The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986) was

a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippinesthat occurred in 1983-86. The methods used amounted to a sustained campaign of civil resistance against regime violence and electoral fraud. This case of nonviolent revolution led to the departure of President Ferdinand Marcos and the restoration of the country's democracy. It is also referred to as the Yellow Revolution due to the presence of yellow ribbons during the demonstrations and the arrival of Benigno Aquino, Jr.. It was widely seen as a victory of the people against the 20-year [3] runningauthoritarian, repressive regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world".
[4] [1][2]

The majority of the demonstrations took place on a long stretch of Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, more commonly known by its acronym EDSA, in Metropolitan Manilafrom February 22–25, 1986 and involved over two million Filipino civilians as well as several political, military, and including religious groups led by Cardinal Jaime Sin, the Archbishop of Manila. The protests, fueled by the resistance and opposition from years of corrupt governance by Marcos, culminated with the departure of the dictatorfrom Malacañang Palace to the United States state of Hawaii. Corazon Aquino was proclaimed as the legitimate President of the Philippines after the revolution.

On February 25, 2012, the Philippines celebrated the 26th anniversary of the People Power Revolution.

Background and history

President Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Marcos was elected president in 1965, defeating incumbent Diosdado Macapagal by a very slim margin. During this time, Marcos was very active in the initiation of public works projects and the intensification of tax collections. Marcos and his government claimed that they "built more roads than all his predecessors combined, and more schools than any previous administration". Amidst charges of vote buying and a fraudulent election, Marcos was reelected in 1969, this time defeating Sergio Osmeña Jr. Marcos's second term for the presidency, however, was marred by allegations of widespread graft and corruption. The increasing disparity of wealth between the very wealthy and the very poor which made up the majority of the country's population led to the rise of crime and civil unrest around the country. These factors, including the formation

found an ally and mentor in the Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile. universities. Marcos also ordered the immediate arrest of his political opponents and critics. Gringo Honasan. [8] Within the military and the police. Col. and the ratification of his new constitution through political coercion. Through this decree. however. as well as set up a personality cult. Marcos also dissolved the Philippine Congress and shut down media establishments critical of the Marcos government. RAM. enabled him to effectively legitimize his government and hold on to power for another 14 years beyond his first two terms as president. 1972. Among those arrested were Senate President Jovito Salonga. and many other civil liberties. Marcos's dictatorship ensured the political support of the United States by Marcos' promise to stamp out communism in the Philippines and by assuring the United States of its continued use of military and naval bases in the Philippines. Marcos also ordered the shutdown and takeovers of businesses in the country. [8] Several groups of people. hotels. As a result. Marcos immediately began to embezzle money from the government and order the military to kill any political competition against him. Marcos was barred from running for a third term as president in 1973. Victor Batac. Eduardo Kapunan. andYoung Officers Union (YOU). even within the government. and other public places to place his Presidential picture prominently or otherwise their facilities were shut down.. the freedom of the press. This led to the formation of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM). by virtue of a presidential proclamation (No. [8] Throughout his presidency. Following his declaration of [9] martial law on September 21. At a period when the Cold War was still a political reality. Marcos seized emergency powers giving him full control of the Philippine military and the authority to suppress the freedom of speech. Ninoy Aquino announced of his plans to return to the Philippines as a challenge to Marcos's government. or under the control of Marcos cronies. Lt. schools. Even billboard advertisements across the country were replaced with his propaganda messages on justifying his regime's actions. who Marcos accused as leaning to a left-wing solution. Col. conspired throughout the term of the Marcos regime to overthrow him. Marcos' preemptive declaration of martial law in 1972. While gaining popularity amongst the Filipino people for his stance against Marcos. the Philippine economy began to tumble greatly. Marcos would also abolish the Philippines' 1935 constitution and replace it with a parliamentary-style government (theBatasang Pambansa) along with a new constitution written by him. The media frequently "eulogized" Marcos through public service announcements and news reports. Aquino was eventually forced to seek exile in theUnited States for health and safety reasons. incarcerated opposition senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. Soldier of the Filipino People (SFP). 1972. They were led by the popular public figure. he declared martial law. in 1983. the staunchest of his critics and the man who was groomed by the opposition to succeed Marcos after the 1973 elections. With practically all of his political opponents arrested and in exile. an armed revolt that called for the redistribution of wealth and land reform in the Philippines. He also ordered many stores. Col. disillusioned junior officers silently conveyed their grievances. . so on September 23. and a bloody Muslim separatist movement in the southern island of Mindanao led by the Moro National Liberation Front. and the nation lost its competitive edge in Southeast Asia. contributed to the rapid rise of civil discontent and unrest in the Philippines. However. Senator Jose Diokno. Jr. citing rising civil disobedience as justification. 1081). then put these businesses either under the government control. Ferdinand Marcos had set up a regime in the Philippines that would give him ultimate power over the military and the national treasury. and Lt. and Senator Benigno Aquino Jr. [edit]Assassination of Ninoy Aquino Main article: Assassination of Benigno Aquino. Lt.of the New People's Army. which was led by graduates of the Philippine Military Academy Class of '71.

