are the only respectably sized rooms in the whole palace. No. as the principal state rooms have balconies projecting from the walls overlooking this enclosure. D. and confirmed by the inscriptions on the principal entrance to almost the whole of the present buildings were erected by him. 136. — The palace called the Mahal Sarai extends its greatest length north and south and the principal front faces the west. with lofty arched roofs. 137. —The —The eastern face of Barahdoware is ornamented with a double row of arched doors giving light to the spacious halls behind. arched gateway with two elephants cut in the stone on either and consequently and the o£S. measuring about four miles from east to west. of the finest buildings in the whole place. where it overlooks a large enclosure. Within this gate there are several vaults and recesses for the accommodation of the guard on duty. and this is the palace. No.cers called the Hathiya Pul. probably intended as a parade ground. 138.274 "Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. selected When Man Singh was selected as viceroy of Behar. tion room. is — Passing It was the public recepgates. called the Ketantya gate. 139. northern part of the palace seems to have been the quarter set aside for the ladies' apartments. —At the southern end of the principal front is a large side. he Rohtas as a place of safety for his treasure and family. and the chief building was surrounded on three sides by a flower garden. but from the deep windings of the precipitous ference is the whole circum- said to be twenty-eight miles round. and immediately opposite the entrance is one No. From these it would appear that the works were finished in the year 1654 Sambat. north to south . and five miles crest. graceful appearance to this side. 140. No. where he erected a fortress named after himself. 1597.

HI. is From the opposite bank of this ravine. No. and No. 146. there is is now picturesquely overgrown with jungle. The inscription given both in Hindi and Persian on the same tablet. temple ascribed No. is a small. to —The Lal-darwaza or Ped Gate seems scale. who is said to have been an AbysIt is in the same style as the tomb at Sasseram. looking south-east. inner side — The is is inscription over tho principal entrance on tho a line specimen of the florid style of Persian writing. Photograph No.1871. to but handsome. there contemplated the erection of a several very large buildings. 144. 147. 142. to the steps. 140 the view looking west with the open verandah of tho Takht Padishahi No. — To the north-west of the palace. — Between to the a small ravine by which the water from the tanks above finds its way rill. which pretty and park-like. a good view of the palace obtained. 147 the view looking south over the ridge of . Photograph No. — Is a view of the Takht Padishahi with the cupolas on is the summit. 143. is have been the cliffs principal entrance from the places below. except from the roof of the Talcht Padishalii or principal state room. 145. Tho principal one is the tomb of the works. are the remains of superintendent of the sinian slave (Ha/juhi). 275 called the A'iuah was tho rosidoncc of Maliall. and part of the country beyond the walls. very No. and evidently intended as the chief's audience room. No. is and was to the left. from some — At still the south-east corner of the table-land there are -some curious old buildings constructed evidently with the stones earlier buildings. The cliffs ai'e very grand and impressive. No. where Sher Shah had citadel. and although the are nearly inaccessible themselves. they have been strengthened with works on a large the cHff. chief's wife. Man 8ingh. leading up At the foot of a long flight of Hindu temple and the mosque. the palace and the edge of the precipice. edge of the precipice over which is lost it throws itself in a tiny which in spray before reaching the bottom. —Is a view of the same building from tho opposite This building is side not overlooked by any part of the palace.] Proceedings of the Asiatic tlio Soclelij.

Dr. Esq. age Shakarpari. hurling the reverse. Esq. The site of their discovery a ravine five miles due north of Ea- walpindi on the Saidpur road. Sibsagor. with bare head. G. with bare head a javelin. and of the common elephant and bull type. was I beg to inform you of the discovery of a hoard of seventy-four Indo-Bactrian hemidrachms in this District. 1. which were in perfect when he . E. came upon the coins They might have been in a pot. of the village of is Mochi. Owl on Six were of Antimachus Nike- phoros. less 15. dicular. and the whole of the coins. than fifty-eight were of Menander.276 No. Esq. which he thinks may have been broken by the spade with which he was digging. The finder was rewarded fi'om our local funds. [Dec. Wood-Mason. Peal. M. Eawalpindi. Chord S. Asam. but he saw no pot. and Shakarpari is an insignificant village with no pucca buildings or ruins. : — 20. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. L. with helmeted head 22. desire to withdraw Warth . * These coins were recently found by Sharaf. J. ' Of these no . D. Tah^il of Eawalpindi.. No buildings or ancient remains are anywhere near the spot. and ten of Apollodotus. seconded by Mr. Assistant Commissioner. Butcher. M. Cockburn. J. . C. The following gentlemen have intimated their from the Society Dr. The following letter from read ' Delmerick. proposed by Mr. Nevill.. J. square. Esq. is — The precipice all round the plateau quite perpen- dipping down for a distance of 500 feet in some places. is The following gentleman meeting a candidate for ballot at the next W. J. others. F. at the last and nearly double that distance in The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded meeting were balloted for and elected Ordinary Members Capt.. G. W. S. 148.. out the root of a shrub Sharaf was employed in digging accidentally in a hole. H. Fleming. SamueUs. line. . Pachumba. caste 16. viz. E. son of Naju.

They convened a meetto assist us ing of the influential people of their neighbourhood at their house. howand subse- ever. or of treatises importance. never acquired any reputation for learning. that are found in private libraries in Bengal. the aid of the Rev. 4. 1000. and other old towns and villages in Eastern Bengal. Vikrampur. No one evinced any disposition to withhold information or aid. during the past year was confided to the travelling Pandit solely. quently consulted me regularly about his work. The task of searching for MSS. that were examined turned out little to be such as common fifty everywhere. They also testified their sense of the importance of the undertaking by subits scribing Es. and has since been received by the Dacca. Be- tween forty and to the Society. and does not contain . The amount was sent Government of Bengal. and ing in detail those only which I thought to be new or rare. furnishing me every week nominal lists of whatever MSS. towards to the furtherance.] presei'vation Proceedings of the Asiatic Societ)/.any Sanskrit work of great value. and the metropolis of Bengal for a time during the supremacy of the Muhammadans. "I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- tions carried on during the last official year (1870-71) for collecting information regarding Sanskrit manuscripts in native Libraries. circumstances not having permitted me to proceed to the mofussil. at Lihor. which were new and detailed notices of these have been secured. 277 and as fresh looking as if just issued from a mint.1871. Long for a time at Dacca. ai-e All the MSS. and urged them with the loan of MSS. 2. notic- 3. J. which was at one time noted as a seat . On the return of the Pandit from Dacca he was sent to Bansberiya in Zilla Hugli. though celebrated as a seat of commerce Society.' were forwarded for deposit in the Central Museum Babu Eajendralila Mitra read the following report. Nearly four months were spent by the Pandit at Dacca. The Pandit had. little were found. interest in The Kundu family of Bhagyakula took great the operations of the Pandit. for 1870-71. and most of the leading pandits and zemindars of those places were considted. however. he met with. on the progress he had made in cataloguing Sanskrit MSS. for over two thousand years.

has an excellent library. but there were not quite a hundred MSS. The Maha- at my request. like Dacca. was amply com- pensated at Mankar. in the Library of the Maharaja and the pandits of But I was equally disappointed there. the place was celebrated for its Nyaya school. in Sanskrit. a small town situated opj)osite Hugli. The disappointment Burdwan. to bo very poor in Sanskrit works. and the travelling Pandit had to be removed to Halisahar. proved the most bigotted of their and offered so many obstacles. stay. 7. of the and they comprised the Mahabharata and other well known works which have been already printed. Dusserah vacation intervened. These I had hoped. is a place of some antiquity. very obligingly allowed the Pandit access to his Library. and was of consider- able importance during the Muhammadan rule.278 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. forty or fifty works. after a fortnight's stay at that on to Burdwan where I had hoped to find large collecof MSS. two months of the year. raja. Babu's pandit subsequently falling there was nobody to keep the library open. showed some works on the Vedanta Mahanew se- to the Society's Library. a zemindar and Honorary Magis- trate of the sub-division. work of any importance. and some But the of the best pandits of Calcutta came from that place. about one hundred and years ago. Babu Hitalala Mis'ra. [Dec. who now own the toles. that after two months' my travelling Pandit had to retui'n without getting a single 8. and there pandit of any note 6. but it is seems. pandits kind. but nothing of any interest was met with place. In the time of fifty Baja KrisLnaehandra Eaya of Nadia. and several are extant. raja's palace. Burdwan. sent tions The Pandit was therefore. . The head pandit however. near the Boodbood station of the East Indian Pailway. of Sanskrit learning there. Halisahar had at one time a large number of still toles or colleges of Sanskrit learning. would have occupied his time for at but before he had time to take notes of about the least four months. not a single who has a at decent collection of MSS. the travelling Pan- During the last . and the ill. and notices of these have been duly cured. 5. however. and raised so many difficulties. the district. in which the travelling Pandit found between five and six hundred works on the Vedanta.

They are wanting too in the halo of antiquity. but they all have indulged in. A few display a curious phase of thought. the same characteristics. the Greek and other ancient creeds. the most sovereign influence oa all their the religious life of the Hindus. S'iva made at the request of his consort Parvati. composed as far as I can guess. not excepting the collections of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. or the mysterious adoration of the phallic emblems as the means of salvation. S. and a great many are acknowledged to be compilations. and contains a larger number of Tantras than what I else have any where met with. It is perhaps the richest private collection ia Calcutta. medicine. or carried to so extravagant a length as in the Tantras. Baja Eadluilcanta Bahadur. My assistant was.1871. and of. the Hebrew. and in that respect they are of interest to the antiquarian and the student of ancient religious history. 9. . Their subjects are various. topography. for a time during the period emploj'ed in examining the library of Hajii Yatlndramohana Tha- kura of Calcutta. however. grammar are frequently treated but those subjects are all intended to lead to the establishment of the preeminence of the female energy in the creation of the world. and owing to the circumstance of some of them being of an offensive cliaracter. probably between the 5th and the They exercise. the Chaldee. thsy are generally looked upon with disfavour. 279 late Sir employed ia examining the library of the I. where he will have ample work under report. and the bulk of them 12th cen- were turies. C. The oldest among them. and very similar professions of faith. who has very kindly placed his at collection of MSS. the same style of composition. does not date before the 3rd century of Christ. my disposal. Traces of this dogma may be it noticed in the Egyptian. in which a hyper- trophy of the sentiment of veneration for the creative energy has lead to the most mystic and obscene rites that mankind has ever Some of the works of this class profess to be revelations by. Ancient legends. and of the Sanskrit colleges of Calcutta and Benares. but nowhere has been developed to so inordinate or revolting an extent. K. for at least four months. and control actions. the Gnostic.] dit -was Proceedings of Ihe Asiatic Society. Very few works of this class have yet been examined by European orientalists.

and others are avowed compilations. dreamy monastic followers of the centuries. did not meet with the approbation of the Government of India. Altogether notices of about six hundred manuscripts have for the press. examined. I have. and other collections. but their number has of late multiplied manyfold. been compiled. and in the present day scarcely a ceremonial is performed. and I hope ere long to add considerably to that number. the Berlin. they were held in peculiar esteem by the 7th. there are upwards of three hundred different works. and we find in Csoma de Korosi'a essay on the Buddhist literature of Nipal and Tibet hundreds of Tantras noticed as forming parts of the sacred scriptures of those places. The mystic charms and mantras and ter class of these gesticulations which the bet- works inculcate have. 11. and are now ready 12. further. and compiled others. or a prayer repeated by a Hindu. the original Tantric revela- tions of S'iva are reckoned at 64. that these works should be carefully light. and the correspondence which thereupon ensued. and their true character thoroughly brought to It may be added also that. and in the collection of Eaja Yatindramohana Thakura. are also of importance. 10. to report the publication of only two numbers of . fragmentary. by me and approved by the Society. [Dec. According to the Nila Tantra. therefore. For a it correct understanding of the modern Indian forms of religion is necessary. In the notices already published I have given brief acIn Europe there are not counts of upwards of a hundred of these works. prevented me from pushing on the work. Mr. a score of these works to be met with in the India House. therefore. Hodgson describes them as containing the esoterics of the Buddhist religion of Nipal. however oflFensive some of these works may appear in the light of modern European civilization. with a view Buddhism. and in connexion with the Bud- dhism of the north. almost entirely superseded the rituals of the Vedas. Most of them are.280 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Buddhist creed in the their doctrines on 8th and 9th who translated a to engraft great number of them. therefore. The publication of the notices has not been carried on so The form originally suggested expeditiously as could be wished. these works. however. which does not borrow its primary elements from the Tantras. the Bodleian.

. 14 grammars. 20 on astronomy and astrology.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. considering that the study of the Vedas had fallen into disuse in Bengal long before the reign of the Sena their dynasty. Owing to the owner not having for. containing notices of 519 works. of which 40 are on rituals. and the founder of hundred years ago of had to obtain five Brahmans versed in Vedic rites from the King Kanauj to ofiiciate at a sacrifice. and the few that have been noticed were obtained from Benares. 14 Natakas and 38 Smriti treatises. constitute a volume of 360 pages. Most of them. is On the completion of the Society's catalogue. been represented by no less than 75 treatises. The philosophical and most of which will theological portions of the Vedas. 13. dogya Brdhmana of the S^ma Veda. which state. The Pur^nas are met with in considerable numbers in Bengal. though some of them are of to interest. the 2nd part of the Sankhayana Sutra. The descendants of those priests. not a subject of wonder. with the first number which has been reprinted (the first edition having been exhausted). who now constitute the bulk of the Brahmans of this pro- vince. about 250 pages. phonetics and other Vedic subjects. 17 on the Vedanta. full now in a forward information regarding them will be rendered accessible to scholars. deemed it expedient to notice them at length. were copied from codices in the possession of pandits at Benares. Annexed is a list of the for Government. it is MSS. which have been purchased believed. They had their price. the Upanishads. and is to not a single native of Bengal tematically studied tlie Vedas. nine rajas. be bought as they formed parts of a collection which could not be broken up. have nowhere kept up the learning of their ancestors. however. have. 281 These. Three of the works in the viz. the Vivarana Bhashya and the Chhandogaparis'ishta. will be new to the Inlittle dia House Library. the Eudrakanda of the Yajur The body of the Vedas are represented by Yeda and the ChhanThis paucity is. only two works. but as most of them are contained in the Library of the Asiatic I have not Society. be new to European scholars. called for most of them have not yet been paid list.1871. containing notices of 317 manuscripts. be now met with who has sysThe Vedic Sutras are also ill-re- presented. 32 on the Nyaj'a. however. 23 Kavyas.

I's'vara-gita. Mugdhabodha-tika. S'anti-s'ataka. Durgadadindma Nlla Tantra. Mundamala Tantra. S'ribhaktiratnavali. Annadakalpa. Tripura-samucbcbaya Tika. Takaradi-svariipa. — Stotra. Nigama-tattva-sara. Svatantra Tantra. Adbbuta-sara sangraba. GayatribralimanoUasa Tantra. Chaurakavya satika. Devikavacba. Sabasranama-stuti. S'iva-sanbita. Puras'cbarana-rasollasa. Gayatri-kalpa. Jnana Tantra. Vijakosba. G^yatri-bridaya. Dolarolian a-paddhati. Grantlia-sangralia. Sundari-s'aktidana. Bogaviniscbaya. S'aktisangama Tantra. S'rigurusabasranama stotra. Sankbya Kaumudi. Tika. Guriigita. Svarodaya. Shat-cliakra Tippani. Guhyatiguhya Tantra. Brahmajnana-maha-tantra-sara. Gangasbtaka. Brahmajnana Tantra. Puras'cbarana-viveka. Dattatreya Sanbita. GangSstava. Eali-sahasranama stotra. Syama-stotra. Yastuhoma. Karpurastava Tika.282 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. stotra. Do. Goraksha-s'ataka. Kamarupa-yatra paddliati. Harinamamrita. Tagala Patala. Guru Tantra. I'sana Sanliita. Vas'ishtlia-yogakanda. Gaurikancbulika. Gayatri-liridaya. Pitha-nfrnaya. Matrika-kosha. Pavanavijaya. Madana-parijata. Kajavallabba. Nadijnana-dipika. Aparoksbanubbuti. Sarasvati Tantra. Yati-bliusliani. Vagalamukki-kavaclia. Skanda Puraniya Kshetramaliatmya. . Gangasbtaka. Sandbya paddbati. Kalistavaraja. Darsana-kalika. [Dkc. Purnananda-cliakra.

Siuha-vyaghra Ealiasya. Vyaptigrahopaya Eahasya. Chauclronmilana. Vyapti-pancliaka Ealiasya. Sainanyakxkshana Rahasya. Katantra-vritti-durga-tika. Pachimha. Gotnmissioner on the Reioah and Chutiit Nagpur Frontier. Vy a vastharn ava Dvitiyadivyutpattivida. Kcitantra-vrittika. Padartha-sangraha. Season 1870-71. Colonel Thuillier moved that the thanks of the members are due to Capt. The following paper was read The Roch-ciit Excavations at Harchoha^ discovered hy Gaftain Samuells ivhen enqdoyed as Boundary W. Siddhanta-dipa. line. HI A tracing of the excavations and a plan of the temples by Capt. will be printed in No. Divya-cliiidamani. L. Yyaptyanugama Tippani. L. Tararahasya-vrittika. Annapurna Upauisliad. Vrihannaradiya Purdna. Assistant Commissioner. W. Pakshata Eahasya. Nirvana Upanishad. Yalakrishnashtaka. Vivarapa Bhashya. 283 Matrikajaganmanclala-kavacha. Chhandoga Paris'ishta. Siiiha-vyaghara Tippani. Suddhi-dipika. Anumiti Eahasya. .1871. Shatchakravivriti Tika. Katantra paris'ishta. Samuells for his valuable and interesting contributions and donations to the Society. Chord The Secretary read the paper. Akshamalika U]3anishad. By C aft. Vyadhikarana-dharmlvaehchtina-bhavao Acharasara Tantra. Grantlia-saugraha. which of Part I of the Joiu'nal. part II. Tarka Tippani. Sraddhavidhi. Vis'eshavyapti Eahasya. Samanyabhava Eahasya. Vydptyanugama Eahasya. Sabda-chintamanyaloka. Prasna-kaumadi. Yajnyavalkya Upanishad. Samuells will accompany the paper. Durgavakya-prabodha. Smriti-chandriya sraddhakala. Samuells. Ekaksliara Upanishad. Tarka Eahasya. Saiikhayana Sutra. Jyotilisagara-sai*a. Sanianya bhava Tippani.] Proceedings oj the Asiatic Society.


