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Water management in Islam

Juha I. D. practitioners. Braga Professor of Civil Engineering. Japan Dr. Uitto and Jutta Schneider Central Eurasian Water Crisis: Caspian. Tokyo University Tokyo. as well as to capacitybuilding in developing countries. and management tools. approaching the complex problematique from three particular angles: governance.C.. Braga. Yutaka Takahasi Professor Emeritus. Uitto and Asit K.C. Aral. F. Canada Dr. Benedito P. USA The UNU Programme on Integrated Basin Management focuses on water management. Shady Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) Hull. Ralph Daley Director. It utilizes extensive networks of scholars and institutions in both developing and industrialized countries. Earlier books in this series are: Hydropolitics Along the Jordan River: Scarce Water and Its Impact on the ArabIsraeli Conflict by Aaron T. Special Programs. and Cecilia Tortajada Water for Urban Areas: Challenges and Perspectives by Juha I. Aly M. Asit K. capacity-building. Biswas . Plata. Colorado State University. Wolf Managing Water for Peace in the Middle East: Alternative Strategies by Masahiro Murakami Freshwater Resources in Arid Lands edited by Juha I. F. The programme is carried out through field-based research encompassing both natural and social sciences. Sri Lanka Dr. Glantz Latin American River Basins: Amazon. Uitto Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist. Canada Prof. Newton V. Fort Collins. D. International Water Management Institute Colombo. UNU/INWEH Hamilton. Third World Centre for Water Management Mexico City. Ontario. Quebec. Cordiero. Mexico Dr. Benedito P.Water Resources Management and Policy Series Editors Dr. Egypt Dr. USA Prof. The series focuses on policy-relevant topics of wide interest to scholars. and Dead Seas edited by Iwao Kobori and Michael H. and policy-makers. David Seckler Director-General. Biswas President. and Sao Francisco edited by Asit K. Biswas. Brazil International Advisory Board Dr. Mahmoud A. Ismail Serageldin Vice President. Global Environment Facility Washington. USA Dr. Jose Galicia Tundisi International Institute of Ecology Sao Carlos SP. Abu-Zeid Minister of Public Works and Water Resources Giza.. The Water Resources Management and Policy series disseminates the results of research carried out under the Programme on Integrated Basin Management and related activities. This work is intended to contribute to policy-making by the United Nations and the international community. The World Bank Washington.

Cairo .New Delhi .Montevideo .Singapore . Asit K.Dakar . Bino United Nations University Press TOKYO • NEW YORK • PARIS International Development Research Centre Ottawa .Water management in Islam Edited by Naser I. and Murad J. Biswas.Nairobi . Faruqui.Johannesburg .

Bino. or otherwise. Faruqui. IV. Water quality management — Middle East. Asit K. Murad J. Jordan in Dec. held in Amman. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University or the International Development Research Centre. North-Management.ca/booktique/ All rights reserved. or transmitted.91'00956 COO-980407-2 Cover design by Joyce C. International Development Research Centre (Canada) V. Biswas. in December 1998". Bino. Water resources development-Government policy-Islamic countries. I. North. III. 3. 1998. Includes bibliographical references. electronic. Naser I.W38 2000 363. 4. stored in a retrieval system. ISBN 1. Water-supply-Africa. Shibuya-ku.edu Published in Canada by the International Development Research Centre PO Box 8500. Printed in the United States of America. Faruqui.unu. 53-70. 2001 Published in Europe and the United States of America by the United Nations University Press The United Nations University. 5. — Pref. Tokyo. 3. ON. Water-supplyIslamic countries-Management. Based on the findings of the Workshop on Water Resources Management in the Islamic World. North. Murad J. II. Biswas. mechanical.idrc. 2. Weston. Biswas. IV. p. held in Amman. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Water management in Islam / edited by Naser I. 2. Bino. ISBN 92-808-1036-7 (UNUP edition) ISBN 0-88936-924-0 (IDRC edition) . No part of this publication may be reproduced. cm. Ottawa.edu http://www.ca http://www. in any form or by any means. Water-supply-Middle East-Management. without the prior permission of the publishers. Co-published by UNU Press. Water resources development — Africa. International Development Research Centre (Canada) HD1698. Faruqui.5 . Naser I. 4. Japan Tel: +81-3-3499-2811 Fax: +81-3406-7345 Email: sales@hq. The United Nations University Press is the publishing division of the United Nations University. TD313. III. Asit K. Title.unu. Water quality management — Africa. Jordan.© United Nations University. photocopying. Water supply — Middle East. organized by the International Development Research Centre.6'1'0917671—dc21 00-011417 Canadian Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Water management in Islam "This book is primarily based on the findings of the Workshop on Water Resources Management in the Islamic World. II. and Murad J..7W27 2000 333. 150-8925. Canada K1G 3H9 Tel: +1-613-236-6163 Fax: +1-613-563-2476 Email: pub@idrc. 1965. Jingumae 5-chome. I. Asit K. Water resources development — Middle East. ISBN 0-88936-924-0 1.

Amery vii ix xii xiii xx xxiii 1 33 39 v . Faruqui and Odeh Al-Jayyousi List of abbreviations 1 Islam and water management: Overview and principles Naser I. Faruqui Islamic sources Naser I. Faruqui 2 Islamic water management and the Dublin Statement Odeh Al-Jayyousi 3 Islam and the environment Hussein A.Contents Foreword Caroline Pestieau Preface Acknowledgements Introduction Naser I.

Baig. A. M. Faruqui 12 Management of shared waters: A comparison of international and Islamic law lyad Hussein and Odeh Al-Jayyousi Glossary of Arabic and Islamic terms Volume editors Workshop participants Index 49 61 68 79 85 94 103 115 128 136 141 142 145 . Ali Khan. M. and Mazen Malkawi 5 Water conservation through community institutions in Pakistan: Mosques and religious schools S. Z. F. Abderrahman 7 Sociocultural acceptability of wastewater reuse in Palestine — Nader Al Khateeb 8 Water rights and water trade: An Islamic perspective M. Khan. Caponera 10 Water markets and pricing in Iran Kazem Sadr 11 Intersectoral water markets in the Middle East and North Africa Naser I. and M. A. Djebbar. S. Y.vi CONTENTS 4 Water conservation through public awareness based on Islamic teachings in the Eastern Mediterranean region Sadok Atallah. Gabriel 6 Water demand management in Saudi Arabia Walid A. Nehdi 9 Ownership and transfer of water and land in Islam Dante A. A. and H. T. M. Kadouri. Shah.

understanding its actual or potential role is important. One of these is globalization which brings foreign institutions and actors into the domestic arena. Many value systems have their origins in religion. independently of our own belief in. Since Islam is the religion of about one-fifth of the world's population and the official faith of a number of countries. In both public and private sectors. religion in general or towards a particular religion. decision makers are recognizing forces which. Each of the authors has great experience in one or another aspect of the topic. they considered as extraneous. in many of which water is the key scarce factor for development. Another is the reintroduction of explicit value systems into policy choices. Water Management in Islam presents interpretations by eighteen scientists of the role that Islam may play in water management. scientists are starting to analyse natural resources from multidisciplinary perspectives.Foreword The theory and practice of natural resources management is changing. until recently. In the field. This book makes a valuable contribution to development by presenting the Islamic perspective on a number of proposed water management vii . or attitude towards. In universities. The formerly neat and isolated compartments in the study of natural resources management are disappearing. Recognizing the role of religion can therefore enrich our understanding of how individual and collective choices are made. resource managers are being urged to take account of the concerns of the full range of stake-holders.

Canada . is worth noting. Programs International Development Research Centre Ottawa.viii FOREWORD policies such as water demand management. wastewater reuse. and sustainable water management. It also adds to our knowledge of some of the influences on formal policy and informal practice and makes these ideas available to a broader public. The book thus opens avenues for a wider dialogue among researchers working at identifying the most promising water management policies and for a more rapid adoption of these. efficient. and fair pricing. These policies are widely agreed to lead to more equitable. such as the Dublin Principles. the congruence between Islamic principles and those currently promoted. While water management practices and policies are influenced by a combination of social. not all of which relate to religious value systems. and political factors. It is much closer than many theorists and practitioners realize. Caroline Pestieau Vice President. cultural. economic.

wastewater reuse. and the Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Demand and Management (INWRDAM). a Canadian Crown Corporation. and water markets. such as lifeline water tariffs. with support from the International Water Resources Association (IWRA). IWRA. support. They do not reflect official policies of IDRC. and sustainable water management. with certain provisos. These measures are generally accepted. water conservation. The book is primarily based on the findings of the Workshop on Water Resources Management in the Islamic World. efficient. and environmental problems. and conduct research to help communities in the developing world find solutions to their social. entitled "People. By studying these issues in the context of Islam." and its mandate is to initiate. or INWRDAM. The workshop was organized by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). One IDRC program. held in Amman. fair pricing. However. in December 1998.Preface This book explores the Islamic perspective on a number of proposed water management policies. and Water. Jordan. is "empowerment through knowledge. community-based water management. to lead to more equitable. economic." focuses on research ix . The mission of the IDRC. Land. workshop participants were able to derive Islamic water management principles that were in harmony with currently accepted principles of sustainable water management. the discussion and conclusions presented reflect the consensus and interpretations of the participants in the workshop.

What . donor organizations. and because it has been suggested that Islam is against some currently promoted water management policies. Most scientists and even development professionals avoid examining religion or values in the context of their work to avoid discord and to keep discussion "objective. the issue cannot be avoided. under certain conditions. A specific objective of this program is to contribute to local and national policies and institutional arrangements that equitably increase the quality and accessibility of water resources. it may not have been scientifically possible to treat wastewater to the extent that it could be safely reused but. Thus. it serves as a concrete example of the benefit of examining development in the context of values and culture.x PREFACE that helps people in the MENA region to better manage their land and water resources. whose holy books Muslims recognize. could include verses from the Bible. development. examining values is not easy. for example. policy-makers. IDRC organized the workshop with the following goal: To develop a better understanding of Islamic perspectives relating to selected water management practices and outline research necessary to develop water management policies that will improve the lives of the poor. and non-governmental organizations working in countries with largely Muslim populations. and values intersect. This approach is consistent with the International Development Research Centre's philosophy of examining development research problems from the perspective of its southern partners and engaging them in the research process. Christianity and Judaism. IDRC follows a people-centred approach that requires staff and research partners to examine each research problem from the perspective of the beneficiaries' socio-economic circumstances. which would complement each other. For example. these principles are not unique. as well as those from the Quran and hadiths. where science. but are also inherent in many other belief systems. Because most of the countries within the MENA are predominately Muslim. one encounters values common to the other two Abrahamic monotheistic religions." However. Egypt. This book is expected to be useful to researchers. Furthermore. Beyond the specific value of this book for water management in the Middle East and North Africa. this can now be done. As one delves into Islam. a water conservation project incorporating local values in. in the past. Because these values are universal. which has a large Christian minority. they are not common only to these closely related faiths. However. Although the workshop participants were able to agree upon water management principles that could be considered Islamic.

more broadly the exercise demonstrates the value of developing a deeper understanding of cultures and belief systems other than one's own. the Church legitimized the debate. in a spirit of tolerance and mutual respect. and Judaism. puts such a premium on purity. like other belief systems. For many Catholics in the region. the participation of the Roman Catholic Church in recent discussions on human rights in Latin America. We hope that this exploration of Islam and water will lead to the examination of other belief systems in different development contexts. Faruqui Asit K. but which also has many adherents of other faiths.PREFACE xi does a religion such as Islam. Biswas Murad J. and by emphasizing the role of the family and human responsibilities as well as human rights. such as Christianity. Take for instance. and even sensitive. It may be challenging. where the prevailing religion is Islam. However. which. Bino . workshop participants reached consensus that followers of different belief systems have much to learn from each other. but it is worth it. Naser I. Although the concrete outputs of this work are relevant to water management in the Middle East and North Africa. have to say about this? Examining values can be particularly sensitive in the Middle East. by adding to its moral dimension. Zoroastrianism.

Islam and water that has been little explored in the past is doubly challenging. Gamal Soleiman (the Imam of the Ottawa Mosque). Abdoul Abdoulaye Sow. without whose help it would not have been possible to publish this book: my assistant Saeeda Khan. Faruqui xii . Murad Bino (INWRDAM). providing English translations of the titles of Arabic works. To make concrete statements on a subject . and referencing hadiths. and the organizations that they represent. and my co-editors. for continuing where Saeeda left off when she returned to school. In addition to God.Acknowledgements To edit any book on a sensitive subject such as religion is always challenging. Francis Thompson. I thank my wife Natasha for her unwavering support while I worked on this task. Ghazi Al Nakshabandi. Finally. Naser I. Odeh Al-Jayyousi. Dr. Hussein Amery. and my colleagues at IDRC for their valuable comments in reviewing the manuscript. All of the participants in the workshop in Jordan and particularly the authors contributing to this book deserve gratitude for their submissions and for their input into and review of the overview chapter. Dr. Asit Biswas (IWRA) and Dr. and Alauddin Ahmad for the painstaking task of reviewing the glossary. for her enthusiastic help organizing the workshop and editing the book. I would like to thank the following individuals. Yassine Djebbar.

000 m3/p/y is often used as an indicator of water scarcity: below this. and is expected to decline to 725 m3/p/y by 2025. Almost all of the states of the Arabian peninsula. Syria. As a result. The region has one of the highest average population growth rates in the world (around 2. Competing water demands are exacerbated by high population growth rates and rapid urbanization.250 m3/p/y in 1996. Faruqui In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). the annual renewable freshwater available per person in Jordan. Furthermore.1 water is rapidly becoming the key development issue. Tunisia. A benchmark level of 1. Many countries in the region already fall well below a water availability of 500 m3/p/y. Jordan. and Yemen was 327. Morocco. 540. Although the collective urban growth rate xiii .300 cubic metres per person per year (m3/p/y) in 1960 to 1. renewable available water in the region dropped from an average of 3. and Libya. the available water is of lower quality because of increasing pollution and overpumping.8 per cent). Egypt. Sudan. and Tunisia are fast approaching the same critical threshold. respectively. and these values are projected to drop drastically by 2025 (World Bank 1995).Introduction Naser I. For example. a country is likely to experience chronic water scarcity on a scale sufficient to impede development and harm human health (Falkenmark and Lindh 1974) 500 m3/p/y indicates severe water stress. and scarce natural water supplies. in addition to Israel. and 445 m3. already consume much more water than their annual renewable supplies. in the early 1990s.

on the impact of Catholicism on family planning policies in Latin America. Projects that incorporate culture either tend to focus on certain small groups. national governments. By 2015. including religion. Remarkably few studies of this nature have been carried out in the Middle East. 2). nor. compared with 49 per cent for LDCs as a whole (UNDP 1998). or of Hinduism on soil management in India. in which religion or beliefs are perceived to be less important as the world proceeds toward some kind of common. this is not necessarily reflected in their projects. and donor organizations. clearly influences how people perceive and manage a resource such as water. primarily indigenous groups in rural areas . non-governmental organizations (NGOs). material-based culture.for example. it is even higher in MENA countries .9 per cent for the period 1995-2015. development agencies increasingly acknowledge the importance of local culture and values in their policies. There seems to be a belief that comprehensive in-depth studies that look at all aspects of a particular religion or culture are becoming unimportant in a globalizing. Yet. without examining the broader cultural context. the proportion of the total population living in urban areas will be 66 per cent. policy-makers. Against this backdrop.2 per cent. are working to meet the challenge of providing all of the people in the MENA region with an adequate supply of freshwater to meet their needs. the relationship between the belief system of Masai in Kenya and their nomadic herding lifestyle .3. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) commissioned a collection of essays on ethics because "if the Rio consensus is to have any meaning. such as the effect of male-dominated societies on female literacy. it has to be grounded in the notion of human right and wrong in relation to the way the earth and its bounty are made to serve the interests of all" (UNEP 1994. Although these studies are useful. and later published a study on Water Laws in Moslem Countries in 1973.or on specific elements. researchers. for example. the World Health Organiza- . and donor organizations are beginning to acknowledge the failure of development projects that ignore local values. donor organizations tend to focus on particular issues. urbanizing world. Although this aspect was often neglected in development projects in the past. Values and development Culture. In 1996. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations first looked at the issue of water rights in Muslim countries in 1954. However. including IDRC.xiv FARUQUI of less developed countries (LDCs) is estimated to be 2. such as gender equity.

economic. As with some other belief systems. inheritance. and labour and their effects on Luapulan fishing communities in Africa. which. IDRC has an ongoing project on science. or constitutional systems completely on Islamic law. spirituality. 1988. and economic development. The recently established World Water Commission (WWC). it is difficult to identify a purely secular state in the Middle East. kinship. Carnegie Endowment. and even elemental issues such as eating and personal hygiene and sanitation. is investigating the relationship between religion and water management practices. including a 1988 Conference on Ethics and Human Values in Family Planning in Thailand. marriage. sanitation. along with large minorities following various faiths. Although only a handful of Muslim countries now base their political. In 1995.2 the concept of "secularism. family and intimate relations. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) hosted a dialogue on "Spirituality in Sustainable Development" in 1996. for example. religion. Islam in the MENA Examining underlying values is particularly important in the Middle East and North Africa. IDRC has in the past also sponsored or co-sponsored several studies on values. contracts." or separation of mosque and state. The study is intended to help IDRC better integrate human values and belief systems. 222). with the exception of Turkey. in present and future development work (Ryan 1995). is home to three hundred million Muslims. within its mandate." It is currently consulting with leaders from nine of the world's faiths to broaden understanding and action in tackling the issue of global poverty.INTRODUCTION xv tion (WHO) published a series of booklets on health education through religion. It regulates virtually all aspects of individual and collective human life. which includes senior representatives of the World Bank. addressing subjects such as water. the World Bank helped sponsor a conference on "Ethics and Spiritual Values: Promoting Environmentally Sustainable Development. such as Tunisia and Morocco. Rockefeller Foundation. Islam encompasses much more than worship and a code of personal conduct implied by the word "religion" (Bankowski et al. In fact. and environmental health in Islam. issues such as buying and selling. Within Islam as a religion. secular. judicial. which follows from a study on culture. and a 1976 thesis on religion. and the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development. does not exist. appeals . World Conservation Union. and development. the influence of Islam is strong enough to preclude calling even "Westernized" countries. In contrast. a 1985 study of the effect of traditional and religious beliefs on the acquisition of knowledge in Ethiopia.

Furthermore. • Water is an economic good. • Water management ought to be participatory and integrated. The Dublin Principles The emerging international consensus on water management was most recently outlined at the 1992 UNEP Water Conference held in Dublin. water markets. Policy-makers generally accept that these practices. a municipal water utility in Canada. For instance. raising tariffs. and • Increasing competition among sectors and overlapping claims to the same water among individuals and groups mean that decisions and sacrifices will have to be made at the local level. water management professionals have identified practices or policies that can help achieve them. However. for example "There are religions (for example Islam) that prohibit water allocation by market forces" . • Water is a social good. that Islam is against selling water and wastewater reuse. some Muslims have said. are common. since about twenty years ago the influence of Islam has grown in the region. even in relatively secular countries. water conservation.xvi FARUQUI to religious values. a country which is relatively secular compared to Iran or Saudi Arabia. and the nature and extent of these sacrifices will depend upon personal and communal values. are valuable and will help promote equity. Because these principles or objectives are so general.3 The often quoted principles agreed upon at the conference are as follows. predominately Islamic. and which has significant religious minorities. would never quote from the Bible to promote water conservation. before and after the Dublin Conference. such as culture and values. including those neglected in the past. the Ministry of Water uses Islamic sources along with secular slogans to promote water conservation by the population. Ireland. and • Women play a central role in water management. with certain provisos. and community-based water management. It is unlikely that this would have happened even in the far less secular climate found in Canada as recently as thirty years ago. such as the Greater Vancouver Regional District. privatization. wastewater reuse. such as lifeline water tariffs. The severe challenge posed by the MENA's dwindling per capita water availability suggests two things: • Policy-makers will have to use all tools available to address it. in a way that today would seem remarkable in a Western country. Yet in Jordan. These statements have been circulated in the literature.

and rights of the environment • Non-economic instruments of water demand management water conservation in Islam. the workshop call for papers invited detailed abstracts on four main topics and several sub-topics: • Water as a social good importance of equity in Islam. Thus. most of the examples cited are from that region. For this reason. it will be difficult to achieve the objectives of the Dublin Conference. and intersectoral water markets and reallocation • Integrated water management community participation in water management. water pricing. The scope of the workshop With these considerations in mind. other topics. "People. and because IDRC's main water initiative. require further investigation. with what limitations? Without examining the underlying values in Islam. who were well versed in Islam and proficient in English. intrasectoral water trade." focuses on Africa and the Middle East.INTRODUCTION xvii (Webb and Iskandarani 1998. most of the respondents were from the Middle East. and Water. such as Islam and communitybased water resources management. privatization of service delivery. and national-level policy setting To ensure a small meeting. and sustainability of the water supply in many parts of the MENA. although the workshop did produce some new insights in the topics on which it focused. and thereby increase equity. Land. given that of all the regions of the world with a Muslim . categories and priorities of rights. with high-quality papers prepared by experts in water management. efficiency. As a result. Also. Although the call for papers was sent all over the world. and wastewater reuse and management • Economic instruments of water demand management permissibility of trading and cost recovery in Islam. international water management. Does Islam agree with them or not? If so. 34). only a small number of respondents were invited to develop their abstracts into full-length papers and to participate in the workshop. the purpose of our workshop was to examine the Islamic perspective on these proposed practices. public awareness.

.the religion . Geneva. a brief description of Islamic sources and a glossary of Arabic and Islamic terms are also provided. Syria. UNEP. It is simply an observation that some Muslims are more observant and others are less observant. Special Programme of Research. Sudan. For the convenience of readers who are unfamiliar with Islam. the papers themselves then follow.. as well as of the consensus on principles and suggestions for further research that emerged from the discussions. This need for reforms in water resources management was later confirmed at the UN Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. A. This statement should not be interpreted as a value judgement. Oxford University Press. and management of freshwater resources. and certainly to Muslim countries not found in the Middle East. International Development Research Centre. (1995). Falkenmark. Ottawa.and Muslims those who follow Islam. Thailand. Lebanon. William F. WHO. Notes 1. Spirituality and Economic Development: Opening a Dialogue. However. the term MENA is used to refer to those countries of the region in which IDRC supports projects: Algeria. the terms "MENA" and "Muslim countries" are used interchangeably in this book. M. Ryan. a distinction is made between Islam .. REFERENCES Bankowski. (1974). Palestine. J. In this book. New York. Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Nairobi. Ethics and Human Values in Family Planning: Conference Highlights. development.xviii FARUQUI majority of the population. Culture. 3.) (1988). and Lindh. Ethics and Agenda 21: Moral Implications of a Global Consensus. in June 1992. The conference "Water and the Environment: Development Issues for the 21st Century" called for new approaches to the assessment. (eds. Egypt. it seemed appropriate to focus on the area. Human Development Report 1998. The terms "Islamic" and "Muslim" are not synonymous because the actions of individual Muslims are not always consistent with Islamic teachings. and Capron. Throughout this work. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (1994). At times. 19-24 June. pp. the findings are not only relevant to predominately Muslim countries. this is the one facing the greatest water challenge. The opening chapter of this book gives an overview of the papers presented at the workshop. Barzelatto. 114-22. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (1998). Papers and Discussion: 22nd Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) Conference. "How Can We Cope with Water Resources Situation by the Year 2050?" Ambio 3 (3-4). but other countries as well. G. Tunisia. Z. Brazil. 2. Jordan. M. and Yemen. Bangkok. Morocco. .

Bonn. Yusuf Ali. and commentary.INTRODUCTION xix Webb. translation. Patrick and Maria Iskandarani (1998). D. World Bank. Plainfield. World Bank (1995). Ind. Center for Development Research. Washington. . American Trust Publications for The Muslim Student Association of the United States and Canada. A. (1977). Water Insecurity and the Poor: Issues and Research Needs. "Earth Faces Water Crisis" (press release). Universitat Bonn.C. The Holy Qur'an: text.

2 Muslims believe that it is the exact word of Allah revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) through the Angel Gabriel. interpretation. Faruqui and Odeh Al-Jayyousi Readers of this book are likely to possess some general knowledge of Islam as a religion. the presentation of the Islamic perspective on any issue must be based upon these sources. arguments. or documented narrations of what the Prophet said and did). which is frequently referred to in this book. this book quotes both the Quran and the sunnah extensively. to be consistent with all legitimate discussions of Islam. Therefore. While the Quran does contain some specific prescriptions that rank as legal. these sources are briefly described here. or to be able to find information about it elsewhere. and conclusions are based. following the example of the Prophet is given such importance xx . but they are less likely to be familiar with the Islamic sources upon which our discussions. and innovation by Muslim scholars). including beliefs and practices.Islamic sources Naser I."4 The sunnah reflects what the Prophet said. To be academically valid.a compass for Muslims to use in following an Islamic way of life. In Islam. The Quran is the primary source for Islamic values. did. covers all aspects of the Islamic faith. The Quran says of itself that "Here is a plain statement to men. primarily it establishes a general set of moral guidelines . Accordingly. and also through ijtihad (inquiry.3 a guidance and instruction to those who fear Allah. particularly the first two.1 as known from hadith. Sharia is derived primarily from the Quran and the sunnah (the way of life of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Sharia or Islamic law. or tacitly approved.

The science of hadith criticism (mustalan al-hadith) practiced by Islamic scholars also includes the examination of context: that is. istihsan (juristic preference). is the hadith relevant only to the specific time and situation. . The five tools used to carry out ijtihad are qiyas (analogy). ijma (unanimous agreement of jurists). Although some inquiry is indeed prohibited in Islam (bid'ah sayyi'ah).6 In addition to the Quran and the sunnah."5 For Muslims. Imam Malik. credibility of narrators in the chain. Notes 1. We have relied in this publication on the collection of hadith in the Alim CD-ROM for consistency and ease of follow-up research. known as hadith qudsi. and Imam Ibn Majah. or companions of the Prophet (pbuh). and istishab (continuity or permanence).there is an increasing need for multidisciplinary creative inquiry into new problems and questions arising in today's dynamic society. Imam Abu-Dawood. based upon such factors as independent confirmation. In specific cases. including the summary chapter. following the guidelines already established by the Quran and sunnah. including Jesus and Moses. Essentially. maslaha or istislah (public interest or human welfare). equitable society.for example. "O ye who believe! obey Allah and obey the Apostle.ISLAMIC SOURCES xxi because the Quran instructs Muslims to follow him: for example. Some of the sahaba. Imam Muslim. and the society he built around him is the model for a caring. It is in the spirit of this type of inquiry that this book was undertaken. or is it relevant to other cases? Of the many collections of hadith. The degree of importance attached to the Prophet in Islam may not find parallel in some other religions. and they were later checked for authenticity. "Peace be upon him" (pbuh) is an expression of respect which Muslims use when mentioning all prophets in whom they believe. Most of the workshop participants used this expression in their chapters. the Quran and the sunnah). the Prophet was the perfect human role model and leader. memorized and wrote down what the Prophet said or did. soundness of the chain of narration. occasionally we cite from the Hadith Encyclopedia CD version. If the Quran is a compass for Muslims. the sunnah is a more detailed map for the human journey on this earth. six are considered to be the most accurate and reliable: those of Imam Al-Bukhari. such as questioning key articles of Islamic faith . the oneness of God . Muslims believe that the Prophet's sayings are the revelation of Allah expressed in the Prophet's own words. and it is used in the introductory parts of this book. ijtihad can be used to make rulings that address new questions related to changing conditions. ijtihad is the development of Sharia from its sources (that is. These documented narrations are called hadith. Imam Al-Tirmidhi. and consistency with other hadith and the Quran.

with the masculine form taking grammatical precedence.xxii FARUQUI AND AL-JAYYOUSI 2. all Quranic references have been taken from Abdullah Yusuf Ali's translation (Yusuf Ali 1977). Shahid N. REFERENCES Sakhr (1992). American Trust Publications for The Muslim Student Association of the United States and Canada. every word has a masculine and feminine form. 6. Al-Muwatta. Free Zone. . citations from the Quran are in italics. The Alim CD-ROM includes the hadith qudsi. Shah. Therefore. A. Translation. (1986-96). The Holy Qur'an: Text. 4. "Yes. The Alim for Windows (release 4. 3:138. and in the Arabic language. The only authentic form of the Quran is its original Arabic version. Yusuf Ali. Ind. For consistency. Hadith Encyclopedia (CD version 2. Women are the counterpart of men" (Abu-Dawood: 236). along with hadith compilations of Sahih Al-Bukhari. Plainfield. and Commentary." This is supported by the following hadith where a woman asked the Prophet if a general ruling he had addressed to men was also applicable to women. 3. The Hadith Encyclopedia also contains valuable material (Sakhr 1992). Throughout this book. and he responded. the implication is "he or she. Sakhr Building. (1977).0). 5. and the Sunan of Abu-Dawood (Shah 1986-96). Cairo.5). Nasr Company. ISL Software Corporation. Sakhr Software Company. and abridged versions of Sahih Muslim. whenever a Quranic or hadith reference uses the term "he" in a general sense. 4:59. Al-Tirmidhi.

