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marketing strategies, develop specific strategic and tactics, propose a budget and establish a set of control but there is more to marketing. Marketing must push the rest of the company to be consumer oriented and market driven. Marketing must convince every one in the company and in its larger network to create and deliver superior customer values. Marketing is also a process, which involves formulating a broad strategies and redefining it in to a detailed marketing mix and action plan, evaluating the results, and making further improvements Market share of a particular brand falls down mainly because of three reasons: 1. 2. 3. They want a change from traditional. The product price rises. The better alternative came up.
A satisfied consumer needs production of product along with good distribution proper exchange and excellent promotion. The main purpose of this Study was to know the media awareness among people; to measure the effective of electronic media; to analyze the media behavior of the people; and to identify the first source of information for consumer products.
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste is used to promote oral hygiene: it serves as an abrasive that aids in removing the dental plaque and food from the teeth, assists in suppressing halitosis, and delivers active ingredients such
asfluoride or xylitol to help prevent tooth and gum disease (gingivitis). Most of the cleaning is achieved by the mechanical action of the toothbrush, and not by the toothpaste. Salt and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) are among materials that can be substituted for commercial toothpaste. Toothpaste is not intended to be swallowed, but is generally not very harmful if accidentally swallowed in small amounts.
Objective of the Study The main purpose of this Study was to know the media awareness among people; to measure the effective of electronic media; to analyze the media behavior of the people; and to identify the first source of information for consumer products. The study has been conducted to collect the information about the scope and effectiveness of advertising media mix for a particular group, and the role of different source of information in buying a product. That‟s why the study has been conducted by taking a special reference like toothpaste. Because toothpaste is generally used by every individual and almost in every home. How the consumers come across to know a particular brand of toothpaste? What was the source of information? If that
information has been got from electronic media like television, radio, cinema, internet or newspaper, then at what extent that information was effective? Are consumers purchasing the particular product because of
awareness got by the electronic media or from elsewhere? Can the consumers recall any advertisement? These are the basic Effective
questions, which have been focused to solve in this study. advertising and awareness is much more emphasis in this study.
So, in the summer forms we can illustrate have the main objectives of the study as follows: To know the media awareness among the people. To measure the effectiveness of electronic media. To analyze the Media behavior f the people. To identify first source of information. To identify the change in attitude of the consumer due to electronic media. To analyze the media habits of the respondents. To identify the factors which affects the change in decision? To analyze the media distribution of the respondents. The study would be immense interest to advertising agencies engaged in promoting consumer products through various electronic media. It is expected that this study would be above to expose many hidden facts of media effectiveness in advertising.
Scope of the Study Media has emerged as a potent means of mass communication. The essence of lies in conveying the target audience the wants satisfying quantities of a product or service. The business world has consistently been searching for ways and means to improve the products or services that one buys, but the information regarding these improvements as well as great deal of prodding and pushing come from the advertising end of the business. It, infect, offers a quick and effective way for any marketer to tell the people that he has designed a new product or improved his product or that he deals in this product or provides that service. It is a million tongued salesmanship and the very fact that it is carried over mostly by mass media shows that it is likely to reach many people at some time or the other. As a matter of fact, the success of the company‟s product development as well as other marketing activities is closely tied up with the success of its advertising programs. However, how much effective an electronic media has been or to what extent the advertiser has been able to convey the meaning to the target audience has been more a matter of conjecture. It is worth pointing out here that some attempts have been made from time to time to measure the effectiveness of electronic media. The present study is also a modest
attempt in the same direction. Many researchers have developed various techniques and have taken different aspects of media for measuring effectiveness. In fat, there is no dearth of literature on media research. For the purpose of this study, however, it was considered prudent to confine to only some aspects, since to cover all aspects would have been preposterous.
Importance of the Study Since independence newspaper, magazine, radio, cinema, Television and Internet are being used increasingly by companies for sailing their products. Now a day‟s Internet becomes important segment of the electronic media. Despite there growing importance, it is difficult to determine what effect a particular advertisement media makes on the mind of a consumer. It is equally difficult to measure the effectiveness of such media in terms of Sale increase as it is not certain whether the sale accrued due to an electronic media or because of other reasons. In order to know the media to which people are exposed, to know the media about which they were aware, and to know the media which influence customer buying behavior, a careful review of different advertisement though electronic media was made to locate a particular product using all the media. It was found that toothpaste was utilizing almost all the important media. Hence, it was proposed to measure the effectiveness of different media among rural and urban people in the content of this product. The selected electronic media for this study were television, internet, radio, cinema etc. The major
criterion for selecting these media was that they were commonly used for advertising toothpaste in this country.
Limitation of the study The effectiveness of various electronic media is measured in keeping in mind the constraints and limitation given below ; 1. The present study was confined to Attur Taluk areas. The findings of this study may not applicable to other areas. 2. The limitations and biasness of sampling techniques used in this study may influence the findings of this study. 3. Due to limitation of time and resources, all the possible factors influencing media effectiveness could not be considered. 4. The study of electronic media effectiveness may not hold well over a period of time due to various improvements in the present electronic media.
