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Automobiles have made it easier for travel and transportation for commercial and personal purposes, easier and efficient. Owing to an increase in automobile production, the pressure and competitiveness in the automobile industry has always been very high. New innovation in the automobile industry calls for new innovation in the automotive sector as well. So meeting new challenges in terms of product availability at the right time and at the right place, within the correct time plays a very important role in the survival of the automotive industry. The availability of old parts in optimum quantity is also needed as a part of maintaining service to the old customer base. 1.1.2 Global Scenario The global automotive industry is a highly diversified sector that comprises of Manufacturers Suppliers Dealers Retailers Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) Auto electricians Spray painters or body repairers Fuel producers Environmental ans transport safety groups Trade unions
The automobile and automotive parts and component manufacturers constitute a major chunk of automotive industry throughout the world. The automotive manufacturing sector consists of automobile and light truck manufacturers, motor vehicle body manufacturers and motor vehicle parts and supplies manufacturers. This sector is engaged in manufacturing of automotives and light duty motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies, chassis, cabs, trucks, automobile and utility trailers, buses, military vehicles and motor vehicle gasoline engines. 1.1.3 Top automotive producing nations United States of America, Japan, China, Germany and South Korea are the top 5 automobile manufacturing nations in the world. The U.S is the world‟s largest producer and consumer of motor vehicles and automobiles accounting for 6.6 million direct and spin-off jobs. This sector represents nearly 10 % of the $10 trillion U.S
economy. Automobile manufacturing is one of the important industries in the world, which provides employment to nearly 25 million people worldwide. In the recent past, the auto parts manufacturing industry of the Midwest lost 12.7% of its employment due to recession. 1.1.4 Future outlook of the industry The automotive industry is witnessing tremendous and dynamic changes these days. This industry is slowly and gradually shifting towards Asian countries, mainly because of saturation of automobile industry in the Western world. The principal driving markets for the Asian automotive industry are China, India and the ASEAN nations. Low cost vehicles, namely scooters, motorcycles, mopeds and bicycles have led to the massive growth of some of the fastest developing economies like China and India. The future of the automotive industry in Asian countries such as Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia is bright and promising because of the ASEAN free trade area, under which export tariffs are very less. On a global scale, the assets of the top 10 automotive corporations accounts for 28% of the assets of the world‟s top 50 companies, 29% of the people employed by them and 30% of their total sales. In the year 2006, the U.S sold around 16 million of new automobiles, Western Europe around 15 million while China and India sold 4 million and 1 million vehicles respectively. Latin America, Middle East, Eastern Europe, China, Malaysia and other nations are now emerging as the dominant markets of the automotive industry. Most of the major automotive players are shifting their production facilities to these emerging markets with the main purpose of gaining better access and reduction in their production costs. It is estimated that the automotive markets in South America and Asia will witness a boom in the near future. The various factors such as cheap financing, price discounts, rising income and developing infrastructure will assist in the growth and development of the automotive sector in the majority of the Asian markets. 1.1.5 Size and structure of the Automotive Industry The automotive industry occupies a leading position in the global economy, accounting for 9.5% of world merchandise trade and 12.9% of world export of
manufacturers. This industry manufactures self-powered vehicles including passenger cars, motorcycles, buses, trucks, farm equipment, other commercial vehicles and automotive components. The U.S is the major revenue source for the global automotive industry with a market share of $432.1 billion, occupying 37.2% of the world‟s marketplace. The laeding countries that did trade with the U.S in 2006 were Canada (28.67%), Japan (26.4%), Germany (14.81%), Mexico (10.21%), and South Korea (5.48%). 1.1.6 Trends in the Automotive Sector In the past few years the world has been witnessing the progress of the Asian markets in the automotive and automobile industry. The reason for this could be that the auto industry in the west and Japan has almost matured as a result of saturation. In contrast the auto market spread over the Asian markets is increasing and is expected to grow further and become a destination of mostly globally leading manufacturers. This industry reveals the trends of the emerging markets of the developing nations China and India, backed by huge population growth rate resulting in efficient manpower and increasing economic growth. Rapid growth in the BRIC countries has enabled the growing section of the population of these countries to purchase cars. Global surveys reveal that within 10 years, these countries will account for a whopping 90% of the global auto sales growth. As a result of this leading auto manufacturers are setting up factories in the emerging markets for their potential customers and to serve them better. Prosperity of the national economy is reflected in the rising per capita income of the developing nations. Therefore, the increase in the GDP and per capita income has raised the purchasing capacity of the population that constitutes these emerging markets. 1.1.7 Indian Scenario The automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world and one of the fastest growing globally. India manufactures over 17.5 million vehicles and exports about 2.33 million every year. It is the world‟s second largest manufacturer of
motorcycles with annual sales exceeding 8.5 million in 2009. India‟s passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the 7th largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 3.7 million units in 2010. According to recent reports, India is set to overtake Brazil to become the 6th largest passenger vehicle producer in the world, growing at 16 – 18% to sell around 3 million units in the course of 2011-12. In 2009, India emerged as Asia‟s 4th largest exporter of passenger cars behind Japan, South Korea and Thailand. As of 2010, India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles and more than 3.7 million automotive vehicles were produced in India in 2010 (an increase of 33.9%) making the country tha second fastest growing automobile market in the world. According to the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, annual car sales are projected to increase to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more the 9 million by 2020. By 2050 the country is expected to top the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation‟s roads.