in part due to Marcos' worsening health condition due to an eventual fatal illness (lupus erythematosus). The event led to more suspicions on the government. The commission's final report accused the military of staging a conspiracy to assassinate Aquino. His assassination shocked and outraged many Filipinos. Ninoy Aquino responded "The Filipino is worth dying for. 1985. Marcos appointed a commission. The snap election was legalized with the passage of Batas Pambansa Blg. dealing another major blow to the already collapsing government. as he was disembarking from a commercial flight at [10] the Manila International Airport (now named after him). to launch an inquiry and investigation into Aquino's assassination. to run for the presidency with Salvador Laurel as running mate for vice-president. Marcos appointed a second commission to investigate. 883) by the Marcos-controlled unicameral congress called the Regular Batasang Pambansa. triggered non-cooperation among Filipinos that eventually caused more civil disobedience. 1983.The Manila Bulletin headline of Aquino's assassination on August 21. Cardinal Jaime Sin. which was by then deteriorating. and the government plunged further into debt. Marcos ran for re-election.8%. The growing opposition movement encouraged Ninoy Aquino's widow. led by Chief Justice Enrique Fernando. [edit]Calls [13] for election [14] Main article: Philippine presidential election. Corazon Aquino. Ninoy Aquino was determined to return to the Philippines. and the economy contracted by 6. 883 (National Law No. Marcos suddenly announced that a presidential snap election would take place the following year. Despite the commission's conclusions. 1983 Despite warnings from the military and other pro-Marcos groups. By October. [12] [11] In 1984. 1986 On November 23. Aquino was shot at Manila International Airport (MIA) which is now called Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA). the country was bankrupt. one year ahead of the regular presidential election schedule. The assassination of Ninoy Aquino in 1983 caused the economic problems of the country to deteriorate even further. with Arturo Tolentino as his [15] . after pressures from Washington. Asked what he thought of the death threats. to legitimize his control over the country. rejecting the government's views on the assassination. It also shook the Marcos government. most of whom had lost confidence in the Marcos administration." On August 21. the Archbishop of Manila declined an offer to join the commission. after a three-year exile in the United States. Aquino was assassinated. By the end of 1983.