CHAPTER - II HISTORY OF TOOTHPASTE Ever wonder where toothpaste and mouthwash came from? Have you ever thought about what people used for toothpaste before the invention of Crest, Colgate or Aquafresh? (North American brand name toothpastes). Below are some interesting, point form facts and recipes that may help satisfy your curiosity - or spur it on!! Back in the Days of Buddha.... The activity of keeping the mouth clean dates all the way back to the religious figure Buddha. It has been recorded that he would use a "tooth stick" from the God Sakka as part of his personal hygiene regimen. In 23 79 AD the practice of oral hygiene included: Drinking goats milk for sweet breath Ashes from burnt mice heads, rabbit‟s heads, wolf‟s heads, ox heels and goats feet were thought to benefit the gums. (This probably wouldn't go over very well today) Picking the bones out of wolf‟s excrement and wearing them (maybe in the form of a necklace?) was considered to be a form of protection against toothaches. Washing your teeth with the blood from a tortoise three times a year was a sure bet against toothaches as well.
Mouthwashes were known to consist of pure white wine, or (get ready for this one) old urine kept especially for this purpose. The 18th Century The earliest record of actual toothpaste was in 1780 and included scrubbing the teeth with a formula containing burnt bread. (A common North American breakfast) Other toothpastes around this time called for: 1 1/2 oz. dragons blood (So that's where they all went!!) 1 1/2 oz. cinnamon 1 oz. burnt alum Beat the above ingredients together and use every second day. The 19th Century In the 19th century, charcoal became very popular for teeth cleaning purposes. Most toothpastes at this time were in the form of a powder.The purpose of the tooth powder was not only to clean the teeth, but to give fresh breath. (Hmmm....that idea isn't so outdated!!) The succulent strawberry (still available today) was considered to be a "natural" solution for preventing tartar and giving fresh breath. In 1855, the Farmer‟s Almanac included this recipe for an appropriate toothpaste: 1. oz. myrrh (fine powder)
2. Spoonfuls of your best honey (This does not refer to your significant other!!) A pinch of green sage Mix together and use every night on wet teeth. Toothpaste included: 2 oz. cuttlefish bone 1 oz. cream of tartar 2 drachms drop lake 15 drops clover oil Powder, mix and sift. The 20th Century Liquid cleansers (mouth rinses) and pastes became more popular, often containing chlorophyll to give a fresh green color. Bleeding gums became a concern as well as aching teeth. In 1915 leaves from certain trees in South East Asia (Eucalyptus) were beginning to be used in mouthwash formulas. So....what's in the toothpaste of the 90s? Sodium mono fluorophosphates (not to be confused with MSG) color flavoring fluoride foaming agents detergents
humectants (prevent the paste from hardening) Herbal toothpastes have gained popularity for people looking for “natural" toothpaste or for those who don't want fluoride in their dental cleansers. Some herbal toothpaste contains: Peppermint oil 1. myrrh plant extract (strawberry extract) 2. special oils and cleansing agents Hey, didn't we see these ingredients in the toothpastes of the early 19th century? And the 21st Century.... Your guess is as good as ours!! If the trends of the 20th century continue we should see more toothpastes that whiten and brighten the teeth, are canker sore friendly, and give you the ultimate brushing or rinsing experience.
The more things change, the more they stay the same! The ancient Egyptian recipe for toothpaste The world's oldest-known formula for toothpaste, used more than 1,500 years before Colgate began marketing the first commercial brand in 1873, has been discovered on a piece of dusty papyrus in the basement of a Viennese museum. In faded black ink made of soot and gum arabic mixed with water, an ancient Egyptian scribe has carefully described what he calls a "powder for white and perfect teeth". When mixed with saliva in the mouth, it forms a "clean tooth paste". According to the document, written in the fourth century AD, the ingredients needed for the perfect smile are one drachma of rock salt - a measure equal to one hundredth of an ounce - two drachmas of mint, one drachma of dried iris flower and 20 grains of pepper, all of them crushed and mixed together. The result is a pungent paste which one Austrian dentist who tried it said made his gums bleed but was a "big improvement" on some toothpaste formulae used as recently as a century ago. The major player and their market shares in the 90,000 tons
Overview of Indian Toothpaste Market The oral care sector consists of three main segments Toothpaste Toothpowder and Toothbrush Prior to the 80's Colgate was the dominant player in the Indian toothpaste market with its leading brand namely Colgate dental cream. The rest of the market was fragmented and some of the better known brands at that time were Bianca, Forhans, Vicco, Signal and Closeup in the toothpowder segments, Dabur's Lal Dant manjan red toothpowder and Bandar Chaap Black toothpowder manufactured by the unorganized segments were the two well known brands. In the early 80's, Balsara Hygiene's Promised was able to achieve a product break through with it's positioning of the product on clove oil ingredient. Indians have been traditionally using clove as a household remedy for cavity problems. Balsara Hygiene introduced another product, Babool at a significant price discount catering to the lower end of market.