1.2 Organisation Profile The company Metzeler Automotive Profiles India Pvt. Ltd. (formerly BTR Wadaco Automotive Pvt. Ltd.), started its sealing system operations in November, 1993 as a joint venture between Schlegel Corporation, U.S.A. and the Wadhwa group, who were holding 60% equity of the company at that time. The company was initially set up to supply sealing systems to Maruti Udyog Ltd, a joint venture of the Government of India and Suzuki (Japan). Schlegel Corporation, doing business in the name and style of “Metzeler Automotive Profile Systems” (hereafter referred to as MAPS) progressively increased its share in the equity of the company from 40% in 1993 to 100% in 1999. The sealing systems business of MAPS was bought by CVC capital partners in March 2000. In July, 2001, MAPS sold 26% of the equity stake in the company to Toyota Gosei Co. Ltd. Currently, it is known as MAPS sealing system S.A. 1.2.1 Takeover by Cooper Standard Inc. The company has been acquired by Cooper Standard Automotive Inc., head quartered in Novi, Michigan, U.S.A. A global leader in each of its product lines, CSA specializes in the manufacture and marketing of system and components for the
Maruti.2 MAPS in India MAPS is a supplier of automotive products to all major OEMs like TATA. MAPS INDIA is the global leader in the sealing systems. 2. Toyota. Cooper Standard‟s principle share holders are Goldman Sachs Capital Partners and The Cypress Group. Manesar and Dharuhera. The company is the world‟s leading manufacturer of high performance body seals. 1. 1. 1.NO. ISO14001 and TS16949 certification. Their plants have state-of-the-art design and manufacturing facilities covered by ISO 9001. They have the coveted ISO 9001 and QS 9000 quality system certifications and use world class ERP systems. The company has the latest CAD facility to undertake the design and development of static and dynamic sales for car manufacturers. Cooper Standard Automotive Inc. The total strength of employees at all the 3 units as follows: S. In India they have four plants located at Sahibabad. EMPLOYEES 830 716 389 MANESAR & GURGAON 5 .2. prototype and manufacture world class sealing system for the automotive industry.3 Units of MAPS India Pvt. Metzeler uses world class ERP systems. Mahindra & Mahindra. glass runs and anti-vibration systems. Ltd. General Motors. Ford. SAHIBABAD DHARUHERA UNIT NO. Delphi and Telco in India. Daewoo. They have recently been bestowed with the ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certification in the field of environmental management and occupational health and safety management system. Fiat.global automotive industry.2. They have the ability to design. They are one of the world‟s 4 leading manufacturers of Drive train systems and are now looking to expand their business in engineered polymers. employs more than 16000 across 62 facilities in 15 countries. QS 9000 quality systems. 3.
1 Fig: 1.3 6 .2 Fig: 1.Fig: 1.
2.5 billion US dollars : 16000 Manufacturing facilities : 78 manufacturing plants in 17 countries 22.214.171.124.7 Our Belief „Today Metzeler requires a steady flow of ideas and solutions from those who are closest to the process and the customers.9 Present Composition of Company‟s Ownership Sales Toyoda Gosel 26% Automotive sealing system 74% Fig: 1. by providing quality products in a safe and green environment.‟ 1.2.6 Vision „To be the largest preferred supplier in Indian automotive sealing systems and ensure stakeholders satisfaction.1.4 7 . Respect and Care Strive for continuous important 1.2. Provide development opportunities to our people and encourage team work for superior performance.‟ 1.8 Core Values Committed to customers Openness Adaptability Integrity Mutual Trust.4 Facts about MAPS Indian Operations Worldwide Total employment : 125 crores : 2.5 Mission „Provide quality and value added product using upgraded technologies and skills to meet our customers‟ expectations.‟ 1.
Excellence Award for Quality Circle National Convention 2005-Maruti Suzuki “Kaizen Award” 2006-Quality Award for TKM Best Supplier 2006-Delphi awarded to Top Four Suppliers 8 . 1. accidents in the organisation. Ongoing upgradation of occupational health and safety management system by adhering to customer. maintaining and continually improving the occupational health and safety management system by ensuring compliance to legal requirements. The following principles are the basic to achieving these environmental objectives: Identification and control of any health. continual reduction in rsik and hazard related to its employees and concerned parties. instruction and training.2. applicable legislation and other requirements that company subscribes to. societal expectation.14001 and OHSAS.Best HR Practice National Award (2nd best in India) 2002-Merit Award of Quality Circle At QC International Convention in India 2003-Award for Superior Performance through Kaizen 2004-Award of Honour for Promoting Quality Circle from QCFI 2005.2.12 Achievements Quality certification: ISO/TS-16949. safety and environmental hazards related to employees. 1.1. Regular assessment and control to reduce the risk of illness. The objectives of this policy are as follows: Enhancement of employees‟ awareness and consciousness to safe work practice through necessary information. Conserve resources and inprove the efficiency of energy usage. Minimum use of hazardous materials and reduction in industrial wastes.18001 2001.2. operations and facilities. ISO.10 Environmental Policy MAPS is committed to continually upgrading their environmental management system by ensuring that operations abide by environmental laws and regulations.11 Occupational health and safety policy MAPS is committed to implementing.
2. a safely functioning products. 1.5 As full service supplier of complete sealing system to international OEM‟s. tooling. For the development of material. Sealing system contribute towards a reduction of the 9 .14 Sealing Systems Flexible connection between the doors and the passengers compartments and between the trunk lid and body and body protect the interior of a vehicle against the effect of the weather and dust. and simulation to mixing. testing.2. extrusion and finishing all these process steps are conducted directly at MAPS. This ensures consistent and failure free processes at the end.13 Product Profile Fig: 1. MAPS India is in control of the development and production process. prototyping. 2006-Alliance Supplier Evaluation System „B‟ Grade Renault-Nisaan 2007-Excellence Award for QC National Convention Certification from 2007-Auto Monitor Award for Best Human Resource Initiative of The Year (Partners In Progress) 2008-Ford Q1 Certificate 2008-Insaan First Prize for The “Best Practice in Employee Involvement” (Partners In Progress) 2009-Insaan 11th National Suggestion Summit 2010-Insaan 12th National Suggestion Summit 1.
notes. window hoods and tail gates and sliding roofs.16 Wire Carrier This special product is used as metal carrier in a number of applications such as door seals. lotus. internet facilities. pro/ERP. They meet the exact design requirements of specific car type with regard to shape and surface of materials. 1. crash helmets. Mfg.2.18 Manufacturing Facilities Two intermixes of 45.2. cooling tower etc. The product group rubber sheeting and compound is also a part of sealing systems unit of Metzeler.2. compressor. 1. 4 dual durometer extrusion lines. 1. 1. well equipped with coating 4 single durometer extrusion lines Wire carrier unit 90 Pneumatic transfer presses 110 hydraulic transfer presses (15-25 ton capacity) 7 injection module presses Power lack up of 3450 kava MTD stations Effluent treatment plant Utilities like chillers. 10 .17 Stamped Metal The use of this product is similar to wire carrier with similar applications. Used in car sealing. these wire carriers are designed to provide optimum seal quality and flexibility as well as weight reduction.drag coefficient and towards minimizing wind noise.6 Ltr capacity each One banbury mixer of 86 litres capacity with auto loading of carton. This product is to provide the optimum strength and flexibility and helps to retain the seal on the body profile.15 Metzeler Sealings System can be mounted quickly and easily and it provides smooth functioning of doors.2. and motor bile shields. caco3 and process oil and semi auto chemical weighing.