Abbreviations

BWR CEHA CIDA CLIS CWRA EMR EMRO ESCWA FAO GCC IDB IDRC ILA ILC INWRDAM IWM IWMP IWRA IWRM LDC LDMC

Basic water requirement WHO Regional Centre for Environmental Health Activities Canadian International Development Agency Council of Leading Islamic Scholars Canadian Water Resources Association WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Gulf Cooperation Council Islamic Development Bank International Development Research Centre International Law Association International Law Commission Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Demand and Management Islamic water management Islamic water management principles International Water Resources Association Integrated water resources management Less-developed country Less-developed Muslim country

xxiii

xxiv ABBREVIATIONS LPCD m3/p/y MAW MCM MCM/y MENA NCWCP NGO NIS pbuh SIWI SR SWCC UN UNDP UNEP WDM WHO WRM WUA WWA WWC Litres per capita per day Cubic metres per person per year Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Saudi Arabia Million cubic metres Million cubic metres per year Middle East and North Africa National Community Water Conservation Programme Non-governmental organization New Israeli shekel (US$1 = 4.1 NIS) Peace be upon him Stockholm International Water Institute Saudi riyal (US$1 = 3.751 SR) Saline Water Conversion Corporation, Saudi Arabia United Nations United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environment Programme Water demand management World Health Organization Water resources management Water users association Water and Wastewater Authority, Saudi Arabia World Water Commission

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Water management in Islam

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Water as a social good Water is of profound importance in Islam. the most precious creation after humankind is water. "And Allah has sent down the water from the sky and therewith gives life to the earth after its death. The life-giving quality of water is reflected in the verse. The Arabic word for water. and conclusions. washing before prayer) and ghusl (bathing). ma'. and purifies humankind and the earth. that is. for Muslims. Following the overview. Faruqui This chapter is based primarily on the papers and discussion from the Workshop on Water Resources Management in the Islamic World."2 Not only does water give life."3 All human beings rely on water for life and good health but. It is considered a blessing from God that gives and sustains life. The benefit of the daily 1 . God's throne is described as resting on water. significant further research. complemented by further analysis and review of other sources. and Paradise is described as "Gardens beneath which rivers flow. occurs sixty-three times in the Quran. along with recommendations. but every life is itself made of water: "We made from water every living thing. it seems that in the Quran. a set of Islamic water management principles is presented.1 Islam and water management: Overview and principles Naser I."1 As Caponera (this volume) points out. it enjoys special importance for its use in wudu (ablution.

his Prophet."6 The Quran warns human beings against unfair distribution by stating that the riches of this world belong to Allah. and the wayfarer. The Prophet (pbuh) stated that among the three people Allah will ignore on the day of resurrection are "a man [who] possessed superfluous water on a way and he withheld it from the travellers. the needy. the right of cattle and household animals. haq al shafa or shirb.2 FARUQUI prayers. as well as anything else. However. which effectively makes water a community resource to which all. have a right: "Muslims have common share in three things: grass (pasture). haq al shafa. is emphasized by the following hadith. Rights of the environment As in Christianity and Judaism. A Muslim cannot hoard excess water . a usufruct or a collective property for religious purposes and public utility. or equity. who later became the third Muslim caliph. rich or poor.the well was actually made into a waqf.129) that the priority of water use rights is: first. Virtually all of the hadith relate to the preservation of equity. "The similitude of five prayers is like an overflowing river passing by the gate of one of you in which he washes five times daily. the environment has clear and unmistakable rights in Islam. orphans. water and fire (fuel). in society is the cornerstone of Islam. For example."5 Obviously. fresh water. Othman. the recognition of water as a vital resource."4 Water and equity Muslims believe that ensuring social justice. It is well accepted by Islamic scholars (Mallat 1995. and third. as discussed later. bought the well of Ruma (a settlement in Arabia) and made its water available free to the Muslim community . and those related to water are no exception. second.rather he is obliged to allow others to benefit by it."8 On the Prophet's advice. one of his companions. and that the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) set the example for them in this regard. this applies to the desire for an adequate amount of clean. in Islam humankind has the first right to the resources that God has provided for his creation."7 In fact. the law of thirst or the right of humans to drink or quench their thirst. of which everyone has the right to a fair share. and that these riches ought "not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. nor . the right of irrigation. one of the Five Pillars of Islam. has itself been compared by the Prophet (pbuh) to the cleansing action of water in the following hadith. God informs human beings of the rights of animals by comparing them (animals) to humans: "There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth. "None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself.

Islamic . this volume). Allah forgave her because of that. Khalid (1996) states that although "we (humans) are equal partners with everything else in the natural world. The Prophet (pbuh) said. The Prophet (pbuh) once instructed his companions to return to a bird's nest the eggs they took from it."9 Animals cannot be allowed to die of thirst. We are decidedly not its lords and masters: but its friends and guardians. but (forms part of) communities like you. So. animals. "there is a reward for serving any animate (living) being. and the water that remains after humans have quenched their thirst must be given to them."12 The Quran notes that the gift of water is for flora as well: "vegetation of all kinds"13 and "various colours"14 are nourished by rainwater that God sends down. including humans."15 The meaning of fassad can be interpreted as spoiling the natural functioning of the world or spoiling or degrading of natural resources (Amery. because. cannot prevent the animals from slaking their thirst at this well. As Amery (this volume) points out. we also are responsible for ensuring that God's gifts are available to all living things. she took off her shoe. nonhuman species have rights to sufficient water that is of "good" quality because the water has to be suitable for "nourishing vegetation" and for drinking by animals."10 and "He who digs a well in the desert .. as well as individual and social levels. 3107).. Humankind's role as steward Although humans are the most favoured of God's creation."11 The immense value of giving water to any creature is reflected by the following hadith: "A prostitute was forgiven by Allah. in Islam. of the earth. 394) argues that an "Islamic way of life entails living in peace and harmony" at ecological." Given that the Arabic root of Islam. viceregents or stewards. we have added responsibilities. In the Quran. Allah commands believers to "make not mischief (fassad) on earth. and tying it with her head-cover she drew out some water for it. human-environment interactions are guided by the notion of humans as khulafa. means peace and harmony. These verses support the statement that water is made available by God so that all life should receive support according to its needs. n. As Amery (this volume) notes. and the specific rights of the environment outlined in the Quran and hadith.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 3 a being that flies on its wings. salam. and plants (Yusuf Ali 1977. passing by a panting dog near a well and seeing that the dog was about to die of thirst. Ansari (1994. The environment is protected from humans by specific injunctions against upsetting its natural order through pollution or other activities.

4 FARUQUI scholars and rulers have attached penalties to misuse of water. About 20 per cent of the population in developing Muslim countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA . Many of the community residents rely on informal supplies of water sold by private vendors. The public was forced to buy water from vendors. The situation in the MENA Given the strong emphasis on equity in Islam.that is. Palestine. and Yemen) was without access to safe water between 1990 and 1996. the city of Amman suffered a severe water shortage. Also.17 informal settlements in and around cities all over the region are rapidly increasing in size. table 7). it is useful to examine the current situation in terms of access to water. 16 and advised to guard against three practices. Jordan. Tunisia. on average. such families pay ten to twenty times more per litre of water than the rates paid by residents receiving piped water service . In the poor. some of the poor pay a very high price. A literature search for prices paid by the unserved periurban poor in the Middle East revealed almost no data available on the topic. Egypt. the situation is no better.and this can rise to eighty to one hundred times in some municipalities (Bhatia and Falkenmark 1993). by the roadside and in the shade" (Al-Sheikh 1996). the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) very sensibly forbade urination into stagnant water. This opens the door for punishing or fining polluters through modern legislation. Few of these urban or peri-urban communities receive water and wastewater services.four times the rate paid by the served customers. Because the urban growth rate in the MENA is higher than the overall LDC average. including polluting or degrading clean water. Lebanon. Morocco. and the black-market price of water delivered by truck tankers reached up to US$14 per cubic metre (Bino and Al-Beiruti 1998). and close to 37 per cent was without access to sanitation during the same period (UNDP 1998. However. arid Muslim countries of the Middle East. residents not connected to the municipal water system were buying water from their connected neighbours for prices ranging up to US$2 per cubic metre . The low coverage of water supply and sanitation services in rural areas of less developed countries (LDCs) is well documented. during the exceptionally warm summer of 1998 in Jordan. exacerbated by an odour problem. Sudan. . either because the communities were unplanned or because of legal or political restrictions imposed on public utilities. An informal survey (conducted during an IDRC trip to Amman in December 1998) found that in the Al Hussein refugee camp in Amman. Algeria. Syria. "evacuating one's bowels near water sources. Even under normal weather conditions in Jordan. In LDCs.

for God loveth not the wasters. First. However... the Prophet forbade waste even in conditions of seeming plenty when he said "Do not waste water even if performing ablution on the bank of a fast-flowing (large) river. The statement that water supply is fixed. provided that they commit no excess therein: "O Children of Adam!. Water demand management This section discusses both non-economic and economic approaches to water demand management (WDM) within the context of Islam. The issue of water and equity in the MENA requires more investigation. often unpleasant.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 5 whose tariff includes sanitation. The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) "used to perform ablution with one mudd of water [equal to | litre] and used to take a bath with one sa' up to five mudds [equal to 2-3 litres]. the supply of water is fixed. Under most conditions. and second. forgotten settlements. Eat and drink: But waste not by excess. Islam and family planning is also briefly discussed in this section. Non-economic instruments Water conservation The Quran makes two clear statements regarding water that support water demand management. Clearly the current situation is inequitable.'"18 The Quran then tells humans that they may use God's gifts for their sustenance in moderation. and that therefore."21 . formal studies."20 This hadith demonstrates the logical approach to sustainable water use in arid Arabia where the Prophet lived. at some point. The non-economic approaches discussed at the workshop included water conservation and wastewater reuse.is being compromised. Because the unserved poor live in informal. based upon methodical. While not discussed at the workshop."19 The hadith are even more explicit. US$2 per cubic metre is greater than the maximum theoretical price for municipal water service as measured by the cost of desalinizing seawater and distributing it. However. there is no reason to believe that the prices paid by the unserved peri-urban poor are any less in the MENA than in those countries for which information is available.haq al shafa (the right to quench thirst) . they are often ignored by mainstream researchers. and the primary water right under Islam . it should not be wasted. demand must be managed because supplies cannot be infinitely increased is: "And we send down water from the sky in fixed measure.

In Afghanistan." Islamic teachings on water conservation are beginning to be incorporated in WDM strategies in predominantly Muslim countries. "spirituality and ethics are very important for influencing behaviour. policy-makers are beginning to appreciate the value of including religious and cultural values in public awareness and education strategies.the number of complaints registered about lack of water decreased by 32 per cent in the town and by 26 per cent in the irrigation district. and during daily discussions in the mosques. These results show that in rural areas of Pakistan at least. The programme included training imams on proper health practices. Dijkot. it is surprising that they are not used more widely to promote water conservation in predominantly Muslim countries. this volume).an honorific title for local Muslim leaders or imams in India and Pakistan . The main message. further research is needed on the topic. water conservation. Because little information is available to evaluate the effect of these programmes. the World Health Organisation (WHO) launched a health education programme through mosques.6 FARUQUI Given the clarity of these examples. An informal group ran a publicity campaign with the participation of the imams in the local mosques and students at the town's religious school. However. ordinary Muslims support the idea of being educated about the environment by their religious leaders. Falkenmark (1998) noted recently that regardless of people's culture or religion. He describes a pilot project in Pakistan in a small town. where the local Maulvis . 64 per cent of the respondents believed that the imams should play an important role in environmental education and public awareness. but only 34 per cent felt that imams were already doing so." The results were surprising . and its surrounding area. The aim was to overcome the shortage of water for domestic uses in the town and for irrigation in the surrounding area. delivered by the imams on Fridays. In a 1993 survey in Jordan. and hygiene in the prevention of diseases. However. In both cases. and the importance of safe water. proper sanitation. The imams then prepared and gave khutba (sermons) on the topic during the congregational Friday prayer (see Atallah. was that "taking another person's share (of water) was a sin and morally wrong. Shah's chapter discusses a notable exception. imams from mosques in the Amman Governorate were educated on water scarcity in the country and the need for public co-operation to address it in a joint programme of the Ministry of Water Resources and the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs. As noted by Atallah (this volume). In Jordan.enjoy . the users at the beginning of the water distribution system (the head of the canal in the irrigation district) were taking more than their fair share of water by installing illegal pumps and pumping directly out of the system.

political. treating and reusing domestic wastewater has two other advantages: first. Raw wastewater is dirty . it contains pathogens. Given the importance of cleanliness in Islam. the Council of Leading Islamic Scholars (CLIS) in Saudi Arabia concluded in a special fatwa in 1978 that treated wastewater can theoretically be used even for wudu and drinking. according to both Shah and Atallah (this volume). long-term plans of action. However. or even haraam (unlawful according to Islam). health. in consultation with scientists and engineers. that can cause illness or even death. In general. Reusing wastewater is an essential component of a demand management strategy because it conserves freshwater for the highest-value uses. and second. economics. provided that it will not cause harm.. Further. programmes should be co-planned by ministries of Education. one-time events. and include .22 and that many MENA countries have minimal wastewater treatment. viruses. all the actors concerned. The Egyptian National Community Water Conservation Programme (NCWCP) of 1993-96 concluded "that the strategy of water conservation communication must be global and interactive. They should not focus solely on mosques or religious schools. However. as Abderrahman's illuminating case study of Saudi Arabia outlines. reduced environmental effects. enhanced food production and reduced artificial fertilizer use because of the nutrients contained in the wastewater. Wastewater reuse The practice of reusing domestic wastewater for irrigation can be traced back more than two thousand years to ancient Greece. and the Saudi Arabian scholars did not encourage this practice .it looks and smells bad . and what is rarely the case. focusing on religious values can be surprisingly effective. provided that it presents no health risk (CLIS 1978). Water conservation requires behavioural change at the societal level. but extend to the education system as a whole. Except in space travel. and religion. which in turn needs careful.with components of applied science. such as religious. Water. After a detailed study. public awareness programmes need to be holistic and multidisciplinary.and. reusing wastewater is not haraam. and helminths (parasitic worms). and Religious Affairs. so as to be multi-disciplinary . more importantly. Another lesson was that programmes cannot be short. it is common to hear Muslims declare that wastewater reuse is undesirable. including bacteria.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 7 considerable respect and following among the people. it is neither cost-effective nor necessary to treat wastewater to such an extent that it achieves a quality necessary for drinking. and informal community leaders" (Afifi 1996). Reusing wastewater is not without health risks or obstacles..

of fruit trees. because these can be irrigated with water of lower quality without posing a threat to human or animal health. Replacing freshwater with treated wastewater for agriculture will not . The willingness of consumers to buy such products is likely to rise if they are educated by studies such as the one carried out by Al-Khateeb. and peppers (following the WHO's guidelines) are irrigated using treated wastewater.restricted or non-restricted. pasture. Most significantly.. All of this was used for restricted irrigation and accounted for 12 per cent of all water used for irrigation in Jordan (Ministry of Water and Irrigation. varies depending upon the intended use of the wastewater. In Kuwait. and the washwater and the flesh of the fruits and vegetables were tested in a laboratory at the Palestinian Ministry of Water Resources. treated wastewater can certainly be reused in irrigation. The necessary wastewater quality. However. Jordan. which contains valuable nutrients. the kingdom reused about 15 per cent of its treated wastewater for irrigating date palms and fodder. 1998). Wastewater from two pilot secondary treatment plants was used to irrigate eggplants. such as alfalfa. and peaches. and 67 per cent of consumers surveyed were willing to buy crops irrigated with this type of water. grapes. Wastewater for restricted irrigation (i. peppers. more than seventeen hundred hectares of alfalfa. garlic. Al-Khateeb's chapter contrasts Islamic precepts regarding wastewater reuse with the actual sociocultural context in Palestine.24 per cubic metre to buy treated wastewater. aubergines. and fodder crops) requires less treatment. thus conserving expensive desalinized seawater. In 1995. The guidelines divide irrigation into two main categories . Moreover. ablution water at the two holy mosques in Mecca and Medina is recycled for toilet flushing. onions.e. following the WHO guidelines (Mara and Cairncross 1989) devised to protect human health. the farmers were willing to pay up to US$0. 70 million cubic metres (MCM) of treated domestic wastewater were reused. In Jordan in 1998. Wastewater used for unrestricted irrigation requires more thorough treatment because it can come into contact with edible crops grown at ground level. and they noted the advantage of irrigating with treated wastewater. Almost all the surveyed farmers believed that wastewater reuse was allowable in Islam provided that the practice would not be harmful. defined in terms of faecal coliform and helminth egg levels. apples.8 FARUQUI under normal circumstances. On the basis of the 1978 fatwa. This study supports the WHO's contention that its own guidelines can be relaxed when vegetables such as eggplants and peppers are eaten cooked. wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia expanded greatly. as well as in sports fields and public parks. It was concluded that all of the food was safe to eat.

they are designed with wastewater disposal. cease to operate efficiently after some time.250 m 3 /p/y in 1996.300 in 1960 to 1. and that freshwater will increasingly be taken away from agriculture. Consequently. However.1 million is expected to nearly double within 20 years (World Bank 1999. aquatic wetlands using water lettuce or duckweed in the Jordan Valley and Morocco. it is vital that virtually every drop of wastewater receive at least some treatment in the region. mechanical wastewater treatment plants are often unaffordable and. Most MENA countries will have to implement decentralized. other strategies to manage water demand will have little or no effect. and is expected to decline to 725 m3/p/y by 2025. but perhaps they should not be grown where freshwater is scarce (see the discussion on food security below). . table 2.in many countries. it can be considered a WDM tool . such as citrus fruits. however.1). natural waste treatment systems. The areas for wastewater irrigation must be carefully selected to avoid contaminating shallow aquifers overlain by permeable soils.23 Family planning As noted in the introduction. Providing effective wastewater treatment has proven to be a challenge in most MENA countries because centralized. Some plants. for reuse on or near site. Also. for various reasons. Population in the region will pass the half-billion mark by 2025. which will nullify the impact of ongoing measures to manage water demand. low-cost. it can help prevent further reductions in overall availability of water per capita. and exacerbate an already desperate situation. The main reason for this decline is the population explosion in the MENA . in mind. without family planning. small-scale trickling filters for home gardens in the low-density hill settlements surrounding Jerusalem. Family planning will not reduce the average water consumption of a given population. cannot withstand the high salinity levels in domestic wastewater.from 92 million in 1960 to about 300 million in 1999. Yet its 1997 population of 16. because safe reuse depends on adequate treatment. with a 1997 per capita water availability of 255 m 3 /p/y.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 9 be easy. Yemen is already terribly short of water. given that people in the Middle East are already frugal in their water use. per capita water availability in the MENA dropped from 3. Perhaps even more importantly. not reuse. For instance. expanding wastewater reuse in agriculture is one of the most important WDM policy initiatives in the MENA. and low-mechanicalcontent activated sludge in Egypt. Researchers supported by IDRC are currently pilot-testing grey-water treatment using on-site.

the couple must be married. and . Although family planning was not a topic at the workshop. has emerged as a model of family planning. the large majority of scholars believe that. Finally.26 he did not forbid it. the only contraceptive method known at the time. following the principle of maslaha. the rector of Al Azhar University in Cairo issued a fatwa on the acceptability of family planning. Second. in 1964.that is. A few Islamic scholars believe that birth control is not allowable in Islam. For instance. a few simple conditions apply. contraception should have the mutual consent of the couple. housing shortages. However. it is difficult to find evidence in Islam to support a ban on family planning. If these conditions are satisfied.10 FARUQUI Thus. if so. Because family planning is not prohibited in either the Quran or the hadith. many predominately Muslim countries such as Algeria.that is. Although the religion encourages having children. which initially encouraged population growth after the revolution. Given the support of most scholars. it is discussed briefly here. the government should encourage it. it is reasonable to consider whether family planning is allowable in Islam and. most jurists believe that. Jordan. Although the Prophet discouraged coitus interruptus in his time. Beginning in 1987. it is not obligatory. it also cautions Muslims not to be too concerned with those and other blessings which they covet in this world: "wealth and children are the allurement of the life of this world. but good deeds are best in the sight of the Lord."27 Contraception also cannot be imposed upon the couple (Hathout 1989. "25 Still. the chosen method must truly control conception. In fact. First. Iran. noting that "greater numbers were only required in ancient days so that Islam would survive" (Peterson 1999). Sudan. contraception is allowable in Islam. rather than birth . to counter overcrowding. pollution. in principle. companions of the Prophet reported that they practised coitus interruptus. and Tunisia have a definite government policy on population. Also. Morocco. according to the UN. family planning or contraception is only permissible within the Islamic definition of a familial relationship between a man and a woman . if it is in the genuine interest of a society for people to practice family planning. Egypt. while others encourage NGOs to distribute contraceptives and disseminate family planning knowledge: for example. Iran. 228). it cannot act by causing an abortion. Iraq. 225). because the Prophet (pbuh) encouraged large families with the words "Marry women who are loving and very prolific. according to the Prophet's saying: "A man must not practise withdrawal (coitus interruptus) without his wife's consent."24 However. and Syria (Hathout 1989. while the Quran makes it clear that children are a blessing from God. whether it should be encouraged.

8 in Indonesia. tariffs. and from 6. the 1997 rate in Yemen was 6. Because children are considered a blessing in Islam. such as equity. the government launched a major family planning program. are being compromised. family planning should not be encouraged solely for material reasons. All forms of contraception are free. governments should work with religious leaders.7 in 1980 to 2.4. women in other predominately Muslim countries. than would otherwise be the case.5). privatization. and the rights of humans and other creatures to sufficient water of good quality.2 in Bangladesh.1 to 3. in many countries.2 in Egypt. including those related to water. Economic measures may be even more controversial in predominantly Muslim nations because of the Islamic precept that water cannot be bought or sold. because experience has shown that the most successful family programs in predominately Muslim countries have succeeded with the help and support of such leaders. where it is in the genuine interest of society to slow down its own growth.28 This section examines economic WDM instruments in terms of water rights and categories. family planning should be encouraged. 133). For instance.47 per cent in less than a decade. and markets. continued high population growth is severely stressing existing water resources and the environment. over the next twenty to fifty years. However. quality of life. Over the same period. continue to have very high fertility rates.1 to 3. Economic instruments Market approaches to water management. The total number of births per woman (fertility rate) dropped from 6. Significant energy devoted to family planning now will lead to fewer social problems. table 2. . a halving of the population growth rate to less than 1. such as increasing tariffs and privatizing utilities. are controversial because water is such a vital social good. In such cases. However. The minimum age for marriage was increased. while in the West Bank and Gaza it was 6.that is.0 (World Bank 1999. The dramatic result. the fertility rate dropped from 5.8 in 1997. from 4. In summary.3 to 2. including some of the most water-stressed in the MENA. to control the population of a particular ethnic or religious group. Nor would it be allowable for political reasons . family planning is allowable in Islam. In some of these countries. Efforts in other predominately Muslim countries have also been very successful. and every Iranian couple must attend mandatory classes on birth control before even applying for a marriage licence (Wright 2000. has earned Iran the UN Population Award for 1999 (Peterson 1999). principles highly valued in Islam.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 11 unemployment. Furthermore.

12 FARUQUI Water rights and "ownership" in Islam In Islam, water is considered a gift from God, so no individual literally owns it. Humans are the stewards of water and other common resources that belong to the community. However, as Djebbar explains (Kadouri et al., this volume), most Islamic scholars have concluded that individuals or groups have the clear right to use, sell, and recover value-added costs of most categories of water. These judgements are based primarily on two hadith. First, "It is better ... to go to the woods, [and] cut and sell lumber to feed himself ... than to beg people for help,"29 which implies that common property resources such as wood and water can be sold and traded (Zouhaili 1992). Second, the earlier cited hadith about Othman's purchase of the well at Ruma proves that wells can be owned and traded. Based upon these and other sources, water is categorized in Islam as follows (Sabeq 1981; Zouhaili 1992): • Private property (water in private containers, treatment plants, distribution systems, and reservoirs). This is water in which work, infrastructure, and knowledge have been invested to obtain it. The "owner" of the "container" has the right to use it, trade it, or sell it. • Restricted private property (lakes, streams, and springs located in private lands). The owner of the land has special rights over others, but also has certain obligations to them.30 Within these limits, the owner can trade water like any other good. • Public property (water in rivers, lakes, glaciers, aquifers, and seas, and from snow and rainfall). Obviously, water in its natural state cannot be bought or sold. However, if infrastructure and knowledge have been invested to withdraw it - for instance, if a public utility constructs a supply, treatment, and distribution system to convey it to people's homes - then the water becomes private property, and the utility has the right to recover its costs. Because of the growing scarcity of water in the MENA, large volumes of freshwater in its natural state are becoming less and less common. In his time, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) discouraged the selling of water, and even "forbade the sale of excess water."31 Also, as noted, he encouraged Othman to buy the well at Ruma, and give away its water free. These examples reflect the Prophet's desire for the poor and weak to have access to wells controlled by the rich and powerful. It also made sense at the time because water, even though it was relatively scarce, was plentiful enough, clean enough, and accessible enough (through handdug wells in shallow aquifers) for sufficient amounts to be available to the very small population of the Arabian peninsula in the seventh century, with almost negligible costs of service provision. However, it is counter-productive to use this tradition to oppose cost

OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 13 recovery for water services in the current context. In fact, the practice of supplying water (almost) free, under today's conditions of polluted and scarce water supplies has resulted in severe inequities. Subsidizing the collection, treatment, storage, and distribution of water means that increasingly indebted public utilities and governments are able to provide (almost) free water only to the urban rich and middle class. The unserved weak and poor, the very group the Prophet wished to protect, often pay immorally high prices for water in informal markets, or receive water of very poor quality. Under changing conditions, Muslim leaders can adapt different policies to meet timeless objectives, such as social justice. This point is illustrated by the recent practices of Saudi Arabia, which bases all its laws on sharia. Until about twenty years ago, the nation had both ample water and immense wealth, and a small population. Following the Prophet's (and Othman's) example, it provided domestic water nearly free to its citizens. Conditions have changed over the last twenty years, exacerbated by government subsidization of wheat production with cheap irrigation water, which resulted in fossil-water mining. The government has now largely reversed this policy, and the kingdom introduced new water tariffs in 1994, "to acquaint its citizens with the cost of providing water services" (Abderrahman, this volume). Water tariff's Evidently, recovering costs for providing water is allowable in Islam. But what is a fair tariff? According to Islam, a fair tariff will lead to greater equity across society. Given the crucial need to conserve water in the region, public awareness and education strategies can only be one element of a multipronged WDM strategy. They must be complemented by economic incentives. Djebbar (this volume) notes that price elasticities of demand in LDCs average —0.45 (higher in rural areas and lower in urban areas), meaning that, all else being equal, a 10 per cent increase in water price will lead to a 4.5 per cent reduction in demand. There is ample room to raise prices for the served middle and high classes. Urban water rates in LDCs are typically less than one-sixth the full cost of water provision (Bronsro 1998). The actual full cost of providing water services will vary from country to country, but in Israel, the only country in the MENA where water is charged at full cost in urban areas, the price (including a surcharge for wastewater treatment) is US$1.00 per cubic metre (Shuval, as cited in Lundqvist and Gleick 1997, 37). Also, as outlined in Sadr's essay in this volume, full-cost pricing is allowable in Islam. In Iran, where the law is based upon sharia, irrigation water must be sold on the basis of average cost, with both operation and maintenance costs and capital depreciation included. This requirement is

14 FARUQUI enshrined in the 1982 Just Distribution of Water Law, the title of which makes the rationale for full-cost pricing self-evident. For urban areas, a 1990 act allows for full (average) cost recovery, including both capital and depreciation costs. As a result of this bill, in 1996 tariffs were increased by 25-30 per cent for household consumption above 45 cubic metres per month, and the tariff for commercial and industrial use was set higher than residential consumption, a step that reversed an earlier policy (see Kazem Sadr's essay in this volume, p. 110). Where does this leave the poor? In almost every MENA city, a realistic water price, which would allow for reinvestment into the system to serve the unserved poor, would be less than they currently pay, but higher than current prices paid by serviced urban residents.32 In Jordan, for example, as the informal IDRC survey of December 1998 showed, unserved residents are paying US$2 per cubic metre or more, whereas served residents pay a maximum of US$0.50 per cubic metre, and the full cost of provision is no more than US$1 per cubic metre. Second, tariffs can be structured to supply everyone a lifeline water volume, as is done in Iran, where about the first thirty litres per capita per day (LPCD)33 are provided free to all domestic customers in urban areas. This approaches the basic water requirement (BWR) standard of fifty LPCD proposed by Lundqvist and Gleick (1997). Markets and privatization In Islam, the government may fully recover its costs for providing water to the people. But what about privatization, leading to water being traded like other commodities in the market? First, it is useful to note that a fair and free market finds support in Islam. Muhammad (pbuh) was a businessman prior to his Prophethood, and he set the example for ethical business dealings by earning the title Al-Amin, "The Trustworthy," for his personal integrity and fair business dealings. Second, as has been shown, private water rights, separate from land, are allowable for even so precious a commodity as water. Sadr (this volume) notes that in the early Islamic state, as the economy grew, markets for water were established: the first medium of exchange was crops, then the water itself, and finally money. In a further endorsement of fair markets, the Prophet refused to fix prices for goods in the market, including water, except in special circumstances. In fact, most Muslim scholars agree that a just price for water is that determined by the market, providing that the market is free from unfair practices such as collusion (Khomeini 1989, 4:318-19). This littleknown Islamic concept suggests three things. First, a fair price may include not only full cost recovery, but also a fair profit related to the equilibrium price for a good in the market. Second, considering Islam's

public-private partnerships are recommended. Israel's policy is that as urban populations grow. treat. the first priority in water allocation will always be for domestic-urban uses and then industrial needs. Rapidly growing populations mean that more water will have to be allocated for domestic purposes. and 80 per cent to agriculture. followed finally by agriculture (Lundqvist and Gleick 1997). and allows the private sector to deliver (withdraw. Even if full privatization of the water sector is allowable in Islam. by 2030. as is generally the consensus in the rest of the world where the private sector participates in providing water services. Domestic demands are growing and. where the government maintains its "ownership" of water for the community. What about national food self-sufficiency? An intersectoral transfer policy must be accompanied by increasing urban wastewater treatment. and recycling as much water as possible back to agriculture. typically water is allocated in the MENA 10 per cent to industry. Where will the water come from? Although the ratio varies from country to country. but regulates the sector to ensure equitable access and also to ensure that quality standards are maintained. privatization is allowable in the water sector. which set the legal foundation for private-sector participation in urban water affairs. Given the current rate of urbanization. the amount is limited because people in MENA already use water very carefully. a fair price can also include the cost of treating the wastewater that results from the water's use.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 15 concern for the protection of the environment. What will be the mechanism of the intersectoral transfer in the MENA? Many recommend allowing the market to reallocate the water. 80 per cent of the fresh water will be used in cities and 20 per cent in agriculture in Israel. Israel plans to reduce its total freshwater volume allocated to agriculture from 70 per cent in 1996 to 20 per cent by 2030. In Iran. as MENA countries begin to industrialize. municipal water and sewer companies were established under the 1990 Act.34 This will be accompanied by an . in most cases. Third. For instance. Even with low tariffs. Intersectoral water markets Faruqui (this volume) argues that enhancing equity means that it is time to take a hard look at how freshwater is allocated in the MENA. and distribute) water and sewerage services. Although some water can be saved through domestic conservation practices.even with recycling and the water will have to come from agriculture. 10 per cent to the domestic sector. Instead. the value of water is at least ten times higher in urban areas than it is in agriculture (Gibbons 1986). and an unchanging combined urban water consumption rate of 342 LPCD. so will the demands of industry . that does not mean that it is desirable.

the government paid farmers US$120 per hectare for not planting vegetables and annual crops in 1991.intensive vegetable production may use as little as 20 per cent of the water. a clear case of trading established water rights (Shatanawi and Al-Jayousi 1995). the California Water Bank purchased water from farmers for about US$0. Some of this production may be met by the growing practice of urban agriculture . 22). reallocation is not only permissible. or regional food self-sufficiency. and the primacy of the right to quench thirst. should be reserved for domestic production of fresh vegetables. The water was then sold at an average price of US$0. . Shuval (cited in Lundqvist and Gleick 1997) suggests that a small amount of freshwater. and 17 per cent of the land. This will leave the country with essentially the same amount of water for agriculture as it has at present. used by rural.16 FARUQUI expansion of wastewater treatment so that 80 per cent of urban wastewater will be treated and recycled back to agriculture. these prerequisites exist. As already discussed. as a population evolves from rural and agrarian to urban and industrial. In addition to Israel. and irrigation has third priority. during a drought period. 1993).14 per cubic metre to supply critical urban and agricultural uses (Bhattia and Falkenmark. The hard reality is that most MENA countries simply do not have sufficient water for national food self-sufficiency. with treated wastewater. according to sharia. most other crops in arid countries will have to be grown. increasingly and eventually solely. 25 m3/p/y. which have high economic and nutritional value. and the latter does not have a policy of food selfsufficiency but tries to ensure food security by annual negotiations with suppliers of cereals. is intersectoral reallocation desirable from an Islamic viewpoint? The priority of use in Islam has been presented. Where feasible. representing 25 per cent more benefit than the value of the water if used for planting a crop. Such urban garden vegetables will usually be cheaper for the poor than imported ones. but is required to preserve equity. In Jordan. water-poor countries such as Botswana have already accepted this fact. and imports of "virtual water" through the purchase of foods and products produced where it is most efficient.10 per cubic metre. tractor-cultivated crops (UNDP 1996). Obviously. for most categories of water. In fact. intersectoral transfers through water markets are inevitable. Are intersectoral water markets allowable in Islam? Two main prerequisites of water markets are that clear rights must exist to water separate from land and that those rights must be tradeable. However. so this concept must give way to one of national food security (Lundqvist and Gleick 1997. Regulated water markets have been successful in developed countries such as Chile and the United States. In 1991.

