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Predation- consumption of one living organism by another Predators- feed on living organisms; function as agents of mortality
1. 2. 3.
Search item- a way to recognize that species as a potential food item Availability of cover Switching- act of turning to more abundant, alternate prey; the predator feeds more heavily on the more abundant prey species and pays less attention to less abundant species
14.1 Predation Takes a Variety of Forms
Functional classification of predators: 1. Predator/true predator- species that kill their prey more or less immediately upon capture 2. Herbivores- consume only part of the individual plant; does not result in mortality 3. Seed predators and planktivores- function as true predators 4. Parasites- feed on their prey organisms while it is still alive; feeding activity is not lethal in short term 5. Parasitioids- attacks prey indirectly by laying its egss on the host’s body, when the eggs hatch the larva will feed on the host, slowly killing it
14.5 Predators Respond Numerically to Changing Prey Density
Aggregative response- response of predators to aggregate in areas of high prey density Most predator populations grow slowly in comparison to those of their prey
14.6 Foraging Involves Decisions about the Allocation of Time and Energy
Optimal foraging theory- natural selection should favor efficient foragers; individuals that maximize their energy or nutrient intake per unit of effort; the decision is based on maximizing profitability One reason that a predator consumes a varied diet is that it may not be able to meet its nutritional requirements from a single prey species
14.2 Mathematical Models Describes the Basics of Predation
Predators regulate the growth of the prey population by functioning as a source of density-dependent mortality The prey populations functions as a source of density-dependent regulation on the birthrate of the predator population As the predator population increases, it consumes more and more prey, until the prey population begins to decline
14.7 Foragers Seek Productive Food Patches
Most animals live in a patchy environment Profitability- energy gained per unit of time spent foraging in a given patch Marginal value theorem- the length of time an individual should stay in a resource patch before leaving and seeking another Length of stay is based on: 1. The richness of the food patch 2. The time required to get there 3. The time required to extract the resources The predator should abandon the patch when the rate of energy gain is at its maximum The predators should remain in a rich food patch for a longer time than they remain in a poorer one
14.3 Model Suggests Mutual Population Regulation
Regulation of the predator population is a direct result of two distinct responses by the predator to the changes in prey population: 1. Functional response- the greater the number of the prey, the more the predator eats 2. Numerical response- the increase consumption of prey is a result in the increase of predator reproduction
14.4 Functional Responses Relate Prey Consumed to Prey Density
Functional response- how a predator’s rate of consumption responds to changes in the prey population Type 1 functional response- the rate of prey mortality due to predation is constant; can also occur when prey do not become sufficiently abundant to satiate the predators Handling of the prey includes: 1. Chasing 2. Killing 3. Eating 4. Digesting Type 2 functional response- declining mortality of prey with increasing prey density; the per capita rate of predation increases in a decelerating fashion only up to a maximum rate that is attained at some high prey density Type 3 functional response- regulate a prey population because the initial rate of prey mortality increases with prey density; the per capita rate of predation increases with increasing prey density up to some maximum Factors that lead to type 3 response:
14.8 Risk of Predation Can Influence Foraging Behavior
Habitats and foraging areas vary in their foraging profitability and their risk of predation The presence of predators affect foraging behaviors Foragers do not visit rich patches but predator prone areas and stay in less profitable but more secure part of the habitat
14.9 Coevolution Can Occur Between Predator and Prey
Any characteristics that enables individual prey to avoid being detected and captured by predators will increase its fitness Predators evolve more effective means to capture preys
14.10 Animal Prey Have Evolved Defenses against Predators
Predator defenses- characteristics to avoid being detected, selected and captured by predators Example of predatore defenses: 1. Chemical defense
Chapter 14: Predation Summary. Elements of Ecology 7th Edition. Thomas M. Smith and Robert Leo Smith. Pearson International Edition, pp 282-307.
present in small amounts. Object resemblance 4. most of the offspring are produced in a short period. and Carnivores Interact Plants are consumed by herbivores which are in turn consumed by carnivores 14.play extremely visible color patches when disturbed and put into flight. Pearson International Edition.2.colors and patterns that allow prey to blend into the background 3. pursuit time minimal.behaviors by prey species aimed at avoiding detection. Herbivores. Terpenoids. nicotine. Two classes of predator defenses: 1. Behavioral defenses.e.the timing of reproduction. cyanide 2. low frequency of success. Nitrogen based compounds.an edible species resembles an inedible species/model 7.defenses that are brought about by the presence or action of predators 14. requires minimal energy 2. . Thomas M. fleeing and warning others of the predator 10. plant resins 3.13 Plants Have Evolved Characteristics That Deter Herbivores Structural defenses. Pursuit. pp 282-307. Induced defenses. Stalking. spend more time capturing and handling prey 14. Cryptic coloration. may distract and disorient predators.g morphine. atropine. Predator satiation.15 Predators Influence Prey Dynamics through Lethal and Nonlethal Effects Predator induced defensive responses can potentially influence many aspects of prey population regulation and dynamics Predators reduce population growth partly bthrough predatorinduced changes in prey behavior and partly through direct mortality 14. latex.g tannins and lignins Quantitative inhibitors.bold colors with patterns that may serve as a warning to the would-be predators 6.g essential oils. Protective armor 9. are toxic Chapter 14: Predation Summary.the predator has to be exposed to only one of the species before learning to stay away from all other species with the same warning color pattern 8.minimal search time because predators usually know the location of the prey.fixed features of the organism 2.can discourage feeding thereby reducing the amount of tissues removed by herbivores Secondary compounds. do not kill individuals they feed on A plant may be able to compensate by increasing the rate of photosynthesis 14.aromatic compounds.14 Plants. Ambush.11 Predators Have Evolved Efficient Hunting Tactics Three general methods of hunting: 1. Warning coloration/apoematism.lying in wait for prey to come along. Flashing coloration.deliberate form of hunting with quick attack. Living in groups 11. Permanent/constitutive defenses.12 Herbivores Prey on Autotrophs Herbivory is a form of predation in which animals prey on plants and algae. Batesian mimicry. spend more time and energy 3. reduce the ability of herbivores to digest plant tissues or deter herbivores from feeding Three major classes of secondary compounds: 1. may serve as signal to promote group cohesion 5. Phenolics. Smith and Robert Leo Smith. pursuit time is great.chemicals that are not involved in the basic metabolism. reduce digestibility and potential energy gain from food Qualitative inhibitors. Elements of Ecology 7th Edition. e. Mullerian mimicry.e.secondary compounds that function against herbivory.secondary compounds that are produced in large quantities.
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