UTM. corner mould design.2. solid moulding. extrusion die design etc.19 Design Facility Metzeler India has the latest CAD (Computer Aided Design) and FEA (Finite Element Analysis) facilities to undertake design of static and dynamic seal for all automotive applications. It uses top end CATIA stations to design seals for car makers and 2D. surface modifying. 1.DHARUHERA CFO HEAD HR HEAD SBU M&M. It has global support for virtual methods techniques such as CAD and FEA.2.GURGAON Fig: 1. rapid prototyping digital mock-ups (DMU) and simulations. & microscope 1.6 11 .20 Organisation structure and employee profiles Managing Director HEAD SBU TATA AND FIAT PLANT . GMI & FORD HEAD SUPPORT SERVICE SR MANAGER INTERNATIONAL MARKETING SENIOR MANAGER IR SENIOR MANAGER SBU HONDA & TOYOTA SR MANAGER MATERIALS HEAD D&D SBU RENAULT SR MANAGER TECHNICAL HEAD SBU MARUTI PLANT. Compound testing and product test lab well equipped with reheometer (o2) viscometer. 3D mechanical drawings.
6. 11. GRADES M M1 M2 M3 0 01 02 E E1 E2 T DESIGNATION AGM Senior Manager Manager Assistant Manager Senior Officer/ Senior Engineer Officer/ Engineer Assistant Officer/ Assistant Engineer Senior Team Leader Senior Associate/ Team Leader Associate/ Associate Team Leader Trainee 1. 9. 5.22 Formulated HR Strategies Partners in Progress Strategic communication with all employees Suggestion scheme Quality circle Star performer KRA(Key Result Areas) for all staff members Total Productive maintenance Training SHE(safety.21 Employee Profiles S. health and environment) programme Industry family bonds developments Culture Heritage development Monthly review meetings of the apex body Half-yearly in-house competitions Management-QC leader interface held monthly Quality circle progress review held quarterly Best performer of the month QC annual convention 12 . 4. 3.2. 2.NO. 7.1. 1.2. 10. 8.
ACTIVITIES Communication Activities ADVANTAGES a) Helps to find out what‟s going on within the company outside of the immediate team.) Quality circles 1.2. c) Employees feel they are heard and are able to express 13 APPROACHES Monthly/weekly meetings for updates on corporate goals and directions Report on monthly meetings and seek suggestions.24 HR Process at MAPS S.23 HR Practices employed by the company MAPS India has implemented a number of EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT PRACTICES to ensure employee involvement: Face in the crowd Outstanding innovation award Family night out Foreign trip 5S Competition In-house magazines High tea with MD Suggestion scheme Kaizen and star performer scheme Quizzes and competitions Communication meet Sports Club Inter unit competition Annual functions Holi Milan Deepawali celebrations Safety Week Quality month In-house documentary film Departmental competitions (Slash.1.NO.2. 1. . Best of extrusion etc. b) Helps to create an environment of trust and openness within the organization.
The SAP ERP application supports the essential functions of the business processes and operations efficiently and is tailored to the specific needs of the industry. Provides a framework for rewarding everyone in the organization. Some of the functions supported are: Financial and management accounting – improving confidence in financial reporting Operations management – increase productivity in operations with a role based solution and centralized information. Removes barriers to satisfaction in the organization.2 Reward scheme a) b) c) 3 Team activities building a) b) dissatisfaction and work together to resolve any conflicts without affecting their performance. Generate a feeling of belonging Helps to create a community at the work place Compensation and benefits programs Incentives Long service and good performance awards. Marketing management Managing customer relations Covers the entire sales process starting from sales planning to the delivery. Financial motivation to everyone / an opportunity to achieve. Social activities such as family gatherings Community outreach such as volunteering and fund raising Coaching and monitoring activities to give honest feedback by supervisors and peers Open and transparent culture to empower people and develop entrepreneurs 4 Leadership development activities a) Stimulates good performance. Reward for idea generation Team recreational activities such as trips.2. Pricing – It is possible to maintain various price lists and link the same to customers or customer groups Rich collection of reports Sales enquiries over a period 14 . b) Boosts creativity c) Easier succession planning 1.25 IT infrastructure at MAPS india A sound foundation is necessary to compete and win in the global marketplace. tournaments etc….
Study how the employees and the management perceive change 2. While the effects of change may either be positive or negative but without change absolutely no growth and development is possible or should even be expected.3 Objective of the study Change is essential to the growth of any organisation. The major objective of this study is to identify an organisation and then: 1. Open enquiries Complete sales report 1. is a structured approach of an organisation to moving from the current state to a future desired state. Identify what change initiatives have been employed in the last 5-6 years and study their efficacy Doing this it is hoped that the following can be understood: 1. How open and receptive is the organisation to change? 2. Change management. if employed. What can be done to improve the „change culture‟ of the organisation? 15 . Over the years it has become a discipline of management and a major field of research in itself.
LITERATURE REVIEW 2. teams. Economic shocks: These have always impacted organisations. These are as follows: Nature of the workforce: Almost all organisations are having to adjust to a multi-cultural environment. For instance.1 Change Management Change management is a structured approach to shifting/transitioning individuals. This process may be random and chaotic or structured and planned. Firms have to brace themselves to adapt to these shacks as quickly as possible. 2. Demographic changes.1. In project management. World politics: Changes such as the opening up of China and Southeast Asia. change management refers to a project management process where changes to a project are formally introduced and approved. This will mean a change in the marketing strategy of the organisation. and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. Competition: Successful organisations are those that are flexible and responsive and can change in response to the competition.2. immigration and outsourcing have transformed the nature of the workforce. employee security. It is an organizational process aimed at empowering employees to accept and embrace changes in their current business environment. Some examples of organisational change are: Missionary changes Strategic changes 16 . rise of Muslim fundamentalism and acts of terrorism around the world have led to changes in business practices related to the creation of backup systems.1 Introduction to change management Change may be defined as the process of becoming different. Social trends: Social trends do not remain static. consumers are increasingly doing their shopping at “big box” retailers and online. There are certain factors that act as drivers for change. Technology: The advancement of technology is moving at a rapid pace and is changing jobs and organisations. employee stereotyping and profiling. It is the process of moving from one state to another.
1 Classification of change 17 . It makes use of performance metrics. in order to avoid change failures or solve troubled change projects. Organizational Change Management aligns groups‟ expectations. As a visible track on transformation projects. Operational changes (including structural changes) Technological changes Changing the attitudes and behaviour of personnel As a multidisciplinary practice that has evolved as a result of scholarly research. Change management can be made successful by: Effective communication informing stakeholders the reasons for and benefits of change Devising an effective training scheme Countering resistance from employees Providing personal counselling Monitoring the implementation and making improvements wherever required Change may be classified as: CHANGE Planned Unplanned Fig: 2. communicates. and process of change should all be specified as part of a Change Management plan. communication effectiveness. operational efficiency. and the perceived need for change to design appropriate strategies. leadership commitment. such as financial results. content. Change Management processes may include creative marketing to enable communication between change audiences. but also deep social understanding about leadership‟s styles and group dynamics. The objectives. Organizational Change Management should begin with a systematic diagnosis of the current situation in order to determine both the need for change and the capability to change. integrates teams and manages people training.