A market approach is merely a tool that a government can use to increase fairness in its society. institutional. and economic prerequisites to establish sustainable and equitable water markets. in Kenya (Machakos) and Niger (Keita). especially when beginning with the low-efficiency irrigation practices common in most MENA countries. In Africa. by pumping with subsidized energy. and regulatory mechanisms to ensure that the markets operate fairly and efficiently. if we assume that one hundred units of renewable water are available to a country as a whole. Unregulated markets without necessary legal. constant. and economic measures in place can lead to unsustainable practices such as in India. where feasible. Primary among these are institutional mechanisms that will allow for community input and participation in the process (see next section) so that the hard choices necessary for equitable allocative efficiency are made by everyone concerned. transferring eight units from agriculture requires only a 10 per cent increase in sectoral efficiency. including in Jordan and Palestine. The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment . it has been proven that it is possible not only to maintain agricultural production. in treated wastewater. Integrated water management Biswas set the context for a discussion on integrated water management at the workshop. may be returned to irrigation. where groundwater tables have dropped alarmingly as a result of farmers selling their water to other farmers or cities . it is social .ironically.the desire to enhance equity. but even to increase it while reducing the use of water. which at times becomes almost a religion in itself. However. and thoughtful. for example. institutional.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 17 Already. in contrast to the wave of neoclassical economics engulfing the world. In fact. then they must put in place legal. Governments need to set a vision for national water allocation. and regulate the sector. most developing countries do not yet have the legal. Also. increases in agricultural production have been achieved while reducing the use of water or reversing land degradation (Templeton and Scherr 1997). the rationale for the reallocation is not economic. Using the above values. If regulated water markets are to be used as a tool by MENA governments. so that transfers will be slow. the growing scarcity of water and its high black-market price have resulted in unregulated water markets all over the MENA. However. regulatory. institutional. but this nearly doubles the amount available for domestic purposes: and this is not considering that the same volume. demand management in rural areas is far more likely if users have an economic incentive to voluntarily trade their water use rights.

Far more research and additional pilot projects are required to identify how these components should be integrated and who will integrate them. with the ultimate goal of promoting equity. • River basin. Because the water resource sector has many vertical and horizontal linkages. even for developed countries. in Uganda. and international. For example. and social issues. In many cases. • Land and water uses."35 Simply put.and macro-level effects of decisions and practices carried out throughout the sector. a national policy of decentralization and user-pay has doubled the coverage of water supply from 18 per cent in the 1980s to 36 per cent in 1996. but developing an integrated water management framework is one thing and actually practising it is far more difficult. and to the water sector as a whole. pay for. integrated water management should address all water resource management issues in relation to each other. cohesive systems of laws and policies). • Technical.36 This is a good first step. and sustainability. and coastal management.18 FARUQUI and Development in Rio de Janeiro affirmed that "The holistic management of fresh water as a finite and vulnerable resource. For instance. Agenda 21. and coverage for sanitation has risen from 20 per cent to 45 per cent during . such a system cannot exist without an integrated approach that can determine both micro. participatory approaches in which local communities help plan. and • Community-based. Chapter 18 of the Rio de Janeiro conference lists a number of IWRM programme activities. estuarine. implement. The workshop was able to touch upon some aspects of Islam and integrated water management by looking at three levels of management: local. • Legal frameworks (that is. Some attempt has been made to establish an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) framework. environmental. These include: • Water quality and quantity. national. are of paramount importance for actions in the 1990s and beyond. Biswas highlights some elements of water resource management that need to be integrated. national and international water resource management. efficiency. and the integration of sectoral water plans and programmes within the framework of national economic and social policy. Community-based water management Development practitioners and policy-makers are beginning to accept the principle that water management should be decentralized and that priorities should be set and decisions made at the lowest appropriate level. and run projects that concern them are more likely to be sustainable.

Certainly. People learn from those nearest them. environmental protection. Social responsibility begins with individuals and Muslims must help themselves and their communities. rather than ask another who may give him or not. However. this change necessarily has to happen at the grassroots level. and it is evident that further research is necessary in what is a very complex topic. In addition. believers are defined as those who. as enjoined by the following hadith: "No doubt. who are almost all men. because equitable water management ultimately depends upon a concern for fairness at the individual level. "(conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation "38 This approach is required by all leaders in Muslim countries and was even required of and followed by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) himself.. IDRC is currently supporting a study in India and Nepal that examines the use of local strategies for WDM and conservation to increase water supply and sanitation coverage. consensus among workshop participants was reached on four main points.have historically been left out of decision-making. and self-help. including water management. 40 decision makers. "users must assume responsibilities (including paying fair prices) alongside rights and benefits. according to Islam.37 Almost no abstracts were submitted for the workshop on the Islamic perspective relating to decentralization and community participation. both true community participation and Islam require communities and individuals to be proactive. Yet women in most developing countries regardless of religion or culture . First.. one had better take a rope (and cut) and tie a bundle of wood and sell it . Second. based on an informal presentation made by Saeeda Khan of IDRC to initiate debate. because women are mainly responsible for collecting water in developing countries and are consistently more concerned about the related issues of hygiene and waste management. whether for their values or the level of their education. this consultation is required of all those who are entitled to a voice. the input of the community on any matter that concerns it.39 including women." One cannot simply sit back and complain that the government has not provided water or wastewater services. is mandatory in Islam. and the discussion that followed. Third. and to . and the Prophet's consultation with his wives and other women. often do not follow the example set by him. conservation. among other things. in contrast to the centralized decision-making system in many Muslim countries. carry a responsibility to propagate concepts such as equity. in most Muslim countries. and individuals in positions of respect. despite the rights accorded to them by Islam fourteen hundred years ago. As noted by Lundqvist (1997)."41 Fourth. In the Quran. their input is as important as or more important than that of men.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 19 the same period (Lundqvist and Gleick 1997).

For instance. Many successful community development projects can be attributed to the proactive leadership and examples shown by educated individuals with strong values such as Mother Theresa in the slums of Calcutta or Dr. but others will be positive. raising water prices for those who can afford them may make it possible to serve the unserved poor who currently pay very high prices. This principle cannot be properly upheld if a nation-state does not have a monitoring system to gauge harm to all creatures and the environment. it is water management that balances equity for all of God's creatures as a whole. little work has been done on the integration of local. educated religious leaders carry an added responsibility because their knowledge of these issues is reinforced by both their religious and secular knowledge. other creatures. or the environment. environmental. Because these concepts are neither exclusively religious nor exclusively secular. A nation-state cannot balance equity. and health-impact assessments. a few points can be made here.nicely put by the Global Water Partnership slogan. If Islamic water management is distilled into one principle.42 National-level water management No abstracts were submitted for the workshop on the Islamic perspective on national-level water management. protection of the environment. economic. and social policies that must be sustained by grassroots input. and sustainability across society without taking a holistic approach that acknowledges the interdependence of water issues. regional. efficiency. and lead to greater equity for the society as a whole . in general. Akthar Hameed Khan of the Orangi Pilot Project in Karachi. "Some for all. and national-level water management. in the short term at least and perhaps in the longer term. Principles such as equitable tariffs for the society. and food security require a discussion and integration of technical. Furthermore. collectively instruct Muslims not to conduct acts that will harm themselves. The effects of increasing urban water prices and perhaps even irrigation prices can only be analysed at a national level because some effects. . However. This requires the integration of social. and do not cause harm or injury to others"43 and those outlined in the preceding section on rights of the environment." The hadith "Do not commit any harm or injury to yourself. who inspired and motivated the community and led by example. but must ultimately be discussed at national level. instead of all for some. It also implies the need for environmental. will be negative. social. economic.20 FARUQUI act on them within their own communities. and environmental policies and the development of laws and enforcement of them to protect land and water resources.

These international law principles are in harmony with Islam because they are based on universal values. is emphasized by the hadith concerning committing harm or injury to oneself and to others as well as by another hadith. but Hussein and Al-Jayyousi's essay in this volume explores the topic and offers some preliminary conclusions. of avoiding significant harm to others. for instance. Little has been written about Islam and international water management. 8. "Neighbour" can . tourism. the latest consensus in global water management is reflected by the thirty-three articles drafted by the International Law Commission and approved by the United Nations General Assembly in 1997. In the Middle East. and 21). they must have stable trading relationships (implying just peace between neighbours. the Nile basin is shared by ten countries and the Rum Aquifer is shared by Jordan and Saudi Arabia. and agriculture. because water does not follow national boundaries. • Avoidance of significant harm and compensation (Article 7). and the political situation must be such that food cannot be withheld for political purposes. Because states must be able to earn enough foreign currency from industrial exports and tourism to purchase food produced elsewhere in the world. and that no one has the right to withhold surplus water from others. The convention is now awaiting ratification by member states. see below). reallocating water from agriculture to urban areas will leave some farmers jobless. but also between sovereign states. Also. Internationally. that water should be apportioned equitably for other uses."44 which is applicable to drink as well as food. 20. industry. and • Protection and preservation of international rivers and associated ecosystems (Articles 5. and alternative employment strategies and social safety nets must be considered at the national level by various ministries. • Cooperation among riparian states (Article 8). The inevitable choice of moving from a policy of food self-sufficiency to food security necessarily requires an integrated set of policies and discussions among departments of trade.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 21 Water reallocation requires that hard decisions be made by all those concerned so as to make fair choices. "He who eats to his fill while his neighbour goes without food is not a believer. These values are embodied in the Islamic concepts that water is a gift from God to his creatures and hence that all of creatures have the right to use water to quench their thirst. International water resource management Ultimately. A further concept. Its four most important principles are: • Equitable and reasonable utilization of international rivers (Article 5). water management principles must guide interactions not simply between individuals. water.

Islamic water management principles The workshop participants reached a consensus on Islamic water management principles under the following headings: water as a social good.no individual literally owns water. Israel and Palestine will have to co-manage the mountain aquifer underlying Israel and the West Bank. the convention. brokered by the World Bank. the per capita water usage in Israel is about 330 LPCD. water demand management. The overriding principle under all three is that of ensuring equity. and the IDRC is currently supporting a research project on the joint management of the aquifer. and share its water equitably. and integrated water resources management. and Turkey must work out an equitable agreement to apportion their shared waters.a gift from God and a part of. according to sharia. relevant universal values are embodied in the Islamic requirement of shura (consultation on all matters of mutual interest). . they are not impossible. whether Muslim or of another faith. even if ratified by all UN member states. and necessary for. If there is to be just peace in the region. Also. however. Iraq. as well as in the emphasis in Islam on protecting and preserving water and its ecosystems by avoiding fassad (mischief or harm). whereas in Palestine it is about 50 LPCD. In practice. Islamic sharia provides legal standing to any contract or obligation that has been made between two parties and makes this contract binding. • Water belongs to the community as a whole . Syria. and there are currently many international water-sharing disputes where nation-states are not following these principles.22 FARUQUI be considered as an individual or as a neighbouring state. the one against whom it is committed must be compensated.that is. Water as a social good • Water is first and foremost a social good in Islam . Because the international water management principles are strongly and explicitly supported by Islam. For example. if harm does occur. sustaining all life.45 Similarly. In addition. it carries a liability . Although negotiations for equitable water sharing between states are difficult. particularly when mediated .as was shown by the 1960 Indus Basin River Treaty between India and Pakistan. will only be an unenforceable guideline. some workshop participants suggested that predominantly Muslim nations should take water-sharing disputes to an Islamic council authorized to mediate and judge on disputes. which prevented war between the two countries.

the water must meet the required level of treatment to ensure purity and health for its intended purpose. Mosques. and disposal. • The second and third priorities for water are for domestic animals and for irrigation. • All community members. . • Water resources must be managed and used in a sustainable way. and distributing water. but the government has a duty to ensure equity in pricing and service. • Sustainable and equitable water management ultimately depends upon following universal values such as fairness. water pricing must be equitable as well as efficient. organizations. treating. including water use rights. however. Integrated water resources management • Water management requires shura (consultation) with all stake-holders. • Full cost recovery is permissible: that is. storing. and concern for others. However. and religious schools should be used to disseminate this principle so as to complement other religious and secular efforts. Individuals. • Communities must be proactive to ensure equitable access to water resources. Water demand management • Water conservation is central to Islam. • Humankind is the steward of water on earth. treatment. including both men and women. religious institutes. equity. and every human being has the right to this basic water requirement. • Integrated water management is a necessary tool to balance equity across sectors and regions. the full cost of supplying. can play an effective role in water management and should be encouraged to do so. • All nation-states have an obligation to share water fairly with other nation-states. • Privatization of water service delivery is permissible in Islam. as well as the cost of wastewater collection. and states are liable for harm that they have caused to the environment or to the environmental rights of others. • The environment (both flora and fauna) has a very strong and legitimate right to water and it is vital to protect the environment by minimizing pollution.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 23 • The first priority for water use is access to drinking water of acceptable quantity and quality to sustain human life. • Wastewater reuse is permissible in Islam.

donor agencies. and abide by their decisions. Integrated water resource management • Muslim countries need to agree upon the mandates of various existing international Islamic organizations. empower them to rule on conflicts over water use rights between Muslim states. • For the same purpose. although some recommendations may be relevant depending upon the mandate of the organization. • In disputes between Muslim states and those of other faiths. all parties should comply with fair and just rulings by appropriate international organizations. or policy-makers and. Water as a social good • Cooperation and sharing of knowledge of water resource management should be encouraged among Muslim scientists and countries by developing a network to promote equity. cooperation and sharing of knowledge of water resource management should also be encouraged among scientists and countries regardless of religion. Further research The workshop's recommendations for applied research projects or studies address questions left unanswered by the workshop. should be identified. and proposals made by others to realize concrete benefits from new insights at the workshop. or the Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Demand and Management (INWRDAM). the International Water Resources Association (IWRA). The recommendations are not made specifically to the IDRC. • Wastewater should be properly treated and reused. in other cases. as well as penalties for wasting it. Water demand management • Non-economic incentives for conserving water. In some cases. Although .24 FARUQUI Recommendations The workshop's recommendations are directed at varying audiences. specific gaps in knowledge identified at the workshop. they are specific to a Muslim audience. the recommendations are relevant to any water specialists.

OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 25 the suggestions were discussed at the workshop in detail, they have been left fairly general here, to allow interested parties to identify specific objectives and elements. The suggestions are made particularly to policy-makers and to donor agencies, but the audience for each suggestion depends upon its nature. For instance, applied research particularly concerned with Islamic issues may be beyond the mandate of such organizations as the IDRC or the IWRA, and may be more relevant to such organizations as the Islamic Development Bank (IDB) and INWRDAM. Water as a social good • Conduct rigorous scientific surveys of equity of access to water and sanitation, by identifying the volume, quality, and price paid in the MENA by both the unserved poor in the informal sector and the served middle- and high-income classes. The surveys should capture such information as price paid per capita, percentage of income spent on water, and willingness to pay. • Investigate the priority of rights to water relevant to current economic, demographic, and settlement patterns, in particular clarifying the rights of the environment and the right of wild animals and flora to water.

Water demand management
• Conduct a wide-ranging pilot study to integrate religious elements into a comprehensive programme of public education and awareness projects to encourage conservation and reuse, with particular emphasis on women and girls, who are often left out of such programmes because their religious learning does not occur in mosques or schools. • Examine water tariffs, including the elasticity of water demand in different sectors and under different conditions, willingness to pay for improved water quality, tariff structures, and modalities of subsidies (on water, income, with stamps, and so on) for the poor. • Investigate how intersectoral water reallocation using markets may be carried out more equitably by examining such issues as: Effect of unregulated markets; Development of models to analyse the social, environmental, and economic effects of intersectoral reallocation; Farmers' willingness to sell freshwater use rights to the domestic and industrial sector in exchange for treated wastewater; Methods for monitoring third-party effects; Institutions that could serve as an interface between buyers and sellers; and

26 FARUQUI Legal reforms and private and state ownership of surface and groundwater rights. • Explore methods to improve the efficiency and equity of water use in rural areas, including traditional and indigenous practices and technology. • Use pilot decentralized, community-run, low-cost, real-world-scale wastewater treatment and reuse projects in a variety of conditions to methodically investigate how to make such projects sustainable. Integrated water resource management • Analyse models of community-based water management and stakeholder participation: Identify contemporary and historical case studies (successes and failures) of community management in the Muslim world and regions of other faiths and develop models for dissemination; Assess how to move beyond simply involving communities and water users' associations in decision-making and to empower them; Explore how to develop the common interest between communities; and Develop gender analysis of community-based water management projects in Muslim countries - models for more effectively bringing women into community-based water management. • Investigate how to take the concept of integrated water management from theory to practice, using various means, for example, by examining successful case studies. • Research more specific and operational principles of international law, consistent with Islam, including historical practices.

Conclusions
Before it came to mean simply "law," the Arabic word sharia denoted the law of water (Mallat 1995). It is, therefore, not surprising that a detailed examination of the Quran and the hadith shows that Islam makes a remarkable number of specific statements about water management. There is no contradiction between what Islam says about water management and the emerging international consensus on the issue, as reflected by recent accords such as the Dublin Principles or the UN Water Convention. In fact, the Islamic water management principles are not unique. Some of the same principles could be derived by studying other faiths, their holy books, and the lives of their prophets. As one delves into Islam, one encounters values common not only to the other two Abra-

OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 27 hamic religions, Christianity and Judaism, but also to many other worldviews and religions. But clean water has always been scarce in the Middle East where Islam emerged and where for many centuries most Muslims lived, whereas water has only recently begun to become scarce in regions such as Europe where for many centuries the majority of Christians lived. Hence, the rules governing water management are probably more specific and detailed in Islam than in most other religions. The principles, recommendations, and suggested further work outlined at the workshop were noted in the previous section. The most important findings are as follows. • Water is a social good owned by the community. Provided that equity is maintained, as in Iran where all urban residents receive a lifeline volume of water free to meet their basic requirements, Islam allows for private sector involvement in service delivery, and up-to-full-cost recovery for water and wastewater treatment services. • In contrast to the current situation in the MENA, the priority of water rights is first, domestic uses; second, livestock watering; and third, irrigation. The environment has very strong and specific water rights, and individuals, organizations, and states are liable for harm that they have caused to the environment, which allows for "polluter pays" legislation. • As indicated by the fatwa and actual practice in Saudi Arabia, wastewater reuse is allowable, and encouraged where necessary, provided that the water is treated to the extent that makes it safe for its intended use. The workshop suggests that further studies and investigation are required, in areas such as Islam and community-based water management. How Islam, or other belief systems, can be integrated, along with a whole number of other factors, into holistic water management is a larger question. Further studies of this nature are likely to be beneficial for more effective and equitable water management. The study that led to the fatwa in favour of wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia demonstrated two things: first, ijtihad, or innovation, is permissible, relevant, and necessary in today's world; and, second, the specific objectives of Islam, and other religions, are a reflection of the religion's values, such as maintaining equity in society, and are timeless and unchangeable. Some of the means of attaining these objectives, such as mandatory zakaat, the charity tax, which is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, are also unchangeable. However, other practices to achieve the objectives, such as reusing treated wastewater to conserve water so that all may share in its benefits, can and must change depending upon specific conditions. Finally, even though water has always been scarce in the Middle East,

14. • Protecting the environment. Muslim 553. • Treating domestic and industrial wastewater and reusing it for irrigation.28 FARUQUI per capita availability of clean water has dropped alarmingly only in the past decade. 13. . Abu-Dawood 3470. 35:77. Al-Bukhari 3. 16. 9. In other words. specific support in Islam. 4. which must be used to combat this crisis are: • Encouraging family planning to reduce high birth rates. 11. 6. including religious elements. Al-Bukhari 8. Al-Bukhari 5550. 6:38. more so perhaps than in other belief systems. if they are accompanied by comprehensive public awareness programmes. Muslim 1411. 15. So the time when Islamic water management principles are likely to become most relevant to Muslims is only now upon us. 21:30. 2:11. 3. Al-Bukhari 1.12. These measures all have strong. 8. like other people. 2. up to now. • Diverting fresh water from irrigation to domestic and industrial uses. 16:65. which may make it easier to introduce such policies. and • Decentralizing water management and managing it at the community level. Notes 1. • Conserving water in all sectors. 5. Important water demand management policy instruments. Al Bukhari 4. 7. 10. • Exploring private-public partnerships for water services delivery and regulation. and the rate of decline is accelerating.38. including legislating and enforcing liability for harm. in Hadith Encyclopedia.538. we did not face a water crisis in the Middle East or elsewhere. 12. 6:99. where appropriate.838. tend not to react to crises until they are upon them. Muslims. 47:12. 59:7.

For the period covering 1995-2015.. Nepal). In fact. Egypt. A full discussion of the importance of personal cleanliness in Islam is beyond the scope of this chapter. 18:46.2 per cent for the MENA countries in which IDRC supports projects: Algeria. especially for industrial customers (Bhattia et al. Lebanon. 26. Land and Water Program. easily referenced in the Quran and the hadith. 40:18. In Ivory Coast. This occurred because the private water company Societe de Distribution d'Eau de la Cote d'lvoire was allowed to increase urban tariffs above the level of long-term marginal costs. land availability. Chapter 18. and proper washing. only 30 per cent of the urban population and 10 per cent of the rural population had access to safe water. as cited in Lundqvist and Gleick 1997. Abu Dawood. 135-37. with water. The type of treatment will vary. this volume). contact Naser Faruqui at IDRC's Cities Feeding People Program. after defecation. Jordan. 31.200. By 1989. . ablution before prayer. 35. For more information on this project. Section 18. in 1974. the average urban growth rate for LDCs is 2. Canada. 21. Muslim 3798. 92). Al-Bukhari 7. and the intended end use of the wastewater. 95-100. 25. For more information on IDRC-supported applied research projects on waste treatment and reuse in the MENA (Egypt. Morocco. Section 18. 29. Al-Bukhari 1. Ibid. Biswas.. 92-0608). The principle "water is an economic good" was worded in a very general way at the 1992 UNEP Dublin Water Conference because. one has the right to trespass on private lands to satisfy thirst if one's life or health is threatened. 22. some participants from predominately Muslim countries argued that selling water was against Islam (A.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 29 17. (IDRC. among other reasons. bath after sexual intercourse and before prayer.12. Al Muwatta 29. Earth Summit CD-ROM. 34." contact David Brooks. in contrast to 3. ghusl. 20. Morocco. depending on specific local conditions such as type of soil. FIS No. 1995) 33. 27. Five thousand litres per household per month. at IDRC's People.9 per cent. Sudan.6. Ottawa.g. the amount of freshwater left over for agriculture may be even less than 20 per cent if Israel eventually allocates some portions of the freshwater currently under its control to its neighbours to achieve a peace agreement (Shuval. 24. However. Agenda 21. Abu-Dawood 2045. and Senegal). 18. 30. Al-Tirmidhi 427. Islam has very specific and detailed rules. 7:31. for maintaining cleanliness including wudu. 23. 28. e. Palestine. 36. 37). Syria. personal communication). and no one has the right to hold back surplus water (Al-Bukhari 9. cited in Hathout 1989. Palestine. 37. 72 per cent of the urban population and 80 per cent of the rural population had access to safe water (water points). "Local Strategies for Water Supply and Conservation Management (India. For instance. 32. Muslim 1727. assuming an average of six persons per household (Sadr. 19. and Yemen. 227. trimming body hair from underarms and intimate areas. 26:38. 38. See. Tunisia.

(1995). Bhattia. Al-Baghdadi 1982. the companions of the Prophet got up. Water and Sanitation in Islam. the Prophet went out and did not talk to anyone of them till he did that. Cesti. Jordan. 5th ed. It was designed to provide low-cost sewage disposal and sanitation systems to the low-income settlement of Orangi on the outskirts of Karachi. The Right Path to Health . Joint Study. to preserve the unity of administration" (Yusuf Ali 1977. as between husband and wife..g. Abu Abd Al Rahman Mohammed bin Hasan (1982). or as between different departments of administration. 394-402. Al-Bukhari 3.' So. Dar Al Manhal. World Bank .30 FARUQUI 39. Amman. For more information on this project. 285. as between rulers and ruled. 'O the Prophet of Allah! Do you want your order to be carried out? Go out and don't say a word to anybody till you have slaughtered your sacrifice and call your barber to shave your head.891). R. Alexandria. e. Land and Water Program. and started shaving the heads of one another" (Al-Bukhari. contact David Brooks at IDRC's People. in private domestic affairs.. One characteristic of Muslims who truly worship and serve Allah is that "conduct in life is open and determined by mutual consultation between those who are entitled to a voice. M. (1994). and the Prophet repeated his order thrice. Abdul Fattah al-Husseini (1996). "Islamic Perspectives on Sustainable Development. The Orangi Pilot Project was a highly successful community-based water management initiative of the 1980s. 42. he left them and went to Um Salama (his wife) and told her of the people's attitudes towards him. Allah's Apostle said to his companions. or other responsible members of the household. 41. 44. 45. When none of them got up. pp.C..561. "Egyptian National Community Water Conservation Programme.' By Allah none of them got up. Jordan Environment Society.Overseas Development Institute. 'Get up and slaughter your sacrifices and get your heads shaved. in affairs of business. Ma'ain. Washington. 40. Seeing that.Health Education through Religion: 2. J. slaughtered the sacrifice and called his barber who shaved his head. Ansari. 3. One example of the Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) consultation and acceptance of his wives' views is provided by the following hadith: "When the writing of the peace treaty (of Al-Hudaibiya) was concluded. and Winpenny. Jamma Al Anloum Wal Hiram [Collection of the sciences and wisdom]. WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. . D.e. Al-Baghdadi. Shu'ab Al-Imam-Baihaqui. Pakistan (Hassan 1994). i. R. slaughtered their sacrifices. Um Salama said. 4578). I. Al-Sheikh. REFERENCES Afifi. as between partners or parties interested. Madiha Moustafa (1996)." in Environmental Communication Strategy and Planning for NGOs.. 27-31 May 1996. Hadith narrated by Said Saad bin Sinan Al Khudri. 43. and in State affairs. Cairo." American Journal of Islamic Social Science 11 (3). Water Conservation and Reallocation: Best Practice Cases in Improving Economic Efficiency and Environmental Quality. n.

" in Proceedings of the CWRA Annual Conference. M." Taif. "Ethics and Human Values in Family Planning: Perspectives for the Middle East. Water Resources Policies and Urban Poor: Innovative Approaches and Policy Imperatives. Thailand. Washington. D. Gibbons. (1998). Ministry of Water and Irrigation." in Z.C. (1989). (1998).)." INWRDM Newsletter (Amman) 28 (October). S. 8-12. Ministry of Water and Irrigation. Tauris. Jordan (1998). Hassan.Efficiency. Allah and Mallat Chibli (eds. Khomeini. and Falkenmark. pp. and A. Bangkok. World Health Organization. Ont. Ismaeilian. 64 on 25 Shawwal. Barzelatto.). Victoria. Geneva.A Major Barrier to Overcome. Cambridge. "Guardians of the Natural Order. World Bank. Stockholm. Lundqvist. Water and Sanitation Currents. I. CLIS (Council of Leading Islamic Scholars) (1978). F. Hathout. Amman. D. pp. Iran. A. (1993). New York. D. Bankowski.). Department for Natural Resources and the Environment. Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater and Excreta in Agriculture and Aquaculture. Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World: Sustaining Our Waters into the 21st Century.OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES 31 Bhattia. Ketabul Beia [The book of choosing a successor]. Stockholm. 1398 AH. "Judgement Regarding Purifying Wastewater: Judgement no. (1989). . Mara. "The Quest for Water Use Principles." Our Planet 8 (2). "Replicating the Low-Cost Sanitation Programme Administered by the Orangi Pilot Project in Karachi. Chibli (1995). (1996). and Al-Beiruti. (1986). B. Canada. "Pricing Urban Water as a Scarce Resource: Lessons from Cities around the World. M. Most Worthwhile Use of Water . World Bank.C. Qum. Water in the Middle East. Stockholm Environment Institute. 1398 AH (1978). H.C. M. Water Resources 7. Journal of Islamic Research 17. B. Washington. Yearly Report. Afrif (1994). Roohulla (1989). D. Canadian Water Resources Association. The Economic Value of Water. Equity and Ecologically Sound Use: Pre-requisites for 21st Century Management. Falkenmark. Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. Lundqvist. Ethics and Human Values in Family Planning: Conference Highlights. (1998). 19-24 June 1988. Bronsro. Stockholm. Stockholm International Water Institute Waterfront. R.World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme. Peter (1997). Papers and Discussion: XXII CIOMS Conference. Capron (eds. Shihab N. Mallat. J. thirteenth meeting of the Council of Leading Islamic Scholars (CLIS) during the second half of the Arabic month of Shawwal. Jan (1997). 40-41. The Human Face of the Urban Environment: Proceedings of the Second Annual World Bank Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Development. Geneva. Washington. Resources for the Future. M. Pakistan. J. and Cairncross." in M. Diana C.. Saudi Arabia. Cohen (eds." in Ismail Serageldin and Michael A. UNDP . Jan and Gleick. Khalid. "Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management (INWRDM).C. Bino. Willful Neglect of Water: Pollution . A.