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.
to the vote. Carried


The Chairman put the motion



conversation ensued in which several members joined.
receipt of the following papers


was announced

List of Shells collected on the


— By W. Theobald
E. Brooks,


On a New


of Flamingo.

—By W.

C. E.,

The meeting then broke up.


The following

additions have been


to the library since the

meeting held in November


^*^ Names of Donors in Capitals.

Journal Asiatique, No. 63.

Socie'te' Asiatiqite, Paris.

Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology, Vol. XI, Nos. 49 to 52.


Linnean Society.
XI, Nos. 54
to 56, Vol.

Ditto, Botany, Vol.

XIII, No. 65.— The

Linnean Society.
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol.
Pt. III.



Statistical Society oe London.

Proceedings of the Eoyal Geographical Society, Vol.




The Eoyal Geographical


Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and
Ireland, Vol.



The Anthropological


Annual Eeport of the Settlement of Port Blair for the year 1870The Government op India, Home Department. 71.
Eeeords of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. IV, Pt. IV.


Geological Survey op India.
Catalogue of the Syriac MSS. in the British Museum, Pt.

The Trustees of the British Museum. Memoirs of the Aksakof family, a sketch of Eussian Eural Life Eevd. J. Long. seventy years ago.


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.


Catalogue, Punjab and Sindk Plants.


E. T. Aitciiison, Esq.,

M. D.
Seventh Annual Eeport of the Sanitary Commissioner


Government of



M. Cunningham,


M, D.

The Calcutta Journal of Medicine,

1871, No.



The Christian

Spectator, 1871, Nov.

and Dec.

The Editob.

Tarikh-i-Jahangir (Mirza Jahangir),



September, 1871:

— Comptes

— Journal des Savants,

Eendus, Nos. 11


Deux Mondes,

1st October,

Natural History,

Annals and Magazine of 1871, September and October: Westminster




Eeview October, 1871 L. E.and D. Philosophical Magazine, 1871, September and October Hewitson Exotic Butterflies, Part 80

— —


Eeeve's Conchologia Iconica, Parts 288, 289

Band, Text



Hariri's Durrat al

Prairies d'Or, texte et traduction,

Les par C. Barbier de Meynard

—Kitab Ghawwa9 — Ma'sudi,

al Fihi-ist





Froceedings of the Asiatic Society.


Calcutta, \ June, 1871.

From F. Stoliczka, Ph.
To E. 0. Bayley, Esq., C.

D., Sony. Secretary, As. Soc. of Bengal,
S. I., Secretary to the

Government of In-




—I am instructed by the President and Council of
to the Council of the Society


Society of Bengal, to solicit the favorable consideration of His

Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General in Council to a subject

which appears

one of the veiy

highest importance, namely, the desirability of undertaking deep
sea dredgings in Indian waters.

The Council
drawn up

believe they can best bring the matter before


Excellency in Council by submitting a copy of a
at the suggestion of the Natural History


Committee and,

after full discussion

by the Committee, accepted by the Council of
be questioned that results are to

the Society.
It cannot, the Council believe,

be expected from deep sea dredgings of the highest importance for the progress of both biological and physical science. It is a well

known fact, that in former periods of our planet there prevailed a much more uniform distribution of temperature, and of animal and

In the kainozoic epoch the climate in Europe was life. somewhat similar to that of our present Indian and Australian waters, and many of the then inhabitants of the seas shew great
affinities to


now found

living in Indian seas.

In order


trace the connection of these faunas, dredging in Indian waters

would undoubtedly supply most valuable materials. Again, as yet there have been no systematic observations made
regarding the laws regulating the temperature of water in Indian
seas, the various currents, the physical character of sea bottom,

Valuable results may, therefore, be justly expected for the progress
of hydrography, and collaterally for the benefit of navigation


1871. J

Proceediyigs of the Asiatic Society.


equally important will be

examination of the sea bottom for

the study of geology and physical geogra[)hy.


undertaking of this range


beyond the means of any private

individual, but its importance is so great that the Council believe

bo well worth the consideration of His Excellency the Viceroy

and Governor-General in Council, and the enlightened Government
of a powerful State like the Indian empire.

The Council
in the

of the Society are, therefore, confident that His


cellency in Council will approve generally of the proposal, put for-

accompanjdng Memorandum, and

trust that

ho wiU

give the undertaking the same

generous support which has been

afforded to similar expeditions in

England and other


They would hope that
nication with the


might at once be taken in commustations,

Admiral commanding the Indian


that this project


be brought under the consideration of the

Lord Commissioners of her Majesty's Admiralty
certain special preparations

home, so that



be required

may be made

without delay.


to the peculiar

nature of the climate in

these latitudes such researches can bo favourably carried on only

during one-half of the year, and the importance of completing
preliminary arrangements at an early period becomes, therefore,

more obvious.


on Deep Sea Dredgim/ Operations proposed to he undertaken in Indian Waters.

The Sub-Committee appointed

to consider the desirability of


dertaking Deep Sea Dredging in Indian waters, beg to submit the

Memorandum on this




Deep Sea Dredging for the study of Zoology, Geology, Physics and Hydrography has been placed bevast importance of




lately carried on,

doubt by the results of the explorations which have been and are still being prosecuted, under the auspices

of the Governments of England,


Sweden and Norway, and in In England, the importance of such researches was reto the consideration of the


chieily for the following reasons

Royal Society of London


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.




a ratlxer generally accepted opinion that no animal


existed below the depth of a few

hundred fathoms



To determine the
life at

influence of light

and of pressure upon


great depths

To further the study of the geographical distribution of animal and vegetable life. To determine the temperature, the strength and direction of 4. the currents, the relative Chemical composition and the amount of dissolved gases in Sea Water at various depths, &e. To determine the nature of the Deep Sea bottom, the mode 5. of its deposition, and the sources whence the materials composing

were derived.


interest attaching to the study of these questions,



important bearing upon the progress of Biological and Physical
Science, having been duly considered

by the Eoyal




resolved that application should be



for assis-

The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty in the most manner acceded to the recommendation of the Royal Society by placing a suitable vessel at the disposal of the Dredging Committee by whom the Scientific exploration of the Deep Sea has The results of been, and is being, most successfully prosecuted.

their explorations

have been given from time


time in the reports

printed in the Proceedings of the Eoyal Society (Vol.


107, Vol. XVIII, No. 121, &c.), and they fully justify the high expectation of success from the expedition which had been formed.

The Sub-Committee would only draw
most important acquisitions

attention to one or two of the

to science.

Dredging operations conducted down to the enormous depth of upwards of two thousand fathoms have proved the existence of animal and vegetable life in abundance, even at that vast depth. Most valuable observations have been made on the rate of diminution of temperature with increase of depth.


existence of



submarine climates in close proximity and on the same


called respectively the


and the Cold areas, has been
this in the

most conclusively proved, and each area has been shewn to possess


peculiar fauna and sea-bed


area being

almost entirely composed of GloUt/erim-mud and in the cold area


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.
It soeras impossible to ovei*rate the


of fragments of rocks.


tant bearing of tliese observations on the study of Geology.


Atlantic sea-bed was in places found to be covered with a jelly-like

net work of protoplasm (Bathyhius of Huxley), which offers a
curious parallel to the Laurcntian Eozoon,

the oldest trace of



yet discovered.


to the present time naturalists in India never

have had a

possibility of carrying out such researches.
fitted for

There has been no form the In-

such duties available, and no means of carrying



Since, however,

has been determined


dian waters into a special naval station, and several steamers have

been placed on the




hoped that the



success have been entirely changed.

The experienced


commands the

station is fully alive to the great importance

enquiries such as

we have



and has expressed his anxious

willingness to aid them, in so far as his duty will permit.


readiness and friendly support which the Lords Commissioners of

the British Admiralty have shewn in the promotion of any line of
research calculated to advance knowledge, lead us also to hope
that the same friendly aid will be extended to Indian naturalists,

and we would,


ux'ge that

an application be made

to the

quest that

of India for its support in these enquiries, with a rewill also

urge the question on the favourable consider-

ation of the Lords Commissioners of


Majesty's Admiralty, so



consistent with naval duties,

some one of the steamers, now

in these waters,


for a time

be placed at the service of the
of equal value and importance to

It is

beyond doubt that


those obtained by the Dredging Expeditions at

home can, and will, be obtained by explorations of a similar kind undertaken in Indian
waters, and, no regular dredging operations having ever been con-

ducted in the seas of a tropical country, the Sub-Committee ventiu'e to

think that the more favourable climate and the far richer

fauna and

of tropical

pectation of even

and subtropical regions justify the exmore numerous and more varied results, than

those which have been obtained in colder regions.



and abundance of animal


must be enormous, because we have


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.


to deal in the Indian seas •with,

such vast differences of depth and,

by a consequence, of temperature. It is known that these seas are the home of several species of MoUusca and other invertebrate
animals only


to occur besides in the

Tertiaries of Europe.

Middle and Upper Of others occurring in the same, and even





that the nearest living repreit

sentatives are only to be found in Australian waters, and


be a most valuable acquisition both for Geological and Zoological
science, if


could in any wa,y establish a connexion between these

"widely separated faunas.



an acknowledged

fact that complete

and rapid de-

struction of organic

hardly ever extends over very large areas.



the enormous richness of the Cephalopodous fauna that

existed during the latter part of the Cretaceous





of Southern India,



seems to us almost incredible that

such a vast variety of forms of animal

should have in one


so to speak,




Moreover, the

fact that species of Nautilus,

very similar to those found


the deposits just mentioned, continue to live in the waters of the


of Bengal, almost justifies the expectation that some recent

descendants of the AmmonitidcB, believed to be entirely extinct, also

may have



The Su.b-Committee are

confident that explorations of the deep

sea in Indian waters will not only furnish data which will illustrate

the modification of certain supposed laws regulating animal and

in countries

Geographically and


but that they will undoubtedly supply much and most

important material for the study and explanation of
obscure facts in Zoology,



Geology, Physics, and the collateral

branches of science.

The Sub-Committee,

therefore, earnestly

hope that Govei-nment


be led to regard the undertaking of Deep Sea Dredging in

Indian waters as the most important source whence great progress
to Natural History

and Physical Science
of Bengal

will result.

In the


instance your Committee would suggest the exami-

nation of the


by a

line of

Dredging right across

from new Juggurnath Black Temple

Cape Nigrais,




Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.


lowed by another traverse from near Madras to the Andamans or tho
Nicobars, and again by a line from Ceylon to tho coast of Sumatra.

woidd be necessary

that, say three persons acquainted

with the


of enquiry shoidd accompany each expedition, and

it is

that sufficient accommodation could readily bo found for

hoped them on

It is

unnecessary to point out, that very vast acquisitions to

our knowledge of the depths, currents, character of bottom,
of that part of the Indian Ocean and of the


of Bengal would

from these traverses, quite independently of the additions

om' knowledge of the
searchcd seas.

inhabiting these as yet entirely uu-

Your Sub- Committee, however, do not wish
adoption of this ground in the



on the



course can be

taken which will not jdeld a rich harvest of novelties and additions,

and they would suggest that the convenience of the vessels on tho

should be one of the



as well as tho

climatal periods of Monsoori, &c., &c.

With regard

to the appliances necessary for

Deep Sea Dredging,

the Sub-Committee beg to enumerate the following

Three dredges of various


and an adequate supply of

strong Manilla rope, which will probably be best obtained through
the Admiralty.

For heaving up the dredge, the vessel charged with
so fitted as to render

the conduct of the expedition, should be provided with a donkey-engine,

and might be otherwise

adapted for the


the latest experiences in

Deep Sea Dredging

shewn that a donble -cylinder donkey-engine proved

home, have be the most

contrivance for haiding-in.



least a

dozen of Siemann's differential thermometers


Deep Sea Dredgings these may be obtained from the Meteorological Department at home. 4. Water bottles. 5. In order to determine the natxire and proportion of the disDrof. Miller's

new Thermometer

solved gases, contained in sea water from various depths, an operation

which must be performed


once on ship-board



hydrometers and 2 of Prof. Miller's apparatus for the Analysis of gases will be necessary.


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.


The Sub-Committee

believe that an

annual grant of Es.

2000, placed at the disposal of the Dredging Committee for the

purchase of glass bottles,

spirits of wine, scientific apparatus, &c.,

&c., necessary for the preservation

and examination of the material

obtained, would be sufficient.

They recommend

that a Dredging Committee be appointed

by the Government, including The President of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,

for the time

Natural History Committee,
Physical Science, ditto



Thos. Oldham, Esq., LL. D., F. E.
Col. J. F. Tennant, E. E., F. E. S.


F. G. S,

F. Stoliczka, Ph. D., F. G. S.

J. J.

T. Blanford, Esq., F. G. S., C.
Esq., F. G. S.


Z. S.,

H. F. Blanford,

Anderson, Esq., M. D., F. L.
Esq., F. G. S.

F. Z. S.


Committee be entrusted with the management of

the explorations and with

making suggestions

as to the


which these can be best carried



specimens collected be in the hands of the Com;

mittee until they shall have been worked out

that the choicest

specimens be eventually transferred to the Trustees of the Indian

Museum where they should be preserved and that the Committee have direction of the distribution of the duplicates to the Museums

and men of

science in

Europe and America, who


engaged in

similar researches.


That the report on each Dredging expedition be submitted Government through the Committee by the officers who shall

have had charge of the expedition.

Thomas Oldham,
Feed. Stoliczka,

James Wood-Mason.


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.




Esq., Under-Secretary to the Government of

India, Dej)artment of Agriculture, Revenue

and Commerce^
of Bengal.


the ILony. Secretary to the Asiatic Society

Simla, the 28th August, 1871.

—I am directed to acknowledge



of your letter
a proposed

No. 280, dated 14th Jimo

forwarding a

Memo, on

of deep sea dredging operations in Indian waters, and

requesting the Government of India to extend

support to the

undertaking and to place a steamer at the disposal of the Committee appointed for the purpose.

In reply I


directed to state that

the Governor-General in

Council cordially aj)proves of the proposal of the Society, and would

be glad


make a steamer


for the undertaking.


present, however, no

can be spared either from the Eoyal


or the Indian Marine.


Nautical Survey of the Indian seas
result of inquiries that

however, contemplated,

and when the

have been instituted in con-

nection with that subject

is ai-i'ived at, it will be considered whether a vessel can be made available for the joint purpose of carrying

Out the deep sea dredgings as well as the Marine Survey.

£r. 31. S. Forte, Seyshelles, Atcgust 26th.

Prom His



Commander-in-Chief ILer

Majesty'' s


Forces, East Indies.

To Feed. Stoliozka, Hony. Secretary, Asiatic Society, Bengal.

— I have the pleasure to

acknowledge the receipt of your

23rd June, enclosing papers from the Asiatic Society regard-

ing " Deep Sea Dredging."
I beg to assure your Society that I will assist in every





so desirable an object.

I woidd take the liberty to sug»

gest to you to obtain as soon as possible all the apparatus necessary,

—ready to embark in any vessel

which may be made



I will represent to His Excellency the Yiceroy that one of the

two vessels of war stationed in the sea of Bengal might with ad-

Secret.. 280. The small (or donkey) engine on board could be made to serve the purposes desired in the circular you have sent to me. 280. and enclosure. D. Asiatic Society's Mooms. Ph. that the necessary apparatus should be obtained as early as prac- The Society has also received most encouraging letters from the Secretary of the Eoyal Society of London. leading men Considering the great importance of the subject I have the honor." and His Excellency suggests. ticable. As. also to apply through the Eight Hon'ble the Secretary of State Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty for the early supply of the necessary apparatus which I had the honor to specify in letter. 1871 and to express the thanks of the Council of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for the great interest with which His Excellency the Grovernor-General in Council is prepared to meet the recommendation of the Society conveyed in my letter No.. to suggest that His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor. Under-Secretary Government of India. 181.General of India may be and to the pleased to appoint a Committee for Deej) Sea Dredgings. Sir. Department of Agriculture. 9tJt October. To J. 1871.. From F. Esq. by direction of the Council of the Asiatic Society. to the Geoghegan. 1871. [Dec. dated 14th June. vantage be employed on this service during N. Honi/. The Council has been informed by His Excellency the Admiral of the India Naval station that there is a likelihood of a Steamer being available for the proposed Deep Sea Dredgings during the approaching North East Monsoons provided that " her services are not otherwise urgently required. 28th August. dated Simla. Calcutta. . Esq. Stoliczka. and other of science at home. Revenue and Commerce. E. my No. dated 14th June. Bengal.294 Proceedings of the Asiatic Hociettj. —I have -the honor to acknowledge your letter No. Soc. Monsoon (supposing her services not otherwise urgently required) a temporary cabin being erected for the accommodation of the gentlemen who would conduct the scientific operations.

by the German Empire and by the United States. Your ExcellenDryad" approved. BuRXE. dated 9th Ultimo. Your letter of 9th October. to the Govt. 18 of 18th October will have informed Your Excellency only to meet the that a man-of-war is now required at Sandheads King of Siam. and the allotment of the Steamer for the purpose. J. Sir. on the subject of a proposed series of Deep Sea Dredging operations ia Indian waters. Simla." and telegram of 23rd. K.) H. at present. 1871. Colonel. The request however. I am directed to inform you that His Excellency the Governor- General in Council much regrets that it is not. From GEOGnEGAN. To the Honarary Secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. is 296 The Council confident that the Eoyal Society would be glad and to afford their aid in selecting the necessary instruments. to the Government of India. 500. Majesty'' s Naval fol- Sir. as several expeditions in Deep Sea Dredging are being organized in England. Simla. the 21th October.. also in testing their value. this time The application for those instruments just at for would probably be opportune. possi- ble to promise the services of a vessel. —I am directed to acquaint you that a telegram effect to the lowing has this day been despatched to you : "Precedence. of Lidia. 1871. To Mis Excellency the Commander-in-Chief Her Forces. No. East Bulies. Copies of the OfEce Memo- randum and enclosures accompany. (Sd.] Proceedimjs of the Asiatic Society. . Be-partment of Agriculture Revenue and Commerce. She should go to Bombay for repair and fittings and be back at Sandheads by last week of December to take the King of Siam up to Calcutta. Secy. . will. cy's proposals regarding " — Enclosure of letter No. the 6th Novemher. I have &c. Esq.1871. —In reply to your letter. Under Secretary Norway. he borne in mind and due intimation given of any arrangements which may hereafter become feasible.