NAMFREL countered that the latter won over Marcos with 52 percent of votes. culminating in the walkout of 29 COMELEC computer technicians to protest the deliberate manipulation of the official election results to favor Ferdinand Marcos. [edit]Snap [16] election [15] Main article: Philippine presidential election. [edit] Events of the revolution Appalled by the bold and apparent election irregularities. after Marcos learned about the plot. 1986 The elections were held on February 7. Both "winners" took their oath of office in two different places. and presented to the international [22][23] and local press some of the captured plotters. As a result. The United States Senate also passed a resolution stating the same condemnation. Enrile and his fellow coup plotters decided to ask for help from then AFP Vice Chief of Staff Lt. Aquino also called for coordinated strikes and mass boycott of the media and businesses owned by Marcos's cronies. [20] [19] On February 15. However. Lt. such as the airport. Ramos agreed to resign from his position and support the plotters. Threatened with their impending imprisonment. [24] urging them to "stop this stupidity. Marcos was proclaimed by COMELEC and Batasang Pambansa as the winner amidst the controversy. This electoral exercise was marred by widespread reports of violence and tampering of election results.running mate. the final tally of the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL). Saulito Aromin and Maj. and media were hit hard. Edgardo Doromal.807. Because of reports of alleged fraud. US president Ronald Reagan issued a statement calling the fraud reports as "disturbing". The Aquino-Laurel tandem ran under the United Opposition (UNIDO) party.070 votes against Marcos' [17] 7. and [18] tampering of election results by the KBL.291. where they announced that they had resigned from their positions in Marcos's cabinet and were withdrawing support from his government. who was also the chief of the Philippine Constabulary (now the Philippine National Police). had Aquino winning with 7. Enrile also contacted the highly influential Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin for his support. Gen Fidel Ramos. an accredited poll watcher. The Filipino people refused to accept the results. the GHQAFP in Camp Aguinaldo. The walkout was considered as one of the early "sparks" of the People Power Revolution. The official election canvasser.197 votes against Aquino's 9. However. military bases. Enrile and Ramos held a press conference at Camp Aguinaldo. the crony banks. he ordered their leaders' arrest. COMELEC claimed that Marcos with 53 percent won over Aquino. At about 6:30pm. and major highway junctions to restrict counteroffensive by Marcos-loyal troops. TV and radio stations. while the Marcos-Tolentino ticket ran under the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) party. All 50 opposition members of the Parliament walked out in protest. however. the Reform the Armed Forces Movement set into motion a coup attempt against Marcos. 1986. February 22. The initial plan was for a team to assault Malacañang Palace and arrest Ferdinand Marcos.Col Gregorio Honasan was to lead the team that was going to assault Malacañang Palace. corporations.068 points. the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) issued a statement [15] condemning the elections. The final tally of the COMELEC had Marcos winning with 10.053. Other military units will be taking over key strategic facilities. the Commission on Elections (COMELEC)." [21] . The walkout also served as an affirmation to allegations of vote-buying. with Aquino gaining greater mass support. declared Marcos the winner.835. fraud. Maj. In response to the protests. Marcos himself later conducted his own news conference calling on Enrile and Ramos to surrender. and their shares in the stock market plummeted to record levels. asserting that Aquino was the real victor. On the other hand.761 votes.

government troops arrived to knock down the main transmitter of Radio Veritas. In the end." Similarly. Nevertheless. was stopped along Ortigas Avenue. people listened to Radio Veritas [26] on their radios. if not impossible. [24] In the mid-afternoon. which.m. led by Brigadier General Artemio Tadiar.. to mobilize millions of people in a matter of hours. Enrile crossed EDSA from Camp Aguinaldo to Camp Crame amidst cheers from the crowd. in fact. the troops retreated with no shots fired. The photo above shows the area at the intersection of EDSA and Boni Serrano Avenue. but they did not budge. At dawn. For many. since 1980. trees. food and other supplies. [24] medicine. by tens of thousands of people. especially priests and nuns. Enrile and Ramos decided to consolidate their positions. in a message aired over Radio Veritas. and vehicles in several places along EDSA and intersecting streets such as Santolan and Ortigas Avenue. [24] Radio Veritas played a critical role during the mass uprising. A contingent of Marines with tanks and armored vans. just between Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo. it would have been difficult. Everywhere. this seemed an unwise decision since civilians would not stand a chance against a dispersal by government troops. The station switched to a standby transmitter with a limited range of [25] broadcast. Tadiar asked the crowds to make a clearing for them. trooped to EDSA. The mood in the street was actually very festive. Radio Veritas relayed reports of Marines massing near the camps in the east and LVT-5 tanks approaching from the north and south.At about 9 p. Former University of the Philippines president Francisco Nemenzo stated that: "Without Radio Veritas." [edit]Rising [25] mass support During the height of the revolution. Still. nuns and priests led prayer vigils. was our umbilical cord to whatever else was going on. [24] [28] . had become a patriotic anthem [27] of the opposition. Several groups sang Bayan Ko (My Homeland). about two kilometers from the camps. which is an "L" formed with their thumb and index finger. Shortly after lunch on February 23. many people. People frequently flashed the LABAN (fight) sign. Performers entertained the crowds. The station was targeted because it had proven to be a valuable communications tool for the people supporting the rebels. Nuns holding rosaries knelt in front of the tanks and men and women linked arms together to [29] block the troops. and supplies. Cardinal Sin exhorted Filipinos to come to the aid of the rebel leaders by going to EDSA between Camp Crame and Aguinaldo and giving emotional support. with many bringing whole families. a certain account in the event said that: "Radio Veritas. cutting off broadcasts to people in the provinces. Sunday. an estimated one to three million people filled EDSA from Ortigas Avenue all the way to Cubao. and people set up barricades and makeshift sandbags. keeping them informed of government troop movements and relaying requests for food. people came to EDSA until it swelled to hundreds of thousands of unarmed civilians.