Al-Fiqh wa-dalalatuh [Islamic jurisprudence and its proof]. R. "Evaluating Market-Oriented Water Policies in Jordan: A Comparative Study. J. World Bank.C." Foreign Affairs 79 (1). 3d ed. and Commentary. Zouhaili. American Trust Publications for The Muslim Student Association of the United States and Canada. and Al-Jayousi. UNDP. 8897. International Food Policy Research Institute. D. pp.. Series for Habitat 2. (1977). and Sustainable Cities. Dar El-Fiqr. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (1996). vol. A. Ind. New York. (1992). World Bank Development Indicators 1999. O. UNDP. pp. M. 19 November. Damascus. (1999). Plainfield. Shatanawi." Christian Science Monitor. World Bank (1999). Population Pressure and the Microeconomy of Land Management in Hills and Mountains of Developing Countries. Discussion Paper 26.32 FARUQUI Peterson. S. The Holy Qur'an: Text. S. Yusuf Ali. D. Fiqh essounna [Understanding the Prophet's traditions]. Templeton. Human Development Report." Water International 20 (2). Jobs. Beirut. As-Sayyed.C. (1995). 133-45. (1997). Washington. S. "Iran's New Revolution. "An Unlikely Model for Family Planning. R. Washington. Environment and Production Technology Division. Dar El-Machariq. New York. Sabeq (1981). R. 1. and Scherr. Urban Agriculture: Food. (2000). Wright. Translation. . UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (1998). O.

the need for new approaches to the assessment. and management of freshwater resources has been emphasised at various global meetings.2 Islamic water management and the Dublin Statement Odeh Al-Jayyousi In the last two decades. and capacity-building programmes. 33 . According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP 1990). development. integrated water resources management is based on the perception of water as an integral part of an ecosystem. the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 confirmed the widespread consensus that the management of water resources needs to be reformed. Moreover. technology development. a natural resource. and management of freshwater resources (UN 1991. of their norms and values. UNEP 1992). The International Conference on Water and the Environment: Development Issues for the Twenty-First Century. and the integration of sectoral water plans and programs within the framework of national economic and social policy are of paramount importance for actions in the 1990s and beyond" (World Bank 1993. The conference stated that "The holistic management of freshwater as a finite and vulnerable resource. called for new approaches to the assessment. Underlying all these must be a greater recognition of the interdependence of all peoples. development. Necessary conditions for the success of these approaches include: public awareness campaigns. and of their place in the natural world. and a social and economic good. legislative and institutional changes. 24). held in Dublin in January 1992.

We have been endowed with the power to subdue them and make them serve our objectives. third. This chapter focuses on the rights of created things. the rights of those created things that God has empowered humans to use for their benefit. the rights of God.34 AL-JAYYOUSI The Islamic perspective toward both man and nature provides a conceptual framework for sustainable resource management. are used in a reasonable. and nature. humans. Humans are viewed as trustees (khulafd) and witnesses (shahed). Our role and responsibility is to ensure that all resources. equitable. The purpose of this chapter is to compare Islamic water management principles to those enunciated by the Dublin Conference. and goal-centred. the law of Islam imposes four types of rights and obligations on every person: first. the rights of other people over him or her. second. It is based on the recognition of the unity of the Creator and of humans' submission to His will. and sustainable manner. Broadly speaking. However. Every human activity is given a transcendent dimension: it becomes sacred. . and everyone is responsible to Him. This superior position gives humans authority over resources. Muslims believe that everything originates from the One God. When humans employ resources in their service. Muslims believe that by submitting to the will of God peace is brought about and that by harmonizing humans' will with the will of God life becomes responsible and balanced. Humans should not waste resources on fruitless ventures nor should they unnecessarily damage them. According to Islam. Everything has been harnessed for us. including water. Humans are urged to explore and use natural resources in a sustainable manner. meaningful. nature is created by God (Allah) for the benefit of humans. they should employ the best and the least injurious methods of deriving benefit from these resources. his or her own rights upon his or her own self. It regulates the relationships between God. and fourth. The scheme of life that Islam envisages consists of a set of rights and obligations. The Islamic perspective Islam covers all aspects of human life. because all creatures obey the laws (sunan) of God. this authority must be guided by a sense of responsibility and accountability toward both living creatures and nature. including water. The relationship between humans and nature is based on harmony. Muslims believe that God has honoured humans with authority over the countless things that He has created.

It stressed the fact that commitment will need to be backed by substantial and immediate investments. 167-68). vulnerable. He decided where to camp in Bader. This involvement should be performed through effective communication and consultation. legislative and institutional changes. Both agree that freshwater resources are limited."3 The Prophet (pbuh) practised consultation and accepted advice on many occasions. and who conduct their affairs by mutual consultation. then human health. modifying. and management of freshwater resources." It is evident that Principle 1 is consistent with IWM concepts. and its vulnerability: for example: "We made from water every living thing. They can play a role in adjusting. Will they not then believe?"1 and "Say: If your stream be some morning lost (in the underground earth). This can be done through the establishment of water users associations (WUAs) or other non-governmental organizations (NGOs). based upon the suggestion of one of his companions. Many verses in the Quran illustrate the value of water. or enacting laws and regulations that are consistent with sustainable water management. public awareness campaigns. who then can supply you with clear flowing water?"2 Principle 1 of the Dublin Statement says: "Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource. This is fully in line with the basic Islamic perspective underlying Islamic water management (IWM). The participatory approach involves raising awareness of the importance of water among policy-makers and the general public. technology development. near sources of water. how was it formed. and important for life. development. This consultation is consistent with Principle 2. The concept of community participation and consensus building is well established in IWM. Islam urges all members of society to take an active and positive attitude toward public concerns. The Quran urges that decision-making must be based on group consultation and consensus (shura). food security. Habbab Ibn Al-Munther (Ibn Hisham 1991. which stresses the notion that water management and development should be based on participation of all stake-holders. development and the environment.ISLAMIC WATER MANAGEMENT AND DUBLIN STATEMENT 35 The Dublin principles and Islamic concepts The Dublin Conference's rationale was that if water and land resources are not managed well. The conference called for fundamental new approaches to the assessment. with full public consultation and involvement of users in the planning and implementation of water projects. economic development. The Quran describes believers as "those who harden to their lord. and capacity-building programmes. and ecosystems will all be at risk. It means that decisions are taken at the lowest appropriate level. . establish regular prayer. essential to sustain life.

They act as God's deputies on earth. in Islam the responsibility for taking care of resources is not divided by gender. she saw the hardships that pilgrims suffered because of the scarcity of water. The role of women in Islam as providers and users of water and guardians of the living environment is well documented. attitudes. According to Principle 3 of the Dublin Statement. Thus. The completed canal was named after her. A functional division of labour is practised in the Muslim family. This is a clear example of the role of women in Islam in water development and demonstrates how women can show leadership and take social responsibility. Ein Zubaidah. . They both enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong. In an Islamic society. the story of the rituals of pilgrimage in Mecca has been formulated around Hajar. the wife of Al-Rashid. and summoned engineers and workers from near and far to construct a canal to transport water from the Ein Hanin spring to Mecca. and sustainable consumption. Muslim women can play an important role in conserving water at home and in society.36 AL-JAYYOUSI Each has a social responsibility to conserve water and prevent water pollution. played a key role in building a water canal in Mecca during the Abbasid period. Zubaidah. She was determined to achieve this goal at any cost and she told her finance manager (khazen): "Implement it. the wife of the Prophet Ibrahim. Likewise.C. because of their primary role in Islam to educate their children. In IWM. while the woman takes primary responsibility for managing the household and educating and bringing up the children." Likewise. and practices that promote conservation. management and safeguarding of water. women have a key position in teaching future generations sustainable consumption patterns to ensure effective use of resources. "Women play a central part in the provision. pollution prevention. Instilling values of environmentally sound practices is of crucial significance to the future. Bringing water from springs and wells was typically carried out by women. both men and woman play a crucial role in making the world a livable place." Similarly. Principle 4 of the Dublin Statement states that "Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good. both men and women are considered as caretakers of resources. When she performed pilgrimage in 808 A. The man takes primary responsibility for earning and providing the necessities of life. and historically. They can convey knowledge. As a result. In the local community or at higher policy levels women can be part of advisory commissions for water planning and management. Her search for water between Safa and Marwa had made these places into sites of remembrance for Muslims. the Prophet Muhammad declared that water should be. even if every dig in the ground is worth a dinar" (Hasan 1964).

distinguish between public and private water. that is. the right to use water can be separated from the land which a watercourse traverses. including water. however. the state or the public domain (Caponera 1992). Conclusions Islam presents a reference and code of conduct for humans toward resource management. but he must not trespass on the land where the canal is situated without the permission of the owner. Islamic law does. everyone has the right to drink from it. This implies that water users have to pay the cost of operation.ISLAMIC WATER MANAGEMENT AND DUBLIN STATEMENT 37 together with pasture and fire. and store water. public water in its natural state (large lakes and rivers) cannot be sold. Full private property in water exists only if it is "in custody. however. in a container. treat. treatment. and their role in water education should be enhanced through both formal and informal mechanisms. Although the water in such a canal is privately owned. Participatory approaches (shura) in water management should be enhanced at all levels. The state has the right to recoup the cost of supplying. Islamic thought agrees that freshwater resources are vulnerable and important for all aspects of life. This is why. Humans are viewed as trustees (khulafa): their role and responsibility is to ensure that all resources. are used in a reasonable. Based on this notion. and the value of water. Access to water is a right of the community. However. in many modern Muslim countries. except in case of necessity. treating. Research on the reform of the domain of women's role in society is needed. water should be subsidized. more research should be carried out to clarify the economics of water. In spirit this agrees with all the principles of the Dublin Statement. The role of women in water conservation and awareness is vital in water management. that water has economic value. then it is considered to be under private ownership (Zouhaili 1989). equitable. water rights. and maintenance of water supply systems. tanks. special consideration must be paid to low-income users who do not have the ability to pay and. the common entitlement of all Muslims. The involvement of women in WUAs and other NGOs must be supported. and sustainable manner. water legislation considers that water resources belong to the whole community. In addition. and distributing public water. Private water includes that contained in wells. If an additional cost is incurred to convey. not by sale but by legacy. Regarding Principle 4. for some users. Equity issues in reallocation of water must ." that is. and other reservoirs.

Nairobi. Al-Nahda Library. A World Bank Policy Paper . vol. UN Department of Technical Cooperation. 3. The distinction between public and private water and its implications for water pricing must be explained to the public. 4. A Strategy for the Implementation of the Mar del Planta Plan for the 1990s. Evaluations of the performance of this council. One major task of this council would be to formulate both national and international Islamic water policy. UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) (1992). 67:30. Cairo. UN (United Nations) (1991). REFERENCES Caponera. The Life of the Prophet. The History of Islam: The First Abbasid era. (1989). UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (1990). Brookfield. Vt. 2 (7th ed.). as well as new rulings ( f a t w a ) as they appear. New York.C. Dar Al-Jaleel. Al-Fiqh wa-dalalatuh [Islamic jurisprudence and its proof]. 21:30. pt. 3. a consultative council for sustainable water management and law reform is recommended. Principles of Water Law and Administration: National and International. To operationalize IWM principles. (1964). 42:38.38 AL-JAYYOUSI be addressed from an Islamic perspective. Dublin. O. Washington. vol. Notes 1. (1992). This council should be represented by scholars in both science and religion to ensure interdisciplinary learning and help to promote innovation (ijtihad). H. D. I. Beirut. Hasan. Ibn Hisham (1991). Balkema Publishers. World Bank (1993).Water Resources Management. 2. . UNEP. should be accessible to the public. Safe Water 2000. Dar Al-Fikr. D. Zouhaili. New York. A. The World Bank. Final Report of the International Conference on Water and the Environment. Beirut.

Islamic teachings contain fertile ground for developing water management principles. developing water management principles that are informed by the teachings of Islam may act as a framework for managing other natural resources. Furthermore. foreign ones. Water management principles that heed the local religious context are likely to be more effective than imported. The cultural values of humans affect the way the natural environment and resources are perceived. used. 39 . one culture-aware author states that the word "environment" includes the "biological. perhaps in conjunction with other water management policies in culturally and demographically heterogeneous areas. in Muslim countries. 471). If applied. physiological. Although elements of culture or religion are typically absent from the writings of most academics on natural resource and environmental issues.3 Islam and the environment Hussein A. Such principles would be encouraged by the "penalty and reward" system that is detailed in the Quran and hadith. with a particular focus on water. quoted by Vidart 1978. economic and cultural aspects. Thus Muslims and non-Muslims need to explore Islam's perspectives on the natural environment in which water resources are recognized as playing a pivotal role. these principles could find wider acceptance than non-native ones. Amery The purpose of this chapter is to describe the Islamic perspective on natural resource management. all linked in the same constantly changing ecological fabric" (de Castro. and managed.

One interpretation of khalifa is given by Ibn Katheer (1993. which. The philosopher of religion Ali Shariati (d. as well as justice and peace among the people. cultural and spiritual approaches is more likely to succeed in the Muslim world. 347). when . religiously learned (mujtahid)." "rain. Some of the skills of a khalifa that were essential fourteen hundred years ago. perhaps the most quoted verse of the Quran is "And We created from water every living thing." "springs." "hail. 397). For example.2 Furthermore. There are numerous references to water and related phenomena in the Quran. In Islam. Given this. Given Islam's recognition of water's pivotal importance. spatial. human-environment interactions are guided by the notion of the person as a khalifa. it is critical that water management strategies should incorporate elements of local cultures and religions. He ought to stand by the oppressed and forbid indecency and despoiling (fawhish).1 is often depicted in the Quran as having. and knowledgeable in warfare. Human-environment interactions exist within dynamic cultural. and as the unifying common medium among all species. He argues that the khalifa should be an adult Muslim male who is just. 20) states that although "we (humans) are equal partners with everything else in the natural world we have added responsibilities. therefore. and temporal contexts. among other desirable services and objects. Paradise. a management instrument that broadens traditional (for example. the word "water" (ma') occurs sixty-three times and "river" or "rivers" fifty-two times (Abdul Baqi 1987). economic) water management approaches to include nontraditional. Khalid (1996. An Arabic dictionary defines "Islam" as "abiding by obligations and (avoiding) the forbidden without repining. is the eternal home of believers and those who do righteous deeds."3 It testifies to the centrality of water to life in the ecosystem as a whole. the Arabic root of the word "Islam." Salam. We are decidedly not its lords and masters" but its friends and guardians. Ansari (1994." "clouds. Muslim believe. He ought to establish the thresholds (hudud) of human conduct as mandated by God.40 AMERY Rights of the environment The ultimate objective of life for a Muslim is salvation (Ansari 1994. meaning a viceregent or steward of the earth. argues that an "Islamic way of life entails living in peace and harmony" at individual and social as well as ecological levels." means "peace and harmony" (Al Munjid 1994." and "wind" occur less frequently. Other words such as "fountains. 1977) argued that the spiritual as well as the material dimensions of humans are both "directed toward the singular human purpose of khalifa (viceregency)" (Sonn 1995). running rivers. 394).1:75-76).

with which they are entrusted. God penalizes people with the same type of affliction that they have inflicted on His creation. however. command Muslims to avoid and prevent fassad."5 When human-produced "mischief" . lest My wrath should justly descend on you. to serve their survival needs. Tabatabai (1973. reasonable to assume that this notion also encompasses all other components of the ecosystem because the Quran states that to God. which encompasses undue exploitation or degradation of environmental resources. Humans are consequently permitted to use and transform the natural environment. 61). are less relevant today such as knowledge of warfare. because the notion of acting in "good faith" underpins Islamic law. God states that humans may use His (good) resources for their sustenance on the condition that they "commit no excess (la tatghou) therein. that (God) may give them a taste of some of their deeds: in order that they may turn back (from evil).a rough translation (Yusuf Ali 1977) of the Arabic word fassad ."10 . including the Quran. The planet was inherited by all humankind and "all its posterity from generation to generation Each generation is only the trustee."6 The notion of fassad is not associated with any specific time and place. including water. No one generation has the right to pollute the planet or consume its natural resources in a manner that leaves for posterity only a polluted planet or one seriously denuded of its resources" (Weeramantry 1988. Fassad is mentioned in the context of "land and sea.ISLAM AND THE ENVIRONMENT 41 Muslims were under constant threat of attack.9 Islamic teachings. the creator of everything." The verses that succeed the passage on fassad refer to earth and wind. This perspective is especially revealing in light of the Islamic belief that the natural world is subservient to the human world."7 It is.spoils the natural order. For example. In other contexts. and to rewards from "God's bounty" for those "who believe (in God) and work righteous deeds. It is impermissible in Islam to abuse one's rights as khalifa.8 belong the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them and what is beneath the ground. The Quran enjoins believers to "Make not mischief on the earth"4 and declares that "Mischief has appeared on land and sea because of (the meed) that the hands of men have earned. the concept of khalifa refers to the fact that waves of humanity will continuously succeed each other and inherit planet earth. and is thus universal and everlasting in scope. 196) views fassad as "Anything that spoils the proper functioning of current (natural) regulations of the terrestrial world regardless of whether it was based on the choice of certain people or not Fassad creates imbalance in the pleasant living of humans. therefore. The other meanings of fassad include taking something unjustifiably and unfairly (Al Munjid 1994) or spoiling or degrading (natural) resources.

12 In many verses. and have sense. The Prophet said: "Pay the deposit to him who deposited it with you. Islamic teachings state that if one generation of people is "cheated" by preceding ones. a "similar covenant is metaphorically entered into by every creature of God: for God's loving care. one should naturally avoid violating or undermining these divine signs."15 A covenant was "entered into with 'Father Abraham' that in return for God's favours the seed of Abraham would serve God faithfully. we at least owe Him the fullest gratitude and willing obedience" (Yusuf Ali 1977. it must not cheat succeeding generations. 45). In the words of the hadith. The hadith asks people. Although people are entrusted with caring for the natural world."13 Different verses in the Quran state that these signs are for people who think. a person ought not rob future generations of their needs. in effect."14 A Muslim is instructed to correct environmental failures by abstaining from behaviours that waste or pollute water. Being mindful of the needs of current and future generations is an important aspect of piety in Islam. 194). In light of this. God has "sent down rain from the heavens. Muslims who engage in fassad are effectively sinners. "Act in your life as though you are living forever and act for the Hereafter as if you are dying tomorrow" (quoted in Izzi Deen 1990. Just as one would not undermine one's own future. Muslims are. God states in the Quran that many violate the admittedly heavy burden of trust. water and the rest of creation are described as "signs. hear. see. God withholding his bounty from that person. among other things. Their environmentally disrupting conduct amounts to breaking "God's covenant after it is ratified. and are intended for the people to give thanks to the Giver.42 AMERY God's "green light" to use water and other resources is conditional on humans' wise and sparing use of it. by knowingly violating the teachings of God. Muslims are enjoined to "Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of God"11 and to fulfill all of their obligations to Him. Current users of water and other environmental resources must avoid irreversible damage so that the resources can serve humanity's current and future needs. therefore." At another level. Everything is seen as important. including a ."16 All environmental media have rights. and as interdependent on everything else. The Islamic perspective on the natural environment is holistic. one is in effect resisting His grace and sustenance for which one is penalized by. Therefore. They ought to employ it to sustain their biological needs. to work for and think of future generations as if they were alive and using these very resources. Therefore. n. and brought forth therewith fruits for your sustenance. and do not betray him who betrayed you. permitted to control and manage nature but not to cruelly conquer God's creation.

but (forms part of) communities like you. animals.20 This points to. among other things." 23 Similarly. practising Muslims abundant water 28 to ."26 The Quran defines the absence of "misery" (shaqa) as people having enough provisions "for thee not to go hungry nor to go naked. Water is made available by God in "order that all life receives its support according to its needs" (Yusuf Ali 1977. n. a key directive to and mission for every Muslim is captured in the following Quranic verse. The degree of rewards or penalties for deeds depends upon one's intentions. Rewards and penalties of Islamic water management God rewards Muslims who help animals and penalizes those who hurt them (Li Ibn Kadamah 1992."11 It also mentions that "vegetation of all kinds"18 and of "various colours"19 are nourished by rainwater that God sends down. Those who follow the straight path as charted by God's message will not "fall into misery (shaqa).22 The Prophet said that "He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand. Nor to suffer from thirst. Therefore. munkar. n. (even) then he should (abhor it) from his heart.ISLAM AND THE ENVIRONMENT 43 right to water. "Injustice" can be also understood to include wickedness. and baghi) against His "law or our own conscience" (Yusuf Ali 1977."25 nor "shall they grieve. and injustice and rebellion"24 (fahesha. including humans. Muslims believe that good deeds annul bad ones21 and that bad deeds annul good ones. 2127). states that "There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth."27 The notion of shaqa refers to penalties in this life (not in the hereafter). The Quran. It ought to galvanize Muslims to follow the teachings of their faith in terms of use and management of water resources. which in turn ought to give Muslims a greater incentive to avoid environmental wickedness. for example. then he should do it with his tongue. 3107 emphasis added). Water resources are promised to Muslims who piously abide by the commandments given to them by the Owner of the heavens and earth. and if he has not strength enough to do it. and plants. Wescoat 1995). God will provide for pious. pollution and wastefulness of natural resources are prohibited because they are unjust in the way they that jeopardize current and future generations' ability to meet their own needs. which is repeated in many prayers of Muslims: God "forbids all shameful deeds. and if he has not strength enough to do it. nor from sun's heat. nor a being that flies on its wings. the rights of non-human species to sufficient water that is of "good" quality because the water has to be suitable for irrigation and drinking.

5579). 19:365. The notion of sustenance (rizq) occurs frequently in the Quran. "We should indeed have opened out (fatahna) to them all kinds of blessings from heaven and earth". Muslims are commanded to reject all rival gods who." God's will is a necessary prerequisite for humans and other species to have sufficient water and other resources. 20:46). n. avoid personal temptations (al-hawa). This is reflected in the way that most Muslims commonly use phrases such as "God willing.) Numerous verses and hadiths remind Muslims that the resources that they consume daily are ultimately controlled by their Creator. the "natural" renewability of water is thrown into question. and pride in wealth (ibid. A Muslim should not overvalue the material nor the technological dimensions ("gods") of our modern life because they would distract one from glorifying and worshipping God. do righteous deeds. For example.37 Thus. Short of this. It "refers to all that is necessary to sustain and develop life in all its phases. 33 Unbelievers are described as having profitlessly "bartered guidance for error" and thus having "lost true direction" (huda). They will be sustained from unexpected sources38 and admitted to gardens with flowing rivers. Good deeds must be within the socio-economic and physical capacity of a Muslim to perform 36 and must be performed on a regular basis.35 God is believed to be the source of all our sustenance (ibid. and avoid evil ones will be rewarded by Him.39 Muslims who were once misguided or violated the signs and teachings of God may elect to repent in a genuine way by abiding by the divine in- .44 AMERY "test them" in their sustenance and resources29 (Tabatabai 1974. spiritual and mental. Muslims believe that the faithful who fear God (itaqu) follow His guidance. according to Yusuf Ali. many Muslims commonly attribute it to impiety at the individual or societal levels. a "bad deed" counts as one "against" a person who is rewarded ten times to seven hundred times for each righteous deed." (Yusuf Ali 1977. n. faithful Muslims will not fall into misery or grief. when struck by a natural (or human-induced) calamity. God states that if only humans world have faith and fear Him. include idols. 2105). The reward and penalty system is designed to induce far more good deeds than bad ones. This perhaps explains why. as well as physical. God's will can be humbly appealed to by applying His teachings and message. nor fear for their future. 41). can people expect replenishment of their diminishing water supplies.30 God also reminds Muslims that it is He who is in control of rain and the one who sends it down. n.34 Consequently. including its environmental ethic.31 In another chapter. poetry. only by "living" or applying the teachings of Islam. 32 God asks the people the following rhetorical question: Who will bring you flowing surface water if your current supplies become scarce (nath'ubet)! (Tabatabai 1974.. science. art..

was created. Throughout the Muslim world. Those who are genuine in their religious belief (akhlasu) will be granted rewards of "immense value. Today. is also its supreme manager who entrusted humans with its stewardship. and Sudan. Generally speaking.ISLAM AND THE ENVIRONMENT 45 structions. and regulate water uses (Hamed 1993. and forbidding what is wrong. For example. God. and patience. the rewards include a worry-free existence. may control nature . the moral aspect of the hisba no longer exists. protect and manage public land reserves. the owner of the natural world. among other things. the office of public inspection. and a greater level of water and other resources for sustenance. except in a few countries such as Saudi Arabia." The officer in charge of the hisba is called the muhtasib. it was shown that. God rewards the faithful in spiritual or physical ways. a muhtasib is expected to prevent the abuse of animals. But Islam recognizes the fallibility of humans and their weakness in the face of temptations. the hisba encompassed both moral issues as well as those touching more widely on everyday life. kindness. thus disrupting the flow of sustenance. It was for this reason that the institution of the hisba. the hisba should be resurrected and entrusted with the implementation of fair and just water management practices. Conclusion The teachings of Islam that advocate wise use of water resources to meet humans' need to sustain themselves can be summarized in the notion of demand management. God will unlock water and other resources for those who abide by His revelations to the Prophet Muhammad. according to Islam. In this life. according to Islam."40 In the preceding section. and the rewards may take place in this life or in the afterlife. People. is to ensure the proper conduct of people in their public activities. Iran. including those involving resources and non-human species. Throughout much of Islam's history. According to the great jurist Ibn Taymiah.155). the most important qualifications of the muhtasib are expertise in the subject matter. The ethical underpinning of the hisba is the Quran's instruction about "enjoining what is right. Islamic water management institutions Islam's overall environmental message is one of balance: people should avoid excessive accumulation of material wealth and pride in worldly accomplishments because these sidetrack believers to irreligious temptations. and his duty."41 and the sharia principle of "no injury.

potentially. and socially and environmentally beneficial at the community or country levels. Given that a water management strategy that incorporates elements of the "cultural landscape is likely to have a strong impact on the interior landscape" (Orr 1996. and resource-based rewards. including their educational dimension. Likewise. The Islamic rules for human-environment relations and the rewards and penalties attached to them are consistent with the very definition of the word "environment. Hence. The totality of Islamic water management principles. spiritual. they may spiral into social tensions and. where the natural environment and water resources are the "outside. Furthermore. Disobedient Muslims have opportunities to repent and mend their ways. The world cannot be partitioned into "inside" and "outside" spheres. sustainable management of water resources in Islamic countries is more likely to be realized if the management instruments incorporate a host of alternative incentives such as religious. For Muslims. ought to change the way Muslims live their lives. 228). The test is about whether they are "living" their religion by following its principles of conserving water and protecting its quality. and so on. non-traditional world views and value systems." Humans are embedded in nature and should act as its stewards not its conquerors. which are clearly water-friendly. or will be penalized in this life and the afterlife. God "tests" Muslims by the manner in which they use water (and other) resources. to educate students in a way that is consistent with their culture and belief system. effective Islamically grounded water policy can be drafted to reflect alternative. when sufficiently developed. should be moved from the academic or religious level to the popular level. Principles of Islamic water management may be used alone or. in combination with non-religious slogans on various posters in an effort to induce Jordanians to conserve the kingdom's scarce water resources." . It would be spiritually rewarding at the individual level. salvation can be achieved only through applying Islam's teachings and sharia.46 AMERY and consume its resources. Islamic water management principles. Culturally sensitive demand management strategies require a deliberate effort of water education about the positive link between Islam and water conservation. Those who do will be rewarded by God with His blessings as well as with increased resources. but may not cruelly conquer it in such a way as to irreversibly degrade God's creation. into violent conflict. poor water quality. If these threats are not attended to within a culturally meaningful framework. as was done in Jordan in the early 1990s. Many states in the Muslim world are experiencing serious threats to their water resources: some suffer from drought. policy-makers can tap into Muslims' religiosity and desire for salvation to design and implement an Islamically inspired water management strategy. and others from floods.

47:12. 17. and cultural spheres. 4. 14. for symbols of "the presence and might" of the Creator: 20-27 has a listing of various nature-based signs of God. 25:2. 40. For example. 38. 20:123. 5:1. 20:81. the environment is not a static phenomenon that can be impacted without consequences. 5:3. 30:41. 5:119. Abu-Dawood 3528. 2:38. 33. 2:118-19. 21:30. 16. 7:15.41. 4:146. 7. 30:41. See. 4:57. 26:155. as the Quran and hadith teach Muslims. 11:114. 2:16. 3:104. . 7:96. 30:42-46. 30. 67:21. 15. 19. 35:27. 6:38. 24. e. Al-Bukhari 1. 3. 23. 16:90.g. 6:99 (emphasis added). 20. 51. 26. 35. Muslim 79.. 25. Al-Bukhari 1. 39. 65:3. See. 2:22.ISLAM AND THE ENVIRONMENT 47 which suggests the active encompassing of the natural. 27. 10. 18:46. human. 8. e. 41. 5. 28. 32. and some level of reciprocity. 4:57.1. 47:12. 21. 2:27.72:15. 67:31. see also 30:26.40. 6. 9. 7:96. 13. 65:3. 16:65. 22. 41:39. Al-Bukhari 1.41. 25:49. 2:11. 31. 2. 20:6. 12. 13:4. 16:73. Al-Bukhari 1.. 4:73. In other words. 18. 2:38.g. 37. 29. 50:9. 34. 36. Notes 1. 11. 2:21.

Bellhaven Press. 19-20. "Environmental Islamic law. 145-64." in M. Khalid. Weeramantry. Qamous Al Munjid (Retrieving dictionary) (34th ed. Ansari. A. vol. Oxford University Press." Our Planet 8 (2). . Orr. Oxford." Prospects 8 (4). W. (1977). Al Alami Library. L. "Guardians of the Natural Order." American Journal of Islamic Social Science 11 (3). Hamed. vols. Beirut." in Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Modern Islamic World. F. Dar el Machreq." in J. Plainfield. G. (1978). Martin's Press. Thinking about the Environment. Izzi Deen. C. Cairo..). Beirut. 394-402. M. (1994). H. London. Tafsir al Koran al Ala'theem lil Imam al Hafith Abi al Fida Ismail Ibn Katheer [Interpretation of the Glorious Quran]. M.48 AMERY REFERENCES Abdul Baqi. Vidart. Dar al Ma'rifa. "The Right of Thirst for Animals in Islamic Law: A Comparative Approach. 18-25. Ind. Tabatabai. "Ecological Literacy. New York. M. Dar al Hadeeth." Environment and Planning: D . and Society. 16. and Commentary. Yusuf Ali. Mawil (1990). Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Kor'an [The tempered interpretation of the Koran]. pp.Society and Space 13 (2). Armonk. Safei el-Deen (1993). pp. G. M. R. (1974).). Al Alami Library. "Islamic Perspectives on Sustainable Development. (1996). Engel (eds. Ibn Katheer (1993). "Seeing the Environment through Islamic Eyes: Application of Shariah to Natural Resources Planning and Management. (1996). Islamic Jurisprudence: An International Perspective. Sonn. Alan Cahn and R. O'Brien (eds. pp. St." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 6 (2). (1987). pp.Y. D. Cairo. "Environmental Education: Theory and Practice. F. (1995). American Trust Publications for The Muslim Student Association of the United States and Canada. Engel and J. N. Beirut. Hajr Publishing. 466-79. Ethics of Environment and Development: Global Challenge. Al Mughnee [The enricher]. Jr. E. "Tawhid. Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Kor'an [The tempered interpretation of the Koran]. (1988). Tamara (1995). Al Mu'jam al Mufahras li Alfath al Koran al Kareem [The dictionary of the phrases of the Glorious Quran]. Beirut. The Holy Qur'an: Text. Wescoat. Ethics. 637-54. Al Munjid (1994). Li Ibn Kadamah (Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Mohamad bin Kadamah) (1992). International Response. J.). pp. Sharpe. D. Translation. (1973). I.