2 Steps to implementing change 18 . It is a dynamic process. they need to create a logical step-by step approach in order to accomplish the objectives. which is illustrated in the following figure: Need for change Follow-up & evaluation Development of goals of change Implementation Selection of change agent Plan for implementation Development of a plan Selecting method of intervention Diagnosis Fig: 2. These are persons who act as catalyst and assume the responsibility for managing change. Change initiatives fail mostly because of the wrong selection of change agents. Steps in Planned Change Once managers and an organization commit to planned change.2 Planned Change Planned change is a proactive response to anticipated changes.2. Planned change requires managers to follow an eight-step process for successful implementations. requires a proactive response and is the foundational definitions of Organisational Development. The success of planned change depends on Change agents.1. The change agent(s) could be any of the employees of the organisation and must be carefully chosen.
Managers can make themselves more sensitive to pressures for change by using networks of people and organizations with different perspectives and views. open to good ideas. Develop a plan.Each of the steps has been elaborated as follows: 1. The change may be due to either internal or external forces. Implement the plan. 7. Select an implementation method. visiting other organizations exposed to new ideas. After all the questions have been answered. and sensitizing people to the forces of change that exist in their environment. This step requires a decision on the best way to bring about the change. as compared to the desired future state. In this step. and supportive of the implementation of those ideas into actual practice. The change agent must be alert to things that need revamping. Develop the goals of the change. Diagnose the current climate. 4. 3. such as competitor's progress. 2. Both problems and opportunities must be evaluated. structure. Then it is important to define the needed changes in terms of products. technology. or the “what” information. The change agent is the person who takes leadership responsibility to implement planned change. Recognize the need for change. Remember that before any action is taken. where. It also delegates responsibility for each of the goals and objectives. initial excitement can dissipate 19 . Select a change agent. and using external standards of performance. Recognition of the need for change may occur at the top management level or in peripheral parts of the organization. 5. the plan is put into operation. This step involves actually putting together the plan. It notes specific events and activities that must be timed and integrated to produce the change. The plan is like a road map. the change agent sets about gathering data about the climate of the organization in order to help employees prepare for change. Once a change has begun. 6. Preparing people for change requires direct and forceful feedback about the negatives of the present situation. This phase also determines the when. and culture. it is necessary to determine why the change is necessary. and how of the plan.
Managers can maintain the momentum for change by providing resources.1. motivating change. During this step.3 Classification of change 2. and sustaining momentum during the change must be recognised.5 Strategic Change Strategic change is about leveraging vision to get at fundamental aspects of the organization. Change should produce positive results and not be undertaken for its own sake. It is important to determine whether the goals were met. developing political support.1. including the organization's direction and its culture. Change may also be classified as: CHANGE Strategic Tactical Fig: 2.4 Tactical Change Tactical change occurs in the short-term and is generally short lived.1. Often it is difficult to tell where the change came from and how it was initiated. The need for change. reinforcing new behaviors.3 Unplanned Change Unplanned Change usually occurs because of a major. which causes its members to respond in a highly reactive and disorganized fashion. managing the transition. It happens in reaction to unseen and unanticipated influences. a complete follow-up and evaluation of the results aids this determination. Follow the plan and evaluate it. and building a support system for those initiating the change. Any comprehensive model of planned change includes a set of activities that managers must engage in to manage the change process effectively.in the face of everyday problems. 8. Planned tactical changes imply routine adjustments but unplanned tactical changes usually mean a knee jerk reaction to an unexpected influence. sudden surprise to the organization. Strategic change 20 . developing new competencies and skills. 2. 2. creating a vision. managers must compare the actual results to the goals established in Step 4.
organisational behaviour would take on the characteristics of chaotic randomness. Habit: Habit provides comfort and security Misunderstanding: This may be because of communication problems / inadequate information Low tolerance of change Different assessment of change: Disagreement over need for change Economic implications: People are likely to resist change if it is perceived to affect their pay Fear of the unknown: This is a very common psychological fear in people. Often change is perceived to be threatening. It can stimulate a healthy debate about the merits of the idea and thus result in better decision making.is about forging organizational robustness in the face of environmental pressures. whether it is by individuals or the organisation. However the downside to resistance is that it hinders adaptation and progress. 2.2 Resistance to change Change is always resisted. 21 . These could be: It provides a degree of stability and predictability to behaviour. If there was no resistance. Planned strategic change is aimed at building robustness while unplanned strategic change normally means using a spontaneous opportunity. Too much of resistance can slow down the progress rate and hence can even endanger the future of the organisation. Resistance to change however can have a positive influence. Resistance can also be a source of functional conflict. Why does resistance to change arise? Organisational behaviour experts agree that there could be a number of factors responsible for this: Parochial self interest: Individuals are concerned with the implications for themselves.
5 Classification of sources of resistance to change The individual sources are as follows: Habit: Habits or programmed responses are relied upon in complex situations. The greater challenge is managing resistance that is implicit and deferred. Implicit resistance efforts are more subtle and hence more difficult to recognise.Resistance can be either: Resistance Overt / Implicit Immediate/d eferred Fig: 2.4 Classification of resistance to change It is easiest to deal with resistance that is overt and immediate. 2.2. Economic factors: Changes in job tasks or established work routines can arouse economic fears. 22 . Hence when confronted with change this tendency to respond in accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance.1 Sources of Resistance to Change The sources of resistance to change can be classified as: Sources of Resistance to change Individual Organisational Fig: 2. Similarly deferred actions cloud the link between the source of resistance and the reaction to it. Security: Security implies the feeling of safety that is threatened when faced by change. Reactions to change can build up and then explode in some response that seems totally out of proportion to the change action it follows.
The organisational sources are as follows: Structural inertia: Organisations have built in mechanisms to produce stability. So limited changes tend to be nullified by the larger system. Implementing changes fairly: One way organisations can minimise the negative impact of change is to make sure that the change is implemented fairly. Limited focus of change: Organisations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems where one cannot be changed without affecting the others. Selective information processing: Individuals selectively process information to keep their perceptions intact. 2. When confronted with change. 23 . These are as follows: Education and Communication: By helping employees see the logic of a change resistance can be reduced.3 Overcoming Resistance to Change There are certain popular methods in use to overcome change. Participation: Prior to making a change. Threat to established power relations: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relations within the organisation. Building support and commitment: When employees‟ fear and anxiety are high. Fear of the unknown: Change substitutes ambiguity and uncertainty for the unknown. group norms may act as a constraint. Threat to established resource allocations: Groups in the organisation that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. employee counselling may facilitate adjustment. Group inertia: Even if individuals are willing. those opposed to it can be brought into the decision process. this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability. Threat to expertise: Changes in organisational pattern may threaten the expertise of specialized groups.