Toothpaste market is given below. Tooth paste market Players Colgate Palmolive HLL (include Close up) Balsara Hygiene Others Source:CPIL The following shows the percentage of population who use toothpaste, toothpowder and other conventional methods for oral care. Mode Of Oral Care and % of Population Mode Toothpaste Toothpowder Conventional Methods Source: A & M Toothpaste has been primarily perceived as an urban product. Also, it is titled heavily in favor of large metros this could be due to higher education, purchasing power and urbanization. Penetration levels of Toothpaste ALL INDIA URBAN RURAL Source: Equity master.com 47.0% 73.0% 35.0% Usage(%) of total Population 47% 23% 30% Market Share 50.90% 32.90% 6.50% 9.70%
Consumers in the lower end of the market in rural/semi urban areas use toothpowder and natural products such as neem, tobacco, and black powder for cleaning their teeth. These products are largely manufactured by unorganized sector. Form a recent survey it has been found that the upper class consumers in urban areas are looking for specialized product with cosmetic promises like fresh breath, white teeth and functional benefits of controlling plaque, preventing cavity etc. Among toothpaste users about 15% of consumers brush twice a day. The growth in the Toothpaste market demand can be attributed to a number of factors. Perhaps the two most important are rising penetration higher intensity of use. Penetration is driven by purchasing power, reach of media, availability and also price. Growth in rural areas is driven by conversion of non users. Various initiatives such as distribution of free samples, low unit price packs in small sizes and conducting oral care education in the rural areas are being undertaken by leading players. Paralleling these trends had been dramatic increase in Advertising expenditure and new value proposition introduced by the players in the market. The cumulative of above initiatives had been to increase the consumer awareness in rural areas and conversion of non-users to branded product.
Segmentation The Toothpaste market in India can also be segmented on the basis of benefits sought from the product. They are broadly classified into four segments. For sales contribution from each segment see table. Protection The value proposition offered to this segment is protection of teeth & gums from germs, preventing cavity and controlling plaque. This segment largely comprises of family. The brands, which are sold under this proposition, are Colgate dental cream, Close up, Pepsodent, Aqua fresh, Forhans, (recently this brand was sold for a sum of around Rs.3.6 Crore to an undisclosed buyers) Social Interaction The sale is on proposition of fresh breath and White teeth. This segment is dominated by gel toothpaste. Particularly teens and young adults seek these benefits. Gels which are marketed on parameters of freshness and energy are estimated to have market share of 20 - 35% of the total market. The brand which are very prominent in this segment are Close up gel, Colgate gel and Anchor gel etc. Economic The toothpaste sale is on "Value for Money" proposition for families with low to medium level of income. The price has significant importance in this segment. Promise, Babool etc are the toothpastes sold in this segment. Brands like Anchor, Aqua-Fresh, Ajanta and Babool are capturing volumes
on the value for money platform, with equal spending promotions and better trade margins than the biggies. Therapeutic This is a niche segment. The toothpaste is positioned to offer medicinal benefits. They offer protection from aliments like bleeding of gums, prevention of tooth decay etc. The brands like Mentadent, PepsodentG etc. Segment &sales contribution Protection & Economy Social Interaction Therapeutics Source: Indiainfoline.com Product Toothpaste is formulated to provide varied value propositions like protection from bad breath, cavity, and plaque etc. Toothpaste is marketed as squeeze tubes manufactured using HDPE, LLDPE and PP polymers. Over the years, the technological advancement has changed the role of packaging in Toothpaste industry from a carrier and protector to that of a marketing tool, performing a vital role in brand communication and on shelf differentiation. All the players in the market offer toothpaste in various sizes designed for varied purpose like traveling, family, use etc. 65% 35% 5%
The performance characteristics of toothpaste include white teeth .fresh breath, plaque control, cavity prevention. For the brands switchers, the size and prices of toothpaste were important attributes. In a recent study it has been found that 80% of the families share the same toothpaste for all the members of the family. The packaging size and prices vary for different brands. widely. Annexure a gives the SKUs and prices Demand With a population of 1.02 billion and population growth rate of 1-2%, India provides a huge potential market for toothpaste. Estimate for the rate of future growth of toothpaste vary but all observers agree that growth penetration, and the intensity of usage. The toothpaste market has recorded an 8% CAGR in the last five Years. Demand for toothpaste in urban area has been growing at 2-3% p.a. whereas in rural areas it is about 12-14%. Amongst various segments, protection & economy segment is growing at 5-6% p.a. Whereas the social interaction segment is growing at a fast pace of 1012%p.a.