All these aspects must be considered in relation to their economic.from consumer education to advanced technological equipment. AH Khan. and aesthetic contexts (Khan and Abdul Razzak 1986. the aim of this chapter is to outline the importance in the EMR of using the Islamic administration. and Mazen Malkawi Water conservation is a complex interconnecting system with a variety of aspects . social. Water conservation must be seen as a basic component of integrated water resources management. Water conservation from an Islamic perspective It has been shown over the last 10 years that campaigning for the conservation of the environment within the Islamic faith is productive. and teachings in water conservation. legal. b). Hence. and 49 . UN 1993a.1 most of them situated in arid or semi-arid zones with low annual rainfall. Abdul Razzak and Khan 1990). most of them Muslims. political.4 Water conservation through public awareness based on Islamic teachings in the Eastern Mediterranean Region Sadok Atallah. education system. and public awareness and education are basic tools needed to guarantee the participation and involvement of the public in water conservation (WMO 1992. M. Z. This is of particular importance in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) which comprises twenty-three countries. especially in increasing and improving the participation and awareness of the public in conserving water. religious. and with a combined population of about 436 million.

Rather. b. The link between life and water is explicitly stated in several verses of the Holy Quran. This worship is not merely ritual practice. "We made from water everything". and • Islamic communication channels are very effective in raising public awareness. Water is the most precious and valuable resource of the physical environment for all living things. for example. (1997. Hamdan et al. The declaration identified sixty lifestyles where Islamic teachings offer guidance on healthy and harmful behaviours. The meeting also focused on the effect of lifestyle and individual behaviour on health."3 . Moreover. and gives therewith life to the earth after its death. KHAN. the relationship between humans and water is part of daily social existence. For example. and religious scholars from the twenty-three countries of the EMR. meeting in Amman in 1996. because rituals are simply the symbolic human manifestation of submission to God. AND MALKAWI specifically that using the Islamic education system to address the public of the EMR on important issues such as water conservation has a beneficial effect in raising public awareness.50 ATALLAH. This important meeting realized the importance of looking at health as one element of life that cannot be achieved except in conjunction with other basic elements such as freedom. which is based on the Muslim belief that everything on earth worships the same God. The influence of Islam The use of Islamic concepts to promote human well-being in all aspects of life is common throughout the region. scientists. Islam promotes behaviours that protect health and discourages habits that have a detrimental effect on it. humans are responsible for the welfare and sustenance of the other citizens of this global environment. jurists. security." Raising awareness using Islamic concepts of water conservation is feasible for the following reasons: • Islam has a strong influence in the EMR. • Water conservation and protection are stressed in Islamic teachings. declared the importance of Islamic behaviour for promoting good health (WHO 1996a. c). Water conservation and protection were among the areas of concern.2 "And Allah sends down rain from the skies. worship consists of actions that can be performed by all creatures that share the planet with the human race. and food. Water conservation and protection in Islamic teachings In Islam. leading physicians. 241) concluded that "there is a desperate need for Islamic environmentalism in our finite world. water. justice.

by the roadside and in the shade."8 This is valid for all natural resources. Physical purification cannot be achieved except by ablution and bathing (ghusl). and the relation between the public and the governing bodies are well documented in the Islamic teachings. co-operation and public participation. a Muslim is ordered to be economical with water even if he is taking his water from a fastflowing river. Our mastery of the earth is for its betterment and development and not for evil or misuse. "The Messenger of Allah forbade to urinate in stagnant water". such as human appointment and viceregency. public consultation. that it might act as His viceroy upon the earth."6 Conservation is a fixed concept in Islamic teaching. "Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) happened to pass by Sa'd as he was performing ablution. Whereupon he said: Sa'd what is this extravagance? He said: Can there be any idea of extravagance in ablution? Whereupon he (the Prophet) said: Yes. everyone must participate in fulfilment of the Quranic injunction.' They said 'Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood? . It is a way of living that should be implemented through the Muslim's whole life: not as an ad hoc solution to shortages. Furthermore."10 The whole planet has been placed under human responsibility to be cared for and not misused."9 Other Islamic concepts and principles. even if you are by the side of a flowing river. purity and cleanliness of water receive a great deal of attention in both the Holy Quran and the sunnah.WATER CONSERVATION IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN 51 Islam places strong emphasis on the achievement of perfect harmony between spiritual and physical purification. According to the tradition of the Prophet of Islam. Muslims believe that God created the human race for a great reason. However. Such teachings are based on various texts of the Holy Quran: "O children of Adam! Wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer: eat and drink: but waste not by excess for Allah loveth not wasters"7 or "Verily spendthrifts are brothers of the Evil Ones. and the Evil One is to his Lord (Himself) ungrateful. Therefore. both good and bad. Islamic teachings tend to emphasize adherence to balance and the just satisfaction of individual and group desires and needs. which both require clean water.4 "Let no one of you bathe in stagnant water to remove the state of ceremonial impurity". Water conservation is not the sole preserve of water agencies. nor in occasional situations (Madani 1989). But help ye not one another in sin and rancour.5 and "Guard against the three practices which invite people's curses: evacuating one's bowels near water sources. and Muslims are urged not to pollute water. Islam gives special attention to water conservation. "Behold thy Lord said to the angels: 7 will create a viceroy on earth. "Help ye one another in righteousness and piety. but at all times. and are useful tools for raising awareness and involving the public in water resource management and conservation.

then he should do it with his tongue. Like other religious groups. 64 per cent of respondents thought that imams had an important role in environmental education and public awareness . what is just and forbids them what is evil. Typical Islamic behaviour and action are guided by the hadith. from the family level up to the whole society. AND MALKAWI Whilst we celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy (name)?' He said: 7 know that ye know not'. Islam provides a dynamic forum . 1997). and thus represents the necessary basis for that society (Hamdan et al. for the Prophet (pbuh) "commands . Therefore. the Friday prayer represents a weekly opportunity to address the public.. In Islam. It can be interpreted from this hadith that all harmful acts are forbidden (haraam). in most Muslim countries. all Muslims are responsible for participation in environmental education. However."12 The principle of "Neither harm nor harming"13 is another basis for declaring an official Islamic position toward water conservation issues. (even) then he should (abhor it) from his heart and that is the least faith. Muslims believe that the morality of individuals within a society is its basic building block.. Although this applies to all aspects of life. KHAN. In a survey conducted in Amman. At a minimum. "I heard the messenger of Allah as saying: He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand. and if he has not strength enough to do it. Morality overrides all material benefits that a Muslim stands to gain. and if he has not strength enough to do it."11 "Enjoining of good and forbidding evil" is an obligatory action (wajeb) that should be performed by all Muslims."14 Public awareness through Islamic communication channels Muslims believe that Islam gives meaning to individual human activities and to society as a whole. The mosque is the best forum for addressing the general public at all levels on matters covering all the issues of daily life. or an obligation: under such a fatwa. It is an important tool not only for raising awareness. The Islamic education system offers several fora for delivering Islamic teachings.52 ATALLAH. there are daily gatherings where imams can address people on issues that are felt to be important. but also for urging good action and involvement and prohibiting bad and harmful behaviour. everyone is responsible for education.although only 34 per cent indicated that imams were already filling that role (Al-Sodi 1993). This fatwa is based on a basic Islamic rule that "whatever is mandatory for completing wajeb is wajeb" (Al-Tamimi 1991). One's belief in Islam may be viewed as a reflection of society: or the state of society may be regarded as depending upon the beliefs and actions of the individuals within it. the mufti of Jordan delivered a specific fatwa that environmental education is wajeb.

1995. It involves sacrifices and social and financial costs. this has been limited to the use of some texts from the Holy Quran and sunnah in posters and articles in the newspapers. it is limited to the producers of water (water agencies and decision makers) and has not been conveyed to the consumers (the public). USAID 1993. This chapter attempts to provide a mechanism and some guidelines to help interested agencies adopt and implement effective public awareness programs. and. and activities based on Islamic concepts. which necessitate the full co-operation and integration of efforts of all stake-holders. 1997. the poor information exchange and accessibility in this important sector. school. Unfortunately. the lack of such activities. UNIDO 1997). isolated activities will not achieve tangible results. with very little focus on agriculture and industry. In the few countries where religion has been used to support public awareness campaigns. Water conservation and public awareness in the EMR At the governmental level in most EMR countries. World Bank 1995. Regional and intercountry activities The WHO Regional Centre for Environmental Health Activities (CEHA) is very active in promoting integrated water resources management as an optimal approach for improving access to safe water supplies in the . Lack of public participation and poor awareness on the part of consumers seem to be the main reasons behind this gap. and mosque. second. What is needed is water resources management and conservation strategies and plans that incorporate Islamic concepts and tools in their public awareness activities. A comprehensive search was done for literature on water conservation public awareness activities in the EMR but few references were retrieved. But water-conservation must involve all people and requires behavioural changes. Unfortunately. strategies. A further major problem is that most of conservation activities have so far been targeted at domestic users.in the house. This belief is clearly reflected in the recommendations made by regional and international meetings of water agencies and international bodies (WHO 1992. This highlights two basic problems: first. This universal responsibility for education provides ideal tools and fora for reaching the public in Muslim countries. street.WATER CONSERVATION IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN 53 that is capable of reaching the entire Muslim population . these have not been used efficiently. Hence. there is a strong belief that water conservation is one of the most reliable and cost-effective solutions to the water shortage problem faced by the region.

Outputs include a draft water conservation strategy and commitment to mobilize national resources toward conserving water resources. and water resources in particular. In this campaign. which will consist of ten modules covering all related aspects including public awareness. the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO) launched a program entitled "The Right Path to Health: Health Education through Religion. a shift in societal values from a developmentoriented to a conservation-oriented view of water resources is occurring. In Afghanistan. further evaluation is expected upon completion of the campaign. and Jordan. In the GCC countries. and several special studies have been carried out. is a principal component of Islamic teachings. AND MALKAWI EMR. It was the first of a series of campaigns that will be carried out in Afghani cities to promote good health practices and to raise awareness about water conservation and the importance of safe water. On the occasion of World Water Day 1998." In this program. Two intercountry meetings and several national meetings been convened. They were provided with clear messages quoted from the available literature. Currently. both environmental health and water and sanitation issues were addressed because of their importance in the region. Egypt. since 1991. the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. and hygiene in disease prevention. the WHO launched the "Health Education and Awareness through Mosques" campaign in late 1997. Initial evaluation showed that the messages were well received. Upon receiving the proper training. It is believed in the GCC countries that conservation of natural resources in general. each imam prepared a special Friday speech and delivered it twice at two consecutive Friday prayers (WHO 1997). Islamic messages are being used in the preparation of posters and video clippings for these campaigns. from Afghanistan. However. The WHO has had extensive experience in raising public awareness and educating the public in the EMR through integrating Islamic teachings as part of the health education program and materials. imams were requested . efforts are focused on the development of a modular water conservation handbook. National activities Four examples. training of imams by water and religion experts was an essential component. For example.54 ATALLAH. adequate sanitation. and upon request of ministries of Islamic Affairs. It is also believed that the most important and effective way to make the public aware of conservation from an Islamic perspective is through the media and the educational system (Akkad 1990). KHAN. Water conservation is being addressed as an integral part of water resources management. demonstrate the need for and effectiveness of using Islamic concepts to raise public awareness.

newspaper reports. otherwise their effect will limited. Unfortunately. The NCWCP implemented massive communication activities in 1993-96. Imams in all the mosques of Amman Governorate were trained for one week to incorporate issues of daily life. mainly using conservation activities at the national and local level. and awareness. and education. one of the main lessons was that "the strategy of water conservation communication must be global and interactive. In collaboration with the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs. demand management. the ministries of Education. into their Islamic education. a pilot project titled "Week of the Mosque" was implemented in early 1998. Close co-ordination and partnership should be institutionalized between the agencies responsible for water supply. television programmes. 7). a project to make water of improved quality available in increased quantity on a sustainable basis is in course of implementation." In Jordan. But such occasional public awareness water conservation campaigns need to be integrated through a comprehensive and long-term plan of action that targets behavioural change. According to Afifi (1996. media. games. the public's involvement and its co-operation in designing and . or industrial) should be co-ordinated by the relevant government body in each sector. Islamic water conservation strategies Water conservation programs should be carried out by the agency responsible for water resources management. agricultural. Equally. The imams then started educating the public. and so on) have been prepared using Islamic teachings and concepts. A major part of this project involves public awareness activities.WATER CONSERVATION IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN 55 to devote their Friday speeches to the theme of Islam and water conservation (Salih 1998). The National Community Water Conservation Programme (NCWCP) in Egypt was created to address problems of potable water loss. Awqaf. although this is essential for effective awareness activities. They were provided with information about Jordan's water resources and the shortage the country faced. It is planned to replicate this activity in the other governorates of Jordan. and Islamic Affairs rarely participate in water conservation programmes in the region. seminars. and include all consumers and all the factors concerned. including water conservation. Several Friday prayers were devoted to water and conservation issues (Ayesh 1996). political and informal community leaders. such as religious. Various education and awareness materials (posters. The execution of such plans for the various sectors (such as municipal. and about the need for public co-operation and participation in water conservation.

and other concepts related to water conservation are well defined in Islam. the spiritual incentives offered by Islam can be of value. service providers. upgrading irrigation systems. the public must understand the water supply situation. Raising public awareness using Islamic conservation concepts should always be integrated with the use of other communication tools and channels. co-operation. which is usually a slow process. and the need to conserve water resources and to maintain them for future generations. and planners as well as policy-makers. Water conservation activities and awareness campaigns typically focus solely on domestic users. imams and mosques should be the focus for public awareness activities on water conservation. Although conservation. the overall water resources situation. To achieve greater co-operation and involvement. or modifying industrial production lines. including the cost of delivery. Because honesty is a core principle in Islam. Most water conservation activities require changes of behaviour and attitudes. However. Imams should be properly trained and in- . The public includes consumers. managers. the public expects the truth from imams and other Islamic sources. In addition to the physical incentives. and the focus should be on all water users. AND MALKAWI implementing conservation measures are essential to the success of water conservation programmes. Mosques are ideal places for awareness campaigns. the credibility of this information is essential. imams play a key role in delivering Islamic teachings and educating the public through the mosques. Water authorities should plan continuous. These costs of water conservation programmes must be offset by some incentives. KHAN. Therefore. imams should be aware of the need to address all sections of the population.56 ATALLAH. This increased understanding is the first step in any successful public awareness activity. Raising awareness through mosques Any knowledgeable Muslim can educate others about Islam. such as fixing water taps. Such a fatwa would likely lead to greater conservation because stating that wasting water is haraam carries greater impact than simply discouraging the waste of water. Although there is no formal clergy in Islam. Some water conservation activities involve costs that must be paid by the public. However. This is shortsighted. Therefore. since all kinds of people meet there at least weekly. it would help if these concepts were documented and if the regional and national Islamic legislative institutions issued an official Islamic position (fatwa). ad hoc and occasional public awareness activities are not effective. long-term activities in close collaboration and coordination with ministries of Education and Islamic Affairs.

WATER CONSERVATION IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN 57 formed: as community leaders, they should never be excluded from water resources planning and management activities. Imams are more capable of reaching the public than water specialists. Although they are usually well educated about fiqh, sunnah, and sharia, their knowledge of water resources and conservation practices is usually insufficient for them to act as educators on the subject. Therefore, water specialists must train, educate, and inform imams not only about water shortages, water conservation practices, and the need to involve the public but also about audiovisual tools and materials to help them reach the public. Friday prayers, held in the mosques, are an important weekly occasion in the life of a Muslim. Imams should prepare their Friday speeches in close collaboration with water conservation and communication experts, using reliable facts and figures. A Friday speech on a water-related topic should not be occasional, but should be reasonably frequent to achieve a change in behaviour. It is recommended that such speeches be made more often in summer and during periods where water demand is at its peak.

Raising awareness through formal and informal education
In addition to the mosques, all levels of formal and informal education are essential to raising awareness. The topics of water shortage and conservation can be addressed in the course of teaching subjects such as religion, Arabic, science, and geography. Unfortunately, environmental education is in its early phases in most of the EMR countries. Therefore, the ultimate goal will be to upgrade curricula in the subjects mentioned to include environmental education, which should address all the priority issues including water resources, protection, and conservation. This upgrading of the curricula will take some time. Therefore, whenever changes are being made to textbooks or curricula, water authorities should make use of such chances by making sure that water conservation concepts are included. In view of the poor formal environmental education, informal education seems to be more feasible in the short run. Seminars, workshops, and lectures should be arranged for students and other groups. It is important to incorporate Islamic concepts in such activities. Reports and articles in newspapers, television shots, posters, and other mass media tools are also very effective in addressing the general public. Usually this is the responsibility of water authorities in collaboration with other environment protection agencies. However, it is important to incorporate Islamic concepts and attitudes in these tools. This of course has to be done in close collaboration with ministries of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs.

58 ATALLAH, KHAN, AND MALKAWI

Conclusions
By the year 2050, almost all the EMR countries will be facing water shortages. Integrated water resources management is the most feasible option to overcome this serious crisis. Water conservation should be an integral part of this option, with a clear focus on public awareness and participation without which the chances of success will be lessened. Access to information related to water conservation and public awareness activities is lacking in countries of the EMR both because of the limited number of these activities, and because of poor information management and exchange. Such access can be improved by compiling a database to identify all the available literature documenting the experience of the EMR countries in water conservation and public awareness. This database should be made available to water specialists as well as to the public by networking at the regional and national levels. Although Islam discusses issues such as conservation, co-operation, preventing harm, and water pollution protection, the official Islamic position on these issues in relation to conserving water resources needs to be proclaimed by regional Islamic legislative bodies. This will require close co-operation and co-ordination between water agencies and the legislative bodies. Islam is influential in the EMR countries, and Islamic behaviour can help to achieve health and well-being. Incorporating Islamic teachings on water conservation into the speeches of imams, education, and the mass media will help raise public awareness of the need to manage water scarcity. However, this must be done in close co-ordination and collaboration with all the stake-holders, and should be integrated into overall water resources management. Water-conservation activities require behavioural changes. Such changes are usually slow. Therefore, long-term plans of action require long-term projects because occasional, isolated efforts are ineffective. Pilot public awareness projects should be initiated, undergo appropriate modification, and then replicated and maintained on a larger scale.

Notes
1. Afghanistan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen. 2. 21:30. 3. 16:65. 4. Muslim 553. 5. Muslim 423, in Hadith Encyclopedia.

WATER CONSERVATION IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Abu-Dawood 24, in Hadith Encyclopedia. 7:31. Al-Israa: 27 Al-Termithi 427. 5:2. 2:30. 7:157. Ibn-Majah, in Hadith Encyclopedia. Muslim 79.

59

REFERENCES
Abdul Razzak, M. J. and Khan, M. Z. A. (1990), "Domestic Water Conservation Potential in Saudi Arabia," Journal of Environmental Management 14 (2), pp. 167-78. Afifi, Madiha Moustafa (1996), "Egyptian National Community Water Conservation Programme," in Environmental Communication Strategy and Planning for NGOs, Ma'ain, Jordan, 27-31 May 1996, Jordan Environment Society, Amman. Akkad, A. A. (1990), "Water Conservation in Arabian Gulf Countries," Journal of the American Water Works Association 82 (5), pp. 40-50. Al-Sodi, Abdul Mahdi (1993), Attitudes of Jordanian Citizens towards Environmental Protection in the Sweileh and Naser Mountains Areas (in Arabic), Environmental Research and Studies, 3, Jordan Environment Society, Amman. Al-Tamimi, Izz El Din (1991), Religion As a Power for Protection of the Environment (in Arabic), Environmental Research and Studies, 1, Jordan Environment Society, Amman. Ayesh, Mohammed (1996), "Awareness Project in Water," in Environmental Communication Strategy and Planning for NGOs, Ma'ain, Jordan, 27-31 May 1996, Jordan Environment Society, Amman. Khan, M. Z. A. and Abdul Razzak, M. J. (1986), "Domestic Water Conservation Technology in Arid Regions," Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 2 (4). Hamdan, M., Toukan, Ali, Shaniek, M., Abu Zaki, M., Abu Sharar, T., and Saqqar, M. (1997), "Environment and Islamic Education," in International Conference on Role of Islam in Environmental Conservation and Protection, 22-23 May 1997, Al-Najah University, Nablus, Palestine. Madani, Ismail (1989), "Islam and Environment," in For Environmental Awareness in the Gulf Countries, Ministry of Information, Manama, Bahrain. Salih, Abdin (1998), Qatar IHP Committee Celebrates World Water Day. Http:// Waterway.org. Samarrai, Mawil Izzi Dien (1993), Sharia'a and Environment, University of Wales, Lampter. UN (United Nations) (1993a), Agenda 21, Chapter 18: Protection of the Quality and Supply of Freshwater: Application of Integrated Approaches to the Development, Management and Use of Water Resources, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.

Amman. The Dublin Statement. 5.C. Ottawa. D. WMO. World Bank (1995). Vienna. WHO/ EMRO. 26-31 January 1992." in Workshop on the Role of Industry in the Development of Rational Use of Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa. Beirut Declaration on Action for a Healthy Environment. (1996a).C. (1997). 2. WHO/EMRO/CEHA. USAID. Amman. The Right Path to Health: Health Education through Religion. Amman. WHO (World Health Organization) (1995). Environmental Health in the Islamic Perspective (in Arabic). (1996b). WHO/EMRO/CEHA. UNIDO. Washington. no. WHO/EMRO. (1996c). D. USAID (US Agency for International Development) (1993). International Development Research Centre. International Conference on Water and Environment: Development Issues of the Twenty-First Century. Geneva. The Right Path to Health: Health Education through Religion. The Right Path to Health: Health Education through Religion. WHO/EMRO. Alexandria. KHAN. World Bank. Regional Strategy for Health and Environment. Water and Sanitation in Islam. 7.60 ATALLAH. "The Role of Industry in the Development and Conservation of Water Resources in the Arab Region: Challenges and Prospects. WHO/EMRO/CEHA. Water Resources Action Plan for the Near East. AND MALKAWI (1993b). UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) (1997). 13-15 May 1996. WMO (World Meteorological Organization) (1992). Public Awareness and Training. Centre for Environmental Health Activities (CEHA) News Letter. Agenda 21. WHO (World Health Organization) (1992). Alexandria. Amman. From Scarcity to Security: Averting a Water Crisis in the Middle East and North Africa. Health Promotion through Islamic Lifestyles: The Amman Declaration. Washington. Alexandria. Chapter 36: Promoting Education. 23. . Jordan.

Gabriel Water is the critical resource for humanity. Ayeshah. Shah. A. A."3 Water wastage in particular is strongly discouraged. said that "the Prophet used to use a very small quantity [equal to litre] for ablution and a bit more [equal to 2-3 litres] for bathing. but often it will be very effec61 . M.5 Water conservation through community institutions in Pakistan: Mosques and religious schools S."2 The Quran strongly discourages the waste of any resource. even in this important task. it will not be possible to use this approach in all cases."1 Water is essential not only for the survival of human beings but also for animals. Allah says. water conservation in Muslim countries can be planned on the basis of Islam. A. Such plans will be effective because they rely on a natural approach to handling water scarcity and they will produce much better results than if plans are based only on government regulations. Baig. Because water is used in different ways in different times and places. Khan. F. In the Quran. S. No life can exist without water. "We made from water every living thing. as is clear from the following hadith. the Prophet set an example by conserving water. Thus. including water: "But waste not by excess: for Allah loveth not the wasters. It is a fixed quantity on this planet. This chapter highlights the use of mosques and religious schools to promote water conservation by linking it with Islamic teachings."4 Ablution is the process of washing that is required of every Muslim before prayers and. and H. plants and other living beings. as the Quran says: "And We send down water from the sky according to (due) measure and We cause it to soak in the soil. and We certainly are able to drain it off (with ease). The Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) wife. M.

but systematic approach to the problem. KHAN. Faisalabad. he agreed.113 houses were surveyed. a few educated people in a small town of the Dijkot District. The survey was conducted in the evening because the personnel were volunteers who had to work during the day. and industrial supply. The first step was to conduct a house-to-house survey regarding shortage of water so as to be able to assess the severity of the problem. • The first group. about 30 per cent of the total. and as Dijkot is his hometown. irrigation. it consisted simply of people who met at the mosque quite regularly for their prayers. formed a group to solve the local water shortage problem by reducing losses and optimising use of water. municipal supply. The idea was first to motivate the people in the town of Dijkot for optimal water use and control of wastage. The group was not a non-governmental organisation (NGO): as such. The following simple questions were asked: • Are you satisfied with the available water supply? • If not. rather. They had no complaints because they were getting the required quantity of water. BAIG. and then to apply the experience in a nearby village to solve the problem of the shortage of irrigation water for crops. and how do you think it could be remedied? • What expectations do you have of the local government officials responsible for water supply? Consumers in a total of 4. lived close to the town's main water supply reservoir. as the data from two informal case studies in a small town and a village of Pakistan demonstrate. in four groups (table 1). what could be the reason for the problem. In these two categories of water use.62 SHAH. It was decided to use a very simple. mosques and religious schools can play a crucial role in managing and conserving available water resources through a detailed plan based on established practices and Islamic teachings. . the first two are vital in any country because they involve human consumption of water and the cultivation of crops. The group asked the lead author of this chapter to help as a guide or team leader and work for the cause on the weekends. One of them had the idea of trying to use the mosques and religious schools (madaris) to influence people's thinking and behaviour regarding the wastage of municipal and irrigation water supplies. AND GABRIEL tive. Of the three main types of water consumption. Municipal water supply In the middle of 1991.

20 per cent of the total. was why they were reluctant to talk about how they overcame shortages. Detailed data analysis and interpretation through discussions gave the following information. • The fourth group was also trying to use illegal pumps but even then only 20-25 per cent were successful. • The final group. • The first group of consumers had no problems since they lived near to the water source. • The third group. • The second group. about 25 per cent of the total.234 1.WATER CONSERVATION IN PAKISTAN 63 Table 1 Number of houses grouped by distance from water supply tank. This. but only 50 per cent of the houses could meet their requirements. . lived a short distance from the reservoir. 25 per cent of the total. such that 20-25 per cent of the houses were hardly receiving any municipal water at all.183 (64) 164 (20) 433 (42) 597 (32) Assumed. rather they were wasting water by unnecessarily leaving taps running. The people in this group complained because almost 50 per cent of the houses in this group were experiencing water shortages that the consumers blamed on government officials. They were experiencing a serious water shortage. of course. and numbers in each group experiencing water shortages before and after implementation of the action plan With water shortages Total First group Second group Third group Fourth group Total (third and fourth groups) Total a Before (per cent) After (per cent) 1. From time to time the consumers complained and protested to the local government officials.028 823 1. They mentioned various minor problems of shortage but were reluctant to explain how they had overcome these. lived on the periphery of the water supply network .113 0 0° 412 (50) 771 (75) 1. • The second group was not facing serious problems because they were using pumps connected to the supply pipes so as to draw water illegally to overcome any deficiency.028 1. Almost 75 per cent of the houses were experiencing serious water shortages.in other words they were tail-end users.851 4. lived farther from the reservoir. • The consumers in the third group were also using illegal pumps to draw water.

Volunteers from religious schools were asked to prepare handwritten posters. the research group decided to mount an information and awareness campaign targeted at the first two groups and part of the third group. the campaign would be mainly directed against illegal water pumps and supply connections. The imams were given only the main points and details of presentation were totally in their hands. the improvement after implementation was a reduction from 50 per cent complaining to almost 20 per cent in the third group and from 75 per cent to 42 per cent in the fourth group. mainly because relevant literature was unavailable or inaccessible. and • For the targeted part of third group. The total involvement of the mosque imams and students of religious schools. Thus. • For the second group. different themes had to be stressed in each group. but most were willing. Because the problems differed in each group. and only partly against water wastage. A few of them would not agree to co-operate. and unfortunately. Relevant literature. Records of khutba are not available as they were not in written form. the campaign would deal exclusively with illegal pumps. so speeches of thirty or forty minutes were delivered twice a month. It took almost six months because religious students could only work as helpers work once a week. AND GABRIEL Following detailed discussions. In terms of numbers of complaints. based on moral values and religious points of view. in terms of hours worked. but their assistance was provided over a period of nine or ten months. useful material that could be used for future projects or studies cannot be documented. • For the first group. they could not be tape-recorded.64 SHAH. The imams suggested that it would not be effective if every khutba were on this topic. for no more than half a day. BAIG. Actually implementing the action plan was the most difficult job. was distributed so as give the imams information to supplement what they already had. the campaign would be directed against wastage of water. Almost three months were spent in collecting literature and preparing material. Influential imams of selected mosques in the relevant localities were asked to discuss the problem in their khutba (Friday speeches). The intention was to point out to the culprits that taking another person's share of water is sinful. Two months after the plan was implemented. highlighting religious and moral condemnation of water wastage and the use of illegal pumps and connections. so that their Friday sermons would be more effective. was not calculated. only the third and fourth groups were surveyed because they were the ones suffering from water shortages. a second simple survey was conducted for assessment purposes. This time. The overall rate of complaints among all houses . KHAN.

