# Introduction to Columns

CE 4108 – Concrete Structures Design

Three categories 1. Long or slender reinforced concrete columns . Short compression blocks or pedestals 2. Short reinforced concrete columns 3.

2 and 10.Short compression blocks or pedestals • Height is less than three times it least lateral dimension.85φf’c where φ = 0. • ACI 2.14: May be designed with plain concrete with a design compressive strength if 0. .65.

Short reinforced concrete columns • A stocky member with little flexibility. Would fail first due to material failure. . • The load it supports is controlled by the size of the cross section and by the strength of the materials.

Long or slender reinforced concrete columns • Have large bending deformations that result in secondary moments that reduce the axial load capacity of the columns. .

Types of columns .

80φ [0.85 f ( Ag − Ast ) + f y Ast ] ' c For spiral columns (φ = 0.Axial Load Capacity of Columns φPn = 0.85 f c' ( Ag − Ast ) + f y Ast ] φPn = 0.85φ [0.65) : ACI Eq. 10-1 For tied columns (φ = 0.75) : ACI Eq. 10-2 .

10h for tied columns and when e < 0.• The previous expressions are only to be used when there is no moment or when it is very small.05h for spiral columns. Mu e= Pu h = outside diameter for round column = total depth of square or rectangular column . Moment is very small when e < 0.

01 ACI 10. 3 bars within triangular shapes.2: Minimum number of longitudinal bars: 4 for bars within rectangular or circular ties. 6 for bars enclosed within spirals.5db nor less than 1.3: Clear distance between longitudinal bars shall not be less than 1.9. .5”.08 • ACI 10.Code requirements longitudinal bars • ACI 7.1: ρ max = 0.6.9. • ρ min = 0.

5.1: Minimum tie size: #3 for longitudinal bars #10 or smaller.Code requirements for ties • ACI 7. • ACI 7. . #4 for larger longitudinal bars or for bundled bars.5. or the least dimension of the column.2: Maximum center-to-center spacing shall not be more than 16 times the diameter of longitudinal bars .10. 48 times the diameter of the ties.10.

5. .• ACI 7.3: The ties must be arranged so that every corner and alternate longitudinal bar will have support provided by the corner of a tie having an included angle not greater than 135o.10.

.10.45 − 1 A  f  c  y • Pitch can then be determined with this expression: 4as ( Dc − d b ) ρs = sDc2 • ACI 7.3: Minimum spiral percentage:  Ag  f c' ρ s = 0.4: Spacing may not be less than 1” and may not be larger than 3”.9.Code requirements for spirals • ACI 10.

7.5” .1(c): Minimum cover = 1.Cover • ACI 7.