BuRNE. Stoliczka. reference to the communication from the Department of 28tli 423. dated 9th October. noted jj^ ^]^q margin.— (Marine Department No. 1871. Simla. the undersigned has the from His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief of Her Majesty's Naval Forces. dated 27th October. B. M. With No. K. dated October." " The Dryad" Bombay for repairs to and return to the Sandheads the of week the King Siam to Calcutta. S. W. \st Nbvemher. Eevenue and Commerce. %th October. Ofpice Memorandum. meet and convey She may perhaps afterwards be in it is December. regarding Her will proceed to last JSIajes- Ship '« Dryad. Norman. " "Wolverene" to be sent to the —I have the honor Isthmus of Kra in January next to embark the is about to visit British India. Secretary of India. but the request will be borne in mind. King of Siam who Some time since I received a letter from Mr. 34) conveying the request of His Excellency the Yiceroy for H. 1871. Government H. Secretary to the To the Department of Agriculture. reply. 36. . "Glasgow. Marine Department. From Ms Excellency the Commander-in-Chief of Her Majesty's Naval Forces^ East Indies.296 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Agriculture. (Sd. requesting my co-operation . No. to the To Major General H. I have to inform you that the " Wolverene" has sailed for the East Coast of Africa. [Deo. Sir. S. my Elag-ship (the " Glasgow") taking her place here. Revenue and Commerce. to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 21st ultimo.) H. Government of India Marine Department. 1871. 0." Trincomallie. the Secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. letter honor to transmit copy of a and of the ty's 2. Government of India. required to proceed to Burmah. M. so that it is much regretted that not at present possible to promise that her services shall be available for other duty.

additional this vessel to for the Marine explorations accommodation would render her a very suitable embark His Majesty of Siam.1871.) the Viceroy's opinion upon this proposition. who would embark I do not think the expense of this extra cabin-room would cost above £100. 297 in a scientific Gxploration of the sea of Bengal. . B. COCKBITRN. . J. be substituted for the "Wolverene.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. (for repairs) sufficient accommodation be temporarily added for the use of the scien- tific gentlemen. &:c." and that on her arrival at Bombay next month.. (Sd. I wish now to propose that the " Dryad" (the Second Vessel of War) a ship of 1000 tons. I answered that I would take an early opportunity to consult with the Viceroy and to suggest that " the Second Vessel of War" stationed in this sea be BO employed. I shall be glad to know His Excellency I have.



an H pl . Ph Ph H3 P^ o .o Ph Sfi M P^ a 5^ CQ ts pi <1 H .300 Appendix A.

Appendix A. 301 « PW P^ Ph -a Ph Pw .

M 1— 1 J^ -Pi K .302 t-l Apperidix A.

Appendix A. .:1h « ^ S t-5 rt CO P-l r-T rt. 803 R S c3 PL.o PL| .

K flH . PL. Ph 'c^ Ph !=! P4 O 1-5 C<l o.304 Appendix A. .

=i I I (D •^ ® QJ Pl-O --^ -^ ^ "ti f-l .. i— _. CO _.Appendix A. i^ I 1 (^ t-H ^^ 2 O 1-5 i-s 1-3 ? ' -^ 1^ •-* t_. 00 •^ I— "^ rt '^ T-l .. 305 Ph Ph P^ .

shot oil the Cape. Falle. rudely moulded representing social "Lushais" and their Hamilton. . of figures. MiUer. Esq. T. E. Capt. or other imllications and these hcing achioivledged in the monthly library listsj. Babu. Newman. Graham. Dr Prankissen Chatterji. C. List of Donations (not inchuUng Boohs. Major. "^A large thin. Donors. Rajendralala Mitra.306 Jp2)endix B. P. skin of the great Albatross. M. Babu. Col. found west of Bardwan. J. [Objects marked with an asterisk have been transferred to the Trnstees of the Indian Museum]. Donations. S 0. M.. M. Five silver coins. The Eev. Samuells. . Dall. Lieut. Ferrar. J. H Three Nepal coins. Capt. APPENDIX B. dried specimen of a new W. V Esq . Three Assam small silver coins. Diomeclea exulans.. I '''An egg of Megapodius Nicobafrom Kamorta island and the carapace of a remarkably shaped Pagurid crab from one of the small Nicobar riensis islands.. M C *A group brass habits. round gold coins very somewhat more than an inch in diameter. *A C.. L. W. N. *Two copper axes. A *A stone seal. J. Foster. Two silver and six copper coins dug up at Qanauj. L species of Scincus. .. MSS. M.

127 56 first Abbey (W. „ kukurjibha. Page A'azzuddin imprisoned. Acanthodactylus Cantoris.Jo7 INDEX. studied Sanscrit. Ainah Mahall. . collaris.. . Abdul Latif on the Mubamniadan who Abdurrahim. Afziiiiganj named after Eajah Afzun. 201 Achyber temple. A'hitagner Anteshthiprayoga..). Tantra. 142 141 191 1 Khan Khanan. Mirza.» 202 87 Agra. Election of. xanthoscliistos. . Notes on. 249 248 127 193 Abul Farah. 254 282 87 Adbhuta Sara Sangraha. Ziauddin). Dutch trade in Ahichatta. 201 98 Afzun. Annual. Akbar's Ablabes . 218 7 of. o 202 xx —xxxiv. Saj-yid. 73 Abrornis albo-superciliaris. Accounts. Ahmad Khan (Nawab Ailia bengalensis. A'charasara. ^ . . Humberti. Election 56 199 . 275 ... 100 Ageuiosus militaris. Acanthophthalmus pangia. Admiral de la Haye. Aeiris cynoglossus. 283 201 Acheiris jibha. .

W. . Anderson (Dr. Page Akshamalika Upanisliad. Anumitirahasya.: in.. 204 204 204 204 204 113 „ .. Election of. . „ „ (Dr. of. „ 255 199 199 113 oblonga. Aldis (J. of. Alexander List (J. 170 259 109 of. 283 210 225 120 170 . Amnicola. A.. „ on a new Mabouia.). .. Death 22 115 on a new Scincus. and on two genera of 180 102 201 Eurylepis and Plocederma. Aneulotus carinatus. Dutch trade Allah Upanisliad. Alauda guttata...308 Index.. Ambljopus „ brachigaster. Election of.. J. cirrhatus. „ of Jajpur. 140 Amara Deva. . Fifth List . „ bengalensis. tenia.. of. 283 Antimachus Nikephoros. 282 283 . Alg^. Annapurna Upanishad. Anguilla maculata. 155 .. T.). . 201 . 173 127 87 All Tabar imprisoned. 276 236 135.)> Withdrawal . coeculus. 2 Anaboena mollis. of. Annada Kalpa. Amberleya. Note on the.).). Coin Antiquities of Harchoka. . E. Ambassis bogoda.. Allahabad. Amery (C. Ananta Yarma. from Birma. Hermannianus. Angika.



Antiquities of Jesar-Isliwaripur,


Apollodotus, Coin


Arius arioides,

Arrakan, Celts from north,






Arura, History


Asellia Stoliczkana,

Aslitaka, Ganga,


Aspidoparia jaya,



As/oka, Pillars




Atharva Upanishads,



T.), Ee-election of,

Atkinson (E.



Atmospheric pressure, Day maxima and minima
Attar Sing ("Sirdar) on the history of Arura,
Auditors, Election
of, of, of,







Ayrton (W.




on bad insulators,





on Thunderstorms, on Inertia and Time,



on a new Galvenometer,


Badis Buchanani,


Bahram Darwish Saqqa, Tomb of,... Bairam Khan, Akbar's Khan Khanan,
Baiyasikadhikarana mala,
Balasore, Grants of lands



Balavi, Governor-General
Ball, v.,


on a new method of stuffing birds,






of birds in


aboriginal languages

of Western Bengal,


Bamangbati, Bamanbasti,

180 180


Barahdowar o' Barbus barna,




. .


205 207 207











Burdwan, A stone Barha Sayyid,
Barilius cocra,

seal from,


206 208

„ „



Barometer, Diurnal oscillations

Errors of Standard,


Barometric curves,

Barsee Tuklee, Antiq^uit^es
Basevi, (Capt J. P.)»






Batavia, Account currents

Batracboides gangene,


105 133

Bats (Malayan) of Dr.




Battery, Electromotive force of


Eesistance of



Baudbayana Somayaga,
„ Bayley (E. C


on gold Coin of Firuz Sbab Zafar,

83 22

Beavan, (Lieut. E.), Death



Beestooporo, Purcliaso of laud


Behar, Photographs from,
Benedict (E.), Election


Bengal, Arabic inscriptions




Bliagalpur, Legends and Ballads

116 25 99 98 78

Bibliotheca Indicu, Report on,


Bihrdz Singh,
Birds from Kampti,




in four languages,



from Sikk im,
F.) on Barometric curves,



on errors of Calcutta Standard Barometer,


on Thunder-storms,


on chipped implements, Notes on Hemidactylus marmoratus


and Ahlabes Humberti,
,, ,,


Visit to Independent Sikkim,

on MacMaster's Nagpur Birds,
on Sikkim birds,




on the Zoology of Independent Sikkim,



on Wardah Birds, ...»


(C. F.), Election of,


Blochmann (H.) on Allah Upanishad,
on Arabic Inscriptions,
on Arabic and Persian Inscriptions,


126 116


on several Arabic and Persian Inscriptions,
on Mr. Ferrar's on Gakk'hars,



on Harchoka


97 138

on Major Stubb's Coin,


on Xavier's Life of the twelve

Bodhi Drum,




Botio dario,



Bourne, (W.), Election


(T. M.), Election of, (L. B.),






282 282 254



Brahmo Dutt Chobay,
Braj, Notes on the Country of,


Brajanath Sinha, Coin
(J. A.),

of, of,



Broadley's (A.) Inscriptions,


Brooks (E.) on new Abrornis


Cashmere Ornithology, on a new Flamingo,


Brough, (E.


of, ...


(C. T.), Election


Buckle, (H.), Election

Buddamati, Eaja,

248 254

Budh Gya,
Bukra, Antiquities

256 268

Burragaon, Photographs



Cachius atpar,
Cadell's (A.),


Arabic inscriptions,

Calidris arenaria,


Callichrons pabo,

Callineorus chaka,

201 126

Carcharias gangeticus,
Carllyle's (A.) inscriptions,

Cashmir Ornithology, Cassimbazar, Purchase of land
Catenella opuntia,






Catla Buclianani,

. .

Caves of Loinasha

257 257


Celts from Arracan,

Khangaon, „ Centropomus baculis,


199 199

„ „



„ Certhia familiaris, „






Cerithidea obtusa,

Chaca Buclianuui,
Chaibasa, luscriptious from,

102 180

Chambers (F. J.) struck off Chandra Sikhur Banerji on Jajpur, Chaud, Poems of,
Charasia Blanfordana,





Chaurakavya Satika,
Cheilodoptarus butibere,



Chela laubuca,
Cheon, Photograph


Chhajhu Sayyid, Chhanda Sutra, Chhandoga Paris 'ishta, Chiller, Photographs of, Chinsura, Dutch records

283 268


Police regulations,




92 179 177 172

Chipped implements from the Godaveri,
Chishobn (E.
P.), Election of,




€hsetopliora radians,





102 102 1G7


Chola range,
Christiansou, (L.), a

Dutch gentleman,


Chtlionolblastus Lyngbyei,














Cinclus sordidus,


CirrMna mrigala, aarke, (C. B.), Election




205 205 205 205




205 205


Clupeoides pseudopterus,
Cobitis bolgara,

202 202 203 202 202




202 202


202 203


202 202 276


(J. F.),



Coilia ramcarati,

Coins from Asam,







Coins of Brajandtha Sinha,
, ,






of Firiiz Sliah Zafor,
of Finiz Shah III of Dehli, of Husain


119 119

Shah of Jaunpur, Ibriiliim Shah of Jaunpur,

,, ,,


Muhammad Bedar

from Nepal, from Qauauj,




Eeport on



. .


Committees, Election



Compsosoma Hodgsoni,
Conferva Antillarium,


Conservation of Sanscrit
,, ,,

MSS. Eeport



Correspondence on,

Cooke (H.

G.), Election of,


Copper axes from Pachumba,
Coraccias garrula,


Corica gubornia,

205 205



Corona of the sun,
Cottus chaka,
Council, Election of the,


Election of a

new members,


Cremnobates Syhadrensis,
Cremnoconchus, Anatomy





Crossochilus gohama,

206 206 206



Curtoys (W.












Cynoglossus lingua,



Cyprinidoe, Indian,



Cyprinus angra,




208 208
. . . .
> ,



202 206




208 207







207 206




208 207









,, ,,


206 206 207 208


„ „ „



206 206


, ,

Dy angra


207 207

geli punti,



Cyprlnus godiyari,

206 207

„ „




205 207





205 082

kirki jongja,







207 206














mrigala, mosala, ..t.'.




208 206
205 207





205 208 206

„ „




sada balitora,





Cyprinus sutiha,


r . .




„ „

207 207




at, at,


87 14

Dacca, Frencli property

Dalhousie, Variations of the Barometers

Danio dangila,
joiigja, » Dapthu, Pliotograplis

208 208 269




Shikoli, translated

by Duperroy,

Darsana Kalika,
Dars'apaurnamasa prayaschitta karika,


Darwin (C),

elected an honorary

, .

. o , ,

proposed an honorary member,


Dattatreya Sanhita,




Daud Khan,

Governor of Bihar,


Daudnagar, Photographs
Daukes, (F. C), Election




(Dr. E.) on Indian Cyprinidoe,



on Indian Cyprinidte, on Hamilton Buchanan's original draw...*,...




on Indian Cyprinidoe,
(J. Gr.)



on the Gakk'hars,
Arabic inscriptions,



on discovery of Indo-Bactrian coins, .... ,, „ Deokiind, Photography,



Deonarayana Sing (Eaja Sir), Death Deo on the west of Oomga,



Dera Ismail Khan, Notes



. Dobe Bliairam. . trigouota....) on new bats. totality of Eclipse of o 5 Dec. . records. 192 1 hexagonotus. Dipsas bubalina. Dolarohana-paddhati. 282 104 Donee Cliaud. bb 285 56 113 Echiuella. author of a History of the Gakk'hars Dredging (Deep sea) Carrespondence on.. . on Malayan Bats. 129 133 . off. Dress in ancient India. 58 210 . Forsteni. . Dobson (G..Index. 286 100 Duhan(H. of... 11. 319 Fatje Dliarawat.. Style of.. . Duijun SAl. Eaja.).. on a new Kerivoula. 260 282 Durgadiidinama Duration of the Duperron's translation of Dara Shikoh. Dliuti. . 178 . Earthcj[uake in Sind. . 92 . ....). stotra. Struck Dunceticola „ affinis. the atrologor. 260 102 Dickons (Col. 82 192 . 283 1G8 Djo-kong tong. . . 85 87 trade in Oiidh. „ on new Indo-Chinese . .. major. 7 Diomedea exnlans.. E. witlulrawal Digdrisyavivarana Akhya. Docoglossa. . Dvijondranatha Tliakura Election Dvitiyadvitiyatpatti vada. 99 77 77 Yespertilionidal. . A. 206 Divya Cliiidamani. 192 Discognathus lamta. 210 105 133 95 on Persian Bats... of. . „ . . . Dutch . D..

. House of. Eleotris butis.. Filgate. Memorandum on the chandrika.). withdrawal of. Fai? Aliganj named after of.. . 178 82 28 Finance. Gadadhara. Eeport on. 184 .. .).). of. 180. 246 of. E. L. 284 Fleming (Dr M. Euspiza rutila. . 255 17 Fergusson on the art of building among the Aryans. Ferrar (M. Election of.. Firiiz. 234 235 „ Fulgo. 217 159 120 Gangaprasada. Forbes. J. Coin species 119 Flamingo.. „ Shah Zafar. Election of. banks of the. 11 128 7 Ekamra .. A. Electromotive force of a Battery. 127 . monticola. Election of. . parimentatus. . .. (Capt.). Election Farrukh. on the Foster's (J. Evezard (Col. . New J. 283 221 204 205 . . Assam silver coins. purana. J. Siyar. Election . Mogul invasion of Palamau. Photograph Gadinidae . Eumeces scutatus. A new form of. Euprepes maeularius.). 119 Galvanometer. . • . 215 225 Xli. 7 7 Ekakshara Upanisliad. Page Eclipse. Election of. on Eaja Todar Mall's birthplace. 253 .. Eajah Faiz 99 Farr (G. . Fath Bahadur. . 278 179 . 194 184 Eurylepis^ tteniolatus.320 Index. cliandrika.. 182 194 . 253 of. . . . of Deer. total. M. . Sinha. of. C). Eeign of. Esox angulatus. 52 .