3. have a positive attitude towards change and are flexible in their behaviour. Coercion: This refers to the application of direct threat or force on the resisters. is a form of both manipulation and participation. Action Research 4. These could be: Impetus for change is likely to come from outside change agents Internal change agents are most threatened by their loss of status in the organization Long-time power holders tend to implement only incremental change The outcomes of power struggles in the organization will determine the speed and quality of change 2. are willing to take risks. on the other hand. Organisations can facilitate the change process by selecting people who score high on these characteristics. Cooptation.1 Politics of change Since change invariably threatens the status quo. 2. Organisational Development Each of these methods has been elaborated as follows. Manipulation and cooptation: Manipulation refers to covert influence attempts. 24 . it inherently implies political activity. Selecting people who accept change: Ability to accept and adapt to change is related to personality. who adjust best to change. Kotter‟s Eight-Step Model 3. Lewin‟s Three-Step Model 2.4 Approaches to Managing Organisational Change There are a number of approaches to managing change. People. These are as follows: 1. It seeks to „buy off‟ the leaders of the resistance group by giving them a key role in the change decision.
4. 3.7 Kotter‟s Eight-Step Model 25 . Unfreeze: Create initial motivation to change by convincing people that the initial state is undesirable. Change: Identify new behaviours and norms. 2.2 Kotter‟s Eight-Step Model John Kotter of the Harvard Business School built on Lewin‟s three-step model to create a more detailed approach for implementing change. structures etc. Kotter began by listing common mistakes that managers make when trying to initiate change.6 Lewin‟s Three-Step model 1.4.1 Lewin‟s Three-Step Model Unfreeze Change Refreeze Fig: 2. communications.2. These are: Establishment of a sense of urgency Formation of a coalition Planning and rewarding of short term wins Empowerment of others Making of improvements where necessary Reinforcement of changes Creation of a new vision Communication of the vision Fig: 2. Communicate them and adopt new attitude and culture. Refreeze: Reinforce new behaviour through reward systems. 2. These included: The inability to create a sense of urgency about the need for change Failure to create a coalition for managing the change process Absence of a vision for change Not removing the obstacles impeding achievement of that vision Not anchoring the changes to the organisational culture Kotter then established eight sequential steps to overcome these problems.
Establish a sense of urgency: Stakeholders tend to react favourably when there is a sense of urgency. Making of improvements where necessary: Improvements are consolidated. Diagnosis Analysis Evaluation Feedback Action Fig: 2. Hence a compelling reason is created as to why change is needed. 7. Planning and rewarding of short term wins: Short-term wins that move the organisation towards the new vision must be planned. Empowerment of others: Other stakeholders are empowered to act on the vision by removal of the barriers to change and encouragement of risk taking and creative problem solving. 2.4. created and rewarded. Communication of the vision: The vision is communicated throughout the organisation. 3. 5. Creation of a new vision: A new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision are decided upon. Formation of a coalition: A coalition with enough power to lead the change is formed.Each of these steps has been explained as follows: 1. 6. 4.3 Action Research Model Action research refers to a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analysed data indicates.8 Action Research Model 26 . changes reassessed and necessary adjustments made in the new program 8. Reinforcement of changes: Changes are reinforced by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviours and organisational success. 2.
The following briefly identifies the the underlying values in most OD efforts: Respect for people: Individuals are perceived as being responsible.4. develop action plans for bringing about the needed change. 2. concerns and needed changes from the members of the organisation. 3. The OD paradigm values human and organisational growth. collaborative and participative processes and a spirit of enquiry. Diagnosis: The change agent begins by gathering information about problems. Power equalisation: Effective organisations deemphasise hierarchical authority and control. conscientious and caring. Feedback: This requires sharing with employees what has been found from the diagnosis and analysis. with the help of the change agent. rather than being swept under the rug. The employees.Each of the steps of the Action Research Model has been elaborated as below: 1. 27 .4 Organisational Development Organisational development is a term used to encompass a collection of planned change interventions built on humanistic-democratic values that seek to improve organisational effectiveness and employee well-being. into primary concerns. Then using the initial data gathered as a benchmark. openness and a supportive climate. Action: The employees and the change agent carry out the specific actions to correct the problems that have been identified. authenticity. Analysis: The change agent synthesises information such as the problems that people key in on and the pattern these problems seem to take. problem areas and possible actions. Confrontation: Problems are openly confronted. They are treated with dignity and respect Trust and support: An effective and healthy organisation is characterised by trust. Evaluation: The action plan‟s effectiveness is evaluated. 5. 2. any subsequent changes can be compared and evaluated. 4.
In this method. Team building is applicable where group activities are interdependent. Process Consultation: The purpose of a process consultation is for an outside consultant to assist a client. Intergroup Development: Intergroup development seeks to change the attitudes. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. loosely directed by a professional behavioural scientist. The data collected then becomes the springboard for identifying problems and clarifying issues that may be creating difficulties for people. understand and act upon process events with which the manager must deal. to perceive. There are mainly six OD techniques or interventions for bringing about change. and increased understanding of group processes. which will result in increasing the team‟s performance. Participation: The more that people who will be affected by a change are involved in the decisions surrounding that change. Team Building: Team building uses high interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among group members. identifying discrepancies among member perceptions and solving these differences. The 28 . The objective is to improve coordinative efforts of members. Survey Feedback: The survey feedback approach is a tool for assessing attitudes held by organisational members. greater sensitivity to the behaviour of others. Sensitivity Training: It refers to a method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interaction. Organisation members may be asked to suggest questions or may be interviewed to determine what issues are relevant. The objective of sensitivity training is to provide subjects with increased awareness of their own behaviour and how others perceive them. stereotypes. 4. 5. the more they will be committed to implementing those decisions. and perceptions that groups have of each other. 2. While process consultation may seem to be similar to sensitivity training. These are: 1. usually a manager. 3. the other group and how it believes the other group perceives it. Members are brought together in a free and open environment in which participants discuss themselves and their interactive processes. it is different in that process consultation is more task-directed.