At the same time. and • Lack of professional skills of those who did volunteer. and the culprits sometimes used political pressure to escape prosecution.they considered it as a general warning and not specific to them. • Lack of clear understanding by religious leaders of the issue of water conservation in which they could play a crucial role to improve the situation. A survey similar to the one conducted in the town of Dijkot found that the problems were more or less the same. • Unavailability of dedicated full-time volunteers for awareness campaigns. a case study was conducted on similar lines. the main sufferers. Government officials had sent a general warning to all communities regarding the wastage of water. Thus about half of houses that had been facing water shortages before were no longer facing problems (table 1). were generally ignored by officials who could not take serious action against users of illegal pumps and connections because the procedure for even minor penalties was too complex. • Illiteracy of the population. The tail-end users of the side canal . The problem involved a side canal leading water from a main canal by gravity flow. the general warning irritated the main sufferers . Further. irrespective of the real culprits. Irrigation water In a nearby village. The campaign highlighted the ineffectiveness of official actions to combat the water shortage.they were not doing anything wrong but were still being admonished. • Lack of awareness of the problem. • Lack of interest by government officials in investigating the problem in depth.WATER CONSERVATION IN PAKISTAN 65 experiencing water shortages in both groups decreased from 64 per cent to about 32 per cent. This warning was a serious mistake because it did not make the culprits realize their guilt . the government was charging a flat rate irrespective of the quantity of water being used. and penalties for illegal pumps and connections were too trivial to act as deterrents. the farmers were supposed to be supplied with water from the side canal on a time-sharing basis based on the size of their land holdings. Just as important as the success of the campaign were the various problems of implementing measures against the water shortage that were identified: • Government rules and regulations not based on realities on the ground. Complaints or protests from the tail-end users.

BAIG. In any Muslim country.if it was not needed. the following conclusions can be drawn from the case studies. • For sustainability. the penalties for stealing and illegally diverting water from the canal were trivial. except that in this case. Conclusions Because of the limitations of these case studies in terms of time and resources. The difficulties and limitations in implementing the action plan in the village were more or less the same as in the town. long-term policies are needed. can play a useful role in controlling water wastage: the reduction of water shortage complaints found in these case studies suggests that savings of water can be significant. then it was wasted. Although the case study was not formal and time was limited. further. sustainable benefits: . To assess success.66 SHAH. AND GABRIEL were desperate for water whereas landowners at the middle and head of the canal were enjoying sufficient water. A similar action plan was developed. The weaknesses of the government rules and regulations were also similar. KHAN. • Mosques and religious schools. a similar technique was employed. more methodical and scientific studies should be conducted to clearly establish the link between reduction of water use and public awareness programs based. and were even stealing water in various ways in case of any deficiency. a lot of experience was gained in using a religious approach for future planning in areas with similar water shortage problems. For example. • NGO members who work with imams and religious schools on public awareness programs in water conservation require professional skills. whether or not the farmer in fact received his full share of water. the village headman (lumberdar) and heads of influential families were involved instead of the imams. there were about 26 per cent fewer complaints of inadequate water after the implementation of the plan than before it. Despite the limitations. in part. which revealed a lower success rate than in the town. Even so. based on time sharing related to the size of the land holding. on religious values. public awareness programs based upon Islamic teachings about conservation should include the following components to achieve long-term. flat rates were charged. • Government rules and regulations alone are often ineffective in changing people's water management behaviour. using religious points of view regarding the wastage of water. • For best results. In addition. Likewise. NGOs and government agencies should work as partners. the farmer had to take his share whether he needed it or not .

21:30. • Allocating financial resources in the religious studies departments of universities as well as in religious institutions to support research at the postgraduate level on the Islamic viewpoint on water management and conservation. and specifically the Quran and hadith. if possible in different Muslim countries. 2. • Model studies should be started in several different cities. based on an Islamic viewpoint. 6:141. 3. • Training of the students of religious institutions in the use of solid religious arguments to influence public thinking and behaviour on water wastage and conservation issues. this process should start in Muslim countries where literacy is high. Water conservation awareness campaigns must be launched by NGOs in their local communities.WATER CONSERVATION IN PAKISTAN 67 • Introducing courses on water management and conservation. • Developing NGOs that involve local religious leaders and students. Preferably. • Conducting short courses and workshops to educate government officials on the Islamic viewpoint regarding water conservation. . in the syllabuses of religious institutions. 4. 23:18. and supporting them with government funds to ensure continuity and sustainability of their work. In this way. using the research work done in the religious studies departments of universities and in religious institutions.200. Al-Bukhari 1. and • Basing government rules and regulations on realities on the ground and on the suggestions of NGOs working in the local communities. experience from the various studies could be used to improve the plans. Notes 1.

in all aspects of life. Understanding its duties. A servant is the guardian of his master's belongings and is responsible for them. 68 . ruler) is the guardian of his subjects and is responsible for them and a man is the guardian of his family and is responsible for them. The Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) was established as a ministerial agency under the I thank the Research Institute of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals for the support provided to complete this study.' I thought that he also said. '1 This hadith indicates clearly the responsibility of governments to secure basic needs such as water for the people. and was assigned the responsibility for water production to satisfy the required water demand in terms of quantities and qualities. A woman is the guardian of her husband's house and is responsible for it. "I heard Allah's Apostle saying. The Ministry of Agriculture and Water (MAW) was established in 1953. All of you are guardians and responsible for your wards and the things under your care. distribution. which follows the principles of Islamic law. founded specialized water agencies for production. The imam (that is.6 Water demand management in Saudi Arabia Walid A. or sharia. and treatment of water in the kingdom in the post-World War II decades. Abderrahman Abdullah bin 'Umar said. 'A man is the guardian of his father's property and is responsible for it. the government of Saudi Arabia. 'All of you are guardians and responsible for your wards and the things under your care.

During the last two decades. nor look at. to deal with water management issues. and maintenance of desalination plants for drinking water production. 'Today I will withhold My Grace from you as you withheld the superfluity of what you had not created. respectively.25 million km2. According to Islamic law and custom. regulations. More recently. A man who withholds his superfluous water. Allah's Apostle said. to be responsible for construction. and fatwa were developed. among those "whom Allah will neither talk to. Allah will say to him. and how demand is managed for different purposes according to Islamic law. The average annual rainfall is less than 150 mm in most of the country. water is to be used first for domestic purposes.WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA 69 MAW in 1965. The order of the last two purposes was ranked according to the application of Islamic customs in the country and through reasoning rather than from strict doctrine. the government has modified the past approach of increasing supplies to meet rising demand. The annual national water . The Water and Wastewater Authority (WWA) is an independent agency under the Ministry of Rural and Municipal Affairs to distribute drinking water and to collect and treat wastewater in different cities and towns of the kingdom. To protect the community of interest that constitutes the traditional basis of Islamic customary water law. industrial and recreational uses come fourth and fifth. The available surface water and groundwater resources are limited. then for animals. and evaporation is high. The Prophet (pbuh) mentions. the kingdom has experienced comprehensive development in all sectors coupled with high growth rates in population and living standards. This chapter describes Saudi Arabia's available water resources.."4 In Saudi Arabia. and lastly for agriculture. including measures to reduce national water demand and augment available water resources.' "2 Regarding animals. operation."3 and "One should not prevent others from watering their animals with the surplus of his water in order to prevent them from benefiting by the surplus of grass. Available water resources The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has an area of about 2. precipitation rates are low. and then as an independent corporation within the MAW in 1974. the government has taken several measures to protect the sustainability of aquifer systems and groundwater resources.. most of which is located in arid regions. "He who digs a well in the desert when there is pasture around this well and when there is no other water nearby cannot prevent the animals from slaking their thirst at this well. in accordance with Islamic law. on the Day of Resurrection:. Laws.

063 2.762 MCM (Al Alawi and Abdulrazzak 1994.900 3. which are found mostly in the southwest.826 16.000 MCM in 1992 (table 1). There are 185 dams.3 6.94 94. Groundwater is stored in more than twenty layered principal and secondary aquifers of different geological ages (MAW 1984). and to more than 30. demand has increased from 2.352 27.352 million cubic metres (MCM) in 1980 to about 27.600 21. to produce potable water from sea water and raw groundwater along the Red Sea coast and the Arabian Gulf coast using the multistage flush system and reverse osmosis (Bushnak 1997. These aquifers store about 84 billion cubic metres with an average annual recharge of 1. at a cost of about US$10 billion. 93).33 Sources: MOP 1990. The renewable groundwater resources are mainly stored in shallow alluvial aquifers and in basalt layers of varying thickness and width.200 14.230 MCM. for groundwater recharge and flood control.239 MCM in 1990. At present.57 19. Saudi .850 25. Non-conventional resources Thirty-five desalination plants have been built.696 18.06 5. 1990 and 1992). Conventional resources The annual runoff in the kingdom is estimated to be about 2. 1980-2010 (millions of cubic metres) Domestic and industrial (per cent) Agricultural (per cent) Total 2. The estimated groundwater reserves to a depth of three hundred metres below ground surface are about 2. Isotopic analyses show that the fossil groundwater in these aquifers is ten to thirty-two thousand years old. with groundwater quality varying between sites and aquifers.300 1980 1990 1992 1997 2000 2010 502 1.83 79.70 ABDERRAHMAN Table 1 Growth of Water Use in Saudi Arabia.17 20.9 11.7 93.700 78.185 billion cubic metres with a total annual recharge of 2.406 11.239 31.1 88.43 80.469 14. with a total storage capacity of 775 MCM.589 29. Dabbagh and Abderrahman 1997 (agricultural and total use.100 18.196 MCM. Dabbagh and Abderrahman 1997).870 2.67 1.650 1.

Consequently.7 1992 2.000 (Ishaq and Khan 1997). with its limited resources and rapidly growing demand. and in 1997. the Prophet (pbuh) endeavoured give to all people the right to water. 93).100 24. about 185 MCM or 18. Dabbagh and Abderrahman 1997 (1992 total). Thus. In addition. Desalination unit cost is about US$0.5 per cent of the treated wastewater was recycled for irrigating agricultural crops and landscape plants and for use in refineries. This principle is particularly important for Saudi Arabia.500 MCM by the year 2.376 (per cent)a 12 83 4 1 2. Annual water production has reached about 795 MCM and annual capacity will reach about 1. SR) for large-size desalination plant (Bushnak 1997. The total population of Saudi Arabia has increased from about 7.000 MCM of wastewater were generated in the country in 1996.489 90 2 0. 1 cubic metre of desalinized water delivered to a house costs about SR 5.70 or SR 2.696 795 185 18.WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA 71 Table 2 Water supply in Saudi Arabia. a Percentages do not add to 100 due to rounding. including those by Amery and by Kadouri et al. Arabia is the largest producer of desalinized water in the world. it is estimated that about 1. About 41 per cent of municipal wastewater is treated. and this is expected to increase to about 1.576 (per cent)a 7 1997 2.5-6.6.239 795 185 31.496 Sources: MOP 1990 estimate. About SR 3-4 should be added to the total water costs for transporting desalinated water to cities and towns.8 million in 1990 and is expected to reach 19 million in 2010.7 million in 1970 to 11. 1990-1997 (millions of cubic metres) 1990 Surface water and shallow aquifers (renewable) Groundwater (non-renewable) Desalination Treated wastewater effluents Total (per cent)a 13 83 3 0. Domestic water demand management As discussed in other chapters in this volume.751 Saudi riyals.050 MCM by 2000.6 per cubic metre (US$1 = 3. .. in order to prevent scarcity of water or to prevent it being controlled by one person.140 28.140 15. if the present growth rate of 3 per cent per annum continues.6 540 110 27.

which at present supply 46 per cent of domestic demand. US$0. and US$1.53 (SR 2. Extension services were also introduced to help farmers in proper scheduling of irrigation water to avoid excessive use. which ranges between about SR 1. the charge for water is only a small fraction of the actual cost of water production and transportation.4 million ha in 1971 to 1. and total consumption of irrigation water has increased from about 1.62 million ha in 1992 (MAW 1992).826 MCM in 1992 (table 1). and to reduce the domestic water demand in Saudi Arabia.000 a month. ablution water is recycled for toilet flushing at the two Holy Mosques at Makka and Al-Medina Al-Monawwarah.0) for the second one hundred cubic metres. in this volume. A preliminary as- . US$0.120 and SR 1.07 (SR 4. and with an average income of SR 4. • Treated wastewater recycling has been implemented. • In 1994.850 MCM in 1980 to 29. The water charges for a medium-sized middle-class family (six persons) living in a small house with garden (assuming water consumption of about 200 cubic metres a month).27 (SR 1. several water control and conservation measures have been introduced.0) for the fourth one hundred cubic metres. Hence the largescale construction of desalination plants. however.15) for the first one hundred cubic metres. and is expected to reach 2. the government gave financial support to farmers for well drilling and the introduction of modern and efficient irrigation systems. As noted in the chapters by Shah and by Atallah et al.04 (SR 0.72 ABDERRAHMAN domestic water demand has increased from about 446 MCM in 1980 to about 1. These include the following. for example. Irrigation water demand management The cultivated area in the kingdom has increased from less than 0. Al-Tukhais 1997). water tariffs were introduced to enhance the people's awareness of the value of water production. • Highly saline water from Wadi Malakan near Makka is used instead of desalination water for toilet flushing at the Holy Mosque at Makka. are less than SR 200 a month (US$55 a month). Because of its responsibility for making water available to the people for different uses. The threshold increase in the agricultural area started after 1979. The tariff per cubic metre of potable water is US$0. water conservation was also emphasized during the early times of Islam.320. • Leakage control measures have been implemented to minimize water losses from water supply networks.800 MCM in 2010 (Al-Alawi and Abdulrazzak 1994. including irrigation as the third priority.0) for the third one hundred cubic metres.563 MCM in 1997. However.

and water. after consultation with leading Islamic scholars and with specialists in agriculture. Furthermore. Special permits must be issued in advance by MAW to drill or deepen any well. 'A Muslim is the one who avoids harming Muslims with his tongue and hands. and hundreds or even thousands of production wells were thickly clustered in some agricultural areas. Regulation of well drilling "The Prophet said. vegetables. improvement of groundwater management and reduction in irrigation water consumption. excessive water pumping has resulted in negative effects on groundwater levels and on quality. and drilling and deepening must follow approved designs and be carried out and under supervision of MAW. economics. Consequently. especially for wheat cultivation. the government. became essential for maintaining the long-term productivity and quality of the aquifers. Understanding this serious issue.000 in 1982 to about 52.20 and SR 0.WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA 73 sessment of the cost of water production for irrigation from wells with depths of less than four hundred metres was between SR 0. This was to avoid any negative effects on the quality and abundance of the well. while fodder crops. Following this general Islamic trend. The total number of drilled wells increased from about 26. with a total of 907. a royal decree was issued in 1980 to regulate well drilling and to protect aquifers from exploitation and pollution.500 in 1990. Well owners and the drilling companies face penalties for not observing this decree. Reduction in wheat price supports Saudi Arabia's largest crop is wheat. took several measures and developed regulations to improve the management of water demand and to protect and conserve water resources. And a Muhajir (emigrant) is the one who gives up (abandons) all what Allah has forbidden. the Prophet (pbuh) recognized that the ownership of wells or any other water source requires the ownership of a certain extent of bordering land or harim on which it was forbidden to dig a new well.309 ha or 56 per cent of the total cultivated area in 1992. Table 2 shows that non-renewable groundwater from shallow and deep aquifers supplied about 28. This represented about 94 per cent of the total irrigation water use and 90 per cent of the total national water use in Saudi Arabia. In several agricultural regions.50 for large irrigation schemes.576 MCM in 1992 for irrigation use. .' "5 This means that the Muslim is forbidden by Islamic law to cause any harm to others including his community.

25 million tons in 1992 far exceeded the predicted national demand of 1. In actual fact.895 MCM or 33 per cent of the total national irrigation water consumption. colour and smell. even for drinking. as witnessed by honest.400 MCM per year or 25 per cent (assuming a 75 per cent reduction in wheat area). encourage farmers to diversify crop production. the reduction in wheat production subsidies resulted in a drop from 28. Field measurements of groundwater levels in deep observation wells in a large irrigation scheme in the Eastern Province have shown a recovery after reduction of the area under wheat of about 20-30 per cent from the drawdown recorded in previous years. if its treatment using advanced technical procedures is capable of removing its impurities with regard to taste. Then it can be used to remove body impurities and for purifying. The reduction in water use was projected to amount to about 7. specialized and knowledgeable experts. If there are negative impacts from .000 ha between 1992 and 1994.74 ABDERRAHMAN and fruits accounted for 18. This was to reduce wheat production to the level of the annual consumption.576 MCM to 15. and as shown in table 2. the MAW announced similar positive effects on groundwater levels in other regions of the kingdom as a result of reductions in wheat cultivation. 7. Reuse of wastewater effluents for irrigation Millions of cubic metres of wastewater effluents used to be produced and disposed of without reuse. even after removal of impurities by proper treatment. This reduction positively affected groundwater levels and quality in different wheat areas in the kingdom. a special fatwa on the matter was issued by the Council of Leading Islamic Scholars (CLIS) of Saudi Arabia in 1978. but because it was not clear if the effluents were pure according to Islamic views. the area under wheat dropped by about 325. Recently. and 6 per cent of the total agricultural area respectively. although the water supply from other sources remained constant from 1992 to 1997. irrigation demand of wheat was 9.22 million tons (MOP 1990). the government reduced the area of wheat cultivation eligible for price support to 25 per cent of its previous size. The fatwa (CLIS 1978) postulated that Impure waste water can be considered as pure water and similar to the original pure water. and reduce irrigation water consumption. which hindered diversification of agricultural production and resulted in unnecessary consumption of large volumes of groundwater: in 1992. The wheat production of 4. This was not for technical reasons. In 1993.376 MCM in water pumped from non-renewable aquifers. After lengthy and deep investigations and discussions with scientists and specialists.

The growing demand is satisfied mainly by costly desalination in some industries. In some industrial plants. such as drinking. At present. This fatwa demonstrates the dynamic nature and wisdom of Islamic law when confronting the changing needs of the Muslim community. Jubail.WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA 75 its direct use on the human health. part of the effluent is recycled. not because it is impure but to avoid harming the human beings. and grass in municipal parks in several cities. Wastewater is also reused for irrigating landscape plants. Riyadh. It was an important step toward the reuse of wastewater effluents for different purposes depending on its degree of treatment. ablution. certain industries require special water qualities. There is also the possibility of shifting of some fodder and cereal cultivation from zones of high irrigation water consumption to areas of lower consumption. Jeddah. especially food. such as Dhahran. thus saving considerable quantities of irrigation water. and restricted and non-restricted irrigation. and author's estimate). Industrial demand varies among regions of the kingdom. and Taif. . and is expected to grow to about 500 MCM in 2010 (Al-Alawi and Abdulrazzak 1994. Industrial water demand increased from about 56 MCM per year in 1980 to 192 MCM in 1990. The MAW is active in improving public knowledge of the value of water conservation in the news media and in educational institutions. about nine thousand hectare of date palms and forage crops near Riyadh are irrigated using about 146 MCM of wastewater effluents. The following legislation and measures have been taken to improve industrial water demand management. However. then it is better to avoid its use. removal of impurities. Other water demand reduction measures The MAW has considered the introduction of water meters on farm pumps to help in minimizing overpumping and water losses. Industrial water demand management Although industrial water constitutes only a small portion of total demand. uncontrolled disposal of wastewater has had negative effects on the environment and groundwater. and the environmental effects of mismanaging industrial wastewater represent a major hazard. although groundwater satisfies other types of industries. The CLIS prefers to avoid using it for drinking (as possible) to protect health and not to contradict with human habits. trees.

agriculture. and promotion of public awareness of the value of water. Another example is the reduction of support to wheat production. This technology was introduced to large industrial plants in 1995 (Abderrahman 1997). the fatwa permitting reuse of wastewater effluents especially for irrigation has resulted in the reuse of millions of cubic metres of treated effluent every year for this purpose. and introduced specialized agencies for water production and distribution. as well as regulations. or sharia. Other measures have been introduced to control well drilling and to monitor water consumption at the farm level so as to avoid overpumping and to protect aquifers. the experience of Saudi . Examples of the regulations are the reduction in domestic water demand by the introduction of new water pricing policies. leakage detection and control measures. In this approach. • Closed water cycles have been introduced in industrial plants to minimize wastewater disposal. In all these ways. and to protect the environment. in all aspects of life since its establishment about a hundred years ago. and has been implemented by various industrial plants. Conclusions The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has followed Islamic law. Farmers are also encouraged to use modern irrigation systems and to adopt irrigation scheduling to minimize water demand. which has resulted in a reduction in irrigation water demand of about 25 per cent. This was implemented in continuous consultation with leading Islamic scholars and specialists in water. reduce groundwater pumping. to maximize wastewater recycling. wastewater is converted into good quality condensate by evaporation at low temperature under vacuum. Recycling of treated industrial wastewater has been encouraged. The government realized the problems created by the combination of arid climatic conditions. measures.76 ABDERRAHMAN • To minimize industrial water demand. and economics. the government has established large industrial cities in different parts of the kingdom. and recycled within each city at the plant level for industrial and landscape purposes. limited water supplies. Each city contains tens or hundreds of factories. planning. Industrial wastewater is collected. treated. and protect the environment. and fatwa in agreement with Islamic law to achieve effective water demand management in the interests of the community and its natural resources. Furthermore. The industrial cities have specifications for the quality of the wastewater collected from factories. and rapid growth in water demand. Sharia considers water as the main component of the sustainability of a nation's life and security.

S. Water in the Arab World: Perspectives and Progress. and Abderrahman. A. 1398 AH (1998). Cambridge. College of Agriculture. 64 on 25 Shawwal. Beirut. Notes 1. CLIS (Council of Leading Islamic Scholars) (1978). This demonstrates that Islamic regulations are sufficiently dynamic. Al Alawi. pp. A. E." in P. 47-64.18. Rogers and P. Harvard University. . (1994). REFERENCES Abderrahman. Thirteenth Meeting of the Council of Leading Islamic Scholars (CLIS) during the Second Half of the Arabic month of Shawwal. 27-30 October. "Water in the Arabian Peninsula: Problems and Perspectives. Mass. 3. Economics and Applications in the ESCWA Region.92." Taif: Journal of Islamic Research 17. A." Expert Group Meeting on Development of Non-Conventional Water Resources and Appropriate Technologies for Ground-water Management in the ESCWA Member Countries. (1997). (1997). in Hadith Encyclopedia. Riyadh. and reasonable to solve the challenges faced by Muslim nations in such vital issues as water. "Water Desalination and Wastewater Reuse: Review of the Technology. Bahrain. M. 40-41. "Management of Groundwater Resources under Various Irrigation Water Use Scenarios in Saudi Arabia. 5. "judgement Regarding Purifying Wastewater: ludgement no. flexible. Manama. (1997). Al-Bukhari 2.). Al-Bukhari 9. A. A. Riyadh. 2527 March 1997. Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs.9. Division of Applied Sciences. M. King Saud University. Dabbagh. 1398 AH. Al-Bukhari 3. Al-Tukhais." in Proceedings of the Conference on Development and Environmental Impact. Lydon (eds. Al-Bukhari 1. 21-23 September. (1997). Al-Bukhari 5550. pp." in Water Resources and Its Utilization in Saudi Arabia: Proceedings of the First Saudi Conference on Agricultural Sciences. Economic and Social Commission of Western Asia (ESCWA)/UN. W. 2. 4. Bushnak.WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA 77 Arabia in using Islamic principles in water demand management has been successful in satisfying growing water needs and protecting water resources. "Water Resources and Agricultural Production in Saudi Arabia: Present and Future. and Abdulrazzak." Arabian Journal of Science and Engineering 22 (special theme issue on water resources in the Arabian Peninsula).557. W. "The Use of Closed Water Cycle in Industrial Plants in Saudi Arabia.

78 ABDERRAHMAN Ishaq. A. Department of Economic Studies and Statistics. pp. MAW. 133-41 (special theme issue on water resources in the Arabian Peninsula). (1997). Riyadh. MAW (Ministry of Agriculture and Water) (1984). Agricultural Statistical Year Book. MOP (Ministry of Planning) (1990). Fifth Development Plan. "Recharge of Aquifers with Reclaimed Wastewater: A Case for Saudi Arabia. Riyadh. 7. ." Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 22. MAW. Riyadh. A. (1992). A. vol. Water Atlas of Saudi Arabia. and Khan. M. MOP.

The use of treated wastewater has increased significantly in developing countries since about 1980. and has come to be considered as a new and unconventional source of water for agricultural production. when crops in Greece were irrigated with such effluent. Finally. however. In many sociocultural environments. and are in the process of being built.7 Sociocultural acceptability of wastewater reuse in Palestine Nader Al Khateeb The concept of using wastewater for irrigation can be traced back more than two thousand years. increasing numbers of sewage treatment works have been built. the use of treated wastewater raises the question: Is this new source of water culturally ac79 . the increasing scarcity of water in many arid and semi-arid countries has led planners to search for additional sources of water that can be used economically and effectively to promote further development. In addition. following the UN Water Conference. increasing interest in environmental and health issues in developing countries has led to interest in safe and beneficial disposal of waste water. At the same time. the present widespread interest in the concept has developed only recently. which can contribute to the alleviation of hunger in many countries. in developing countries . Despite this.the result of the United Nations (UN) designating the 1980s as the International Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. This is partly because increasing population and increasing consumption of water per capita have meant that more and more wastewater is being produced in urban and rural areas of developing countries. Wastewater is an obvious candidate.

above all those of social anthropological fieldwork. In some cases. farmers. and Tulkarem districts was surveyed to determine their responses to the concept of reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation. interview those selected. In addition. since religion can act as a promoter or inhibitor of new ideas. The general public A random sample of 480 people from Bethlehem. and fill out the questionnaires. the questionnaires were given to respondents to fill out themselves and return them the following day. cultures are not fixed entities: values. have rarely been used in this culturally sensitive area. beliefs. All these considerations are of obvious relevance to Palestine. the most appropriate methods for gathering data. Furthermore. Jenin. discussed by Abderrahman in this volume) that Islam permits the reuse of wastewater for irrigation and other purposes . The responses from the general public. The crops were tested in the laboratories of the Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture and shown to be safe to eat. Having established this point. Eggplants. and visitors to the Nablus project are summarized below. Cultures are rarely homogeneous and frequently contain a complex variety of subcultures with widely differing orientations. and some also with freshwater as a control. Nablus. In addition. Jericho. Ramallah. and most Palestinians are Muslims. where a pilot demonstration project was recently implemented in the town of Nablus. visitors to the demonstration site were interviewed. we carried out a survey to determine the social acceptability of wastewater reuse among the Palestinian general public and farmers. Qalqilya.80 AI KHATEEB ceptable? This is not a question that can always be answered simply. and to assess the possibilities of increasing wastewater reuse through public awareness campaigns. . pepper. tricking filters and activated sludge systems were used to treat sewage. In addition. apples. The survey was mainly intended to assess the sociocultural perspective for wastewater reuse so as to mitigate water shortages. and two engineers were contracted to select random samples in every district. Hebron. • About 88 per cent of those surveyed believe there is a water shortage in Palestine. and customs change and can be made to change. Questionnaires were designed. The following results were obtained. and peaches were grown and irrigated with effluent.an important matter. • Although 73 per cent have piped water systems. we established (mainly on the basis of the fatwa of the Council of Leading Islamic Scholars of Saudi Arabia. 57 per cent still use household percolation pits to dispose of their seepage. In this project. grapes.

• About 65 per cent of respondents said that diarrhoea was the most prevalent disease in their towns. while the rest preferred getting information through radio or newspaper reports. • Over 80 per cent said they are willing to practice wastewater reuse. • Nearly 80 per cent of those surveyed had never seen a wastewater treatment plant. • About 65 per cent of respondents said they were willing to buy crops irrigated with treated waste water. • More than 78 per cent believe that there is an acute need to reuse wastewater for irrigation. • Most of the respondents said they had heard about wastewater reuse in irrigation. . Beit Eiba in Nablus District. but a usable water source. Farmers A random sample of seventy farmers from the villages of Deir Al Ghosoun in Tulkarem District. • Over 66 per cent said their family income was less than two thousand new Israeli shekels per month (US$1 = NIS4. • Over half of those surveyed (55 per cent) believe that wastewater is no longer simply waste.1). • About 93 per cent said they would accept having wastewater treatment plants in their towns. and Taffouh in Hebron District were interviewed to determine their response to the concept of reusing wastewater in agricultural irrigation. • Nearly 60 per cent think that drip irrigation is the most appropriate method for irrigation with treated wastewater. • Almost all the respondents believed that wastewater use is allowed by Islam under conditions that prevent harm to the users. • About 50 per cent felt that the reuse should be to irrigate crops that can be exported while the other 50 per cent said the irrigated crops should be marketed locally. • Almost all believed that it is technically and economically possible to safely reuse wastewater to address irrigation water shortages.WASTEWATER REUSE IN PALESTINE 81 • Almost all the respondents (85 per cent) believe that reusing wastewater is one option for coping with the shortage of irrigation water. • About 50 per cent said they preferred getting information about wastewater reuse through television. and 94 per cent said it was necessary to take precautions when dealing with wastewater. • Many respondents said that the main obstacle they faced was the lack of sufficient water and the high cost of fertilizer. • Nearly 80 per cent had no knowledge of how to deal with wastewater.

• The visitors suggested that widespread awareness campaigns should be implemented. All of the visitors were briefed on the concept of wastewater treatment and reuse. many people were invited to the demonstration site. and the benefits and risks. The farmers are ready to accept the reuse of wastewater for irrigation on their farms if the effluent quality is assured. or on vegetables that are eaten cooked. and they do not have to change their cropping patterns. • Most of the visitors had not seen a wastewater treatment plant before. Interviews with the visitors produced the following results.82 AIKHATEEB The majority of farmers said that wastewater reuse is not prohibited religiously and can be practised. including trainees from various municipalities in the West Bank who were taking courses at Bir Zeit University on wastewater collection. treatment. and that more freshwater could then be allocated for domestic use. • Most of the visitors were in favour of using wastewater on trees. and stressed the need for more information about . More than 53 per cent of the farmers said they were willing to pay up to NIS 1 per cubic metre of treated wastewater and a further 39 per cent said they were willing to reuse wastewater if it is provided free of charge. • When the visitors had seen the demonstration project. • The visitors were concerned about the health and smell aspects of wastewater treatment. and reuse (funded by the German government). Almost 65 per cent of the farmers said they did not know enough about sludge from sewage treatment plants. that wastewater could be reused in agriculture. • The visitors believe that there is a water shortage in the area. they became supportive of the idea of wastewater reuse. but that they were willing to use it as a fertilizer if it is safe and not contaminated with pathogens. and the law allows it. This was reflected in their views on the possibilities of recycling the wastewater. Demonstration site visitors In addition to the survey. Most of the farmers said that wastewater has an advantage over freshwater for irrigation because it contains most of the nutrients required by plants. About 76 per cent of the farmers said they were willing to pay for the sludge to use it as a fertilizer if it is safe.