Goraksha-s'ataka. „ Gobius chuno. Govindacumara.. 282 Gayatri liridaya. election of. election of. 282 282 58 91 Gastors or Expense Books. M. . W. 79 Gopal Tapani. I's'vara. Gita. election 55 Graham (Major Grey (Sir J. struck off.^ 96 282 Gayatribralimanollasa Tantra. 203 204 203 „ „ 204 . chipped implements from. 282 282 167 171 -[07 .). thutkuri. Gangastava. Growse (F. minus.). . Grihya sutra. Gnatui-la. §2 82 53 Grantha-sangraha. 93 .).). Guru. Garrett (C. 140 282 55 of. Gough.Index.). .. 261 203 97 Ghulam Qadir dethroned Bedar Bakht. . Gastropoda. 214 204 204 203 „ rubicundus.. Gaiirikaucluilika. . gutum. „ protogenita. Godavari. . „ . Chaudhari. S. on the country of Braj. Photographs altispinis. (A. 282 2S2 193 of. Gecko Gerres Genjan. 321 Page Gangastaka. . "•• . Gobioides ruber. squamulosa. B. . Gla)otila concatenata. giiattatiis. Gita. kalpa. "withdrawal of. sadanandio.

. . of. Election of. f 200 57. Page Gunenclramoliana Tliakura.).). 194 -. nebulosus. 120 127 o Hakim Ali. of. of Shamsuddiu. . Horses of the. election Guriigita.. of. bengalensis.. . Old town „ of. conta. . . Guru Tantra. king of Eohtasgarh. Haji Sulaiman. Halim Khan.. 247 7 Halayudha's Pingala Chhandasiitra. marmoratus. 127 271 . Habiburrahman (Maulavi) election Hafiz Eahmat. maculatiis. '¥. election of. Berdomorei. Harinama mrita. . inscriptions. 282 126 Harrison's (A. . son Halisahar. Gya. Hathiyaphiil gateway. the Eohilah chief. Hamns. Election of. Harkness (T. . . Gidij'atlguliya Tantra.. Heliotype. 0.. 279 137 112 199 Hamilton (Col. 194 194 .). 1 282 282 282 253 of. Panjdar of Sambal... Hemidactylus aurantiacus. „ „ 93 193 . Gjmnodactylus Lawderanus. . Photographs 282 253 194 Gyawals. Hasan Abdal. Harchoka. 126 - 86 274 240 193 193 1 . . Note of Warren. 236. S. Antiquities 283 273 Harischandra. Hastings. Hara Buchanani.322 Index. Aurungzeb at. . . - 52 55 Harachandra Chaudhnri. Coetsei. ^ . . .

P. investienti. - „ „ „ „ 193 . Horites pallidas. indica.. frenatus. Hum^yiia Bakht. 22 96 127 (A.. 74^ 198 193 93 maculatus... triedrus. . Khan Sdr.. Hypheothrix .. Death . . 172 171 subundulata... Hypsirhina enhydris. „ 193 „ . 194 7 Hiranyakes'i sutra. Coin .. Hinulia Dussimieri. 192 . .. 1 marmoratus Mortoni. . Mandelianus. t^a Page Hemidactylus. father of Sher Shah. Notes on.. . of.. . 172 Hypotriorchis subbuteo. giganteus.Index. 94 „ „ 193 194 174^ 1 Karenorum. violaceum. 8ykesi..). tenax.. . 195 194 niaculata. .. subtriedrus. Pieresii. of... . 193 193 1 M . Polydactylism in. Hygrometric observations on the plains of India. Lesekenaultii. 135 119 Husain Shah. gracilis.. . Keltiarti. ' 273 173 170 15 Hydrocoleum Lenormandi. 173 193 193 193 193 „ „ . J. Horse. 210 28 Hovendon (Major Howell J..)> Election of. 249 173 Hypoglossum pygmoeum.... Death of. Gaudama.

. ..). N.. from BareK. Ichthyocampus carce. Sale Japalura variegata.. 119 133 Khaa Fatlijang. Jigatzi. Dr. ShSli. from Chaibasa.) Decease of.. Inscriptions. 180 from Chutia Nagpur. 126 56 Election of.. (E.rsee Taklee.<>„ 135 Jahandar Shah killed. Jardine. Antiquities Jelep-la. 132 . 204 17 Museum.. from Sikandarpur. Page Ibrahim . 116 127 from Agrah. from B. . 101 Jajpur. Iqbalganj named 100 Jyotihsagara sara. . Indian Architecture. of. Jnana Tantra. 283 ... Stoliczka a trustee 97 Inertia and time. . and Persian. Jagraon. from Fort Atock. (J.324 l'>idex. of. . r . on a Thunderstorm -which passed over Calcutta. Antiquities of... Is'vara-gita. l27 . Connection between. Antiquity „ of. . Isana Sanhita. „ 245 128 127 1 „ „ . of Bdiigal. 282 . History 247 . > . . 22 91 Japan copper. 0. 194 194 142 > microlepis. 282 282 after Iqbal A'li.). Arabic . . 256 126 „ „ Isaac (J. 168 138 167 Jesar-Ishwaripur.. of. Coin of. . of. . S. 160 . . James Jama. from Harchoka. from Bardwan. . Arabic.

196 22 Siuha Death of.. member of Council. Khorgo Singh. Kanchiika. Birds from. Kama sutra. . Devi. Khushgo. Kali-sahasraiiama stotra. fiisca. . 7 of. . Karpiirastava tika. G. Kali^jrasanna Gliosha. 274 98 Kharakpur. „ 215 7 Keshada's Prayogastira. Photograph 258 104 Karam Dad Khan. Water course 90 167 Kalingpxingin. . 825 Kaiqubiid. Kampti.Index. Eajahs of. „ . the Ualing Duar.. 282 of. 99 128 elected a of. 282 Kamba-joiig 108 » . Vagalamukhi. Kalkapore. Kanchiilika. Kama Chapar. Kavenagh Decease 22 Kowwa Dol rock. Kalistava raja. 98 of. (J. . . 257 98 . 78 102 102 r Kapila Sanhita. Kamarupa yatra. 215 215 Hardwickii.) ICispa.. Election „ of. 282 . Kendowar Kerivoula .. 282 28-2 Kali sahasrandma. caste. '. picta. 282 282 7 paddhati. 282 223 Llatrika jaganmandala. chief of the Gakkars.. 192 . 225 261 Photographs Indian Lizards. Kavacha.). Ketantya gate of Rohtasgarh.. King (Dr. . .

„ darki.. Leibleinia Juliana. . . Withdrawal of. „ tuberculata. 275 209 189 188. 202 192 . of. Page Kpel river. Kurkihur. Bhagyakula. Lepus tebetanus. Leptothrix mamillosa. Lhassa. Lacuna. ... . Laldarwaza of Kohtasgarh. morala. Lachen. Landshells from Moulmein. Matrika. 170 206 207 Liabeo cursa. 189 Leeds (E.^ . Lacunaria. Photographs 267 102 Kurz (S. 178 168 . Landakia melanura. .). of. 206 207 nandina. of Kundus (The) Kurpasa. 167 109 113 Laharpur. Kosha. Photographs Kongra Lama Vija. Leptorhytaon jara. » 206 205 205 168 Labrus badi. 282 28^ 254 277 Kund Petta Mahewara. pass. 173 Lepidocephalichthys balgara. 269 263 168 Konch. 282 M Kshetra mahatmya. Lachung. 228 . J.. pangusia.326 Index. 83 255 Lebra in Budh Gj a. „ . Dussumieri.) on Bengal Algse. „ 173 171 muralis.

. majuscula. 105 Macrones cavasius. 228. Littorina. 78. tengara.. 250. . 99 Malopterure kazali. 150. Blythiana. 270 81 Lyman „ „ (B. 327 Paye LetLbridgo on tho Dutch records. Mahavira Svami Mahda north of Kharakpur. 282 133 274 248 . 175. 192 Lourya near Are-raj Lushais. trach acanthus. on.. S.. Figures representing the... 109 Lizards. List of 89 113 Lithoglyphus. cinerascens. Malapterurus coila. 77. 53. . . tteniolata. Little known. 200 200 200 200 itchkeea. 93. minimus. 135. .Index. tengana. 199 199 . Leucosticte hooinatopygia... 56 170 172 171 Lyngbya cincinnata. 83 182 107 of. 278 . Additions to the. Annual Report Dutch records.. .. . Withdrawal Macnamara (Dr. Mabouia. 228 284 Library. C). Mancar near Boodbood. 222. 19. 117. .. .. F.) Ee-eleetion Macroglossus. S) a life member. 184 Mackenzie (Dr.. 186 . . . „ 200 Madana pirijata. „ spelajus. Mahal Sarai palace. 1 22 67 Lingtu. Madhu Sing of Kokra. of. 85 105 on the Gakkhars in Tibet... N.

. 96.. 210 2l0 . 1. Fort of. Margalah Pass constructed by Aurungzebe. 52. 113 87 19 MoUusca. Miles (Capt. 178. 95. Meeting Annual. 138. . personata. . Megapodius . Modulus. Luzonensis. Mirat. 177. 120. 257 „ elected. . 231. 52. 274 126 173 . Mofussil records. Monthly General.. (E. built by Hakim Ali. 160. 282 180 . sikkimensis. Viceroy of Bihar. 82. .. 81. 225. 251. of. 58 Matrik^-kosba. 55. Martin.). McMaster on Nagpore birds. 1. 82 i-xviii Member. 279 171 Microcj^stis olivacea. 177 108 98 Mirzai Mahallah. . 52. 251 Menander. Page Man Sing. 2l0 19 Moulmein MoUusca. 251... . 55. B). 227 Motacilla cashmirensis. 160. Historical value of. List of Burma Algse. Martens.328 Index. Matrika-Kosha Mayurbliauja. 82. 127 195 195 Mocoa „ sacra. . 21 137. 227 „ ruficollis. „ 78 90 . 178. . 221. 1. G. 119. . 282 263 Matrikajaganmandala-kavacha. 120. 159. Mebdee Alii Khan. nicobariensis. tika.. 22.. 231.. Terrestrial. „ List proposed. Election Miniopteris australis. House of. 96. 55. from Moulmein. 138. Coin of. „ . Montifringilla Adamsi. L. struck off. of.

267 Nowada Eoad. Birds from. 142 78 1 (Chutea) Blochmann on. . 23 68 Muzaffar Muzaffarganj named after Muzaffar All. 137 127 Mugilalbula. Naqib Klian. 99 2U8 Mystus . „ 203 bongon.. 215 Mursena bagio.. the. son „ Ahmad Shah. Election Shah. suillus. Building. A. nepalensis. Neil. A. (Khalifa Sayyid). . l^vis.I7idex. raitaboura. 282 258 . 97 Hasan. Correspondence on. 203 Mundamala Tantra. Page 282 of Maliammad Bedar Bakht. Nagpui'. 201 201 Murcenesox cinereus. Nagurjuni. 32 5 Narada's Vedic phonetics. contradiction of Mr. Phear's statement. Eepoit on All. 205 Nadijuana dipika. plauiceps.. 203 203 233 „ „ .. cephalus.. 201 60 . 267 121 of. „ (Dr. Marina Akbar's Khan Khanan. ramcarati. 282 < 254 141 Muuim Khan. 329 Mugdhabodlia tika. Natdgiu-ha on the Nawadah road. Mungla Deva.. 201 201 bamach. 202 203 > „ „ kaskasiya. . Dr. Election 225 . of. Murronopliis bazi. chitala.). Museum .. .

O'Kinealy Election 225 inscriptions..y .. 12 NuQrahShah. 226 170 Notices of Sanscrit MSS. Adminstration of. Arabic „ (Dr.. Election Officers. . . 202 .». Ophisurus boro. . Indian and Burmese. . Nila Tantra. .. W. Assassination of..). . . T. » 167 113 Netherlands India. (J. 209 193 ^ » Ophiops microlepis. Norman (The Hon. Remarks on. Ophidians. 282 280.). 202 192 Ophiops Jerdoni. Election of. Hindu 102 246 Nizamuddin. Ornithology of Cashmere. emarginatus. .197. . of. 233 127 26-i Onao.. • 87 1 Newton (J.). Account Opliichthya boro. 211 137 Gates (E. Nycticejus atratus. 126 58 Nuria danrica. a kind of 283 dress. Neritoides. P. 212 . Chronicles Oomga. of. 126 Pachumba axes.. . . 2C8 .. W. ^ 51 Report on. Ophiocephalus aurantiacus. . 202 203 barca. . Election of the. . Nostoc gregarium.). Nundolala Bose struck off. Page Nemi-tso. striatus.330 Index. J. Nivi.) on of. 200 191 . „ 200 201 harangcha.). Oldham's (Dr.. 282 Nirvana Upanishad. Nigama tatva. wrable. . 31 of. .

Pavana vijaya.. ruficops. 170 . 227 227 „ „ .. Dolarohana. 170 173 ..» 120 173 . Withdrawal . yatra. . Pas'upas'a 84 119 . axes. mokshanam. ^ Pachumba Copper .).. E.. D.. interrupta. longirostris.. Mughul invasion Pali. tenerrima. of. .. versicolor. Paratelphusa. Photographs of.. 201 194 of. . . 282 Ivamarupa Sandhya. Pakshata Euhasya... 283 179 261 171 Palamau.. 931: Page Ophisurus . hijala. ... Ormsby.)... 22 of. 201 20 rostratus. in. . Mandellii 216 . 282 101 Pciyajama. Osborn (Capt.. .. R. Palmella bullosa..... . Peal (S. . Election Pelloua chapra. 173 Otocoris alpestris.) Death Oscellariabrevis.. • 231 Paddhati. tilebaim. Elwesi. Froelichii.. 250 87 1C8 Oudh. H. „ motius. (M. .Index. 276 205 205 216 PeUoruoum . penicillata.- 282 282 283 . Oriotiaris Elliotti.. „ Padartha-sangralia. Dutch trade Ovis ammon. of. • 227 2'^7 • Otus brachyotus..

332 Index. Tytleri.. 199 .. 203 168 16 5 Phear. (J. veridescens. kbongata 200 200 199 „ . „ J. „ 200 „ .. Piddington on deletrions ink. serotinus. manggoi. tristis. 239 105. rama. B. lairlii. „ . .. 200 199 „ changdramara. 87 140 Pippalada Pitba nirnaya. on atmosplieric pressure. 210 167 . . Platyceplialus insidiator.. nicobariensis. . Page PellorneumTickelli. nangra. 200 200 Pipistrellns affinis. PingalacUianda Sutra. 134 Pij)ley. 200 carcio. hara. trivittatus. Phyllorhina. 105 216 palliclipes. ... Austeuianns. Grants of lands S'aklia.. . 194 Petrapon Phalung. 173 New Process of. Yedic.. 216 89 > Peply Factory. Pimelodus batasins. . Phudong.. at. Phonetics. 213 „ annectans. 213 213 . Pliotocallograpliic Printing. Pliylloscopus neglectus. Peripia Cantoris.). 88 7 199. / Phormiclium Lyngliyaceum. 282 . 215 216 « .. 204 199 Platystacus cbaca.

171 Psammophis condanurus. „ Theobaldi. Pratt. l9l 20 Psilorhynchus balitora.. Prayogasara by Keshada.. sucatio. teria... 265 247 283 . C. . paradisous. . S. 181 184 201 Pleuronectes . . 72 Poonawa. 237 273 120 7 . liorso. Election of. on Assam . Protococcns vulgaris. 204. . Poonpoon river. . 1 33 „ ." Propasser saturatus. thura. Presentations received. 204 172 1 Polys iphonia angustissima. 234 1 on Chaibassa inscriptions. king of Eohtasgarh. President's Address. .. 216 ». 165 147 on Thunder-storms. 216 . (Capt. . polycliroma. of. 209 204 204 ^ „ . 201 18 Polydactylism in a Polynemus indicus. on Harchoka inscriptions. arsi. .).'... Pratapa Devala. arsius. remarks on Inertia and Time. 133 Pratapachandra Ghosha.. Jerdoui. . ... . 192 192 „ . . Bridge over Pranmra clan. son of Balbhadr.. 80 .. . Pras 'na-Kaumudi. 20 19 Pseudophiops Beddomei.. . coins.. Pratab. Photographs 267 the.Index. 191 Leithei. tetradactyla. 333 Page Plestiodon Aldrovandi „ scutatus.

on Chutia Nagpur Eamkrishna Dasa. Pvirana. Notes on the Antiquity of Indian Architecture. 201 Pseudeutropius atherinoides. Xima. . „ 140 100 on Dress in Ancient India. Varmma. 199 199 199 199 203 .. Pyadasi. Chalmer's remarks. Eafi'uddarjat. grandson of Donee Chand. Eaizadeh Eatan Cliand. uenga. megalops. 203 247 104 Eai Firuz. vineka. 13 on Sanscrit MSS. Eafi'nddaulah. Pterapon Publications. Raja. 127 127 .334 Index. to Mr..... named Qadir Ali.. 20 20 . rasollasa. 24 7 7 „ „ Ekamra. Eamesvar Mazumdar..... of. on the Allah Upanishad. . Election of. Photograph Eakal Das Haldar. Pdrnanandacliakra.. urura. . Raia fluviatilis. .. 100 Qanauj coins. „ „ „ 17 Eeply of. inscriptions. Eeport on.. Eajendralala Mitra. Vrihannaradiya... 283 Purn 'a. Page Pseudorhombus „ . arsius. 282 180 178 Eajabbanja. 255 282 282 282 257 after Puras cbarana „ Qadirganj. Eajapur. 277 2G 132 1 Eajgeer. Eajaballablia. 119 22 Eadhanatha Sikdara Death. . trivittatus. . .