HINDUSTAN LEVER LTD Hindustan Lever Limited, 51.6% subsidiary of Unilever Plc, is the largest FMCG Company, with a turnover of Rs 118bn. The company‟s business sprawls from personal and household care products to foods, beverages and specially chemicals. The company has a dominating market share in most categories that it operates in such as toilet soaps, detergents ,skincare, hair care, color cosmetics, etc. it is also the leading player in food products such as packaged tea, coffee, ice cream and other culinary products. Two pillars strong brand equity and a wide distribution network characterize the fast moving consumer goods business. Brand equities are built over a period of time by technological innovation, consistent high quality, aggressive advertisement and marketing. Availability near the consumer through a wide distribution network is another crucial success factor, as product are of small value ,frequently purchased ,daily use items. HLL is strong on both these fronts with leading brands, which are market leaders in their respective categories, and a1 m n strong direct retail reach. The leading business magazine, Forbes Global has placed Hindustan lever limited at the top among the best consumer household products companies world wide for the current year. The oral care segment contribution about 4%to its revenues buts its bottom line has been hit due to the heavy adverting costs and sales promotions.
In 1987, Hindustan lever was a minor player who had launched with 5%market share represents mainly by close –up. HLL‟s other brand signal had a negligible share and was later withdrawn with a 65%share. HLL has been a small player in the oral care sector untill1987when it repositioned close up as a gel and mouthwash targeted at the youth. After 87 HLL has been consistently gaining market and in oral care segment, HLL has emerged as a 32.9 % market share. HLL has about 100 manufacturing facilities all over India and also has manufacturing arrangement with third parties. HLL has strong presence in all the segments with Pepsodent G being prominent in therapeutic segment .some other strong brands are close up super fresh close up oxy fresh, Pepsodent etc. strong no 2 player with
Close Up Close-up, the youth brand, was the first gel toothpaste to be launched in India in1975 and has remained the category leader ever since. The brand arose out of a universal need for confidence in a social situation, starting with fresh breath. Close-up was relaunched in1988 with the proposition of gel and mouthwash. The new look close-up was positioned as the toothpaste , enhancing social interaction ,offering value propositions like good breath , white teeth etc and was backed by an extremely successful advertising campaign. Close up market share rose consistently thereafter from 5% (1987) to 22% in 2002 close up was relaunched in two variant- close up tingly red and close up eucalyptus waves. This toothpaste with their superior formulation provides superior cleaning, enhanced flavor and a freshness that extends from nose to throat. The communication for close up focuses on the base line, „Jee Ke Dekho Yaar‟, which encourages young people to go out and get a life. The new flavours are in line with HLL‟s endeavour to continuously innovate and offer new advance products to the consumers these flavours have been special designed to win over competition consumers. Recently close-up whitening, the tooth-whitening variant, was introduced with a unique self check device called „‟shade-card‟‟. This helps consumers identify how „‟yellow‟‟ their teeth really are also to track the improvement in teeth colour as use the paste. The toothpaste helps teeth get whiter in 4 weeks of regular use. This tooth-whitening segment is having total market share of 6%of the total toothpaste market.
The late 80's witnessed a significant shift in industry structure and positioning platforms. In 1987, Hindustan Lever was a minor player who had launched close UP. Forhans was withdrawn from the Indian market in 1987 due to problems with fluoride formulations. Close up was re launched in 1988 with the proposition of gel and mouthwash. The toothpaste market is dominated by white toothpaste followed by gel and then stripes. Worldwide annual per capital consumption of toothpaste averaged 363 grams while consumer in India used only 107 grams of toothpaste annually. The average annual per capital consumption of toothpaste in India is lower than the worldwide average due to a lower than the worldwide average due to a lower average personal income and a lack of consumer education. Also, recent studies have indicated a high price elasticity of almost 300% for certain mass consumer products: i.e. a10% drops in prices could lead to a 30% increase in consumption. About Electronic Media The electronic media would include radio and the television. The advent of the radio allowed the advertisers the liberty of using certain „jingles‟ and music, which could be associated with their brand and product. Whereas the television brought the visuals along with the audio effects. This was a revolution and the print media found it being sidelined as far as advertising went. Talking of India, the Cable TV boom in the early nineties added to the choices available to the advertiser on a regional segment.