K. (1997).. The Utilisation of Dry Sludge as Fertiliser in Gaza Strip. N. E.. • Most of those surveyed had never seen or experienced wastewater treatment. • Palestinians in the West Bank believe that there is a water shortage in Palestine and (treated) wastewater can be safely reused in irrigation to conserve more freshwater. United Nations Development Programme. (1993).WASTEWATER REUSE IN PALESTINE 83 wastewater treatment and about the results that could be obtained from projects such as that at Nablus. and Dadah. • Most respondents think that the reuse of raw sewage is dangerous whereas treated sewage can be a useful water resource. Nablus Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Demonstration Project: Final Report. Government Education College. Such a campaign should include visits to the demonstration site. . • The respondents are willing to consume products irrigated with treated wastewater. N. The visitors supported the concept of involving local experience in the planning and decision-making for wastewater treatment and reuse. FURTHER READING Al Khateeb. H. we can conclude the following: • Palestinians in the West Bank believe that wastewater reuse is acceptable in Islam providing that the effluent quality is safe and does not harm the health of the users. The visitors said that the polluters should be responsible for the treatment of their wastewater and not the farmers. Jerusalem. • Those surveyed prefer getting information about wastewater treatment and reuse through television. Al Yaazigi.. • There is a need to initiate a national campaign on possible options for wastewater reuse. and there is a need to intensify demonstration activities. (1994). Kally. Jerusalem. Gaza. and Shuval. Conclusions Based on the sociocultural survey of the farmers and the public in the West Bank. The visitors were satisfied with the concept of establishing a demonstration project as a first step before constructing large-scale wastewater treatment plants. Israel-Palestine Centre for Research and Information. A Proposal for the Development of a Regional Water Master Plan. Assaf. Al Khateeb. J. N.

Jerusalem. Geneva. Impact of Sewage on Groundwater Quality in the Gaza Strip: Final Report. Loughborough University of Technology. D. Gaza. (1991). (1992). (1994). Delft. Juanio... Water Commission. Sourani. Gearheart. Gaza. Palestinian Economic Council for Development and Reconstruction.Water Reuse. Technical Report 517. "Desalination: A Feasibility Study for the Gaza Strip. IWACo-Euroconsult (1995). and Al Hamaidi. thesis. Recycling of Wastewater for Environmental Protection and Water Supply in Agriculture. Bahri. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Strategy for Gaza and the West Bank: Water and Wastewater Sector. Palestinian Environmental Protection Agency. G. Urgent Action Plan for Wastewater Management: Gaza Governorates. Gaza. Gaza Israeli Civil Administration and the Technical Research and Development Foundation. and Amiel.C. R.84 AIKHATEEB DANIDA (Danish International Development Assistance) (1996). PWA (Palestinian Water Authority) (1996). PWA. Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture in Gaza Governorates. TAHAL Consulting Engineers (1993). World Bank (1994). Washington. Reuse of Effluent: Methods of Wastewater Treatment and Health Safeguards. A. Tel Aviv. TAHAL Consulting Engineers Ltd. WHO (World Health Organization) (1973)." M. Gaza..Sc. M. (1995). Strategic Study on Wastewater Reuse. A. Nashashibi. WHO. Prefeasibility Study.Sc. . DANIDA. Gaza Environmental Profile . M. "Wastewater Treatment Strategies in Palestine. thesis. World Bank. M." M.

Djebbar.8 to 1. T. Although these tools have the potential to help many water utilities move out of the current crisis while simultaneously extending and improving services. The second challenge is the new agenda of sustainable development. generated a consensus that the developing countries face two great challenges in the water supply and sanitation sector. the shortfall in adequate water supply and sewerage has dire consequences for human development (Serage El-Din 1994). the number of people without safe water decreased from 1. more efficient. and the International Conference on Water and Environment held in Dublin the same year. Nehdi The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro. During the 1980s. regulations. and education is imperative. It requires better market-like instru85 . technology. Y. realization of these benefits is yet to be achieved because the history of demand management in developing countries is short. To address the water crisis in the Middle East described in the introduction to this volume. The first challenge is to complete the old agenda of providing household service (Bronsro 1998).8 Water rights and water trade: An Islamic perspective M. Water pricing through user-paid fees is one of the most controversial water demand management tools. Despite these relative successes. while the number of people without suitable sanitation remained static at about 1. much remains to be done.7 billion. This challenge includes the need for longterm. Although significant progress has been made. the use of water demand management tools such as pricing. Kadouri.2 billion. and M. and equitable water supply.

and outlines an Islamic water management perspective in the Middle East. therefore. The prices charged for water extraction are unlikely to include these values. can encourage overuse. Averagecost pricing. but also institutions to ensure that those charged with reforms are able and willing to carry them out. which will likely involve substantial tariff increases in waterstressed cities.86 KADOURI. AND NEHDI ments to promote sustainability. In any case. particularly for the poor. Economic theory. calculating environmental costs is likely to be controversial at best. and the opportunity costs of uses forgone. raise revenues. and plants. Typically. Implementing water pricing as a water demand management tool requires not only an understanding of the full spectrum of urban issues. flat-rate or declining-block-rate structures are still being used. but also the external costs of environmental degradation. animals. marginal costs for new water sources are high: for example. effective management has to handle collection. whereas marginal-cost pricing reflects future costs. but at average financial costs or even less. water tariffs are set not to recover marginal costs. because the benefits of aquatic systems. DJEBBAR. and any solution to water management problems must consider the Islamic reality of the region. Most often. As such. . climate moderation. and aesthetic value are not traded in the marketplace (Bronsro 1998). Furthermore. In a modern context. and these offer no incentives to conserve water (Bronsro 1998). in many places. such as habitat for fish. from major legislation to elementary social behaviour. The difference essentially is that cost recovery pricing reflects past costs. However. water trade. more distant. This chapter addresses water rights and water pricing in Islam. Bronsro (1998) proposes that the positive assumption of universal water supply should be reconsidered and that there should be a move toward economic pricing. the price of water should include not only direct costs such as those of transporting it. new water sources in Algeria and Egypt will cost two to three times more than existing ones (World Bank 1992). and more expensive water sources (World Bank 1993). Islam plays a pivotal role in all aspects of life in the Middle East. and provide fair prices. Economic theory indicates that water should be priced at the marginal cost of providing the next increment of water resource. A premise of sustainability is that water is a scarce economic resource. and price distortion The limited water supply from currently available sources is triggering development of new. water historically has been provided below cost or even free.

aquifer depletion. and there is private trading in public goods. However. . The latter have a cost that can only be recovered by effective pricing. in Jakarta. the water utility. in Jakarta roughly 20 per cent of the city's eight million people receive piped water from municipal water connections. such a market structure creates obvious problems for the environment. and distribution of water. Such price variations are typical: Bahl and Linn (1992) summarized vendor prices for water relative to municipal charges in various countries . in Kenya (Nairobi) seven to ten times. Crane 1994). When prices are distorted. Its overuse leads to public health problems. As indicated earlier. Although benefiting only a minority. and this leads to overuse. and official corruption (Lovei and Whittington 1993. and the average customer. Thus. many are prevented from connecting to the municipal system by ignorance about the options for water supply. The higher-price consumers generally limited their meagre ration of purchased water to drinking and cooking. but is contaminated and unsafe. In theory. If an influential minority benefits from water subsidies at the expense of the majority. as well as by credit constraints. Entry to this market is controlled. Crane (1994) reported that those who did not have access to piped water in Jakarta paid six to fourteen times more than those who did.fourteen litres per day per person versus sixty-two litres. as well as maintenance of water resources and infrastructures. prices are high and the vendors extract monopoly rents. Not surprisingly. the subsidy can be hard to abolish. Calculating prices is often easier than collecting tariffs. A further problem for the city supplier is that the proportion of water lost to leakage and theft exceeds 50 per cent (Bhattia and Falkenmark 1993). markets are noncompetitive. they would be better off with house connections.in Burkina Faso three to five times higher. economists say that markets have "failed" (Panayotou 1993). access to groundwater is not controlled. while prices effectively are not. because the average vendor customer could increase his water consumption fivefold. and land subsidence (Bronsro 1998). bureaucratic obstacles.WATER RIGHTS AND WATER TRADE 87 treatment. Islam forbids such conduct. and used well water for other purposes. The standpipe vendors purchase water from the municipal system and resell it at a substantial markup. while still decreasing his water bill. Therefore. and in Uganda (Kampala) four to ten times. In contrast. those who paid higher prices purchased much less water than those who paid lower prices . Many of the poor face a choice between high prices and poor water. Well water is inexpensive. Powerful sociopolitical forces may agitate against raising tariffs for an essential commodity such as water. in Ghana thirteen to twenty-five times. which creates vested interests and resists price reforms. The rest depend on private wells or purchase water from various private vendors.

AND NEHDI Pricing of water in Islam Before discussing water rights and pricing from an Islamic perspective. gives lavishly and provides.the market itself fixes the prices. A fundamental principle in dealing with wealth-generating resources in Islam is combatting unfair distribution. The Prophet (pbuh) says: "If anyone revives dead land. it belongs to him "2 Market incentives should drive the economy and a government should not interfere in the market except to prevent unfair competition. The economic concept in Islam is based upon reward: a person should be rewarded for his work. This meaning is emphasized by the Quran: "O ye who believe! Spend out of (the bounties) we have provided for you"1 says that "Indeed. DJEBBAR. this should not be taken to mean that Islam jeopardizes economic incentives by "externalizing" property. Muslim scholars agreed that Islam does not allow the government to fix prices for goods. The advantage of the dissociation between God's fundamental ownership of wealth and humanity's "managerial" ownership is twofold: first. others. Who withholds."4 Thus. however. "Muslims . It was reported that when some people complained to the Prophet about high prices and asked him to adjust them. wealth belongs to God and a person simply assumes a managerial position to increase wealth and use it properly. It basically balances private incentives with social optimality. then sets forward a system of law to enforce its moral code. and to inhibit illicit (haraam) practices. The word "wealth" ("ma-li" in the Arabic language) has no significance on its own. under normal circumstances prices should not be fixed. and work is most honoured. one has no right to harm himself. Islamic jurisprudence attempts to balance the reward of work and the public interest in managing water resources. "in order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. He has only designated you as gerents and allowed you to enjoy it. It is reported that the Prophet said.88 KADOURI. there are exceptions to this rule. and I hope that when I meet Allah. or the environment."3 This indicates that in Islamic law." However. one cannot abuse the sources of wealth or put one's own individual interest ahead of the public interest in conducting affairs. and second. the wealth that was bestowed upon you belongs to Allah for He has created it. his belongings. none of you will have any claim on me for an injustice regarding blood or property. that is. As will be shown later. he refused to do so and said that "Allah is the one Who fixes prices. the concept of wealth ownership in Islamic jurisprudence must first be understood. Property in Islam is a social function. it is merely a relationship. including water . Islam promotes moral self-regulation to enhance social justice and to combat corruption.

and knowledge have been invested. could be sold and traded (Zouhaili 1992). a person in need can use it after asking for the owner's permission."7 Thus. Likewise. other users can use this water for drinking and basic needs. and so can their water. Even though this water is private. private distribution systems. and springs that are located on private lands are considered to be restricted public goods. infrastructure. which is therefore considered to belong to the first category . and any water to obtain which work. sell it. or donate it. He also said: "it is better for anyone of you to take a rope and cut the wood (from the forest) and carry it over his back and sell it (as a means of earning his living) rather than to ask a person for something and that person may give him or not. and reservoirs is considered as a private good. water privately transported and stored. The owner has the right to use it. Anyone has the right to use it (properly) for drinking and for agricultural and industrial purposes as long as this does not hinder environmental or public welfare. For instance. Water in rivers. and public goods. and from snow and rainfall is a public good. This water does not belong to its owner in the large sense of ownership. restricted public goods. most Muslim scholars (Zouhaili 1992) agree that water could be sold like any other commodity."6 This saying indicates that wells can be traded. water and fire. Water bodies such as lakes. treated water can be traded because the organization responsible for the treatment has spent money and invested work in it (added value or reward for work). Amrou Ibn Dinar said. trade it. Water stored in private containers. most Muslim scholars subdivide water resources for trading purposes into three categories (Sabeq 1981. and seas. aquifers. Muslim scholars conclude that water. More specifically." However. This water belongs to its owner and cannot be used without his permission. like lumber and other public commodities. rather. This ruling can encompass water from treatment plants.private goods. the Shafii believe that whoever digs a well owns its water. lakes. The Prophet once said: "he who purchases the Ruma Well and offers its water to Muslims free of charges will be granted paradise. However. "We do not know whether he meant flowing water in nature (in rivers and lakes) or transported water (with added value). glaciers. This water can be trans- . water streams.WATER RIGHTS AND WATER TRADE 89 have common share in three (things): grass. but they cannot use it for agricultural and industrial purposes without the permission of the owner. This also includes water that has been extracted from wells and rivers using special equipment or obtained through water distribution companies. Zouhaili 1992): private goods. the owner merely has special rights and privileges over other users."5 The Prophet discouraged the selling of water.

Even in such conditions. which are consistent with sustainability. and it can be sold to recover cost and generate profit. The government should not prevent its use. (1995) define demand management as any measure designed to reduce the volume of fresh water being withdrawn. However. indicating that Allah will reward those who do so. Therefore. water pricing implementation in a Muslim society is not different from elsewhere. it is rightful for Allah to seat him in hellfire. or unfair trade. canals. unless it can prove that the use will produce harm to the public welfare. These guiding principles can be summarized as follows (Sabeq 1981. Scholars agree that Islam forbids speculation and manipulation of the market to raise prices and increase profit. storage. Most scholars agree that the government must intervene to fix prices when a merchant's conduct harms the market or the public welfare (Sabeq 1981). Muslim scholars also state that whenever the interests of the merchant and those of the consumer clash. Muslim scholars encourage giving water away free of charge."8 Implementing water demand management through pricing Islam supports a free market that is based on accessibility. but without reducing consumer satisfaction or output. it does put forward a set of general principles that guide the pricing of any traded goods including water. Bhattia et al. or both. and transportation. they indicate that the owner of private water should not be forced to provide water free of charge except in compelling conditions.90 KADOURI. It is reported that the Prophet said. the interests of the consumer must be given priority. DJEBBAR. if any value is added. . and social justice. Zouhaili 1992). However. AND NEHDI ported in pipes. • The market sets the prices. • Private and restricted private water can be traded like any other good. Water falling in this category cannot be sold or bought for private interest (Zouhaili 1992). • Public water cannot be sold. "whoever enters in the affairs of Muslims to manipulate prices. Although Islamic jurisprudence does not go into the specifics of setting static regulations for pricing or market control. • In the spirit of the Quran and the Prophet's sayings. Such measures. damage to the environment. fairness. overuse. include creating market and non-market incentives and developing institutional focus. and containers for private use. and where other sources of water are not available. the water becomes a private good. such as treatment. the owner must be fairly compensated for the water.

A concern with institutions implies acceptance of the evolutionary . This in itself is an important topic that needs further study. Finally. a move to full-cost pricing often will mean increasing water rates by six or seven times (Bronsro 1998).45. discounts. water markets. Price is the most direct market incentive because users alter their market behaviour in response to their private costs. However. Price matters in developing countries as elsewhere. raising prices of piped water can actually benefit the poor. and technical assistance. Because prices are already subsidized. This issue is not discussed here and could be the subject of further investigation. and averaging —0. 1995). Other market-based direct catalysts include tax incentives for investment in water-saving technologies by industries.WATER RIGHTS AND WATER TRADE 91 Market incentives The goal of market policies is to align private incentives with social equity. This means that. However. a market-based method of signalling the opportunity cost of water is the use of water auctions. who pay very high prices to street vendors. thus reducing the need for co-ordination and control by governments. Chile was the only developing country with a comprehensive set of laws to encourage water markets (Bhattia et al. there is still a misconception in many countries that water prices do not play a significant role in determining water demand. As of 1995. it is rather the challenging task of implementing it. a 10 per cent increase in water price will lead to a 4. and tradeable water rights.3 and —0. Despite this fact. varying between —0. the problem in Muslim societies is not the lack of an appropriate culture of water demand management.7. because water bills constitute only a small fraction of total household expenditures and total industrial production costs (Cestti et al. because water is an essential commodity and poor people should be guaranteed access to basic needs. this market approach should not be left without control. 1996). enabling or obstructing. everything else being equal.5 per cent reduction in demand. price elasticities of demand are consistently found to be negative and significant. this still leaves room for manoeuvre if the poor are already paying five to ten times the official rate (Arlosoroff 1993). Ironically. Institutional focus Institutional culture can be positive or negative. rebates for low-wateruse appliances in homes. provided that they can connect to the municipal system. As shown in the previous sections. as well as loans. The cost of the next water supply project can be two to three times the cost of the current project.

R. Callaghy (1994) stresses that aid agencies must accept that change in developing countries occurs slowly and unevenly.92 KADOURI. 2:245. Emphasis on institutional reform is not new in the water development field. Shrubsole and D.27. However.). 1. 2. and Linn. J. and acceptance of much longer time frames than international financial institutions historically have dealt with. 8. The success of water pricing as a water demand management initiative will depend on promoting "a new cultural appreciation that water is a limited resource for which people of the area must pay" (NRC 1995). 4. (1992). Every Drop Counts: Proceedings of Canada's First National Conference and Trade Show on Water Conservation. (1993). in Hadith Encyclopedia. and depends upon complex factors. W. the traditional approach is characterized by impatience or. and unfair water distribution practices. DJEBBAR. Ahmad 19426.549. Al-Bukhari 2. in Hadith Encyclopedia. Urban Public Finance in Developing Countries. Adding institutional elements to the traditional economic viewpoint can address such issues by merging theory with economic history. 5. Tate (eds. Winnipeg. . Oxford University Press. the World Bank has promoted local reform and capacity building for at least thirty years. It also tends to take institutions as given and fixed. 59:28. "Water Demand Management in Global Context: A Review from the World Bank. REFERENCES Arlosoroff. Implementation of Islamic principles must go through a stepwise and lengthy process of change. Manitoba. Al-Muwatta 36. and as all-powerful enforcers of obligations and guarantors of rights. 3. New York. as suggested by Myrdal (1978) and others. analytic hurry. S. Notes 1. Canadian Water Resources Association. Cambridge. The hard work of implementation is still to come. obstacles to new ideas. Abu-Dawood 3444. numerous Muslim countries have been experiencing market failures. to use Thomas Callaghy's (1994) term. Ont. AND NEHDI nature of institutional change. Bahl. 6. F. Ahmad 524. Although Islam puts forward a coherent set of guidelines and principles for a fair and effective management of water resources. Abu-Dawood 3470." in D. absence of institutional focus.

A. University of California Press. Washington. World Bank. D. Bhattia. (1994). (1993). Washington. E.. D. (1981). "State. Indonesia." in Proceedings of the CWRA Annual Conference. Y. (1994). World Bank. . Canada. (1993). Water Resources Policies and the Urban Poor: Innovative Approaches and Policy Imperatives. Green Markets: The Economics of Sustainable Development. C. G. World Bank. (1993). Ont. (1993). Water Supply.). Choice and Context: Comparative Reflections on Reform and Intractability. Washington.C. Myrdal. Indonesia. Market Reform and the Urban Poor: Results from Jakarta. Bronsro.. R. Sabeq. Beirut. (1996). Canadian Water Resources Association. University of Virginia Press. NRC (National Research Council) (1995). O. Washington. I. pp. Water Resources Management. Washington. World Bank. Managing Water Demand by Urban Water Utilities.. Dar El-Fiqr. Water Conservation and Reallocation: Best Practice Cases in Improving Economic Efficiency and Environmental Quality." Water Resources Research 29 (7). No Shortcuts to Progress. Washington. 1965-74.C. R. M. R. (1994). Rosberg (eds. pp. National Academy Press. Al-Fiqh wa-dalalatuh [Islamic jurisprudence and its proof]. Serage El-Din. R. D. Charlottesville.C. "Rent Extracting Behavior by Multiple Agents in the Provision of Municipal Water Supply: A Study of Jakarta.C. S. 1001-38. G. Victoria. D. and Augusta. Callaghy. D. "Water Markets. D.C. L. World Bank. Cambridge. Lovei. (1978).. Policy Paper. T. Guillermo. pp. ICS Press. (1983). 71-83. World Bank. Crane. Berkeley.).WATER RIGHTS AND WATER TRADE 93 Bhattia.C. Apter and C. Damascus. B. Cestti. Washington. Sanitation. D. (1995). and Whittington. M. Political Development and the New Realism in Sub-Saharan Africa." World Development 22 (1). "Pricing Urban Water As a Scarce Resource: Lessons from Cities around the World. D. Mexico's City Water Supply: The Outlook for Sustainability. World Bank (1992). San Francisco. "Institutional economics. Cestti. T. (1992). D." in D. Panayotou. (1998). R. Zouhaili. Dar El-Machariq. World Development Report. and Environmental Sustainability: The Financing Challenge. J." Journal of Economics Issues 21. and Falkenmark.C.C.. 1992: Development and the Environment. Hyden. Fiqh essounna [Understanding the Prophet's tradition] (3d ed. and Winpenny.

on the other hand. however. starting from this general principle and according to the word of Allah that "Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good." water regulations were not established in Arabia. the tribe or the individual proprietor of the well charged a fee to all strange tribes who came to draw water for themselves or their animals (Caponera 1973). Thus. however. Before the Prophet Muhammad. preached charity as the principal virtue. Muslim sources and scholars have much to say about the ownership and transfer of water and of land tenure. It was also connected with the nature of Islam as a monotheistic religion that sought to regulate the behaviour of humans according to the commands of Allah. In the south of Arabia where water was plentiful."1 the sharing of water appeared to the 94 .9 Ownership and transfer of water and land in Islam Dante A. In either case. in the djahilyya or "period of ignorance. and its possession was the object of many bloody struggles: force made the law. Selling water was a common practice. see it! And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil shall see it. ownership was individual and was even divided up into infinitesimal allotments. The Prophet Muhammad. In general. The environment. water was scarce for the settled populations and the nomads. was not the only reason for this. inasmuch as it involved helping the unfortunate and showing detachment from material things. Caponera Because Islam arose and developed in a desert area where water resources were extremely important. Wells belonged either to an entire tribe or to an individual whose ancestors had dug it.

the genuineness. sects.123). and subsequently became in most cases a legal obligation. and to the sale and transfer of water and land."4 On the basis of these later hadiths. the Sunnites and Shi'ites."2 Furthermore. The right of thirst The right of thirst is juridically the right to take water to quench one's thirst or to water one's animals. On his advice. Othman bought the well of Ruma and made it into a waqf (a usufruct or collective property for religious purposes and public utility) for the benefit of the Muslim community). This right is recognized to both Muslims and non-Muslims.no Muslim should want for water . 283). wells. or at least the interpretations of which have been contested.7 This principle. however. Besides these fundamental revelations which are universally recognized by Muslims of all rites. water and fire"3 and. and to prevent the hoarding of water. Scholars of the two major branches of Islam.in particular issues relating to the right of thirst. to prevent any attempt to appropriate water. some authors came to believe that the Prophet had established a community of water use among men (Van Den Berg 1896. The Prophet also declared that access to water was the right of the Muslim community . It was to prevent water from being seized and hoarded by one person that the Prophet endeavoured to ensure that all members of the community had access to water.5 He also proclaimed that high-lying areas should be irrigated before lowlying areas. the right of thirst applies to water everywhere (Al-Wanscharisi 1909. According to the Sunnites. sought to adapt the principles to local exigencies arising from more complex situations .and the Holy Quran has sanctioned this with the general formula: "We made from water every living thing. may be . 75). he ordained that the quantity of water retained should not reach over the ankles. to irrigation. other principles are found in later hadiths. 75): the specific hadith related to this states. and schools. by interpreting the inner meaning of the Prophet Muhammad's prophecies. he prohibited the selling of it (Yahya ibn Adam 1896. and other water sources entailed the ownership of a certain area of bordering land or harim on which it was forbidden to dig new wells so as not to damage the quality or lower the quantity of the water in the existing ones (Yahya ibn Adam 1896. the Prophet recognized that the ownership of canals.OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER OF WATER AND LAND 95 Prophet to be an act of religious charity.6 In addition. the Prophet Muhammad declared that "Muslims have common share in three (things): grass. "Allah's Messenger forbade the sale of excess water.

313 and 322). no order of priority is observed. arts. and rainwater which. restricted public goods. but the quantity of water retained should not reach above the ankles. and whoever takes of this water must return an equivalent amount (Querry 1872.1. the Shafi'i consider that only the surplus water (that which remains standing in his fields after the ground is saturated) should be returned. upriver pieces of land are irrigated first. If there are several cultivated plots near the water. secs. or springs and rainwater. riverwater. 313). Irrigation rights of private individuals may involve acts of individual appropriation. otherwise one can irrigate as much as one likes (Khalil ibn Ishak 1878. and in Sunnite jurisprudence are subject to different rules depending whether the rights are over small rivers where the water must be stored to raise it to the required level. 16. but the Maliki hold that an upstream owner should not artificially hold back any water after he has irrigated his land.96 CAPONERA considered as being one of public utility. the right of thirst is limited to public waters (unowned waters. A distinction must be made between lakewater. the owner whose crops are most urgently in need of water takes first turn (Ahmad ibn Husain 1859. The owner of the nearest cultivated plot has first priority. sources.3). If as a result the lower-lying plots are inundated. 20. The three main categories of water (private goods. Khalil ibn Ishak 1878. Djebbar. depending on the category to which these waters belong. In the case of privately owned waters. In Shi'ite doctrine.2. however. which can be used for irrigation provided that it does not harm the community. on the other hand. no one other than the proprietor is entitled to their use. is at the disposal of anyone for irrigation. 900. and public goods) in Sunnite doctrine are outlined in the chapter by Kadouri. and Nehdi in this volume. canals. secs. 20. 19-21). For small rivers where the water must be stored to raise it to the required level (Ali ibn Muhammad 1903-8. Irrigation In Sunnite doctrine. community rights apply only to large bodies of water (Ali ibn Muhammad 1903-8. Concerning the quantity of water that the owner of an upriver plot should return to a downriver plot for irrigation. falling on land without an owner. but should allow the remainder to flow back to lowerlying lands without waiting for the water to completely saturate his fields. When water is scarce. which can be used for all irrigation purposes without any objection. wells. 69-73). he is not required to . two general principles govern irrigation rights. and wells).

wells. wells. however. the distribution of water among them depends on whether the source consists of springs. or rain. and so on). and they alone are entitled to exercise the right of irrigation (Ali ibn Muhammad 1903-8.1. 90-91. secs. secs. For other construction works (mills. When the water supply from springs. 169). 18. free of any servitude.19. Khalil ibn Ishak 1878. Irrigation canals are the joint property of the individuals who built them. provided that it was not done out of spite or carelessness (Ali ibn Muhammad 1903-8. art. or a natural watercourse.OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER OF WATER AND LAND 97 pay damages. he may have such water only if he pays for it (Khalil ibn Ishak 1878. The manner of use should be established by mutual agreement among all involved (Ibn 'Abidin 1869. The Maliki stress that a gift of surplus water to an owner whose well has caved in through no fault of his own is obligatory and is made without payment. On no account. however. The Shafi'i consider that it is always obligatory to give one's surplus water for the irrigation of the fields of others. Malik ben Anas 1911. an artificial canal. bridges. Ali ibn Muhammad 1903-8. 16. no difficulties exist. become the property of the diggers. 18. 315). if the cave-in is due to his carelessness. whether on his own land or on unoccupied land. becomes the owner of the wellwater as soon as he has finished digging it (Ali ibn Muhammad 1903-8. The Hanifi say that there is never any obligation incumbent upon the water owner. The digger of a well.19. Possession through use is also a subject of discussion (Muhammad ibn Ali 1923. The general Shi'ite principle of irrigation rights is that these belong solely to the title holder of the source of water in question.1). and the right of irrigation is exercised in proportion to the . 316: Al-Wanscharisi 1908-9. on the other hand. the consent of all coowners is required (Ali ibn Muhammad 1903-8. 321). 190-91). 319-20). secs. and rainwater is sufficient to supply everyone's requirements or when the proprietors agree on the manner of possession. however. In contrary cases. Where there are several owners. The owner of the well is the sole holder of the right of irrigation and is not required to supply water to irrigate other land (Ahmad ibn Husain 1859. can surplus springwater and rainwater be refused for the irrigation of land where crops are in danger of dying. 20. the water is divided proportionately to the size of the respective plots. 439). 285). 316: Al-Wanscharisi 1909. 285). 321) and rainwater belongs to the owner of the land on which it falls (Khalil ibn Ishak 1878. Anyone who digs out or improves a spring in unoccupied land has the exclusive right to irrigation (Ali ibn Muhammad 1903-8. 74). with due consideration to the location of the land (Querry 72. The waters of an artificial canal.

The upstream proprietor is not obliged to let the water reach the plots downstream until he has finished irrigating his own crops in the described manner. however.. except in the case of water in a well dug for the watering of livestock (Khalil ibn Ishak 1878.and the irrigation right can then be sold with the land. the owner can attach the irrigation right to another piece of land without such a right that he owns or of which he acquires ownership . 320). Transfer and sale of water ownership In Sunnite jurisprudence. reserving the use of the water to certain specific days. The Hanifi do not permit the sale of the irrigation right. In particular.for crops.. even if the crops of downstream owners suffer as a result (ibid. 441). Under Shi'ite principles. water can be sold only by weight or by measure. the right of irrigation is attached to land and follows it in all transactions involving the land. arts.98 CAPONERA funds invested (ibid.e.. Ali ibn Muhammad 1903-8. they recognize the right to sell it. i. Malik ben Anas 1911. art.10:121-22). the Maliki and Shafi'i follow the principle that the owner of a supply of water may sell and dispose of it at will. upstream landowners are entitled to first use of the water . art. The purpose of the sale must. it must be in a container. In the case of natural watercourses. 77). which can only be transferred by inheritance. 122. allow full freedom of action in regard to the disposal of the irrigation right. secs. 76. doctrines differ as to the right of disposing of the irrigation right in this case. By contrast. the water should come to trunk height. The Hanifi and Hanbali. However. on the other hand. on the other hand. Though the owner may dispose of the land without the irrigation right. the foot of the tree should be under water. 441). the plants should be covered with water. it therefore developed on a customary basis. be known and stipulated. art. on the contrary. and for date palms. 17. only allow the sale of water in receptacles (Ibn 'Abidin 1869. thereby enhancing its value (Ibn 'Abidin 1869. Land ownership as it exists in Islam was mostly deter- . Land tenure and water rights Islam began with no administrative machinery. because of "the impossibility of delivering it owing to the possible immixture of extraneous substances" (Querry 1872. for trees. They also recognize the right to sell shares of irrigation time while retaining possession of the right itself and its sale or rental apart from the land (Malik ben Anas 1911. The Maliki. 16. 1220. 67). 75).