Long tenure in management is associated with innovation. there are some factors which are instrumental for innovation. While no fixed formula exists. process or service. but not all changes necessarily involve new ides or lead to significant improvements. in that they first identify a set of problems and then look for a solution. formalisation and centralisation. adaptation and crossfertilization that makes the adoption of innovation easier. These are: 1. Having an abundance of resources allows an organisation to afford to purchase 29 .5 Creating a culture for change Organisations can embrace change by transforming their cultures and by having a more proactive approach to change. Research scholars have identified two fundamental approaches by which this can be done: Stimulating a culture of innovation Creating a learning organisation 2. and the groups look for causes of the causes of the disparities. Differences are clearly articulated. organic organisations facilitate the flexibility. which can then be built on to improve performance.1 Stimulating a culture of innovation Innovation is a more specialised kind of change. So all innovations involve change. This approach seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organisation. appreciative inquiry accentuates the positive. after which similarities and differences are discussed. Structural variables: These are the most studied potential source of innovation.groups then share their lists. Innovation is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product. The structure-innovation relationship has four characteristics: Organic structures positively influence innovation. Appreciative Inquiry: While most OD approaches are problem-centered. Rather than looking for problems to fix. Innovation is nurtured when there are slack resources. 6. Because they are lower in vertical differentiation.5. 2.
3.e. when errors are detected. offer high job security and encourage individuals to become champions of change. An emphasis on reactiveness pushes out innovation and continuous improvement. build support. People discard their old ways of thinking and the standard routines they use for solving problems or doing their jobs. idea champions actively and enthusiastically promote the idea. 2. Most organisations engage in single-loop learning i. policies and standard routines.5. Competition: An overemphasis on competition undermines collaboration. When an error is detected. bear the cost of instituting innovation and absorb failures. overcome resistance and ensure that the innovation is implemented. In contrast. Learning organisation can be envisioned to be a solution to three problems that plague organisations today: Fragmentation: This is based on barriers that are created by specializations. Cultural variables: Innovative organisations tend to have similar cultures. it‟s corrected in ways that involve the modification of the organisation‟s objectives.2 Creating a learning organisation A learning organisation is an organisation that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change.innovations. if any. the correction process relies on past routines and present policies. Inter unit communication is high in innovative organisations 2. learning organisations use double-loop learning. These are as follows: There exists a shared vision that everyone agrees on. Once a new idea is developed. 30 . Human resource: Innovative organisations actively promote training and development of their members. They encourage experimentation and reward both successes and failures. There are certain characteristics of a learning organisation. which separate different functions into independent units. Reactiveness: This misdirects the management‟s attention to problem solving rather than creation.
There are a number of approaches which may be used to make an organisation. cost consciousness. and a sense of ownership Little respect for time Lack of a professional system of skill development While these are the important problems. excessive workforce. professionalism. a learning one. That means rewarding people who take chances and make mistakes. Redesigning the organisation‟s structure: A formal structure can be a serious impediment to learning. process sensitivity. managers need to demonstrate by their actions that taking risks and admitting failures are desirable traits. functions. At a general level the organisations and the people working in it face problems of attitude. Reshaping the organisation‟s culture: To become a learning organisation. and increasing the use of cross-functional teams. also feel the need to tackle issues of outdated technology.6 Organisational Change in Indian businesses Traditional Indian businesses are plagued by some crucial problems that act as barriers to change and development. People sublimate their personal self-interest and fragmented departmental interests to work together to achieve the organisation‟s shared vision. employers and employees alike. activities. 2. People openly communicate with each other (across vertical and horizontal boundaries) without fear of criticism or punishment. and continuous improvement. Members think of all organisational processes. inadequacy of 31 . An organisation can be changed to transform it into a continual learner. eliminating departments. interdependence is reinforced and boundaries between people are reduced. and interactions with the environment as part of a system of interrelationships. By flattening the structure. Some of these key problems include: Lack of aspiration to be world class Lack of vision. innovation. These are: Establishing a strategy: Management needs to make explicit its commitment to change.
Indian organisations also face problems of hierarchy and caste dynamics. In recent years. Case Study: North Delhi Power Limited has attained tremendous success through promotion of learning. They work on the concept that lack of monitoring will lead to complete transparency and freedom from fear. Several Indian organisations have embraced a culture of change and innovation. Sasken Communication reflects an atmosphere of complete trust and equality.a system of online submission of employee grievance that minimises chances of procrastination by managers in grievance redressal. thereby giving the employee the liberty and room to work in whichever way he wishes. NDPL has also introduced saarathi. effective performance management. lack of concern for customer satisfaction and unsatisfactory levels of productivity. and this impedes their potential to attract and retain quality workforce. 32 . and change management. Thus it has no attendance system and no limit on sick leave that an employee can avail.skill. Organisations are yet to recognise the need to decentralise power to professionals. opportunities opened as a result of liberalisation have changed the attitude of Indian businesses.
the basic framework of research used will be elaborated. to find out the various initiatives in this direction that have been carried out and how have they impacted the general work culture. A good questionnaire is essential to the proper collection of data. Hence here. By interviewing the employees. 3.2 Identifying the levels to be surveyed It is generally agreed that for any change management initiative to be successful. To find out the general perception of change in the organisation i. 3.) Collection of data Organisation and evaluation of the data Drawing certain conclusions on the basis of available data. Also. This project required real time data to be able to analyse it and thus give appropriate results and suggestions. the implementation has to begin at the top. than by the lower level employees. 33 .e.3 Preparing a questionnaire The questionnaire has been rightly called the heart and soul of any survey. the executive level and the administrative staff.1 Defining the problem As stated in the objective. 3. the problem was identified as being two-fold: 1.3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is the systematic search for pertinent information on a topic. The steps followed were: Problem definition Identification of the levels to be surveyed Preparation of the questionnaire (deciding the type of questions etc. Hence this survey was restricted to the top management. Shop floor workers were excluded from the survey. if the employees are open to change 2. the effects of change management will be seen sooner by the management.
A questionnaire should fulfil the following criteria. All views expressed were recorded as fairly and thoroughly as was possible.4 Collection of data Data was collected through personal interviews of employees belonging to the identified target group.5 Organisation and evaluation of data Data has been evaluated and organised to reach certain conclusions. This has been done with the use of certain statistical tools. the objective questions must come first followed by the subjective ones It must be able to convey to the respondent as to what is expected of him As far as possible it must be self-explanatory All efforts were made to adhere to these conditions during the preparation of the questionnaire. to be effective: It must not be very lengthy It must be precise and concise As far as possible.If the data collected is not proper or the intended one. 3.6 Drawing certain conclusion on the basis of available data Using the results obtained statistically. 3. certain conclusions have been drawn and recommendations given. 3. 34 . it will affect the further steps of analysing the data and drawing conclusions from it.