CHAPTER – III Research Methodology Descriptive Design- A research design is purely & simple the framework or plan for a study that guides the collection & analysis of data. The present study is basically descriptive in nature the major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs at the exists at present situation. In order to know the media to which people are exposed, to know the media about which they were aware, and to know the media which influence customer buying behavior, a careful review of different advertisement through electronic media was made to locate a particular product using all the media. It was found that toothpaste was utilizing almost all the
important media. Hence, it was proposed to measure the effectiveness of different media among rural and urban people in the context of this product. The selected electronic media for this study were television, internet, radio, cinema etc. The major criterion for selecting these media was that they were commonly used for advertising toothpaste in this country. Selection of sample: The sample consisted of 100 respondents –were resident of Attur taluk. Purposive sampling technique was used for selecting the respondents. I contacted the people who were anxious to participate in this study. One individual (not less than 16 years of age) in each home was interviewed. To make the sample uniform and representative, it was kept in mind that selected persons should be either purchasing the toothpaste or
influencing the purchase decision. Questionnaire and personal interview techniques were followed to collect the information. The ratio of respondents between urban and rural areas was 1:3 as the toothpaste consuming habits of people in a rural area is different from that in an urban area. People in the village use relatively less toothpaste as other substitutes such as Datum, Mud are available in abundance. Although this ratio was decided upon judgment and experience, yet every effort was made to make the sample uniform and representative. Type of data- primary data &secondary data are used in the present research. Primary data- primary data collected from field survey I collected primary data through survey method, questionnaire & personel interview. Formulation of Questionnaire: For the preparation of questionnaire, a few retailers of toothpaste brand were contacted to get primary information. The questionnaire was prepared to seek information both urban and rural people regarding the first source of information about toothpaste brands which the respondents were using, the advertisements which they had come across about the same brand or any other, their reading, influence of these media on their buying behavior, etc. Because of poor memory factor, added recall and unpadded recall were given due place in the construction of questionnaire. The
questionnaire were kept short, and less factors and directly related were excluded to solicit better response. A non-disguised, structured questionnaire was prepared.
Each respondent was asked to mention the toothpaste brand being used at present and brand he was using before. This was asked mainly to know the brand in which the respondent was taking more interest. Respondents were to mention the first source of information for brands. They were asked to mention the names of media from which they read pr listened or viewed advertisements about the present brands. Moreover, they were given restricted choice to specify that media which influenced their buying behavior about the present brands. Interview Procedure: The response of respondent was recorded on questionnaire at the place or interview. It naturally brought the advantages of personal interview. For recalling the source of advertisement, the respondent was added by the various electronic media. But for recalling the source of media which One
influenced the buying behavior, unaided recall method was used.
question was asked purposely (not get forced choice) to name one electronic media only. Further the respondent was given add only when it was clear that the respondent knew the answer, but because of insufficient knowledge about ingredients and intricacies of advertisement media, he was unable to express his views. Aided recalls also helped in getting the pointed reply firm the respondent for a particular question. The role of unaided recall was to know the depth of knowledge of respondent and to avoid any bias. Unaided were sought to the extent possible.
CHAPTER – IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Profile of respondent: The general profile of respondents in terms of age, sex, marital status, education and income are given as follows: TABLE 4.1: DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR AGE AND SEX. Age Group 16-20 21-25 26-30 Above 30 Total Male 6 13 18 16 53 Female 4 7 22 14 47 No. of respondents 10 20 40 30 100
There are 53% male and 47% female, among which the research has been conducted. Out of these respondents 20% respondents belong to the rural areas, 30% respondents are age group of above 30 years, 40% belong to the age group of 26 – 30 years, 20% respondents belong to the age group of 21-25 years and 10% belongs to the age group of 16 – 20 years. There is a great impact of electronic media over the age and sex and slightly differ in number, it is because of exposure to the media.
CHART4.1: DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR AGE AND SEX.
40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 10% 20%
No. of respondents
16-20 21-25 26-30 Above 30
TABLE 4.2 MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS:
Marital status Married Unmarried Total
No. of respondents 65 35 100
Percentage 65% 35% 100%
65% of the total respondents among males and females are married while 35% of the total respondents are unmarried. The percentage of
married male and female respondents is higher in urban areas than in rural areas.
CHART 4.2 MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS:
TABLE 4.3 EDUCATION LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS:
Education Level Intermediate Graduate Post Graduate Total
No. of respondents 12 47 41 100
Percentage 12% 47% 41% 100%
The percentage of the respondents having post graduate level education is 41% and the percentage of graduate level of education is 47% while 12% respondents have the intermediate level education. Exposure and effectiveness of electronic media vary with the education level as highly educated and urban based are much exposed than that of rural and low qualified respondents.
CHART 4.3 EDUCATION LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS:
50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 12%
TABLE 4.4 PROFESSION OF THE RESPONDENTS:
Profession Govt. services Business House wife Student Total
No. of respondents 42 12 27 19 100
Percentage 42% 12% 27% 19% 100%
When the respondents were asked about their profession following data were obtained. The maximum numbers of respondents were from the teaching background (42%), followed by the housewife for (27%). The respondents were also student for (19%) and it was followed by the businessperson (12%), the rest number of respondents from professional background.
CHART 4.4 PROFESSION OF THE RESPONDENTS:
27% Percentage 12%
TABLE 4.5 INCOME GROUP OF THE RESPONDENTS
Income Level 9001 &above 6001 to 9000 3001 to 6000 below 3000 Total
No. of respondents 55 28 12 5 100
Percentage 55% 28% 12% 5% 100%
Family income is considered as the basis for the purpose of making groups. This group has been done keeping in the view the purchasing power on the one hand and likely needs, desires and aspiration of the respondents on the other hand. 55% respondents have the income more than Rs. 9000, 28% respondents belong to the income group of Rs. 6000-9000 and 12% respondents belong to their the income group of Rs. 3001-6000 while 5% of respondents belong to the income group of below Rs. 3000.