It was thereafter speculated that the false report was a calculated move against Marcos to encourage more defections. Later.By evening. most of the officers who had graduated from the Philippine Military Academy (PMA) defected. [edit]The [30] [30] capture of Channel 4 At around that time. [24] [31] During this broadcast. Bong Bongayan. In the late afternoon. June Keithley received reports that Marcos had left Malacañang Palace and broadcast this to the people at EDSA. Some 3.000 Marines then entered and held the east side of Camp Aguinaldo. February 24. the staff were able to go to another station to begin broadcasting from a secret location under the moniker "Radyo Bandido" (Bandit Radio). the standby transmitter of Radio Veritas failed. "Channel 4 is on the air again to serve the people. [edit]More [24] defections At dawn on Monday. June Keithley. were ordered from Sangley Point in Cavite (South of Manila) to head to Camp Crame. Aquino arrived at the base where Enrile. the squadron had already defected and instead of attacking Camp Crame. Ramos. The crowd celebrated and even Ramos and Enrile came out from Crame to appear to the crowds. with Angelo Castro. Another helicopter went to Malacañang. lobbed tear gas at the demonstrators. landed in it. had captured the station. in the east. led by Colonel Antonio Sotelo. the first serious encounter with government troops occurred. A Bell 214 helicopter piloted by Major Deo Cruz of the 205th Helicopter Wing and Sikorsky S76 gunships piloted by Colonel Charles Hotchkiss of the 20th Air Commando Squadron joined the rebel squadron earlier in the air. A contingent of rebels. RAM officers and a throng were waiting. Fr. The presence of the helicopters boosted the morale of Enrile and Ramos who had been continually [24] encouraging their fellow soldiers to join the opposition movement. [edit]AFP [24] holds fire "Marcos' finest hour" President Ferdinand Marcos and GeneralFabian Ver during a press .'s cousin Augusto "Jake" Lopez stepped into ABS-CBN after it had been closed. destroying presidential air assets. Efren Datu. with Orly Punzalanannouncing. who quickly dispersed. In the afternoon. Also this was the first time when the late Eugenio "Geny" Lopez Jr. The people who were manning this broadcast were the likes of June Keithley. (using the foreclosed ABS-CBN facilities. fired a rocket and caused minor damage. rebel helicopters attacked Villamor Airbase. transmitter and compound) declaring that he would not step down. Marines marching from Libis. was the radio broadcaster who continued Radio Veritas' program throughout the night and in the remaining days. Fr. Channel 4 was put back on line shortly after noon. helicopters manned by the 15th Strike Wing of the Philippine Air Force. Orly Punzalan and were directed by Johnny Manahan with former ABS employees. Secretly. Shortly after midnight. Fr. The majority of the Armed Forces had already [24] changed sides. with the crowds cheering and hugging the pilots and crew members. (Some estimates placed them at two million. Jose Mari Velez. under Colonel Mariano Santiago. Aris Sison. the crowds at EDSA had swollen to over a million. The jubilation was however short-lived as Marcos later appeared on television on the government-controlled Channel 4.) This broadcast was considered the "return" of ABS-CBN on air because this was the time when former employees of ABS-CBN were inside the complex after 14 years of closure since Marcos took it over during the Martial law of 1972. Channel 4 suddenly went off the air." By this time. [24] Later.