It recognises the importance of the understanding of all employees. and by virtue of this fact is a largely dynamic one. this project aims to find out the various interventions that have been implemented in this direction. CASE STUDY Introduction: The automotive industry is the fastest growing industry today. 35 . the thought process and attitude re-engineering. One of the major change interventions that have been initiated is „Partners in Progress‟. This enhances people involvement and thereby the decision making process. to stay afloat in such a competitive industry. And this can only be done through change and its proper management. It has witnessed a number of changes that have fairly revolutionised the industry. Hence. of the need to willingly be partners in progress. It is a systematic approach to enhancing the level of involvement. Hence. In India they are the major suppliers to all the large OEMs. The aim of this intervention therefore was to improve relations and the overall level of motivation. The basic model followed in the „Partners In Progress‟ intervention is: Being clear in setting of the objective Floating the idea Being patient-letting the idea sink in and be accepted Carefully selecting the change agents Letting them implement the idea and being ready to tolerate the shortcomings that may follow Trusting human wisdom. Hence. global players have to constantly look to innovation and change. MAPS are the global leaders in sealing systems. and their efficacy. that the change agents will mature gradually. but surely Recognising their efforts through a thanksgiving ceremony The lesson followed at MAPS-India is „Keep Initiatives Simple‟. the challenge is to sustain in such an environment.4. A motivated and buoyant team can change the destiny of the organisation.
The questionnaire that was used as a data collection tool is as follows: Metzeler Automotive Profiles India Ltd.Data collection sources: A questionnaire was prepared as a method of data collection. are the reasons and benefits of the change communicated to you? o Yes o No 3.e. technological and/or operational. In order to adapt to the change. structural. When there is a change in the organisation that is directly affecting your work. Changes can be strategic. if any training/counselling is required.) Name (optional): _____________________________________________________ Designation*(important): ________________________________________________________ 1. team or organisation to a future desired state. In your opinion how important is change for an organisation? o Very important o Important o Fairly important o Not at all important 2. it is available to you: 36 . Change management refers to how the changes are implemented i. in a systematic and planned manner or otherwise. It contains a number of objective questions for the purpose of numerical analysis and some subjective ones to capture the employees‟ perception of change. and how the response to the change over which the organisation has no control is managed. (please answer the following questions regarding change & its management in your organisation. Survey on the perception of change and its management in the organisation Questionnaire Change is a structured approach to shifting from the present state of an individual. As an organisational process it aims to help employees accept and embrace change.
What changes have occurred recently at MAPS-India (or since you joined the organisation)? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 2 – poor. Is the opinion of the employees. 4 – good. 3 – average. Please rate your workplace on the following (on a scale of 1 to 5): (1 – hardly exists. Are employees appreciated and due recognition given to them for their ideas? o Always o Occasionally o Rarely o Never 8. In your opinion was the implementation of each of these changes in a planned and systematic manner? Please elaborate 37 . heard and taken into consideration when decisions are taken? o Always o Occasionally o Rarely o Never 7.o o o o Always Occasionally Rarely Never 4. Once the change has been made is it continuously monitored for any conflicts that may arise? o Yes o No 5. 5 .excellent) Ease in information flow from the bottom to the top Leadership Innovation Team work Openness to ideas Encouragement to take risks _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 6. who are to be affected by a particular change.
Technique of data collection: The method used was personal interview.__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 10. If the need is felt to make a change in the organisation. incorporating members of the management. executive and administrative levels. the sample size is hence 57% of the total population. The respondents were chosen at random from among the target group. Has ‘Partners in Progress’ affected you and the quality of your work? If so. 38 . With the size of the target group being 62. what is your opinion about the procedure followed? Can changes be easily made? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Each of the respondents was spoken to and their ideas and thoughts expressed were recorded as accurately as possible. how? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Sample size: A sample size of 35 was taken for this survey.
Data Analysis: The responses obtained for each of the questions will be analysed: Q1. When there is a change in the organisation directly affecting your work. In your opinion. are the reasons and benefits of the change communicated to you? Responses Yes No 27 8 Number of respondents Responses Yes No 22% 78% 39 . how important is change for an organisation? Response Very Important Important Fairly Important Not at all important Number of respondents 16 16 3 0 Responses Very Important Important Fairly Important 8% 46% 46% Q2.
In order to adapt to the change.Q3. if any training or counselling is required. Once the change has been made. is it continuously monitored for any conflicts that may arise? Response Yes No 12 23 Number of respondents Responses Yes No 33% 67% 40 . how frequently is it available to you? Response Always Occasionally Rarely Never 8 16 8 3 Number of Respondents Responses Always Occasionally 11% 22% 22% 45% Rarely Never Q4.
3 – average. 2 – poor.Q5. Please rate your workplace on the following factors (on a scale of 1 to 5) (Legend: 1 – hardly exists. 4 – good. 5 – excellent) 1 2 3 4 5 Flow of information from the employees to the top management Response Number of Respondents 0 8 23 4 0 Responses 2(poor) 3 (average) 11% 22% 4 (good) 67% 1 2 3 4 5 Leadership Response 0 4 16 11 4 Number of Respondents Responses 2 (poor) 3 (average) 11% 4 (good) 11% 5 (excellent) 33% 45% 41 .
1 2 3 4 5 Innovation Responses 0 11 20 4 0 Number of Respondents Responses 2 (poor) 3 (average) 4 (good) 11% 33% 56% 1 2 3 4 5 Teamwork Response 4 0 4 27 0 Number of Respondents Responses 1 (hardly exists) 3 (average) 4 (good) 11% 11% 78% 42 .
1 2 3 4 5 Openness to ideas Response 0 3 14 18 0 Number of Respondents Responses 2 (poor) 3 (average) 10% 4 (good) 50% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Encouragement to take risks Response 4 0 4 27 0 Number of Respondents Responses 1 (hardly exists) 3 (average) 4 (good) 11% 11% 78% 43 .
Is the opinion of employees who are to be affected by a particular change. Are employees appreciated and due recognition given to them for their ideas? Response Always Occasionally Rarely Never 8 23 4 0 Number of Respondents Responses Always Occasionally 10% Rarely 55% 30% 5% 44 .Q6. heard and taken into consideration when decisions are taken? Response Always Occasionally Rarely Never 0 27 8 0 Number of Respondents Responses Occasionally Rarely 22% 78% Q7.