(General) view of atmospheric pressure. 87 272 Sahabad. founder of Ehotasgarh. Earn Gya. . 107 171 113 of. Annual. 282 the. Antiquities of. M. Recess in September and October.). Eiopa anguina. Eoz-afzun. Sa'dulah Khan. 98 „ ou Jesar Ishwaripur. . .. B). 134 . . alleopunctata. 127 273 273 90 . . Vizier. 253 180 98 Kanizaua. H. . Eoss (T. of. Eeport. Easbora daniconius. on the Death of Humayun. grant of land to. „ olonga. Election of. . Saidpur road. Election .). 254 235 82 io Eule 29. 274 282 S'aktisangama Tanti'a. Photograph Eanubhaiija. on Bhagulpore Legends. on a nindee work on Kharakpur. T. . Eashbihari Bose. Ehinok. 205 206 255 137 .). Eeid (J. Sabine.. . Eaiia Khau. Mausoleum of Rolitasgarh.Index. 96 (C. 247 116 . Kisella. 282 . Eohilah Chief. Ehizoclouiiim Kochianum.). J. 135 Eogavinis 'chaya. Change of the. . 335 Pa'li'. 195 195 195 195 21 Boringi. Eohitasiva. . Eundall (Col. of. Antiquities Sahasraniima Stuti. Election of. . Eogers (Capt. E. . gg Eulcmini tank. Tank of. „ „ „ Hardwickii.

Samuells (Capt. * i New species of. rufescens. S ankhayana Grihya Sutra. (L. 283 127 of. . 96 181 . 282 5 7. Sari. 127 insulators. 283 96 Sanderson (C). Dattatreya.. „ „ . Faujdar of. . Hock cut excavations of. of. Siva. . Sanscrit MSS.. „ . Election Sandhya paddhati.. L. 277 282 259 282 102 S'ardula Varma. Tests of bad 72 116 115 officinalis. g 'ankaraiianda's note on Atharva Upanishad.) Election 276 57 . Sambhal. Sanhita. . Conservation of. . AV. 236 231 on Pachumba axes. on Harclioka Antiquities. . . 285 272 282 „ S'anti.. „ „ 98 Isana. at Harclioka. 2. 283 282 283 . on Harchoka. Photographs S/ataka. Sarasvati Tantra. 282 282 98 Sangram Shah. of Barha. Samanyalakshana Eahasya. Mitranus. Grantlia.). S'anti-s'ataka. Sangraha. Sasanaka.336 Ltxfex. 282 102 Sauchika. Sasseram. Goraksha. . „ pavimentatus. Schwendler Scincus J. 282 7 Kapila. S 'ankhya Kaumudi. Page Samanyabliava Ealiasya.. Sayyid Mahmud. . . 181 .

Sequestratic or Account Books. 194 209 209 282 „ himalayanas. Simotes bicatenatcs. Siphonaria. Tomb of. Sher Afkan. . 119 199 Sisor rabdophorus. S iva-saiihita.. Sherer (J. . of. Sher Shah. 283 58 58 . „ „ Yisit to. . Shaistah Elian. cineroum. Scytonema gramelatam. Shahbaz Khan Kanibii. W.. 128 272 99 Shikarabad north of Kharakpur. Seliaree. 226 7 S 'ikshSs. 172 171 rcruginio-cinereum. Tomb of..Index. (Independent). Scotopliilus fiiligiuosa. 262 249 282 Shat chakra tippani. 219 215 167 Sikkim Birds. . the ancient Capital of Mithila. . . Simroun. 337 Page Scincus punctatus. Sitta cashmerensis. vivriti tika. 267 263 91 Photographs of. Sitana ponticeriana. Seotamoree near Nadgiirlia. 283 270 191 Anatomy of. struck off. Shunt's Galvanometer of Latimer Clark. Date of. 208 Sinha-vjagraha Rahasya.). Sherif ul Oinra (Sir) Election cancelled. 132 133 276 Shamshernagar. Sillago domina. . . Photographs ShamsuJdin.. Shakarjiari. ISl 212 212 171 fulvidus. Account of..

tuberculatus. 201 285 stotra.. „ melanurus.. 282 282 171 Staurospermum Stava. Kali sahasranama. W. Dayanus. 168 .. 282 of.. Stoliczka.. i 113 173 Squallus characias. Blanford's paper on Sikkim. F. S^'Iguru Sahasranama. 171 Spirouema. 282 282 282 . Election 137 Smriti-cliandriya sraddhakala. „ . 282 282 Vagalamukhi. 2 202 202 108 16 „ suketi. Spirulina oscillarioides. of. Stevens (H. subeequa. . .. . Ganga. Sraddhavidhi...). Withdrawal Stolephorus balitora.. Spirogyra decimina. on Moulmein Terrestrial MoUusca. 171 :. 282 194 188 189 181. 84 191 19 Museum. . aj^pointed trustee of the Indian . . . „ .S38 Lidex. on the geographical distribution of Telphusidse. on atmospheric pressure. on Indian and Burmese Ophidians. 283 13 Spectroscopic analysis of the Corona. on Mr. . .. Smith (J.. SMguru S'yama.. Durgadadimanama. cserulescens.). indicns. „ 194 113 Stenotis. 97 Stotra. on the Anatomy of Cremnoconchns. S Mbhaktiratnavali. Page Skaiida Puvana.. „ .. .. sahasranama.. . S'riguvusahasranama 28 2 7 S 'rautaprayaschitta chandrika. Steliio . 188.*. .

Index.) Notes on Dera Ismail Khan. Surajknnd. 167 283 282 282 282 282 Brahmajnana. Jnaua.). 192 „ 192 98 Taliawwur Singh. . „ . 282 5 Suresvaras. John. 282 282 282 . Mundamala. celts. Suchika. G5 15 - liemarks on Barometers. notes on Brihadaranyaka Uparisliad. 282 17 W. Siulama Kshi cave. Stubbs (Major). 2. kharke. 210 nitens. Suddhi Dipika. Nila. on Arracan 83 97 ... Syrrliaptes tibetanus.. Guhyati guhya. on Barometric Curves. sexlineatus.57 .. Gdyatri brahmanoll^sa. 183 138 181 Sundari saktidana . „ .. on a Sturnus nnicolor. Svatautra Tantra. Sun. 282 204 204 168 Sygnathus deocata.. 339 Page Strachoy (Col. Talbort (T. S'yama-stotra. Spectroscopic examination of the. H. St. tika. Tacliydromus Haugbtoniamis.. Takaradi Svarupa. Tantra. „ Guru. „ . Acharasahasra.. septemtrionalis. 210 102 » . 192 192 meridionfelis. Muhammadan coin. saktidana. . . 254 282 2B2 Svarodaya. . Tankra-la. . R. Temple of..

Shatchakra.. . indiea. Test of. 133 Tinnunculus alandarius. v . Tij 203 142 16 Eai of Palamau. Lesclienaultii. . 83 83.. Page Tantra saktisangama. to the total eclipse. 150 92 95 Testudo Phayrei. on Inertia and time. . 205 kariya phoksa. ..^ 283 7 . . Notes on Tanyek-tso.. Todar Mall.). 282 279 167 . Therapon servus. . Thunder-storm. 178 98 . 282 282 Sarasvati. Tirhut.. Election of. . .. 205 284 .. . Telx)liiisa ... .. 209 2 Thomas Withdrawal of. on tlie total eclipse 1 62 . 78 52 Tennant . Theobald (W. Tetrodon cutcutia.j of Deer 1 Ith. Notes on. Observations on atmospheric pressure in. 128 suggestions for visitors „ Telegraph earth.). . Tattvanii sandhaua. . .). F. Tippani. (J. . Svatantra. (Maliat) 282 Bralimajnana. Tista(The). „ „ „ „ sava.340 Index. on Moulmein (T. 249 282 270 167 of. shell. „ . . Tattva prakasika. 137 . AnticLuities of. 83 83 . Malayan and Indian. Tarka Ealiasya. Birthplace Todar Mall of Bihar. on Aracan sheUs. . 7 7 i saudliaua. elected Member of Council. Tibet. Guerini. Telpliusidse.

283 5 . pacbypus. 192 sikkimensis. 282 282 270 Vagala patala.Index.. Valakrisbn 'asbtaka. Tropidonotus bellules. . 211. Trygon sepben. . Tylognatbiis boga. 82 Tricliiurus lepturus. Anuapurna. 191 247 102 ^ Tughril Khan. Yapiya well. junceus. 5 „ . . pararaeces. Actual tension Vasisbtba yogakanda. Commentary on Atbarva. 204 201 vittatus. macroplthalmus. braminus. pracbiotis. quincunctiatus. riilaer.. 283 259 of. ca3i"ulescens. 15 282 Vastu Homa. cliuua. Tbeobaldanus. Biibadaran 'yaka. liimalayanus. . . Tui-ka Tippaui. Ekaksbara. Vespertilio Blanfordi.. macrops. fuscug. 283 283 Yajnavalkya.» . colisa. 283 . porrectua. 283 259 Vaditbika kiibba Vagalamukbi-kavacba.. Tritliogaster fasciatus. Election of. Trypancben vagina. Tricliopodus beje.. 203 204 206 Typblops andamanensis. Vaisala identified witb Bukra. fuliginosa. Vespertilionidse. . sota. Vesperus Andersoni. Tunnavaya. lalius. 191 Upauisbad. botbriorbynebus. cotra. AksbamaHka. . 201 Trimeresurus Andersoni. . nepalensis.). 283 . atratus. 341 Fage Treffts (0. prachypus. Horsfiekli. Vapour. Nirvana. subminiatus. 282 214 210 212 New Indo-Chinese. plumbicolor.

. Election (J.. Yriliannaradiya Purana... ^ 283 283 . Vj'akarana bhava.). . Photographs of.). 55 78. J. 276 printing process. on Telphusidae. .. Withdrawal of. 342 Index.. 57 58 Williams (C.) of. . Election 52 . 133 Zamenis fasciolotus. . 281 Viseshavya'pti bhava Eahasya. .. .) struck off. Yj'ai^tigrahopaya Pahasya. 283 283 283 Vyapti panchaka Pahasya. Wilson (J.)> struck off. Yati bhusani. .. - 283 of. Page Vijakoslia. Waterhouse. Withdrawal of. 58 . 83 Xavier's (Jerome) Life of the Twelve Apostles. J. struck of. G. . .....« . 283 Vyaptanugama Eahasya.««. 239 51 Whisham (J. 57 W.. .. .) struck off. A. on new Photo-callographic West Berar Temples.... Wood-Mason Yakla. (J. Vivarana Bhasliya. 138 116 Warda Warth birds. . 191 115 Zosterops simplex.. . Zabardast Khan. (H). (A.. r .. .).. ^ . Vyavastharnana... B.. ( ). Wilkinson. ..... .. 283 253 Vishnu Pad in Gya.. 138 167 282 .. . „ Waagen (W Walker Wallace.

&o. of llic Observations and of the ]r3gromctrical eleniKit. .Meleoi'oloj lea I Ofj-serva ti ons. Ahslracl of (he IU'shUs of the Honrl// Meleorolofj'ical Observations taken at the Sun^e/jo)' General's ill Ojjlce. 18. Daily Means. Latitiule 2:1° Itfiglitof tlie ^'i' \" North.1 J feet.s depeiuleJit tlieveon. Calcutta^ the monlh of Jannari/ 1871. Longitude 88° 20' tlic 3-1/' E:l^^t. Cistern of llie SUuulardUaronieter above sea level.

. the month of January' 1871.— n Meteorological Ohservalious. Calcutta. of tlie Ilygi'omctrical eleuieuts dependent (ConliiiueJ. Ac. OJjice. Abstract of Ike Resnlls of the Ihntrh] Meteorolofjical OLservations taken at the Survei/or General's in. Obsorralions and of tliereon. tlie Paily Meaus.) Pate.

&c. Calcutta. Hourly Means.Me(eorol<)(/i('al Ohxervalions. in the mouth of Jannarij 1871. . Ahslracl of the lieanlls of the llonrl// 'Meleorolofical Ohaervalions (alien at the Snrvei/or General's OJJice. of tlie Ohsorvntions and of the ir\'gi'ometrifal elements (lependeiifc thereon.

. &c. of tlie Obsei-vations and of iliereon.terrn fion*. iaken at Snr>'e//or GeneraVH in ihe nionth of January l&Tl. Abs/racI of fife Jtc^v/Z/s lite of ihe Jfoiirlj/ Mcleoroloijical Ohservalimis Office. Hourly Means.) Hour. tlie ITygrometrlcal elements dependent (Continued.— IV Meli'orohKj'u-itl Oh. Calctilta.

Calcutta. Solar Kadiation. AbsfracI of llie Jie-s'/i//. in the month of Jannarij 1871.Meteorological Ohaerra I'lovx. kv. Wcatlier.s- of the llonr/i/ Mcleorohxj'u-al Ohserval'iomt taken at the Snrvei/or General's OJice. .

Calcutta. Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Olservatmis taheri at the Snrvei/or General's OJice. itc.VI MeteoroloyiciiL OLservalivns. Weather. Solar IJadiation. in the vionth of Jamiary 1871. tn .

. Inches. M. TIA LVU) Absfracl of the lUmills of the lh>x(. ou the 1st. on the 27th. month l.926 0. of the Barometer for the month.843 0. Temperature . ditto. on tlie 5th. Extreme range of tlie Temperature during the month Mean of the dailj'^ Max..lit 29.148 29. on the Min.Y IIesults.003 29.. Max. Pressures Min. Min.di/ Meteorological Oj/ice.136 Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the p. ditto Ditto ditto Mean daily range oi the Barometer during the month . si.. m. Oljservatious taken at the Sarvei/or General's ill Calculla.983 30. IMax. . height of the 13ai-oineter occurred at 4 p. MoNTur.305 30. Estreme range of t]ie Earoineter during the month Mean of the daily ^fax. ditto Ditto Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month. Temperature occurred at 3 m. the vionth of Januanj 1871.. heit^ht of tlie J3arometer occurred at 9 a. Min.'st.Meteorolofj lea I Olmervaliun s.. Jfcan lioia. Temperature occurred at 7 a.

( via Meleorolixjlcal Olservalions. 00 I— .

3-1" ICast. Ahsfracl of the {(ikt')t Iti'siif/. Latitiule l-l'' 33' \" Noitli. -ij. .11 feet. 18. Calcutta. tlie Longitude 88" 20' above the sea Heiglitof the Cistern of Slaiulitrd Baroiuetor Daily Means.i of the lluurlij ]ih'lc'Oro(o{jk'al Ohs^^rrafiaiit at the Snrcei/or General's 0£'ue. ill the month of Fcbruari/ 1871. &o.Meteuroloyica I Olservu lion s. of the Observations nud of the Hygronietrical elements <b'ptMul<"ii< thereon. levtl.

Abstract of (lie Vesnlls of the Jluurl// Meteorohxj'ical 0hserv<ttio/i9 Office. the woiith of Febrnary 1871. of llie Obscvvalioiis and of tliereon.) ^ ^ Date. n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2i 25 2(3 27 23 . Diiilj Means. taken at the Snrvei/or Genend's ill Calcutta.— Melcorvloyical OLservalioiu^. Ac. tl»e ItygromeU-ical ek-meiiis dependent (Cuntinued.

Ahfract of Ihe liesnlls of the Hourly Meteorological OLservatious Ojjice. Calcutta. . itc.ileteorolixjH-al ()hHen'(tru>ux. Ilourl}' IMofliis. taken at the Siirvfi/or General's ill the month of February 1871. of ilic Obsorvjitions aiul of tlie IT^'grometrical element* doiKMidcMit tliereon.

(Cuntinned. Absiraci of fhc HeHulU of the llourJi/ Meleorologkal Ohservatiom iaken at the Siirvei/or General's Offiee. Hourly Bleans. Calcutta. &c. e a .— XII MeteoroJiHjii-al Oh»erraf'wvK. in the month of Fetjruari/ 1871. of tlie Observations and of tlie Ilj'grometrical elements dependent thereon.) o Hour.

Ac . month of Fefjruary 1871.Meleoroloyicol Abstracf of the Rcsidls of Olj-serralioufi. l/ie Uoiirli/ Meteorological Ofjservation. Wcallicr.liati<)ii. l{a. taken at the Sarvei/or Geiwral's in the Solar Calcutta.'i OJIiee.

month of February 1871. Wind.XI v ^Icleoroloijlcal OLservalion-'f. &c. Abstract of the . Calcutta. ]vadiatioii. .Results of the llovrly Meteorological Observations taken at the Snrvei/or General's in the Office. Solar Wcatlici-.