She was sworn in as President by Senior Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee. still Marcos!)". Corazon Aquino was inaugurated as President of the Philippines in a simple ceremony at Club Filipino in Greenhills. Marcos conducted the inauguration at Malacañang. the couple's theme song. sir.. [32] [24] Later in the morning.. Snipers stationed atop the government-owned Channel 9 tower. a minor clash occurred between loyal government troops and the reformists. who was then promoted to General. about a kilometer from Camp Crame. trademark Tagalog entreaties: Because of you I attained happiness I offer you my love [33] chanting her . Many rebel soldiers surged to the station. Outside Club Filipino. No. [edit]Two inaugurations On the morning of Tuesday. Marcos (interrupting): Uh yes. [24] None of the invited foreign dignitaries attended the ceremony for security reasons.m. but ah. so we can immediately strike them. and many politicians.My order is to disperse without shooting them. February 25. immediately. no. Many people wore yellow. the mother of Ninoy Aquino.. began shooting at the reformists. Problems listening to this file? See media help. broadcast by IBC-13 and GMA-7... the color of Aquino's campaign for presidency. Ver: We cannot withdraw all the time. Bayan Ko (My Country.. shouting "Marcos. at around 7 a. rather tearfully. and Laurel as Vice-President by Justice Vicente Abad Santos. Attending the ceremonies were [24] Ramos. My order is not to attack Ver: They are massing civilians near our troops and we cannot keep on withdrawing. An hour later. Ver: Please your honor. hundreds of people cheered and celebrated. The actual dialogue on TV between Marcos and then AFP Chief of Staff General Fabian Ver went as follows: Fabian Ver: The Ambush there is aiming to mount there in the top. We have two fighter planes flying now to strike at any time.. Enrile. mr. Marcos. Marcos. The couple finally stepped out in the balcony of the palace in front of the 3000 [33] KBL loyalists who were shouting to Marcos: "Capture the snakes!" First Lady Imelda Marcos sang one more rendition of "Dahil Sa Iyo" (Because of You).conference in Malacañang Palace. all the way to EDSA. you must immediately leave to conquer them. This type of staged dialogue is known in the Philippines as "moromoro". Loyalist civilians attended the ceremony. Marcos pa rin! (Marcos. near Channel 4. The orders on the military frequency were monitored by RAM officers. Marcos: My order is not to attack. The Bible on which Aquino swore her oath was held by Aurora Aquino. a popular folk song and the unofficial National Anthem of protest) was sung after Aquino's oath-taking. very quickly. We have to immobilize the helicopters that they've got.. The said dialogue was staged to save face after orders to attack the civilians were not followed. On the Palace balcony. no! Hold on. You asked me to withdraw yesterday. president. Marcos took his oath as the President of the Philippines.come here. Ferdinand Marcos: Just wait.

Over at Mendiola. the demonstrators were finally able to enter Malacañang Palace.m. many rejoiced and danced in the streets.If it is true that you shall enslave me All of this is because of you. [edit]Marcos' departure [33] At 3:00 p. Bob Simon. and finally to [4][24] Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where Marcos arrived on February 26. [33] asking for advice from the White House. at Midnight. long denied to Filipinos in the past decade. [33] After the inauguration. Laxalt advised him to "cut and cut cleanly".S. [24] By this time. tonight they are teaching the world. asking for safe passage for him and his family including his close allies like General Ver. Monday. They were prevented from storming the Palace by loyal government troops securing the area. to which Marcos expressed his disappointment after a short pause. the Marcos family and their close associates hurriedly rushed to leave the Palace. The [24] angry demonstrators were pacified by priests who warned them not to be violent. hundreds of people had amassed at the barricades along Mendiola. an anchorman at CBS said. Airforce HH-3E [3] Rescue helicopters to Clark Air Base in Angeles City. Looting by overly angry protesters occurred. (EST) Marcos talked to United States Senator Paul Laxalt. before boarding US Air Force DC-9 Medivac and C-141B planes bound for Andersen Air Force Base in Guam. looking at the place where all the decisions [citation needed] that changed the course of Philippine history had been made. only a hundred meters away from Malacañang. In the afternoon. but mostly people wandered inside. Pampanga. Many people around the world rejoiced and congratulated Filipinos they knew. Marcos talked to Enrile. Finally.. about 83 kilometers north of Manila. Well. "We Americans like to think we taught the Filipinos democracy." [edit] [24] Aftermath Main article: Presidency of Corazon Aquino Commemorative statue of the Revolution at Camp Aguinaldo . The broadcast of the event was also cut off as rebel troops successfully captured the other stations. When the news of Marcos' departure reached the people. the Marcos family was transported by a U.