However there were some employees (nearly 50%) who were either unaware of the change process or perceived it to be time-consuming and cumbersome. Today self propelled teams exist. As long as planning and communication is present changes can be easily made. People must be allowed to make mistakes and the organisation should tolerate the shortcomings. till success id achieved. that allows greater interaction between employees of unrelated departments Restructuring of the HR department Takeover of Metzeler by Cooper Standard Organising of more medical camps. there is a greater chance of success. a few respondents were unsure because of lack of awareness of the change process. Sales have also increased by a large extent (nearly 10 times) Initiation of a large number of extracurricular activities Introduction of Partners in Progress – This has led to the commencement of annual functions. there is a general feeling that MAPS has become more employee friendly and employee centric There has been a change in employee-attitude. the employees most likely to be affected by the change. A Safety Film is also underway. In your opinion was the implementation of each of these changes in a planned and systematic manner? Please elaborate. for instance – In house magazine Introduction of a common platform. this is being followed at MAPS Change has been in a very planned manner. Q8.e. While the overwhelming response was yes. If the need is felt to make a change in the organisation. becoming more responsive and less afraid of competition Q9. what is your opinion about the procedure followed? Can changes be easily made? The overall idea was that if the idea for the change is shared with the stakeholders i. What changes have occurred recently (in the last 5 years) at MAPS – India (or since you joined the organisation)? MAPS has expanded vastly in the past few years. the customer line was not stopped for even a single day during the expansion process and other changes Q10. 45 .Subjective Questions: All the points mentioned (common or otherwise) have been recorded for each of the questions. The general opinion was: There has been an increasing clarity in setting of objectives Selection of change agents is done carefully First sharing the idea and then implementing it is instrumental to the success of the change initiative. which is why.
Hence the process of hand-holding must be stronger and better. is communicated to them. were not fully aware of this scheme but admitted that they had heard other employees talk of it. The general feeling of the population was that once a change is implemented. A significant number also said that training was rarely available. Face in the crowd scheme etc. was available only occasionally to them.) New employees. Thus they had already perceived it to be a good motivating factor However employees from the Export and Replacement business felt that they had been ignored. This is an important aspect of the change process and must be continued A greater part of the population surveyed said that training or counselling required to adapt to a change. Thus receptiveness to change is fairly good. family visits. A large majority of the employees agreed that the reasons and benefits of any change likely to affect their work. but for the organisation It has had more of an impact on the shop floor workers. Thus. This has been in the following ways: It has brought the employees under one aegis Hence there is a greater feeling of teamwork than before Each of the employees now feel that they are working together towards a common goal and not in a disconnected manner with no clarity in te vision and mission It makes the employees feel that they are a part of something bigger than themselves. the prevailing perception that the management and the personnel department are not supportive must be changed. who have just joined the organisation. having tried to bridge the gap between them and the top management (Kaizen schemes. Findings: Hence the findings from this survey and the subsequent data analysis may be summarised as follows: The general mindset of the employees of MAPS-India is that change is important for an organisation. it is not monitored for any conflicts that may arise. Has Partners in Progress affected you and the quality of your work? If so. The responsibility of the management must not end with the implementation. Expansion did not create a place for this area which had resulted in a huge sales loss at the time. Sports club. how? The opinion of the majority is that PIP has affected employees and their quality of work. When asked to rate their workplace on certain factors. not only for themselves and the expected returns.Q11. Hence they are now motivated to work. Hence this means that they will be more responsive to change. the responses generally obtained were as follows: o Flow of information from the employees to the top management – average 46 .
The overwhelming opinion however has been that Partners In Progress has affected employees at all levels. Recognition acts as a motivating factor. The perception of the employees that training is available to them only occasionally must be changed. more schemes should be introduced to make it pervasive at all levels. Hence. Employees must feel appreciated for their work and their contribution to the organisation. due care must be taken in this regard. so as to make them feel that the organisation will tolerate the shortcomings. Recommendations: A few recommendations are as follows: While it is apparent that PIP does achieve the desired goal of employee involvement. while PIP has encouraged employee involvement to a great extent. Not many employees are aware of the change procedure in place. This will make them more responsive and hence less resistive to change. the administrative and the executive staff agree that it acts as a good binding factor. o Leadership – average o Innovation – average o Teamwork – good o Openness to ideas – good o Encouragement to take risks – good The general view was that. Hence. it has still not reached all the levels. and has enhanced their quality of work in some way of the other. incremental or radical. Most of the employees agree that there have been a lot of changes for the better. they can be held more frequently and in a way that the employees feel. Hence. by bringing employees across all levels together and motivating them to work towards a greater. Employee involvement may also be increased by letting them know how important their opinions. suggestions and ideas are to the organisation. that their suggestions and ideas are welcome. irrespective of the level they work at. to themselves. employees felt that due recognition is not given to them always for their ideas. While its effects have been observed more among the shop floor workers. recently at MAPS and these changes have been made in a systematic manner. It must be made known that the HR department is always ready to help them and they must be made to feel welcome there. While suggestion schemes are already in place. thereby increasing productivity. A better conflict-monitoring process can be put in place and this should be made known to the employees. the opinion of the employees who are to be affected by a change was only occasionally taken. common goal. Also. it has still not reached all the employee levels. 47 . Thus they are more likely to keep any ideas for change.
This can be done by implementing the openness to take risks and thus to new ideas at the top level itself. the entire intended population has not been surveyed. These are: This survey included employees of only the plant at Sahibabad. Here. Closer the size of the sample is to the total population. greater will be the accuracy. The basic step in this direction would be to improve the flow of communication in the organisation. The survey excluded workers at the shop floor level. A culture of innovation should be inculcated at MAPS. Also. 48 . The workers from Dharuhera and Manesar were not included. the employees must constantly be given indicators that they have a strong leadership. Hence a holistic view has not been obtained. More public recognition for ideas will motivate employees to give their ideas for betterment of the organisation. Hence it cannot be said that these findings accurately represent the opinions of tll the employees of MAPS. Limitations of the study: There are some limitations to this study and hence room for more work and improvement of the accuracy of the findings.
pdf Change Management – www.au.businessperform. Robbins.html Principle and Management Steps in Planned Change http://www.hbs.com/changemanagement/change_management_model.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt4ch19.library.5.newagepublishers.com/samplechapter/000896. BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES HR Manual – MAPS India Vision and Management of Change http://www.wikipedia.com/study_guide/Steps-in-PlannedChange.topicArticleId-8944. Judge & Seema Sanghi The Human Relations Movement – Baker Library Bloomberg Centre http://www.edu/hc/hawthorne/intro.com 49 .articleId-8888.af.html Research methodology http://www. Timothy A.cliffsnotes.html Organisational Change Management Model http://www.html Organisational Behaviour – Stephen P.
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