CHART 4.5 INCOME GROUP OF THE RESPONDENTS
40% 28% 30%
9001 &above 6001 to 9000 3001 to 6000 below 3000
TABLE 4.6 PRESENT BRAND OF TOOTHPASTE USED
Toothpaste brands Pepsodent Close-Up Colgate Cibaca Anchor Other Total
No. of respondents 25 30 32 3 3 7 100
Percentage 25% 30% 32% 3% 3% 7% 100%
After having established the fact that the respondents have been consuming toothpaste for some period, they are also asked the name of present brand used. 25% respondents consume Pepsodent, 32% respondents consume Colgate, 30% respondents consume Close-up , Each 3% of the respondents consume cibaca or Anchor and another 7% respondents consume other brands. This is the mix-up response from both rural and urban areas. This indicates that the premium brands having high exposure through various electronic media are used very frequently.
CHART 4.6 PRESENT BRAND OF TOOTHPASTE USED
35% 30% 30% 25% 25% 20%
10% 7% 5% 0% Percentage 3% 3%
TABLE 4.7 TIME DURATION OF THE PRESENT BRAND USED: Time Duration Less than 6 months More than 6 months Total No. Of respondents 24 76 100 Percentage 24% 76% 100%
24% respondents have been using the present brand for less than six months while 76% respondents have been using the present brand for the more than six months. It is because, the toothpaste brand of high exposure with the benefits are used very much than that of low exposure of toothpaste brand.
CHART 4.7 TIME DURATION OF THE PRESENT BRAND USED:
Less than 6 months, 24%
More than 6 months, 76%
TABLE4.8 EARLIER USED BRAND:
Earlier Brand Colgate Pepsodent Close-up Others Total
No. of respondents 38 25 30 7 100
Percentage 38% 25% 30% 7% 100%
Interpretation Prior to the present brand 38% respondents used Colgate, 25% respondents used Pepsodent, 30% respondents used close-up while 7% respondents used other toothpaste brand like Cibaca, Anchor, Neem and Babool.
CHART4.8 EARLIER USED BRAND
Others, 7% Colgate, 38%
TABLE 4.9 REASON TO CHANGE IN THE EARLIER BRAND:
Earlier Brand Taste Price Advertisement Promotional Schemes Others Total
No. Of respondents 32 06 30 07 25 100
Percentage 32% 6% 30% 7% 25% 100%
32% respondents say that they change the earlier brand because of taste in toothpaste, 6% respondents changed their earlier brand because of price, 30%respondents changed their earlier brand because of advertisement, 7% respondents changed their earlier brand because of promotional schemes and 25% respondents say that there are other reasons for change like change and involvement of the family member. Exposure to the advertisement is the most important because by the exposure of advertisement the consumer could know very easily about price, taste and promotional schemes. In the whole discussion the effectiveness of electronic media could be easily understood.
CHART 4.9 REASON TO CHANGE IN THE EARLIER BRAND:
32% 35% 30% 25% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Percentage 6% 7% 30%
TABLE 4.10 FACTORS AFFECT THE CHANGE IN DECISION:
Factors affecting decision Herbal ingredients Healthy gums & Strong teeth Reputed brand Other
No. of respondents 20 56 17 07
Percentage 20% 56% 17% 7%
20% respondent‟s emphasis on the statement that there are herbal ingredients consists in the present brand of toothpaste. 56% respondents feel that by using the present brand of toothpaste they could maintain healthy gums and strong teeth. Brand of reputed company is also important
segment and 17% respondents are very much affected by this Statement. In other factors 7% respondents the earning consumer are very affected by the likings of children and family member. In overall discussion these information could only be known when the respondents are asked to the advertisement. Only media especially
electronic media provides such types of information to the consumer and consumer takes their decision.
CHART 4.10 FACTORS AFFECT THE CHANGE IN DECISION:
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Other Reputed brand Healthy gums & Strong teeth Herbal ingredients
TABLE 4.11 FIRST SOURCE OF INFORMATION:
First Source of Information Shopkeeper Television Newspaper Relatives Total
No. of respondents
05 79 12 04 100
5% 79% 12% 4% 100%
Show the table reveals that the most important first source of information is the Television for 79% of the respondents followed by Newspaper (12%), Shopkeeper (5%) and the relatives (4%). In rural areas the most important first source of information is shopkeepers and the radio. This indicates that most of the respondents are very much exposed to the Television in rural as well as urban areas because of the cheapest source in the present scenario. information. Newspaper is the second important source of
CHART 4.11 FIRST SOURCE OF INFORMATION:
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Percentage 5% 12% 4%
TABLE 4.12 Exposure to the present brand:
Effectiveness of advertisement Yes No Total
No. of respondents
62 38 100
62% 38% 100%
The respondents are asked after knowing the first source of information as to whether they could come Across any advertisement about the brand presently Being used by them because the advertisement appeals the use of brand.62% respondents have seen the advertisement about the toothpaste brand presently being used by them. 38%espodents have not seen the advertisement of present toothpaste brand. This indicates that advertisements of the toothpaste brands are very much effective by the different electronic media.