Jfoan of llio Enromofoi' for (lio monlli. M.3 ITeau "Wet Bull) Thermometer for ihc month !Jrean Dry Bulb Tiierniometer above ]\lean Wet Bulb Thermometer Computed INFean Dew-point foi.. liei|^li( of the BaronieU'i. Inelics.1 12. ]^liix..3 62. ik.13 saturation .. 907 .. 2'J.. I)iLto ditto J\Iiii.. anemo.1 7. Ditto ditto ]\lin. .7 17.O 84. . 67..63 to the .. liciijlit of tlie Jiarometor occurrod at 10 a. dido . Additional Weight of ^'a pour required for complete of Mean .8 1'J Mean dail^ range of the Barometer during tLe nioulh ..1 Inches. * Height 70 feet 10 inches abore groimd. I'lxlfeme raucte of tlic Daroinetor durint.67 .occurred at k 4 p. 6. 0.. JNliii.. Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached meter during tlie month . Mean Jaili/ ranrje of the Temperature during the mouth.MfUoroliKjiCid OL'iercalioiis..313 2f». 7J. Wind S S W... 0. fall of rain during 24 hours Total amount of rain during the month . ditto.S03 . .. & S W. the month of Fetjrnanj 1871.. JCxtrenie 7-aiir/c of the Temperature during the nioutli Jlean of (he daily ^Max..985 .. 30... . m.. ..2 luches. Max. . Min. on the 2nd. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month 138. Tem])eraturc .. Prevailing direction of the — . Mean Elastic force of Yapour for the month . ji. on llie Isl. Temperature oeeurred at 3 p. 300 degree of humidity for the month.13(3 o IMean T)vy Bull) Tliormomoter for tlie month Max.. Pressures licitflit '?> . 29. . on tlie 15th... jMontiily Eksults.... . m.0 6G.'^ervK lions taken at the Siirvei/or General's ill Office. 0. xt Ahslravt of the Uexnlls of (he Jlvurli/ Mcleovohnjical OIj.. o Mean Max. Gate at la.40 0. Mean "Weight Yapour for the month ..5 G0.5 30. ..' the uiuiilU Moan of tlio daily ^Tax.75 0. . Tojiiperatiire oeenrred at 7 x.. 0.the month Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point ..561 Troy grain.. Eained 3 days...3 90. ontlieotli. complete saturation being unity 0. 21).

.XVI Mcleofvloi/ical Obsercaliuiis. .

taken at the Surveyor General's ill Calcutta. iiHcl Daily Means. the mouth of March 1871. 20' 34" Eiist. Abstract uf the liesnlts of the Ilourl// Meteuroloijicul Ot/servativn^ OjJi<-e. Cistern of ite. 18. LongitiKle 88*^ Latitude 2^° Heiglitof tl4e 3:i' \" N-uith.11 feet. . tlic Shiiulard liaroineter above the sea level. of tlie Observation's of (lie If vf^ronietrieal elements (loixMident thcrooii.M^leorological Ohsei vat ions.

— XVIU Atefeorvfagfcaf Obaerruf'unit. of tlie Observalions and of tlie Hjgrometrical elements dependent thereon. fCuiitlniied. in the month of March 1871. AfjiifracI i>f the liennlh of the llourlij Meteoroluy/cal Ohserrat'ions taken at the Snrvei/or General's OJice.) . Dailj Moans. &c. Ciilcntta.

Hourly Mc*ns. in the month of March 1871.Mefeorolofficul Ohservahonx. &«. of the Ol)servations and of dept'iulent tliereon. Calcutta. XIK AhstraH of the Results of the llourli/ Mefeorologicul Obxen'otunig taken at the Surt'e^or General's Opce. tlie Kygroraetrieal elements .

) . Hour . of felie Obs^^rvafcions tliereon-. Calcutta. &c.— IX MefeoroU>^icai Obstrva fiovi = Ahstracl of the 'Remits of the Honrli/ Meteorological Observations taken at the Rarvei/or General's Office. Hourly Means. and of tlie Hygrometrical elements dependeii-t (Continued. hi the month of March 1871.

in the month of March 1871.)lar IvniViatioM. S. .mlts of the llourlij Meteorological Observations taken at the Survei/or General's Ojjice. Calcutta. Wcallicr. ^tc.M(f/eoruloifii'al Observations. Abstract of the Re.

Weatliei-. ResuHs of in the the Honrli/ Meteoroloijlcal Observations Office. . taken at the Sarveyor General's month of March 1871.xxu Ahsh-aH of the Meleoroloy ica I Observu t'lon a. Calcutta. Solar Eadiation. &c.

7 64. Mean Elastic force of 72. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month .. — * Height 70 feet 10 inches aborc ground..2 Inelies. 0. Ditto ditto ditto..NTHLV of Mun... m.. .41 . Indies.. Juvfrenie range of the Temperature during the month . . .. Temperature occurred at 6 & 7 a. Jixtreme range oi the Barometer during the month . . xxiii Ahsfracl of the fitki'ii li<'. Additional Weight of A'a pour required for complete saturation ..7 88. .Mclfiii'uitiijical OlisercalKnis.... ... 112. Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point ... Mean of tlie Barometer for tlie montli..-h l{Ksi. M..143 Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer Max. .. Mean daily range oi the Barometer during the month . .. . Mean "Wet Bull) Thermometer for the month . on the loth. Mean Weight Mean 7. ...... .()oO . 29..2 7... ...... Cdlcatta^ the month Mo...2 12... on the 4th..... . Ditto Min. Mean Ja'iJy range o^ the Temperature during the month. Snrrei/or (jenernt'-'i Ojfice. . r. . . fall Eaiued 5 days.... . m.638 0....17 3..926 29..783 0.. grain. lieis^lit of tlie IJaroineter ocfurred at 10 A. Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemometer during the month 5. Mean of the daily Max.. Wax... complete saturation being luiity 0.. . ditto ditto .16 .......850 3().... . . .. height of the Barometer oceurred at 5 p.. 29. ..45 degree of humidity for the month..i. Min. Total amount of rain during the month . .. 4 70.0 33. . Mean of the daily Max...1 16. . Min.. ...412 29..7 72... lieiiflit . .2 Inches.. .. 5. . ..........4 97. Pressures . .s.... lvS71.. Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer Computed Mean Dew-point for the month . Temperature . on the 2(5th.83 . of llie llourlt/ l^faleoroloi/icul Ohxerrafiuna at in the. on tlie Ctli. Vapour for the month .. of rain during 24 hours 3. Prevailing direction of the Wind S by W^ & S S W... ...6 ..2 67.r. .....68 of o Mean Max.. Min.. .. . INfax... Temperature oceurred at for the inontli ........ .664 Troy Vapour for the month ... jr.

br.XXIV Meteorological Ohservatlvm.. i ^S* . fi <i •~ f: S ^ >. ao uiujf: "^ O ^ c -k^ . «i !» S s ^ ^ si's! ^ _«^ O SI o :5 s ^ 'J.

Longitude 88° 20' 34'^ East. 18.11 feet. Heightof tbeCisternoftlie Standard Barometer above the sea Daily Means. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements dependent thereon. &C. Latitude 2'2° 33' 1" North. .Meteorological OLscrvu/luns. CalcuNa in the month of April 1871. XXV Abttract of the Results of the Uourlij Mcfeorofitfj'Kuil Ol/servations taken at the Surveyor General's OJpce. level.

in the month of Jjml 1871. lijgronictrical elements dependen t (Continueil. of tire Observations and of tljeveoH-.) . Abstracl of ilie HesnUs of tJie the llourf// Meteorological Olsermtionsf lahen at Snrrejjor General's OJjlce.— xxvi Meteorological Olsenations!. CulcHtta. &c. tire Daily Meftiis.

of Uic Ohservations ami of {lie ]i3'<^romf tricftl eleinonts dopoudont thereon. Hourly Me-ans. Ca/cn/fa. XXVll AJjdreici of I'lm liesnlls of (he llonrlif Me/e<rolofu'al Ohservat'ions ta'keu al the Snn-c//oi- General's OJicc. &c'. iu ///-e moiilk of April 1871. «<-( Hour Midtsiglit. 1 2 3 4 6 6 7 8 9 10 il Noon. 1 2 3 4 6 6 7 8 9 30 11 .Melcoroloj'i'Cai Ohservaitonn.

of tlie Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements tliereou. dependent (Cuntinned. Hourly Means. Calcutta. in the month of Ajiril 1871. Abstract of the llesults of the Hourly Meteorological Observations taken at the Sarve/jor General's Office. kc.— XXVIU Meteorological OLservdf'iong.) .

XXIX Abstract of the Results of the Honrlt/ Meteorological Observations taken at the Sarvei/or General's in the Office. month of April 1871. Wcatlior. Ac.Meleorolufjlcal Observations. Calcutta. Solar Eacliation. .

Calcutta. Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorolorj'ical Observations taken at the Sarvei/or General's OJjice. Ph &c. "VVeatlior. . ill the month of April 1871. Solar Eacliation.XXX Meteor ological Observations.

8 74.72 ... IHxtreinc ranr/c of the Temperature during the month Mean of the dail}^ Max. ditto. M.03 2. XXXI Ahslract of (he Resulls of the llourli/ Meteorological Observalions taken at the Surrei/or GeueyaVn in Offu-e. m. & S S W. ditto ditto ...'JJS 29... 9... . 0.. 5 71. Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemometer during the month 4.0 23..84 .. Additional Weight of A'apour required for complete of .2 . O.. .813 29. Monthly Uksults. Max. Mean Pry Bull) Thermometer Max. Solar radiation Tliermomctcr for the mouth . . .810 Troy grain.... 031 Mean Ditto Min.77 o Mean Max.. on the I7fch.....7 7(5. . Ifoan liciirlit of ol" ilic Bni-omofor for tlio montli. the month of April 1871. Temperature ...... Temperature occurred at 2 A.. Prevailing direction of the Wind S.. Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer Mean Elastic force of Comjiuted ]\lean Dew-point for the month above computed mean Dew-point ... Mill. 772 the liaioiiictor occmred at 9 a.0 Inches. . fall of rain during 24 hours 1. 21)... . * Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground.64 . 11..7 91.7 Ditto ditto Mill.. Total amount of rain during the month 5.. on the 1 ttli.. Mean of tlie daily Max.!?...'...9 4. Mean Weight Yaponr for the month . Temperature oeeurred at for the month Si 30t]i 82.. Mean da'ity range of the Temperature during the montli..IH 2 & 3 r.....(i9 saturation Mean degree of humiditj^ ibr the month..5 8. .. ..0 Mean TVet Bulb Thermometer for the montli ..702 .. M.. . Est feme runqc oi tlie Barometer during the month .Mi-leoroloyical Observaliuns. daily range of the Barometer during the month .... height of tlie Eiiroiiieteroeeurred at 7 P.. .. — . 113... height 29. Yapour for the montli . S by W. on the lltli.29. . Eaincd 14 day......... Calcutta. Indicg. M.. Pressures ..5 90.. 77.. complete satiu-ation being unity 0. Inches. . Max. . . 0. . .. . oil the 12th Min.. .317 .

—(. uo Ul'BJJ O •a: « -51 uo umjf •g i"q -a^ •uo UIB}J O J?i ^1 W ^ EH •jnojj .0500i0C0O^<©C»i—IOOC»lOiy3(MOOCO'Ni-H'«#CO?0 1— I— 5^ I I ^ " uo p uiBj].lSj\\ •uo U113JY r- •A\. -S 1 I—I^IC^I. r.^M •uo uinjf VTM'Ai 1— 1— 1— (M I I I uo '^•^ UIUJJ Ai •uo Ul'BJJ o ^ a s ^q 'Av T^'JT % II Cb i=^ V Ai. •uo UIBJX •uo UtBJY •HO niBj].I I XXXll Meteorological Observations. Ai^R'S uo uiBjY t» r— I— I «ti on r— o no uiBJi ^jfq-g .—IrHi—IIJJrJlTjIt^fOtNOOi—li— I uo UlBJf 'AV -g "S T? COOCDOOCiOOlOOO'—lOiMOt^COrHi—li-HOT'^iOi—iCa-^ i>»i>. 2 AV.9 d E-i uo UIBJJ •uo urejj fe •br.4i e w g 2 S.

&c. Longitude 88° 20' 3^ East. 18. . of Maj 1871. Daily Means. xxxiu Ahslracl of the Tiemlfs of iJie Hourly Meleorological Observations Office. taken at (he Survei/or General's in the month Calcutta. Cistern of tlic Standard Barometer above the sea level.Meteorological Ohserva lion s.11 feet. Latitude 22° 33' Height of tlic V North. of the Observations and of the Hygromctrical elements dopeudcnt thereon.

Abstract of flee Results of the Hourly Meteoroloffical OIjservatioH$ Office. Daily Means. of tlie Obsery<'^tiu'!»s and of tlie Ifygrometrieal elements ' dependent Uiereon. taken at the Sarveyor General's in the Calcntta. month of May 1^71.) . &c.V — Mtleoroloijicctl XXXI Ohsertalions. (Conliixicd.

taken at ike Snrveyor GeueraVs in the month <f CalcuH^. . of tlic OlwcrvatioHs tUc TTj'gromctrical elemcnfs dcpcndeut Dicroon.Meteor ologhal Otsfivativns. XXXV Afjslract of Ike Itesnlts of tke llonrli/ Meleorolofical Ohservalioin OJj'tce. May aftd of 1871. &c. Hourly Means.

) . CalciUtu. month of Mcnj 1871. Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations taken at the Surveyor General's in the 0(jlce. tlie Hygrometrical elements dependent (Continued. Hourly Means.— XXXVl Meteorolog ica I Ohserva f'lo n s. of tlie Observations and of tliercon. &c.

Meteorological Observations. xxxvii Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations taken at the Survcjjor General's in the Office. Calcutta^ month of Maj/ 1871. .

Abslract of the Results of the Tlourli/ Meteorological Observations taken at the Surveyor General's in the Office. Solar Eatliation. Weather. Calcutta. &c.XXXVlll Meteorological Observalions. . month of May 1871.

M. ^i & \i afterwards. 11 from 6 to 8 p.8 & v_i to 7 A.. B CumuH.S E| 30 143.L on Nat 8 &9 99.^ General aspect of tlic Sky. M. M. M. '-^i Cumnlo-strati^/>_i Nimbi. S to 7 A.\_i Cirro-strati.p.8 O NW T&L 90. L on S at 8 p.. from 7 to 11 p.9 W to 7 A.'^i Vi Cirro-Cuniuli. .. M. S stratoni.8 ssw SSW «& lb 28 145. M. M. Mi-. L lightning. \i Cirri — i Strati. taken at the Sunei/or General's OJJice. V - 01 AViNi). o Prevailing =5 i >>.57 Variable 29 145.9 O afterwards.7 p. AVoatl. L on p. M. M.8 SW & E.ii. in the month of May Si'lar R!uliati. Chiefly ^i. O overcast. M..0 1.. "^i to 5 p. M. 147. at 8 aftenvarJs. S to 8 A. & at 11 p..2 S afterwards. 3. Calcutta. Cic. -i to 7 p. '^i to 5 p. Brisk wind between 1h &8a.8 12G. T thunder. \i p.. B to 2 M.0 ilirection. XXXIX Ahslntcl of the Result o'' the llourljj Mdeorological OLservallonii 1871.Mefeoroloffical OLservations. clear. 13 Miles.0 31 148. o L'cLes 27 115. M. M.

.5 7.. 0. Leiglit of the 13aronieter occui-recl a^t 9 a.6 75... Max. .. of Vapoiir for the month .8 Inches.02 Mean degree of humidity for the month. Prevailing direction of the — . . Min. Ahslract of the Itesulls of the Ilourli/ Meleorolofical Observations taken at the Surveyor General's in the Office. .. Extreme range of the Temperature during the month of the daily Max.. complete satui'ation being unity 0. 2.. Pressures . Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thennometer Computed Mean Dew-point for the month Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Devr-point .. ...441 29. Min. .... Solar radiation Thermometer for the month 144.31 Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... .. Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached meter during the month ...... liciglit lies Mean ... Ditto ditto Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month...a 95... .33 to the . .. Eained 17 days..4 Inches. ditto Ditto ditto .. Tempei'ature occurred at 5 a.xl Meteorological OhservaUons. ... on the 23rd. 29.. m. M...2 14. ar. Monthly Eesults. . 78. * Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. on tho 17th.. for the month Temperature occurred at 4p.8G8 Troy grain. on the 2nd. .. Inc of tlie Barometer for tlie montli. 2.. Tem])erature ...678 29. on the 5th.0 74..08 9.428 0.. Min.... m. Mean daily range oi the Barometer during the month ... Max.. .. .0 Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month .58 11. height of tlie Barometer oceurred at 6 p. Extreme range o? the Barometer during the mouth .. Min.003 0.7 4. Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month .138 o Mean Dry Max. ditto.. .. ..... Mean of the daily Max.0 91.... .0 21.8(59 . Calcutta^ month of May 1871. 9.741 29. ..... 29.. anemo.. Wind S S W. Bull) Thennometer Mean 83.78 Mean Weight o Mean Max. ...2 77.. fall of rain during 24 hours Total amoimt of rain during the month .. ..

^ .Meteorological Ohservalions.


xlii Abstract of (he llesnUs of llie lluurli/ ]\lelcorulu(j\cal Ol/senalions OJ/ice. of t!ic Observations and of the Hjgrometrical elements dependent thereon. .c. Longitude 88° 20' W Eiist.MiiUoyuhnjical (JljserraliuHS. Daily Moans. Height of tlie Cistern of &.11 feet. Ljiiitudo 2i^ '3'd' I" North. taken at the Snrvei/or General's i/i Calcutta. the month of June 1871. (lie SLaiidurtl IJaroiiietcv alcove the sea level. 18.

. of bhe OI>serratioT>.— Lliii Meteorulogicttl Observaltotn.) l>ate. the llomlt/ Bleleorologkal Ob&ervatiovg taken Ike Surreyor GeneraVs Office. &c. Hygromefcrical elements Daily Metms. CalcnUa. Aljslfucl of Ihe JhsnUs of al.s ami of diepciMleii t th«reoi>. ll»e (Cvtitinwed. in the month of Jnne 1871.

. xliv Ahfract of tka Ih'snifs of tka llonrli/ Meteorological Otservaiions Office. of tlic Observations depenclciit <and of the Ifygromctriceil demcnls tlioreon. Ac. vnoutk <tf Jnnc 871. Hourly Means. J taken at the Snivei/or G'entraCs in t-ke dtlcull^.MtUoYohgi'cal Ohipcnaliotts.