The revolution also provided the restoration of democratic institutions after thirteen years of authoritarian rule. In an article published in Philippine Daily Inquirer." The perception of the public about the Marcos regime is changing. 1986.. however. rather than the human [37] rights abuses and claims of lavish personal spending. ignoring the existence of the toiling masses and peasants in agrarian Philippines. [37] While democracy as Filipinos knew it was restored. Patronage politics still hinders the development of democracy and natural resources are now mostly exploited by Western nations. While the Marcoses fled. who associate the People Power Revolution with what they term as "Imperial Manila" because it was believed that Marcos was toppled from his position without the participation of Filipinos living in areas outside of the capital region. President Aquino observed that "ours must have been the cheapest revolution ever". the power "remained concentrated among a small rich elite. however. They have excluded the provincianos from their movement with their insufferable arrogance and snobbery . The revolution may have had brought changes to the leadership in the country. The 1987 Constitution's third article titled the "bill of rights" is guaranteed by the state. The revolution had an effect on democratization movements in places such as Taiwan and South Korea. adoption of a new constitution. and the subordination of the military to civilian rule. and the former president died in exile in Hawaii. [38] . his wife Imelda later won a seat in the House of Representatives and his son Ferdinand Jr. These institutions have been used by political and social actors to challenge the [36] entrenched political clans and develop Philippine democracy. the democratic political system of the Philippines is still fragile and flawed. with some people "focusing on his investments. was elected senator in 2010. Their playing field is EDSA. Amando Doronila wrote that: People power movements have been an Imperial Manila phenomenon. other effects include the restoration of the freedom of the press. which deposed President Joseph Estrada. despite several coup attempts during the Aquino administration." [edit] Criticism There are political writers. rampant corruption plagued the government that led to the 2001 EDSA Revolution. but in most instances is largely ignored by the government. infrastructure and public works.. and is viewed by foreign sources as "coded to ensure tyranny of [citation needed] the majority". especially those living outside of Metro Manila. [34][35] Despite the People Power Revolution. seven months after assuming the presidency.10-peso coin commemorating the People Power Revolution In her speech before the United States Congress which she delivered on September 18.