CHART 4.12 Exposure to the present brand:
TABLE 4.13 RELATIVE MEDIA DISTRIBUTION Effectiveness of advertisement Televisions Internet News papers Radio Cinema Total No. of respondents 79 0 0 15 6 100 Percentage 79% 0% 0% 15% 6% 100%
In response to the question regarding the media of advertising the respondents were asked about the media. In the electronic media there are Television, Internet, radio, newspaper and cinema. 79% respondents say that they come across the advertisement of the present toothpaste brand by the television, 1 5% respondents come across to Radio and followed by cinema (6%). This shows that the appearance of the advertisements on Television is very much effective and that's why it is important segment of electronic media. In rural areas the Newspaper and Radio is important segment of electronic media.
CHART 4.13 RELATIVE MEDIA DISTRIBUTION
79% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Percentage 0% 0% 15% 6%
TABLE 4.14 EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENTS ON ELECTRONIC MEDIA
Effectiveness of advertisement Very Much Average Total
No. of respondents
76 24 100
76% 24% 100%
The advertisement, which appears on television, that may or may not be effective to the consumer point of view. This effectiveness leads to the brand selection. 76% respondents' say that the advertisement appears on television is very much effective while 24% respondents select the average effectiveness of the advertisements. It is concluded that the advertisements are very much effective which appear on Television to the rural and urban consumer point of view.
CHART 4.14 EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENTS ON ELECTRONIC MEDIA
TABLE 4.15 IMPACT ON BRAND PREFERENCE:
Responses Yes No Total
No. of respondents 69 31 100
Percentage 69% 31% 100%
After the appearance of the advertisement on Television, the effectiveness leads to the brand preference. In some cases it is not true. 69% respondents say that there is great impact on brand preference because of the effectiveness of the advertisement on Television. respondents‟ refuse of impact on brand preference. This again reflects the importance and effectiveness of electronic media. While 31%
TABLE 4.15 IMPACT ON BRAND PREFERENCE:
TABLE 4.16 ADVERTISEMENT RECALL:
Responses Yes No Total
No. of respondents 76 24 100
Percentage 76% 24% 100%
In response to the question regarding the recall of advertisement electronic media, the respondents gave their responses. In some cases,
respondents faced difficulty in recalling the media as it was long time that they had been using the present brand of toothpaste. Out of total
respondents 76% respondents can recall the advertisement of toothpaste brand but 24% respondents can‟t recall any advertisement of any toothpaste brand. This result indicate that the advertisement which are exposed frequently before the consumer and are interesting they could easily recall, however less exposed advertisement can‟t easily recalled. Maximum
recalling of the advertisement is in the urban areas as compare to rural areas. Important point is that the advertisement of star appeal are easily recalled because of this, the interesting advertisement are easily recalled.
CHART 4.16 ADVERTISEMENT RECALL:
7% 3% 3% Percentage 32% 30%
TABLE 4.17 EXPOSURE TO THE MEDIA:
Responses Television Radio Cinema Total
No. of respondents 90 06 04 100
Percentage 90% 6% 4% 100%
Advertisements are through the various media channels. important.
electronic media segment Television, Cinema, Radio and Newspaper are In today‟s scenario Television is the most important and common segment. That‟s why it is highly effective segment of electronic media. 90% respondents say that they have seen the advertisement of toothpaste brand on Television which could be recalled and find much interesting. 6% respondents say that recalled advertisement was listened by them at radio while 4% respondents say that they have seen the advertisement in the cinema. This mix-up response of the respondents
because Television is not available in almost every rural areas but rural people has the radio facility.
CHART 4.17 EXPOSURE TO THE MEDIA:
90% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Percentage Television Radio Cinema 6% 4%
Conclusion The main purpose of this study was to identify the first source of information of toothpaste brand, to know the media awareness and media behavior of the people, to study the media habit of the people to measure the effectiveness of various electronic Media. concluded the study by the following manner. The brands which are much exposed before the people through various electronic media are used at large. Some brands like Pepsodent and Colgate are frequently exposed with good illustration, are very much used. This clearly shows the effectiveness of electronic media. Whatever information the consumer gets from advertisement which appears on various electronic media, he takes the decision on the basis of those information‟s. So, whatever information‟s will be exposed on the electronic media, they will definitely helpful in changing the attitudes of the consumer at large extent. Urban respondents were more exposed to advertisement and had favorable response towards advertisement appearing through various electronic media than the rural respondent. We can summarize and
Television and newspaper were important source of information in the urban areas. Shopkeepers and relatives are other first source of information, so they are also considered as integral part of the media. Now a days television is much popular in rural areas as well as urban areas, that‟s why
maximum companies are taking help from television in exposure of their brands. Radio and cinema were also first source of information for a very few people. After collecting information 88% respondents came across the advertisement about that brand. Out of 88% respondent‟s maximum number of the respondents was exposed with the television followed by the radio and cinema. So, television is the best media exposure and was very effective to the consumer point of view. Consumer responded that advertisement which appears on television were very much effective and such type of respondents are 62% and rest 38% respondent in average affectivity. And this affectivity leads to a
consumer for impact on brand preference, because of this reason the brand is preferred. Punch-line, simplicity and contents make the advertisement
effective. When the advertisement is exposed on electronic media, these factors are highly considered to create effectiveness.