Afjd/ract of Ihc liesnlls of the Tluiirh/ Mcfeorological Ohnervatimis Oj]]ee.— xb Mt'leoroloff ica I Ohservn lion s.) . the month of June 1871. of tlic Observations nnd of tliereon. taken at Ihe Siirre/for General's in Calculta. Hourly Means. &c. llio Hygrometrical elements (lopci)dent (Cardinued.

M. M. '^iCnmulo. m. ss 1. T at 10 a.8 0. p.. & at 7 p. Chieily O. m. M..m.84 jSbyE.G8 S S 2.0 0. M. M. M.34 S S E to 3 A. M.7 2 113. M. '^i & VnJ to 2 p. 6.4 0.8 ' 11 0.. m. M.11 Is S E 59. \i & '^i to 4 152. ^ i Cuni-di. M. M. li at 1 A.57 S &S by E 88. 5 afterwards.2 . T at 1 k 2 p. S to 11 A. at 3 A.Mcleorolotjleal Obscrral'ions. \i to 3 A. v_i to 9 M. to 3 p. M.m.12 127.51 3. from 8t a.7 [at 8 A. to Z I ^ 1 iTnclies 1 1 151.aiul from 8 to 10 p. M. L from midnight lo 6 a. L & 11 lat 5 it 6 P. M. Slight 11 at 11 A. S afterwards. & I7 to 11 P.from 1 to 3 A. at 7 & from •9 to 11 p. Ac. at the Sarvej/or Generates OJJice.. "VVlNI>. T at 2 A. M.9 I O K 6| 145. to 4 p. T from 1 to 3.Wby S [E.04 &SSW 2. S afterwards. 10| & 12 a. m. T. . M. 6 from 7 to li p.. m. afterwards. m. m. \_i Cirro-strati. & 10 to [Slight li from 2 to il2 A.. m. to 7 a.74 S W& S SW E& S by 0.. M. M.0 0. to 2p. ^i to 12 A. () afterwards. afterwards. m.. i Soliir IJailinlioii.3 0. Slight It from 11^ a. M. M. sr.. m. 'from lO-A. M. M.strati. O o General aspect of the Sky.m. S to 7 A. hi the month of Jane 1871. to 4 p.0 10 141. U| £ip^ I -S PL|! 11) ^ Miles 133. M. as |X^.p. |7 to 9 A. & from 12 a. M. & at 11 p.3 152.. M. .M. M. Tat 5 p. M. li from midnight to 12i A. m. to "2 jP. to 6 p. xlvi Abstract of the Remits of the llonrl// Meleorolof/'ical Oljservations ta/ce)t.87 S& Variable.3 terwards.35 ESE&NNE WSW... m.m. 101.0 I w& sw E& S 1. & at 2 p.4 O [ L 2. S to 6 P. T from 1 to 4 & 102. M.M. & 1 & 2 p. afterwards. T i'rom midnight to 7 a. C1.9 Brisk wind at 3 J a..8 \i O O K O \ I \i Cirri.0 0.. M. M.9 I O 138. Calcutta. 132.y to p.NNW&N . A. '& from 1 to 3 p. L at 2 A. m. Tat 6 7a. L at i3 A. L at midat 2. M.0 I 101. T at 1 p. m.m. "^i to -^i to 12 A. Wen lit- r. M.. ni afterwards. li from 1 to 3 a.. M. M.S&S SE E&E S 60.G 4. M. M. & 11|p.0 0. M. m.. jr. L from 8 to 10 p.M.— i Strati. \i & v_i af120.. S to 6 a. S to 1 p.5 Chiefly 'i. & 11 p..4 O K 3 139. T S to 8 A.6 O 110. v^iNimbi. M. night. P. L from 1 to 4 a. r-lrH dircctiuu. 1? at 91 p. j& from 1 to 4 p.

Abstract of the llesiiUs of the Hourly Meteorologieal Observations taken at the Surveyor General's in the Office. month of June 1871. Weather. &c. Calcutt^i. . Solar liadiatioii.xlvii Meteorological Observations.

. Ac. Wcatlicr. Calaitta.Mt'leorolofficat Observations xlvm Ahslrad (>f the RexnlU of in tlu: Ifoiirli/ Mdeorolog'icat Ohservalions taken at the Surveyor General's Office. the Solnr ]{a(liatioji. month of June 1871.

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer Computed Mean Dew-point for the mouth Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point ...2 79..8 Inches. 29. JExtreme raiir/e 0? tlie Barometer during the mouth ... .4 2.29. 25.579 . Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo.117 ..523 29. complete satui-ation being unity 0.4 87..372 . on the Min... Miu.. o Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month Max..9 .. ditto. ou the 30th...8 7. Temperature occurred at 1&2 a. Calcuttay the month of June 1871.. ..... . m..4 Mean daily range of the Temperatiu'e duriug the month. ou the 1st. Mean Weight of Vapour for the month . Extreme range of the Temperature during the mouth Mean of the daily Max.... on the 22nd. fall of rain during 24 hours ..36 degree of humidity for the month. Max. .. ditto .. Temperature . 80. Min. Abstract of the Uesnlts of the llourl// Mtleorolofj'ical OhservalioHS taken at the Stirvei/or General's in Office... Inches.312 0.. .04 Eained 28 days. Monthly Eesults... ]\hix. saturation . Prevailing direction of the Wind S & S S W. .. lieiglit of the liaiometer occuiTcd at 1) a.... .. Min.56 meter during the month .... ditto Ditto 82. . 29... M.402 0. ..23.. o Mean Max. . . . Total amount of rain duriug the mouth .. m.. Mean of tlie daily Max. 135.. — * Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. .4 Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month . Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete Mean 10. lieii^ht of the Barometer occurred at 5 p.. 0. Mean liei^lit 29... Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month ..8 7(3.714 . 17..964 Troy grain.... .36 1...35 . Pressures . 1st. .88 . Indies.. of l1ic Barometer for (lie month... Ditto ditto Mean duili/ range of the Barometer during the mouth . 4.7 93. .. M......8 3....3 78. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month . Temperature occurred at 2 p... xlix Meleoroloijlcal OLfserva lions..

.scrvalions.Meleorolixj'ical (J/j.


Loiiiritude 88° 20' 31'' Eiist. .Meteor oloffu'ct I Ofjserva lion s. Daily Means. Hourly Afeleorolog'ical Observatioua Oj/lce. iaken at the Surveyor General's ill Culcnlla. aiul of the irvgroiin-trical 1%11 feet. Latitude 22" 83' Height of tlie V North. Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea level. Vi Abstract of Ike Ih'Sidts of Ihe. the month of July 1871. &c. of the Ohscrralioiis elements d('])einlciit tlieroon.

&c. tl)e Daily Means. (Continued. the month of July 1871. Calcutta.— Hi Meteorological Observations. of tlie Observations and of Hygrometi'ical elements dependent thereon.) . Abstract of the ItesuUs of the Hourlt/ Meteorological Observation* tahen at the Surveyor General's ill Office.

. liii Abstract of the Itesnffs of I fie llonrlij Meteorological Observations trakeu at the Snrvei/or General's OJjice.Meteorological Observations. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements dependent thereon. ' Hourly Means. in the month of Jid^ IH71. Calcutta. &c.

.) Hour. in the month of July 1871. ^ tlie Hygroraetrical elements (Contintied. . Ahdract of the BesuUs of the Honrli/ Meteorological Observations taken at the Surveyor General's 0§ice. of the Observations and of dependent thereon. Hourlj Means.— liv Meleorolog ica I Observa (ton s. Calcutta. &c.

" Solar Radiation. Iv Abalract of the Jlesnl/s of the Ilonrlif Meteorological Ofjservatiom taken at the Snrvei/or General's Office.Meteorological Obserral'tona. i&c. Woatlier. . Calcutta. in the month of Jnlij 1871.

Ivi Meteorolog ica I Observa tion s. &c. Abstract of the liesults of the Hourly Meteorological Observations talceu at the Surveyor General's the Office. Weather. . Calcutta. in month of July 1871. Solar Eadiation.

... Iieii^ht of the Eai-onu'fer ofciiri-eJ at 4 p.). 211. on the 3ULli. . Temperature ..2 4.....551 211.87 Mean o Mean Max. Mean Drj" Bulb Thermonu-ter above ]\lean Wet Bulb Thermometer monih . -5 l»(). Pressures . .0 2. . . in the month of JnJi/ 1871... Eained 30 days.. ... ....• meter during the month ..8 7'..0 8t!.Meleoroloijical Observuliuns. Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month..!> ..93 . 0. .o at 1 p.. ...... ..114 o IMean Pry Bulb Tliermometer for the month ... Indies.. on the 29th. Max.... . Mean degree of humidity for the month. ... . ... 137.).'lit Menn .4 Mean "Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month .3(i5 2'..946 Troy grain.. J£d-treme raiirje of the Barometer during the inoutli . 2l). Max. .... on tlio \?A\\. . 82..4(»2 tlie mouth ... complete saturation being unity 0... Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point jNlean 80.. Ditto ditto Min. .. Temperature oecurred in... . 3. Mean Elastic force of Yapour for the month . . . Prevailing direction of the "Wind — * Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground.. Ivii Abshact of the Uesulh of (he Uotirli/ Meleorological Obsenui/ions taken at the Surveyor General's OJice...5 78..... ... .. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month . 10.3 Computed Dew-point for the . lieiiilit of tlie Ji:iroiiie(er OL-curred at 11 a.. fall of rain during 24 hours •• 15... ....... M Max. .2 Inches... MoNTIfLY IJ INSULTS.. 0. on the 2nd.. jr. . Calcntia... Mean of tlie daily JNlax. m. 75. ()(»(> Ditto ditto ]\lin.... S & S S W... 0.... . . Mean of the daily iMax. Mean daily range of the Barometer during .. .47 Additional Weight of Yapour re(iiiired for complete saturation . heii..rfreiiie nniqe of the Temperature during the month . m...25 .. Total amount of rain during the month Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo. .. ]VIin. .... Temperature occurred at 6 A.. of llie Enromotor for (lie montli... ii. ditto. 1. 7.721 2'J.... JS. W'}^'*'^ S by E. . . ditto ... . . 15........17 "Weight of Yapour for the month ...



Meteorological Observations.


Mefeoi'oloi/icu I

Ohnfrva (ions.








llunrli/ Jlefeorohtqical Ofjservufiofi^
(Jeitcrut'ti ()()i<e,

taken at the Siirvei/or


the moiitk
I" N<Mtli.





±•1'' '.V.V


8^" 20' «l" Kast.

Hfif^Iittif tlie0is(rrii of (la* Hlarnliird IJaromeU-r al)ove


U-vi-l, 18. 11 ft-et.

Daily Means,




Ohservatioiis and of Ute
ilcpeiidi-nt lliei'coii.

H Vi^romed-ieHl



Meteorological Observations.

Abstract of the UesnUs of the [[onrlj/ Meleorul<nj')cal Obseroafions

taken at the Siirrej/or General's
in the



wo nth of August 1871.



Ac. of



of the Jrygrometrical elemeuts

dependent thereon.





Abstract of


RfstiUs of the llonrli/ Mt'tt'crvlogirnl Olfetvatiottt
the Sifirei/or Getieral's Office, Calcutta,

ialct'ii <tt



mouth of AuguH



Hourly Mraiis,




Obaorrnfions and of
dcppiuU'nt tlieroon.


H3-j(roniptrical elenicnti

o d
^ S =
?^ :3







for each lioiir duriiif^






Meteorohxi int I Ofjuerrn fiotis.

Afjsfracf of


7^esn/h of (he


Mefeoroloyh-al Ohaerritt'tom


at (he Surrei/or GeneraVs Office, C»((cn((a, in


of August 1871.

HouHj Moans,





and of










2 3

5 6 7 8 9 10


2 3 4
5 G

9 ]0 11

Mefeoro/df/irnI O/jxerraliovt

Ahsfract of the


of the


Meteorohxj'iml Obserrationt

taken at the Snrvei/or GeueraV'i Office, Calcutta,
in the

month of

An;/ (at


Solar Ifailiation, Wcaflier. Ac.



Meteorological Obscrvaiiovs.

Abstract of the Besults of the llovrli/ Ileteorolog'u-al Observations
taken at the Snrvei/or General's


month of August 1S71.

Solar iJadiatiou. WfatluM-.

Meleorohxjical OLicrvalioiit.


Afjsfract uf the


of the

llourli/ MetcornliKjlcal


taken at the Snrvei/or (ieuerul'a








oF tlie E.-ironietor for tlic niotitli... !Max. lioiijht of tlic B;n-oiii(>lfi- occiirreil jit 10 a. m. on JMin. lu'ifflit of the J^iiroiiieti-r ciccurrcd at 4 P. M. on lixtreme range of tlic iifironictcr (liiriut; llie luoiitli Mean of tlie daily ]\fax. Pressures Ditto ditto " ^lin. ditto JUean daili/ yaiiffe of the Uaronieler dnriiit; the month


211. (;o3

llio '{Isl:. tlio



21). .5




Mean Dry Bulb

Thernionietor for



oeeiirrrd at 2 v. ii. on the 11th. Tenipeniliiro occurred at 5 cV A. M, on the 1st. lid-treme yoiicfe of the Te)]i]»eraiure during the month jMeau of the daily JViax. Temperature ...

Max. Temperature

82.9 91.3 77 5





87.3 80.0


duili/ raiiijc of

the Temperature during the montli.

Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer
Computed Mean Dew-point

for the


^Fean Dry Bulb Therniouietcr above
for the

Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer
meau Dew-poiut


80.5 2.4 78.8

Meau Dry Bulb

Tliermoiuftcr above computed



Elastic force of Yapoiir for the




Troy grain.
10.36 ... ... ... of Vapour for the month 1.K3 Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete .saturation ... Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.88

Mean Weight


Mean Max.

Solar radiation Thermometer for the



2.69 ... ... of rain during 24 hours Eained 28 days. 12.11 ... ••• ... Total amount of rain during the month Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo... 1^-68 ... ... ... meter during the month ... S S W. & S. W, ... Prevailing direction of the Wind...



70 feet 10 inches above ground.


Mefeoi'uloffical Observatiotis.


Mcteoruloijh'ctl Ohxcrra lions.


Abstract of the Itfxults of the Uovrlij 'Mclcorolotjical Ohscrvutiuiis
taken at the Survri/or Cciiernl's









'l-r W.V



lionu-itude 88^ 20' 31'' Eiist.

of the





BafomoU'r al)ovo


sea level, 18. 11 feet.

J)aily i\[eiins, ite. of


Ohservalions and of (he
dcpeiuleiit thereon.

iryf^roiiielrieal eleinenls




Uunj^e of the Barometer durini' tlie day.



of flie TenijuTature during the daj.

) Date. 1^ (Continued. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements dependent thereon. Calcutta. Abstract of the Results of the Tlourli/ Meteorological Observations taJcen at the Surveyor GeneraVs Office. in the month of September 1871. . Daily Means. &c.— Ixviii Meteorological Observations.

Meteorological Olservalions. of tlie Observations and of the Hygromctrical elements depcHilcnt thereon. . Ixix Ahitract of the Results of the lloiirli/ Meleorolofj'ical Ohservatlous OJjice. Hourly Means. taken at the Surveyor General's Calcutta^ in the vionlh of September 1871. Ac.

the month of September 1871.f> irygromefrical elements dejiendt-nt [Continued.) . Ahstracl of the liesults of (lie IJonrlii ^leteorological O/J'iee. of tlie Observations and of tliereon. t]. Ilotir^j Means. Olsevvations taken at the Stirvei/or General's ill Calcutta.— Ixx 3Ic/eoruh)i/ical ObnervufKntg. he.

to 10 a.'iit Sc 7 p. M.48 . M.M.. O to 7 p.ct E.m. M. 101. E jk E. ]'rovailini.O .-] tolJ m. Sf. O Sli-. M.. L oTi S AV at 7 Si. ]) al H a. it<". M...9 \i to 5 A. M..m. I) .ht 71 1-U.Vi to 10 a.i(li. direr I ion.S D 1 .0 3.6 O 3 to G p. M. M '-i to 3 1'. Slight II at 3 & 4. 11. \i to 8 A. \i al'liTwanls. M. 12. at 1 r. .S by I W&S E E ct | i to 4i p. II) . 3^ ct 7 P. 13 129.5 12 •• ! 1.. 131.. It mill . to G I'. 0.i. 142. 75.. K liy S .. Tat 3. WAS S W ct .1-]. \i Si \_i al'(cr\varils. M.5 I 0.. \i to 10 A. Si sligiit li from 4i to 11 P.7 \i to 2 A. O.1.. 1-^ 1 o 117. to 5 A. afterwards.m. M.iti<>ii.. L at 7 & 10 p. m. IVoiii 4 to 8 p. 1.2 Iiic'Ir's.25 W & S \V 2. Sby 'S1)y t W& SSW.Tat from 12! a. B \i — i Strati.. Jfoavy \i from 3J22. i:l7. 0. 8 v..0.8 i 0.20 . '^itoGA. L.*z Gi'iioral !i. M.^. Lii. M. "i to 4i'.5 .m. ifc at 5 p.S S ! S by E 99.. OIo7a. -ifo3p. L at midnipht. M. 30..S|o4p. Brisk wind at 3. month of Scjiti'inljer \\'i'!il )S71. M. M.. H.-s .. Ixxi Afjufract of the UesuUx of (he in lloiirl// MflrorohKj'ical (Ifiscrrdlii'iis ( lakcn at the Sujcei/or (he Si)l. 125.i/Tl..02 . M. .. 11 IMS Cirri. M. allcrwards. 11 from 1 \ to 9 p. S ai'tiTwards. Ikt..Mil. M. p. D 11 111. M. m.0 O to G A..M.G I 0. M . M. Set S by O.9 p. 8 A.0 .s. from G a. m... m.M. m. -^i to 3 p.u MG.5 0.4 M. V_.1 S to 2 A. M.strati.. at mi(liiii. M. <. ii. T lluuhler.. 4.25 S by W. L at 5 V.m. :.'lit 1\ at lieiii. S Io2a.rai\s ({[fn'i'. M. S afterwards. O UVlTC ast.7 O. B B afterward.. M. L at 4 A. .O S to 7 K. () & i afterward-.0 O to 7 A. B oloar. 70. 2 3 11. S slratoni.. M. E from3 to 5 Jtat 9i a. ^/^i Nimbi.O to 7 p. S aflcrwards. M.(5 . ~-. J{at 4 p.^.^ & 5 p. Siigjit lifrom niidnight to 7 a. Vi Cirro-cuinub. M.Mc(coi'vh'i\cal Oh>i('rval'ivnH.. M. S to v... ~i to G p.m. '"S Cumuli. m.28 j S W k S by W l.' A. 9j 1.1 p. 10 Ml. 8 U8. M.35 .0 1..09 E.m.2^4. Si... M.U 6! i 150.. O to 8'c-t of tin. to 10 A.GS S by E. 5 AGp. '" i to 5 p. E. AViM.2 "i afterwards L from 7 to 1 M. Slight li at G. \_i Cirro. | 1 |j ~ 5 t ^ .M. Light 1{ at 11. Brisk wind at 3' p...2G lESE&SS.7 0. 2. S to 3 p. aftorward.<\i\'. M. 7'.1 p. '^ iCumxdo-strati.. B afterwards. M. Slight li nearly the whole day.G . Clouds of diflcrcnt kinds. \i If) 8 A. S by AV S by S S W 4 151. 152. to I lO..feGp. S Ek S E 0.. 'itlcnlta.2 to 9 A.5.m. m.i to 2 A. S.M.8 I S A S by 44.8. L lightning.. at 4i p. O 4& 6' U7.