resulting in the disenfranchisement of three million voters.As the government celebrates Barangay Day/National Thanksgiving Day to commemorate the declaration of martial law. Please relocate any relevant information." The majority party squelches the motion. . [39] [edit]1984  May 14 . The United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) and the Pilipino Democratic Party-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-LABAN) coalition decide to take part. throws her support behind the opposition candidates. and violence are reported.The Opposition makes a formal announcement of the Aquino-Laurel tandem for the snap [edit]1986 [edit]February 7  A heavy voter turnout and the judging of the voters' list create confusion during the presidential elections. (February 2011) [edit]1983   August 21 . The Commission on Elections (COMELEC) tally board shows Marcos leading while the National Citizen's Movement for the Free Elections (NAMFREL) consistently shows Cory Aquino ahead by a comfortable margin. citing culpable violation of the Constitution and "hidden wealth. Incidents of fraud.General Ver and all his co-accused are acquitted by the Sandiganbayan. and remove excessive detail that may be againstWikipedia inclusion policy. protesting the tampering of election [39] results. thousands of Ninoy supporters hold a "National Day of Sorrow" and call for unity in the ranks to topple the Marcos regime. [39] [39] December 5 . Cory Aquino. tasked with investigating the Aquino assassination. Ninoy's widow. [39] [39] November 3 . and one civilian stand trial before the Sandiganbayan for the Aquino [39] murder. December 2 .Marcos suddenly announces the holding of snap elections after alleged prodding from the United December 3 .Corazon Aquino declares her candidacy for President. 24 soldiers.[edit] Timeline This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may only interest a specific audience. States. Marcos reinstates him as Chief of Staff amid widespread protest. [edit]1985       February 22 .General Ver. vote-buying. [39] [edit]February 9  Thirty computer workers at the COMELEC tabulation center walk out.The Agrava Board.Opposition MPs file a motion for impeachment against Marcos in the Batasan. elections.Ninoy Aquino is assassinated September 21 . Election returns are tampered with. Salvador Laurel. agrees to be her running mate.  October 24 . Ver takes a leave of absence as Armed Forces Chief of Staff.Elections for the Batasang Pambansa (parliament) are held. August . intimidation. concludes that there was a [39] military conspiracy behind the killing and implicates AFP Chief of Staff Fabian Ver. They surprise Marcos [39] by winning 56 seats out of the 183 amid familiar allegations of fraud. who earlier has wanted to run for the same position.

Col. Col. Honasan to inform the latter that their plans have been made known already and that RAM should not make any rash decisions.  6:30 AM   Maj. and tell the world of their story. they discover battle-hardened Marines stationed at their main point of attack. Rolando Abadilla to Col. Civil unrest (1970) People Power (1986) 1986-87 plots Honasan's Second (1989) Fall of Estrada (2001) May 1 riots (2001) Oakwood mutiny (2003) State of emergency (2006) Manila Peninsula rebellion (2007) 3:00 AM  The final meeting at the Defense Minister's home is concluded. Primary suspects are the bodyguards of the local KBL leader. Rex Robles was assigned to act as a liaison with the diplomatic community in case the RAM officers will be arrested. but to simply "freeze" the operation for the next 24 hours. 12:00 NN Navy Capt. Ramos on the developments of RAM's plans.  Honasan reviews the situation and assesses the prepositioning of the troops from his office in GHQAFP Camp Aguinaldo    Cory Aquino leaves for Cebu to continue the Civil Disobedience Campaign. Honasan phones Kapunan and informs him that they are not going to abort the mission. 10:00 AM  Lt.[edit]February 11  Oppositionist ex-Governor Evelio Javier of Antique is murdered in front of the provincial capitol where canvassing is being held. Avelino Razon briefs AFP Vice Chief of Staff Gen. Honasan and Kapunan begin their recoinnaisance of Malacañang. [edit]February 13  The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) issues a statement condemning the elections as fraudulent. Lt. 9:00 AM   Fabian Ver sends Col. To their dismay. Fidel V. . [edit]February 22  2:00 AM Attempts at regime change in the Philippines (1970–2007)  Final meeting of the RAM at Minister of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile's house in Dasmariñas Village before the assault on Malacañang Palace   AFP Chief of Staff Fabian Ver calls in additional units to defend Malacañang.