Recalling of the advertisement by the maximum number of respondents shows the effectiveness of the electronic media. It happens only when the advertisement is exposed in a good manner and on a good track which leads towards the change in consumer‟s attitude of buying and awareness. Every respondent had multiple media habits. The respondents who had the media habit of watching television regularly were 100%. That‟s why television is the best media habit for the respondents. Surfing internet
and listening radio was the second and third media habit of the respondents respectively. Radio is highly effective in both rural and urban areas. Cinema and internet were
Cinema is the fourth effective media habit.
available only in the urban areas and because of this reason it is not effective media habit for all the respondents. Concluding the topic of the study “Effectiveness of the electronic media with a special reference of toothpaste” It is said that the respondents are very much affected by the media especially Television, Radio, Newspaper, Cinema, and Internet. Out of these electronic media the most effective media was television which is available almost in every home and people are very much exposed to it.
Books: Research Methodology Advertising C. R. Kothari D. R. Singh, R. M. Upadhaya, R. K. Tandon, Journal Asia-pacific business review Asia –pacific institute of Management New Delhi
Annexure (A) Questionnaire Name Sex Address :………………………………………………………….. : Male / Female ………………………………… : ………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………….. Marital Status Age Group : : Married / Unmarried 16 – 20 yrs. …………………… 21 – 25 yrs. …………………… 26 – 30 yrs. …………………… Above 30 yrs. …………………… Education Level : Primary …………………… Matriculation …………………… Intermediate …………………… Graduate …………………… Post Graduate …………………… Other (Specify) ……………………
Student …………………… Govt. Service …………………… Business …………………… House Wife ……………………
Income Group :
Below 3000 …………………… 3001 – 6000 …………………… 6001 – 9000 …………………… 9001 & Above ……………………
Which toothpaste brand are you using at present?
Pepsodent Close – Up Colgate Anchor Neem Miswak Babool Cibaca Others
Since when have you been using the present brand?
Less than 6 months More than 6 months
Which toothpaste brand were you using prior to this present brand? Please specify the brand name. ………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………
Why have you change the earliest Toothpaste brand? Because of …………
Taste Price Advertisement Promotional Schemes Other (Specify) …………
Which factor/s affects your change in decision?
It is certified by dental association It consist of herbal ingredients It maintains healthy gums & Strong teeth Brand of reputed company
What was the source of information for the present brand?
Friend Shopkeepers Television Newspaper Relatives Other(Specify) ……………………………………………………………
After collecting information from above sources did you come across any advertisement about this brand?
If yes, what was the media?
Internet Radio Cinema
In your opinion how effective was the advertisement appearing on television?
Very Much Average Below Average
Was there any impact on your brand preference?
If yes, what appealed you? Plea specify ………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………
Can you recall any advertisement about any another toothpaste brand of electronic media?
If yes, name the toothpaste brand? …………………………………………………………………
Where have you seen this?
Television Internet Radio Cinema
Tick which ever is more applicable in your case.
Watch the television regularly Go to cinema regularly Surfing internet regularly Listen to Radio regularly
Can you recall any advertisement about any toothpaste brand, which you find more interesting?
If yes, name the toothpaste brand? ………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………
Specify the media?
Television Internet Radio Cinema
The advertisement of which brand you like most
Pepsodent Close – Up Colgate
Anchor Neem Miswak Babool Cibaca
(B) List of the Table
Distribution of the respondents according to their age and sex.
Distribution of the respondents according to their marital status
Distribution of the respondents according to their education level
Table 4 Table 5
Distribution of respondents according to their profession Distribution of the respondents according to their income group
Distribution of the respondents according to their present brand used
Distribution of the respondents according to their time duration of present brand used
Table 8 Table 9
Earlier brand used by the respondents Response of reasons to change in earlier brand by the respondents
Table 10 Table 11 Table 12
Factors affect the change in decision Relative distribution of first source of information Responses of the respondents whether they come across any advertisement
Table 13 Table 14 Table 15
Relative distribution of media Effectiveness of advertisement according to the respondents Responses of the respondents regarding impact of
advertisement on brand preference Table 16 Responses of the respondents regarding recalling of advertisement of toothpaste on electronic media. Table 17 Table 18 Table 19 Brand of toothpaste (Out of 76 respondents) Exposure to the media Media habit of the respondents (Multiple Choice)
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