Calcutta. &c. Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorulo(fical Observations taken at the Sarvei/or General's OJJlce. Solar Eadiation. in the month of September 1871.Ixxii Meleorolog lea I Ohserva lloti s. . Weather.

. Min. Si S.94G Troy grain. 80.. Temperature occurred at 9 a..... . S by W... PrevaiUng direction of the Wind Eained 23 days. O.0 2..... 2!». M. m.. for the month .. Mean Weight of Yaponr for the month 1.5 78. Total amount of rain during the nioiitli Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo^^ «'•-«> ••. .9 Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month ...610 0. ditto.... Monthly Indies. 7.. Jieight of the Baronioter occurred at 3 P.. Max.. '^-^ . complete satm-ation being unity 0.731 29. . Mean Dry Bulb Tliermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer Computed Mean Dew-point for the month Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point .. ou tlio 4th. m...i OJice. Calc/ttta. ...470 . meter during the month . Height 70 feet 10 inches above groimd..a Inches.. 1icif!.5 91.. . „ at 2 y. in the month of Scptemler 1871. 2'^. ou the 12th.. Ixxiii Abstract of the llesults of the Uourl// Meteorological Otjuervatious taken at the Surveyor G'eueral'. on the 2S(h.— Max. of tlic Earomoter for tlie month.. ..0 77.... fall of rain during 24 hours »'-J^ •• . Solar radiation Thermometer for the month . Ditto ditto Mean daily range of the Temj>erature during the month.. . . J'^xfrcme range of the Temperature during the month Mean of the daily Max.l. Mean Elastic force of Vapoitt for the month . . 0. on tlie 13t]i. Pressures . Wean of the daily Max..87 o Mean Max...!SSl.Meteorological Olservalions. ... S. Min.. S. Min.......lll 29.8 13. Temperature occurred ]\Iin....... 10. ditto Ditto ditto ..4.124 o Mean Dry Bulb Tliermometer Max.. . . Temperature . ... lieijEflit of tlio Baroiiietcr occurred at 10 a.3 Inches. 2'.3 87.. E. .. ('(7(3 2'..2 4... .17 .rfreme range o'i ilie ]3aronieter duriug tlie mouth ..3 79. M..47 Additional Weight ot A-^apour required for complete saturation .. i4i. .1it Moan . •^•. Mean degree of humidity for the month.. Mean daily range oi the Barometer during the month .).. 82. . Results..

Ixxiv Mctcuruhxj'ical Ohservalions. .

Ixxv Abstract of the licauHs of (lie llonvlij Meleoro1ogic<d Olservationt Oj/ice. of the Obsorvalions and of the Ifygronictrical elements dcpciidoiit thorcon.Me(eorof(iff'icaf Of/xervo/ions. Hfiglitof the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea Daily Means. -SH'^ Latitude 22^ 3:3' 1'^ Noitli. taken at the Stirrn/or General's in the month oj Ortoljcr Calcutta. 18. &c.11 feet. level. 1871. . Loiioilude 20' 31" East.

the month of October 1871.— Ixxvi Me/eoroJoffical Ohservations.) Pate. taken at the Sarvej/or GeneraVs ill Calcutta. . &c. Ahslracl of the liesiiUs of (he l[o7irli/ Meteorological Ohservatiom Office. of the Observations and of Ilygromctrical elements dependent thereon. tlie Dailj Means. o (Continued.

&c. Ixxvii Afjslrad of the liesnlfs of (ha Uonrl// Ulefeorolofical OLierva/ious taken at the Snrreiior GencvaVs in the viou/h OJJlce. Hourly Means. . of October 1871.Mefeorolo(/ical Ob-servaduus. CalcuUa. of (lie Observalions aihl of tlie ir^'gromelrical elomonfs (lopcndotit tlicreoii.

of the Observations and of the Hjgronietrical elements dependent thereon.— Ixxviii Meteorological Ohsercalions. the riionih of October 1871. Calcutta. (Cunlinued. Ac.Means.) . Hourlj. Abstract of the liesnlts of the Ilourl// Meteorolog'nutl Otjserratiom taken at the Siirvei/or General's i)i Office.

Ohaerval'ious taken at the Survei/or General's ill Caicutlaj ihe 111 of Octohcr 1871. Abstract of the lie-'salls of the OH (k ILoiirli/ Meleoroloij'u-al (J(lu'e.Metcoroloij ica I Obnercu lions. AVcaliici". Suhu" K. Af. .uli<ili<in.

. Calcutta. Solar Eadiation. Weatlicr.Ixxx Meteorological Ohservai'ions. &c. Abstract of the Remits of the llourh/ Meteorological Ohservafions taken at the Snrvej/or General's iu the Ojfice. month of October 1871.

. Max... Ji. Temjjerature ditto. — * Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground.9 73..iroiiie(or occui-iTd at U a.for ilie niontli. .1 10.6 92.... .. fall of rain during 24 hoitrs /-OS .. .. Min.... on tlie 4th....718 . Mean of tlic daily !Max. . Thermometer .. . on flu? Ifitli. on the 26 th& 27th J^xlreme ran(/c of the Temperature during the month . Temperature oeeurred at 5 & G a.0 87. . Pressures .. Temperature oeeurred at \]y...ii-onielor oi-ciin-cd at 3 p.. licight of tlie J3. . ... complete saturation being unity 0..i53 2!». ^ W. m.. of tlic Bjirometei. .6 Inches. Mean Elastic force of Yapour for the month .. 81. (121 .70 ........0 21...58 . Eained 9 days.. . MuiSlULY UkSCJLTS.. . .. . Ditto ditto J\lin..i»77 2!)... ]\Iin. .... Total amount of rain during the uiontli Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo... . the month of 1871.801 2!*.3 Inches. Calcutta..0 71..... 8.3 8. Ixxxi Afjs/racf of the taken llesulls of the llvurli/ Mafenroloffical Ohsprraliinia at ill the Sarvei/or GeneraVa Octotjcr Office... M. Max.. 2.61 Additional AYeight of Yaponr required for complete saturation ..... ^••meter during the month . ....809 Troy gi-ain.. Solar radiation Thermometer for the mouth . „ „ V -fv-^^ W... U..^ •".... . ]\Iin.. . Mean degree of humidity for the month. m. Ditto ditto daifj/ ran(/e o£ the . Bull) Thermometer for the month . .1 77.. ..... . .. ..... 0. Is W... ..0 Temperature during the mouth... iLslvvma run(je o{ llif Uaroiiiotcr during the month .. & S.. ... . ....8()7 2!». Max.. "Weight of Yaponr for the month 2. licisjlit Mean . IllcllPS... on tlio 2GLli.Meleorulof/ical Ofj-servulions. ]ieic... ditto .llD Mean Dr}' llulh Tliermonicter for tlie nion til . ... Mean ]\rean Drj' Buili Tiiermometer ahove Mean AYet Bulh . 2'J..lit of tlie 13... Mean Ja'dj/ raiKje oi the Barometer during the month .. Computed Mean ])e\v-point for the month Wet .. . by A\ PreTuiling direction of the Wind . 145. ... .. .. (). . .... Mean Mean of the daily Max. ...7 4.77 Mean _ o Mean Max. Mean Dry Bidb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point 76. .

Ixxxii Meteorological Obnerraflons. C ^^ si Cb 5 c: Sv . a.

. 18. Height of tlic Cistern of the Standard Biiromctcr above the sea level. of the nnd of tl-. Olservaliom taken at the Survcijor GeueraVs iit Calcutta.c Jrjgrometrical elements d<-]H'iidciit tliovoon.Meteorological Ofjserimlions. 88° 20' 31" East. &c.11 feet. Ixxxiii Abstract of the lii'snlfs of the Tlonrlij Meteorological Office. the month oj Noveinfjer 1871. 01)Scrvfitioiis Duily Means. Loiig-iLiule Laiitiule 2ii° 33' V North.

of tlie Obserrations and of the Hygromefcrical elements (Continued. Date. in the month of November 187]ii Daily Means. Calcutta. &c. .— Ixxxiv Meteorological Observations.) *- dependent thereon. Abstract of the Besnlls of the Hourly Meteorological Observations taken at the Surveijor General's OJlce.

of the 01)servations and of dependeut thereon. Hourly Means. IxxSv Ahslract of the Besulls of the llonrlij Meteorological Ohservation* taken at the Surveyor General's ill OJjlce. &c. Calcullaf the mouth of Novemler 1871. tlic JFygromctrical clemcnia .Meteorolofj ica I Obiservalioii s.

. the month of November 1871. Hourly Means. of tlie OLserrations «i>d of tliereon. Abstract of (he Hemlts of the Ilourl// Meteorological Ohservations tahen at the Surve!/or General's ill Ofjice. &c.) Jlour. tlie Hygrometrical elements dependent J (Continued.— Ixxxvi Meteorological Ohaervafions. Calcidia.

Wc-iidirr. Ixxxvii Ahatract of the llesnlts of the llourli/ Metenrolnfj'ival Oljsefvations taken at the Survci/or GeneraL'n in the Office. 144. "Wind. Solar tr o o 73 > O .2 145. rrcvailing •"d 5 O dii'CL'tiou.ti. November 1871.5 141.0 . Calcutta.uli:iti(.Meteorological OhservaCions. mouth of J!. kr.

Calcutta^ month of Novemher 1871. Weatlier. Abstract of the JtesiiUs of the Ilonrly Meteorological Ohservatio7t8 taken at the Surveyor General's in the Office. Solar Eadiation. . .fee.Ixxxvi Meteorological Ohservations.

. .tt .. Temperature occurred at 6 a... m. tlie IBaromplcr for the month. JMin. on the 12lh.9 8:}. .. ^.. height of .. w .. Ditto ditto Mean daily range of the Temperature during the . the month Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo.. on the 28th.. Nil Eained no days.1 65. .072 heiii..71 . of the Jiaroinolor occurred at i) a.626 Troy grain. . ... Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. t. fall ^^l ••• . -i . Extreme ruHcje of the Barometer during the month . 62.... Temperature occurred for the niontli 75.t i r H by fe.... 2. m.. . Mean Weight of Yapour for the month Additional Weight of Yapour required for complete . . Computed Mean Dew-point for the month Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point . ..128 o Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer Max... ditto ditto . 29.. on tlio 20tli.9 . ir. . . Monthly Eesults.. Temperature . Min.. ok the 2nd Min. Ditto Min. Mean "Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month ....«...73 degree of humidity for the month....... '•" "meter during the month .... . . Mean Elastic force of Yapour for the month 0.30. Ixxxix Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorolofjlcal OJjservatioua taken at the Sarvei/or General's in Office.022 21).... Mean daili/ ra>i<jc oi the Barometer during the month .— Max. complete saturation being unity 0. ditto.9 at 2 r. \N Prevailing direction of the Wind of rain dxiring 24 hours .. Total amount of rain durins. Calcutta^ ike month of Novemtjer 1871. . Mean ]Max.... m. 0.... 60..8 8fi... . 6. lExtt'eme )'aii(je of the Temperature durijig the month Mean of the daily ]\Iax...7 6..... 2tt. Pressures . Mean Dr}-^ Bulb Thermometer above jMean Wet Bulb Thermometer ..808 0.. heiglit of the Barometer occurred at 4 p.4 Inches. Mean o Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for tlic month 14/J...Meleoroluf/ ica I Odserva lions..4 Inches. 10. . .201 ... -v -n-" & >V. Mean of the daily Max.81 saturation ..0 2t...0o2 3(). 5 13.

2 f X>Q . "^ a -t-> tr. 5 '^ H.xc Meteorological Ohsenallons.

11 feet.Meteoroloij'u'ul OL<ierva(ious. North. Cistern of the Stamlard Barometer above sea level. Ac. Daily Means." East. of the Ohservalions and of the IFj'groinetrical elements dcpeiulciit thereon. Calcutta. Abstract of the Ifesulfs of the llonrli/ Hfeteoroloffical Ohservationt taken at the Surveyor General's in OJJice. the month oj Jjecemfjer 1871. 18. . LiiLidule 22-" 33' Iloif^Utof tlie 1'^ Longitude 88° 20' tlie 34.

of tlie Hygroraetrical elements dependent (Conlhiuad. month of Decemler 1871.) 1 . Observations and of tliereon. tlie Daily Means. Abstract of the liesulls of the ILnirlt/ Meteorological Ohservati^nt taken at the Surveyor General's hi the Office. Calcutta.— xeii MeleoroJo<jical Observation 9. &c.

Hourly Means. &c.lIet€orolv(/icnl ObneiTaliviii. . in the vionth of iJecemJjer 1871. CalcHtt<i. xau Abstract of the Results of the Uonrli/ Uleteorvlofwal Olservatlou* taken at the Sarvei/or General's OJice. of the Observations and of the irygrometrical elements dopcndoiit tluM-eoii.

— XCIV Meleorolixjical Ohscrva fiws. . Ahsli'aci of the liesnlts of the ILuurl// Meteovological Ohaervatioiia iuJcen at the Snrvei/or General's Office. . of the Observations and of the Hygronietrical elements dependent tliereon. CalcuHa ill the month of Decemler 1871. (Cuntluued.) Hour. Hourly Means. &c.

the month of JJecniifjcr 1S71.Meteoroloffica I Obxerva lion s xcv Abstract of the Results of the llonrl// Meteorological Observations taken at the Sarvei/or General'^ ill Oj/ire. AVfatlicr. kr. Solar JJinliation. Calcntta. .

Calcutta. Solar Eadiation. in the month of December 1871. 'o o P 22 23 24 25 26 .XCVl Mateoruloyical Observations. Weatlier. Abstract of the Eesidts of the Hourly Meteorological Observation* tuJcen at the Surveyor General's Office. Wind. &c.

.7 G1. on (lio 1 Mh... Prevailing direction of the Wind Pained no days. ^fean "Weight of Taponr for the 2. Temperature occurnd at 2 y.. 69... 63.317 30.. .0 25. .. . & IS W. ••• ..... the vwnfh of Becemher 1871.. Mean Wet 33ulb Tliormometer for tlie month ....30 Additional Weight of Vapour recjuired for complete saturation .v.H»7 2ii.. m. . Indies.... m.. lieifrlit of llie Bnromcfor for tlip niontli... ... hours ^'il •. . Mean Dry Hull) Tlierinometer above Jleau Wet Bulb Thermometer ... ..0 82. Moan Mjix. .132 o Mean Dry Max. 0. Observafiont. .. lieiglit lieijilit Min. . Monthly Ivksults.. Computed Mean Dew-point for the month Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point .. . Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month .. fall "•vw * Height 70 feet 10 inches above groimd.. range o( tlie .1 5. (> Inches... J^x(re>iie Bull) Thermoniofcr for the month . ditto.. Temperature .6 Inches...SS() Jurl reme rcot^e o'i (lio Earoiiiclor thiriug iLe Mean of the daily jNTax. of tlie J}. . . Mean degree of humidity for the month... Mean daili/ naige of the 13aronioter during the month . 133.. .70 ..... complete saturation being unity 0.. Mean daili/ range of the Temperature during the month.... ... 0. 0.. ..8 15... ... of the BaroinokM.. . Calcutta... Total amount of rain during the month Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo•• ... M. Min... on tlu. .... ...... 1st. —Max. mouth .. . . ... Solar radiation Thermometer for the month ...(»Sf> Ditto ditto j\lin.. ^il . W.. .. m.1 10. N.... . 5.5 57. on tlie 29th.. .496 Troy grain. meter during the month . of rain during 24. .. . 30.Meteoroloffical.9 58.... .9 . Pressures . .....occuiT('({ at 10 ..4d . Temperature during the month . .. ^ VT..5 77......ii-oiiictcr ofcnrnHl at 4 p.113 21). oh the 1st. Mean of tlie daily ]\lax. Ditto ditto Min....... xcvu Ahstracl of the liesulls of the llourh/ Mefeoruloyicul OLserni/inu* taken at the Snrvei/or General's in Office.013 3(».. month o Mean Max. ditto .. Temperature occurred at 7 a. .

'— .' XCVIU Meteorological Ohserral'ions.










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