Brig. Marcos's own province. envoys. Capt.S. 6:30 PM Malacañang receives a "report" that Ramos and Enrile were "officially withdrawing their support" of the Marcos administration. and we ought to offer him asylum in the United States. surrounded by the their staff and guards hold a press conference at the Social Hall of the GHQAFP. Gen. and make the official announcement of their withdrawal of support of the Marcos administration.  Enrile states in his opening that "We are going to die here fighting. had to change their direction. U. visit the Palace for a meeting with the President. 8. They discuss the recent elections and the political situation. barely has Amb. Ricardo Morales. that "Cory won the election and deserves our support.  1:45 PM  As the meeting came to a close." [cite this quote] 2:00 PM    With their plans discovered. one of Imelda Marcos' close-in security and who is a mole of RAM in the PSG. Amb. and took the initiative to withdraw some firearms from the PSG armory.   Philip Habib confides as he leaves Malacañang. Leyte. 2:15 PM    Cory in the rally in Cebu calls for the boycott of Marcos crony-owned business. Stephen Bosworth along with Philip Habib. Salvador Mison who was in Camp Aguinaldo.S.   5:30 PM    Pres. Pres. Marcos is finished. envoys call Marcos to retire Ver. They decided that they need to draw the public support if they are going to storm this crisis out. led by commander. 3:45 PM Enrile gets through to Cardinal Sin and seeks his moral and active support. 6:45 PM  Enrile and Ramos. Marcos first response to the mutiny was to call his family to Malacañang. Gen. Ronald Reagan's personal envoy to Marcos. He is arrested and is brought to the office of the Aide-de-camp for interrogation.S. reconnoiters the defenses of the Palace grounds. Ver storms into the Presidential study to convey the recent arrest of four officers in the PSG who are found to be members of RAM.  12:45 PM  While Marcos was having his meeting with the U. Enrile and the RAM officers. The U." [40] . Bosworth left the room. 4:30 PM  The first military region to go to the rebel side was Regional Unified Command No. as the former felt that he will not survive the day. which included troops in Mrs.

 Ramos states "There has become an elite Armed Forces of the Philippines that no longer represents the rank and officers' corps of the Armed Forces. Our loyalty is to the Constitution and the country. He has put his personal family interest above the interest of the people.. . he was just fooling us.. Ver orders Brig. not to destroy.. . I will not serve under Mrs. 8:15 PM  Gen. They asked him to send the people to the camps. I would like to appeal to the fair and to the dedicated and people-oriented members of the AFP and the INP to join us in this crusade for better government...The President of 1986 is not the President to whom we dedicated our service. 8:30 PM    Cardinal Jaime Sin goes on air and calls the people to "Please." [42]  Ramos closes "I am not even acting Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. Enrile and Gen. I think that when he made that announcement to you and to the whole world last Sunday. We do not consider President Marcos as now being a duly constituted authority. it is clear that he no longer is the able and capable commander-in-chief that we count upon. stay home. .. Aquino even if she is installed as a president. .. 9:00 PM  Cardinal Sin goes on air once more and says "Leave your homes now . Fidel Singson. give them food if you like. Gen. Singson sends his men to Radio Veritas. Chief of the Intelligence Service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (ISAFP) to "Destroy Radio Veritas!"    Unbeknown to Ver. You are welcome to join us. She calls Manila to verify the report.000 votes. ." 8:45 PM The rebel group was taken aback by the Cardinal's announcement and calls him to clarify their request. No. [43]  9:30 PM . Ramos." [42]   7:00 PM Approximately 7:00 PM   Cory receives the news of the withdrawal of support by Enrile and Ramos.. and he was fooling the entire world because he flip-flopped so many times already. do not be alarmed. MP Palma immediately made a call to Radio Veritas and was one of the first opposition leaders to express support for the revolution." [41]  Enrile adds "I cannot in my conscience recognize the President as the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and I am appealing to the other members of the Cabinet to heed the will of the people expressed during the last elections. Because in my own region. but only to reconnoiter the area.. Singson was already in the process of defecting to the rebel group. ...I ask you to support Mr.. they are our friends.. We have no food."  Inquirer co-chairman Betty Go-Belmonte telephoned Member of Parliament Cecilia Munoz Palma.. I know that we cheated in the elections to the extent of 350...

She requests to speak with Enrile first. Antonio Sotelo. who was also a member of RAM.  Col. Butz Aquino finally decided to head to Camp Aguinaldo to support the rebels. Hector Tarrazona. Butz Aquino with the August Twenty-One Movement ATOM Executive Committee deliberate on whether to support Enrile and Ramos. Commander of the 15th Strike Wing. received a call at his Villamor Air Base office from Col. . Col.  Cory Aquino meanwhile is also deciding on what actions to take after receiving the call from ATOM. and orders his Squadron Commanders to arm their attack helicopters. asking the Commander whether he is with them. Sotelo confirms that he supports RAM. The Executive Committee wants to wait on Cory Aquino for instructions.

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