Lebanon. niewat. Muslims paid a tax called usher (tenth or tithe). or niushaa. there is no individual right of ownership. and waqf. while the landowner has the status of a quasi-owner. but cannot bequeath it by will. with the owner having the full right of disposal). however. but if there are no heirs the property goes back to the state. largely on the basis of the Byzantine concept of supreme ownership by the ruler of the state. other concepts have been developed by the various schools of law. which varied between 5 and 10 per cent of the value of the harvest according to whether the land was irrigated (either artificially or naturally) or not. the most important being: Mawat. property in the collective ownership of the entire Muslim community. Jordan. niewat. There are many different forms of collective ownership. kharaj. or niushaa are uncultivated "dead lands. This form of land ownership allows the individual only a share in the possession of the land which is owned collectively by the village or tribe. The population was divided into two categories: Muslims and non-Muslims or dhimmis. even with the permission of the sovereign. let. mortgage. which soon became to mean respectively "poll tax" as a tribute for protection and "land tax." They are considered as being in the collective ownership of the Muslim community in Arabia. and "imam. Their authority.OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER OF WATER AND LAND 99 mined by Muslim land laws. and Syria." originally the khalifa and later the sultan. Mawat. never had any legal authority or power in classical law to control the distribution of waters irrigating private land (miri property. Although the absolute power of the khalifa to make land grants out of such idle tracts is recognized. the estate can be inherited by sons although this was not allowed in the beginning. to designate the qualified representative of the community. He may sell. The Hanifi claim that there cannot be private appropriation of land without cultivation. Land taxation practices developed according to the general examples given by the Prophet. and the Maliki claim that land can be owned privately . Iraq. A system of rotation enables each person to receive a different share each year. either by granting ownership of both the soil and the waters thereon or by allocating titles to water and land separately. that is. The state has a right of supervision. Dhimmis payed two different forms of taxes: the jizya and the kharaj. The ultimate owner of miri property is the state. In practice. The validity of any transfer of such lands must be certified by the state or its agents. or give away ownership." "Muslim community" is the expression that Muslim jurists use to designate the state. as a matter of principle. does extend to water attached to miri property. which developed during the centuries following the Muslim conquest. Imams. The theory that land given for the purpose of cultivation must be cultivated by the recipient or occupant and that he must pay taxes is upheld.

as is done on all conquered lands from which the sovereign has neither expelled nor expropriated the inhabitants. the right to use water and transfer it to another user. whether or not they have converted to Islam. it follows that a permit or concession is required for any use of water. Being the property of the Muslim community. Muslim administrative authorities were responsible for all questions dealing with waters on these lands. If. and is allotted to pious foundations . The owner. schools. it is not possible to tax water in itself because it is a gift from God. Water. In fact. If all the waters are to be taken away from a group of users. large or small. In this way. In these permits. This facilitates the proper management and administration of water.100 CAPONERA with such permission provided it is developed (Malik ben Anas 1911. if a user. This is the practice in many Muslim countries. it is perfectly legitimate to tax the water service or to tax the supplying of water for different purposes. fees. In Muslim countries. so allows. It may reduce. or other financial requirements. on the basis of plans or in the public interest. and so on. Present-day practice Water resources in Islam are public property (state property or public domain). Waqf is land owned by the state. being a public property. which are temporary (from one to fifty years). the administration may do so in appropriate circumstances and against compensation. cemeteries. under certain conditions. possesses a water use permit or concession.mosques. fountains. in theory. always for legitimate purposes. fragmented water laws and inefficient water institutions have been responsible for the mismanagement of water resources. the income from which constitutes state revenues. in principle. which is the trustee for public water. . Therefore. most Muslim countries that have passed recent water legislation have declared all water to be part of the state or public domain. The transfer of water can also be handled as the water administration wishes. these lands are administered by the khalifa. but its use can. Islam imposes no restrictions on trading water. always with a permit. he may trade this water to another user. if the water administration. Kharaj or conquered lands are cultivated and productive lands on which the kharaj or land tax is levied. 15:195). The same procedure is followed with regard to the payment of water rates. large or small. the water administration may insert all the conditions it considers necessary. cannot be transferred. does not hold full title to the property but only enjoys the usufruct from it.

2. Al-Wanscharisi. caused by the discharge of untreated wastewater. Water Legislation in Selected ESCWA Countries.ll/ WP. and the religious precepts of Islam are not an obstacle to the proper management of water resources in all of its aspects. Notes 1. a permit system is needed to control pollution by setting maximum discharge levels and the standards to be maintained. Abu al-Shuja. Al-Bukhari 3. Al-Bukhari 2. The passage of water laws emphasizing the management of water resources is indeed needed in all Muslim countries. Ahmad (1909). tr. Paris.550. ESCWA. Publication E/ESCWA/ENR/1996/WG.102. (1973). In addition. Paris. tr. For example. Fehliu. Leroux.104. Dante A. L. . 3. E. Abu-Dawood 3470. 1. Leroux. The Expert Group Meeting on Water Legislation of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). E. concluded that the "integrated management and development of water is contingent upon the establishment of an effective legislative framework for an integrated approach to the regulation. Food and Agriculture Organisation. Lapierre de touche des Fetwas. water legislation is needed to control pollution of groundwater. FAO Publications 20. Keijzer. 6. Oshorog. Traite de droit public musulman. 2. held in Amman on 20 November 1996. Amar.OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER OF WATER AND LAND 101 This is because comprehensive legislation and proper institutions to enforce the law are lacking. 5. tr. Water Laws in Moslem Countries. J. Muslim 3798. Brill. Caponera. Leiden. vol. 21:30. Al-Bukhari 2. E. Amman. REFERENCES Ahmad ibn Husain. Organisation. Etude sur la legislation des eaux dans la Chebka du Mzab. al Isbahani (1859). 4. (1909). particularly in shallow aquifers. it is most important to have a comprehensive water rights administration to control all uses of water. 7. ESCWA (UN Economic and Social Council. Precis de jurisprudence musulmane selon le rite des Chafeites. Secretariat) (1996). Rome. development and management of water and other related water activities" (ESCWA 1996). Blinda. no. Ali ibn Muhammad. al Mawardi (1903-8). 99:7-8. Similarly. Mauguin. in Hadith Encyclopedia.

Querry. . Van Den Berg. (1896). rite Malekite. C. 5. Algiers. Algiers. Kitab chifa I'sadar bi arial masail al'achri [The book of thirst by Sadar]. 2. Recueil des lois concernant les musulmans Schytes. tr. Beulag. Al dorr al mokhtar [The chosen jewel]. J. E. A. F. Algiers. Imprimerie Qaddour ben-Mourad al-Turki. vol. Jourdan. vol. N. Muhammad ibn Ali. L. Yahya ibn Adam (1896). tr. al-Jundi (1878) Code musulman par Khalil. tr. Jourdan. Le Mouwatta: Livre des ventes. Pelier. vol. W. vol. 15. Leiden. al Sanusi (1923). Brill. Imprimerie Nationale. Malik ben Anas (1911). 8. A (1872).102 CAPONERA Ibn 'Abidin (1869) (1296). Paris. Seignette. A. Principes du droit musulman selon les rites d'Abou Hanifah et de Chafei. Kitab al kharadj: Le livre de l'impot fonder. Khalil ibn Ishak. Algiers. De France and Damiens.

Ideas and information provided by him appear frequently. I am responsible for all errors. Ghanbari who devoted considerable time to refereeing and editing this chapter. I am also grateful to Dr H. or more precisely in fiqh. 103 . however. The latter are grouped into shallow or "open" mines and deep or "inward" ones. It is the consensus of the fuqaha (Muslim jurists) that both surface and underground water sources are I am indebted to my colleague Mr A.10 Water markets and pricing in Iran Kazem Sadr The water market has had an important role in the provision and distribution of water since the rise of an Islamic state in Arabia and has continued performing this function as the economies of Muslim countries have developed. along with property rights over mines. Water resource ownership and utilization rights Rights to ownership of water resources are discussed in the Islamic law literature. and is discussed together with it. Water is generally considered to belong to the former group. This chapter discusses the experience of Iran with respect to the structure and behaviour of the water market and describes the innovations that have taken place in alternative forms of exchange and pricing practices before and after the Islamic Revolution. Noori Isfandiari who encouraged me to write this essay. and to the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) for providing me the opportunity to participate in the Workshop on Water Resources Management in the Islamic World.

d. if water naturally flows out of springs or through canals without anyone's effort or investment. However. Again. Investment by any share holder for the purpose of gaining access to these sources grants him private ownership of or a priority right to the use of the water that is so obtained.H. In any case. seas.H. the just and legitimate ruler. qanats .104 SADR either a common property resource (Ibn Barraj 1410 A. The water that is pumped or channelled in these ways belongs to the investor too. The flow of water through these sources may soon fall short of demand. While no one can "own" the water source itself. but gives him no claim to the river or reservoir from which the water comes. Wells. one can gain exclusive water use or withdrawal rights.H. The basis of this "preceding rule" is a hadith that states that anyone who precedes others in using a property deserves it most (Beihaqi n. depending on the nature of the source.d. the water source as such remains the common property of the community. Everybody has an equal right to withdraw water. in some cases. 4:6).. and thus no one earns exclusive or even priority rights to exploitation. however.a property of the Imam. which can be operated directly by the government or leased out to private agents (Kolaini 1388 A... Anyone who precedes others in obtaining access will obtain priority right to use the flow of water. which are alternative forms of investment for gaining access to water... 3:282) has declared consensus among the fuqaha on this point. an allocation criterion needs to be defined. Both Iranian civil law (article 155) and the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran (article 45) make the same assertion. however. because of population or economic growth. Types of rights to water sources To begin with.series of wells whose bottoms are linked by gently sloping underground canals in which water flows by gravity . the stock of the surface or underground resource remains. 6:257-58) or a part of anfal . However. Some fuqaha have offered "first come. and large rivers are all common property in Islamic law and no one can appropriate them exclusively. 1:538). 6:142. Therefore. Toosi (n. lakes. as a common property of the community. it is similarly the common property of all. first served" as a basis. the water supply from these sources usually exceeds the demand. Noori 1408 A.or channels. this priority right does not allow the user to appropriate more than he needs because the property is still commonly owned and the preceding principle does not negate the rights . are the private property of the investor. The different cases are outlined below.

H. 332). Toosi (n.d. and Abu Horairah. Toosi (n. quoting the Prophet (pbuh) to the effect that selling excess water is impermissible (Beihaqi n. intending to withdraw water.. The majority of fuqaha. Thus the majority of fuqaha hold the view that if anyone can obtain .H. then it becomes an exclusive property of the haez (the one who has contained the water) provided that in so doing he does not harm others. Toosi's verdict is based on a few hadiths in Ibn Abbas.WATER MARKETS AND PRICING IN IRAN 105 of others. the preceding privilege does not create an outright possession right. and irrigate just as much as he needs. Articles 149 and 150 of Iranian civil law recognize the same right. 38:116). then whoever is closer to the water should precede those farther away.d. Najafi (1392 A. however. However.. he is obliged to return it to its owner. Not only is the latter rule general and unconstrained. 6:151). then the investor earns private property right over the water withdrawn.d. 38:116) further adds that there is no difference of judgement among fuqaha in this case. how should it be distributed among them? Some fuqaha have suggested drawing lots. Both Imam Sadegh and Imam Mossa Ibn Jafar approve the sale either for cash or for wheat of one's share of a qanat (Al-Hurr al-Amiliyy 1403 A. and the last drops will be used by the farthest farm. 277-78. 3:282) declares that he only deserves a use permit and cannot sell the water that is in excess of his need.. Where a person digs out a well in his own farm or in arid land. give priority according to distance from the source. This procedure is also based on a hadith. or that such a transaction is not recommended.H.... none of whom can prove his priority right. If the supply of water through a commonly owned resource would not even satisfy the legitimate demand of all partners. Thus the quotations from the Prophet (pbuh) are assumed to mean that selling the water in excess of one's need prior to hiazat is not permissible. but there are also other traditions that specifically permit the exchange of the extra water. and it has been followed in many Muslim countries. 38:110) preferred this criterion over the first. the majority of fuqaha believe that he will become the sole owner of both the well and the water (Najafi 1392 A. In cases where access to a common pool of water is obtained by either drilling a well or making a canal. Needless to say. however. Others.. Jaber. The Iranian civil law (article 156) clearly states that if a stream of water is not sufficient to irrigate all adjacent land and a dispute arises among the landholders. argue that these narrations cannot limit the right of free exchange. Najafi writes that when commonly owned water is contained (in a pool or canal).H. 3:282) declares if anyone steals such water. so that farms will be irrigated one after the other. Najafi (1392 A.

which carried out the supply and distribution of private goods. and underground water reservoirs are particularly susceptible to exhaustion through overpumping. he can sell freely all or part of his lot. Governments may also sometimes need to resolve the conflicts that may arise among competing users of common water property. or both. By compensating the losers. government can interfere to determine the utilization priority. Other rules that serve the same purpose are discussed in the next section. During the early Islamic era. Government and water markets The early Islamic state One of the characteristics of an Islamic economic system is that economic activities are totally delegated neither to market organizations nor to public sector planning boards. . including water. governments can resolve the problem. the rule of "no harm" or "no overuse" will overrule freedom of the operation.106 SADR occupancy right over a stream of water channelled or pumped from a commonly owned source. In such cases. allocation. For instance. including dam reservoir construction. many participants were active in each market. Government authorities at the local or national level then will proceed according to the rules discussed earlier in pursuit of the public interest. In such cases. and this private activity is honoured and cannot be interrupted as long as it does not harm anybody. The same right is recognized in article 152 of the Iranian civil law. and their behaviour was controlled by inspectors (Sadr 1996). Thus everybody has equal right to withdrawal. This will result in depriving one beneficiary group of sufficient access to water. the two prominent economic institutions at the time of the Prophet (pbuh) and his successors were the market. and expansion of agricultural activities or rapid growth of population. and the public treasury or baitulmal. may lead to shortage of water for either or both sectors. Economic affairs are divided between the two sectors and each carries out its own provision. thus bringing it under the "no harm" rule. In fact. construction of dams in rivers usually increases the supply of both drinking and irrigation water. and distribution function. which was responsible for economic planning and establishment and operation of infrastructure investments. Government and water rights resources Water resources are common property of people and not a government domain. But the exercise of this right may lead to overuse.

could further increase consumers' satisfaction or sellers' profits (Sadr 1996. in addition to full observation of Islamic codes of contract. the price to be set must be equal to the equilibrium price under normal conditions. water supply usually exceeds demand. Regarding the criteria for price setting. governments may do so if prices are fluctuating and equilibrium cannot be restored in the market government (Rajaee 1996.WATER MARKETS AND PRICING IN IRAN 107 Sellers and buyers could freely enter or leave any market to choose the best enterprise based on available information. such as Africa and Asia. 57-98). contributed to an efficient exchange in the market. then nobody is permitted to interfere by setting prices. Because the rationing methods are suggested by the community members themselves. the most reliable and accessible means of exchange is water itself. On the basis of this early practice. People have settled around rivers and springs to be able to make a living in dry climates." a price that will be determined in the market if the rules of sharia are operative and the market is in the normal condition (Khomeini 1989. Early Islam likewise set precedents for prevention of hoarding. or tariffs further facilitated trade. The rise of the water market In many parts of the world.H. and imposition of external costs on neighbouring operators. The absence of quotas. because it can be used to produce any crop. because of the rise of population. at later stages of growth.seems to have arisen that if the market is behaving well. and water usually comes to be rationed through the guidance of the community's norms and customs. for example Iran . whose size depends on the supply of water. in growing human societies when demand exceeds supply. 213). if set. 4:23). and lead to legitimate devices for water distribution. income.188). the demand for water increases and eventually exceeds the supply. Over time. In the initial stages of development of such communities. This criterion is usually called "the likeness value" in ihe fiqh literature (Toosi 1404 A. which. and a variety of economic activities. because the existing sets of rules and traditions fall short of an efficient allocation. However. In some parts of the Middle East. The government's right to interfere in the market to set prices was limited. Thus the prices that were determined in the market were efficient.. a general agreement . water has been a cause of human settlement and civilization (Issawi 1971. 4:318-19). waste of commodities or inputs. new market institutions are created. they are coherent and in conformity with the community's accepted set of rules and rights. On the other hand. no other prices. Otherwise. most fuqaha insist on a "just price.although not a consensus among the jurists . that is. customs. In such segmented water markets.

the average variable and marginal cost of offering a new extension or serving a new customer is very low. many sellers have followed an increasing-block pricing scheme (Sadr 1996).and seldom money. As a result. group or communal organizations for public goods. The cases that have been reported by Safinejad (1985. This monopoly situation and the high cost of arbitrage among consumers tempt sellers to indulge in price discrimination. This phenomenon. it is natural that these crops would serve as means of exchange in the market for water. The media of exchange. as mentioned earlier. Recently. no other supplier can compete with the one who is already in the market. in their reports. He anticipates the formation of markets for private goods. The share of initial fixed investment for provision of these services is high and that of variable costs is low. realizing that the demand for water is inelastic. Buchanan (1968) foresees variable but continuous types of organizations supplying or allocating public and private goods. may have caused the impression that water has not been a commodity and has not been sold or bought in the market. water is a commodity for which all three types of organization have been used.food and water . but in Muslim countries. and government takeover of the pure public goods (Buchanan 1968). Monopoly and government supervision In many economies. transactions in kind rather than in cash. Thus water is sold at different prices to urban consumers. because it can be considered as a private good at some times and a public one at others. Another type of discrimination is to reduce prices as the quantity purchased increases and so to encourage the customer to buy more. recognizes the market institution for water transactions. at times. sellers are able. His analysis is based upon the external decision-making cost of providing these commodities (Buchanan and Tullock 1971). and telephone service tends toward a natural monopoly structure. Many public firms and group organizations have been formed to carry on the same function. The legal system of rights in Islam. to practice perfect discrimination using both techniques . His prediction has been validated in many societies. 1996) and other anthropologists present the evidence. electricity. industrialists. Private and public water supply The market is not the only institution that manages the supply and demand of goods and services in communities. and farmers.108 SADR where 80 per cent of the land under cultivation is used for wheat and barley. water. Finally. that is. the market for gas. are the staples .

regional water agencies were required to charge for the distributed water enough to cover their average expenses. after the enactment of the Nationalization of Water Law. 392). Later. During the summer season. and whatever is left is allocated to the distant villages. The irrigation water must be priced on the basis of average variable cost and depreciation as before. The rest of the country depends on underground water drawn up from qanats. Since 1943. in the summer. From 15 November until 5 June. the flow of water in many rivers declines so that villages that have appropriated water rights have priority to use the water. river water is also distributed according to an old tradition: some counties have appropriated rights. near Meshed in northeastern Iran. the village of Toroq. withdrawal of water is unlimited. which should include variable costs of maintenance and the fixed cost of depreciation and interest (Ministry of Energy 1994. and others must pay for it.WATER MARKETS AND PRICING IN IRAN 109 together. Surface water Rivers are used by farm operators on the basis of proximity (article 156 of the civil law). regional water organizations were established that monitored dams in each region and distributed water among villages. Water pricing practices in Iran In Iran. 16-21). However. provision and management of surface water has been officially controlled by a governmental water agency (Ministry of Energy 1994. As of 1968. The procedure that is approved by the Ministry of Energy for agricultural water charges as of 1990 is as follows. is irrigated after the villages that lie closer to the local river. the same law was revised. As Lampton (1969) reports. but interest is not included. water can be charged for by the farm size and the type of crop (Ministry of Energy 1994. In 1982. From Jadjrood. where the villages located close to rivers use as much water as they need. The same is the case in Kurdestan. 234-40). water is allocated to certain regions and villages. In areas where metering is difficult. extended. no one can build a dam or a floodgate in the fields through which water flows. and approved by the parliament as the Just Distribution of Water Law. However. Lampton reports that the water of Zayanderood is distributed according to practice dating from Safavid times. major rivers flow mainly in mountainous areas where surface water is the main source of irrigation. . For example. These practices lead governments to supervise the performance and price strategies of the utilities.

Monthly consumption up to 5 m3 was exempt. • The average production of crops in each region is obtained from the yearly statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture. and water use up to 25 m3 was charged at the 1995 rate. and of water transferred by a combination of the two. primary and secondary canals of dams . Similar rates are charged in other provinces.110 SADR • The average price of water withdrawn from "modern networks" . or by the farm-gate price. and the rate for water use above 46 m3 was increased by 30 per cent. water agencies determine the price of water per cubic metre (Ministry of Energy 1994. The bill states that the private sector.to ensure that low-income families have access to water for drinking. although pumped wells have recently begun to replace them. In 1996. Therefore. Using these data. the discussion here concentrates on water markets based on this type of water withdrawal. too. This bill. 295-96). the charges were increased. the rate for the block between 25 m3 and 45 m3 was increased by 25 per cent. thus a water rotation period is observed wherever this technology is used. The water of each qanat is initially divided among the share holders. indicates a policy change. It is natural that in arid regions of Iran. An increasingblock rate is charged for higher-level consumption: that for Tehran Province in 1995 is shown in table 1. In 1990. of water from traditional canals. The subscription rate for water and sewer service will be calculated and proposed by the companies' boards of trustees based upon operation and depreciation costs and go into effect upon approval by the government's Economic Council. However. Consumption of water up to five cubic metres per month is exempt from any charges . This reversed the policy of previous years. the banks. This period is naturally shorter in spring and summer than in other sea- . municipal water and sewer companies were established after approval of the corresponding bill by the parliament. if there is one.that is. Underground water Qanats have been the main technology for withdrawal of water from underground reservoirs. types of exchanges. water utilization rights. and the municipalities can participate in the investment and management of these plants. 1 per cent. which will be operated as companies and according to the Trade Law. and religious obligations. and pricing practices are all associated with qanats. health care. 2 per cent. which clearly lays down the legal foundation for private sector participation in urban water affairs. In 1998. the tariff for commercial and industrial use of water was set higher than for residential consumption. The value of each crop is measured either by the guaranteed price.is 3 per cent of the total revenue of the crops planted.

000 rials in 1997. before a field is irrigated. Thus the market for two types of jobs has arisen. training skilled technicians for both maintaining qanats in operation and distributing the water among many farmers without loss. payment in cash as well as in kind has become customary. sons because of higher evapo-transpiration and consumption use of crops. the holders of the water rights must then approve the choice by majority vote (Safinejad 1985). over time. by extending the rotation from eight to nine days (Safinejad 1985). any particular field is irrigated every fourteen days in summer and every twenty-one days in other seasons. because he can manipulate everybody's lot. In a village in Gonabad. most frequently in the form of a share of water. the period between irrigations is increased from sixteen to seventeen days and in Ghaylen from seventeen to eighteen days and once again.WATER MARKETS AND PRICING IN IRAN 111 Table 1 Increasing-block charges in Tehran Province. In a village in Yazd Province (central Iran). In addition. a US$l = 4. The second requires a talent for adopting a distribution scheme by which water loss would be minimum. the distributor must be trusted by all. to nominate a head distributor. a qanat was ruined by a major flood and its repair was very costly for the poor peasant owners. the additional day of water is paid for dredging (Yazdani 1985). Over time. The value put on this job has resulted in alternative forms of group decision-making to select the distributors. The common feature in all forms is that an irrigation task force is chosen by the holders of the water rights. requiring knowledge of building and dredging qanats. the four-member group of distributors were paid a wage that was equal to 18. 1994 (in rials" per cubic metre. that is. consumption blocks are in cubic metres) 5-10 15 11-15 25 16-20 30 21-30 36 31-40 67 41-50 100 51-60 133 61-70 168 70+ 300 Source: Ministry of Energy. The first is highly technical. The dredger's wage is generally paid in kind. In another village in Gonabad. Division of qanat water among one or more villages that are quite far from each other (Yazdani 1985) has necessitated. in a village of Tafresh. or day. The landlord proposed a deal: he would pay the reconstruction cost in return for one day of water in each rotation.5 hours of water that they could use on their farms or sell (Safinejad 1996). In a village of Ferdous as in other parts of the country. Payment for dredging is made by adding one share. Office of Urban Water and Sewers. Once. and "paying" this extra day to the dredger. water . however. in the northeast.

the fenjan. A supervision charge can be levied based on a percentage of the crop price (table 2). as the economy grows. At present. and in a rural community of Yazd in 1978. 0. Eventually a Table 2 Percentages of crop prices authorized to be charged by the Ministry of Energy for water supervision Wheat Rice Oranges. Office of Water Affairs.8 0. the water distribution task is handled by existing norms and traditions.6 0. However. The charges are calculated for each region and their equivalent cash value is collected. for each fenjan of water.85 1. the cash valuation of water is so common that the Statistics Department of the Agricultural Ministry can easily collect water price information in different parts of the country. This procedure further validates our hypothesis that. in total. the private sector is quite active in extracting water from underground resources. the unit of value is the staple food or the water itself because this medium of exchange can accelerate transactions more than others. in rural communities of Iran. as the market organization is formed. in the initial stages of community development. As described previously. Initially. In 1971. in this case in the local unit. This information is used to calculate the average cost of crop production and suggest a guaranteed price for wheat and other supported crops to the government. every joraeh of water cost one thousand rials and.5 .0 0. water share holders paid 2. transactions will be in kind initially and in cash after the community undergoes the final stages of development. dates. The same price was charged in another village in 1976. The Just Water Distribution Law authorizes the Ministry of Energy to supervise withdrawal activities from underground pools. Eventually. Today.0125 at 1997 rates) were collected for both dredging and distribution. hence. Many underground aquifers are now under stress and further well drilling is forbidden. and vegetables Pistachios and almonds Fruit trees Other Source: Ministry of Energy.a device for measuring water use. fifty rials (US$. As described earlier.25 0.6 million rials (US$650) (Safinejad 1996). wells are replacing qanats because the cost and time for construction are lower than for qanats. overpumping of water. this advantage has caused excavation of too many wells and. markets for water will be established.112 SADR was distributed by a "water clock" .

Assonan-ul-kobm [The great (prophetic) traditions]. Conclusions Despite the fact that water is a pious commodity in Islamic culture and its natural sources are owned in common under Islamic law. transfer. Overhead investments for the provision and preservation of water will be carried out by the public sector but transfer and distribution of water will be carried out by the private sector. The water market seems to have undergone such development in Iran.WATER MARKETS AND PRICING IN IRAN 113 monetary numeraire will be adopted as trade expands in the economy. the price that will be determined can be expected to be efficient. .d. If Islamic rules and values prevail in the market.). what is recommended here is co-ordination between the public and private sectors for handling water-related activities. But in the early Islamic state. the market has played an important role in demand and supply management of water since the rise of the Islamic state in Arabia. The Calculus of Consent. Rand McNally. whose various organizational forms have been observed throughout the Muslim countries. Daral Maarefa. dam construction and water reservoir developments were financed by the baitulmal. REFERENCES Beihaqi. J. Chicago. Instead. Utilities tend toward a monopoly structure if both provision and distribution of service are entrusted to the market.private and public .initiated and directed water supply. This price will serve as a norm for the water that is provided and sold by the public sector. and the latter's price should cover the average total cost of operation. Buchanan. No discrimination in water pricing should be used in practice. The system of property rights in Islam allows those who spend effort and expense to withdraw water from a commonly owned source to secure private possession rights. G. Beirut. and distribution activities. provided that the rights of other users are preserved. University of Michigan Press. This proposal is consistent with the legal system of Islam and management of water supply and demand in Iran. The Demand and Supply of Public Goods. Neither Islamic jurisprudence nor economic logic justifies privatization of the whole water sector. These two institutions . J. This recognition provides the opportunity for the exchange of water with other goods. Buchanan. formation of a water market. Ann Arbor. (1971). (1968). that is. Ahmad Ibn Hussain (n. and Tullock.

H.).d. Mostadrak-ul-wasael [The ways of understanding]. vol. Al mabsout fee feqeh-el-imamiah [A detailed account of the jurisprudence of the Imams]. Dar-ul-Kotobel-Islamia. .). Saad-ud-Deen (1410 A. Khomeini. "Ghaymat gozari" [Price setting in Islamic economics]. Noori. Tehran. Kazem (1996). Beirut. Dar Ehia Attorath-ul-Arabi. Oxford University Press. 1. Addar-ul-Islami. Iran.H. Ismaeilian. Beirut. Mashhad. Mohammad Hasan (1392 A." Water and Development 4 (3). The Characteristics of the Southern Khorasan Qanats and Their Water Distribution.H. Mohammad (1404 A. Ehia Attorath-ul-Arabi. London. S. Lampton. A Study of the Economic and Social Effects of Changing Water Rotation Period. "Water Price Setting: The Efficiency and Equity Considerations. (n. Mohammad (1388 A. Water and Electricity Legislations: From the Beginning up to 1993. Islamic Research Foundation. (1996). (ed.H. Ibn Barraj. Beirut. Rajaee. Yazdani. Toosi. Mirza Hasan (1408 A. Ketabul beia [The book of choosing a successor]. Safinejad.H. The economic history of Iran: 1800-1914. Ministry of Energy. Tehran. 98-110. Jawaher-ul-kalam [The jewels of speech].). Wasaelueshiah [Methods of the Shi'a]. Qum.). University of Chicago Press. Chicago. Kazem (1996). Sadr. Alul Beit. Tehran. Darul Ketab Al Islamiah. 3. Qum.). Maktabat-ul-mortadawi. Tehran. "Financing the Traditional Farm Irrigation by Qanats.)." Water and Development 4 (3).). thesis. International Seminar on Geography.S. Mashhad. Attebyan fee tafseer-el-Quran [Clarity in the interpretation of the Quran]. Ministry of Energy (1994). Javad (1985). International Seminar on Geography. Lotfollah (1985). Iran.H. Roohulla (1989). C. Ann (1969). Islamic Research Foundation. M. Landlord and Peasant in Persia. Jawaher-u-fegh [The Jewel of the fiqh]. Alkafi [The sufficer]. Mofeed University.) (1971). Qum. vol. Kolaini.114 SADR Al-Hurr al-Amiliyy (1403 A. pp. Issawi. pp. Najafi. 44-53.

water is rapidly becoming the key development issue in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).2 per cent versus 2. exacerbated by an odour problem. during the exceptionally warm summer of 1998. some of the poor pay a very high price in Jordan. Even under normal weather conditions.informal settlements in cities all over the region are burgeoning. An informal 115 .11 Intersectoral water markets in the Middle East and North Africa Naser I. The natural aridity of much of the region coupled with high population growth and urbanization is creating severe inequities.3. Because the urban growth rate of less-developed Muslim countries (LDMCs) in the MENA is higher than the overall average for all less-developed countries (LDCs) . However. on average. Many of the community residents rely on informal supplies of water sold by private vendors. in Jordan. either because they were unplanned or because of legal or political restrictions imposed on the utilities. Faruqui As the introduction to this volume discusses. The urban or peri-urban communities are rarely served by public utilities. these families pay ten to twenty times more per unit than residents receiving piped water service up to one hundred times in some municipalities (Bhattia and Falkenmark 1993). the city of Amman suffered a severe water shortage. and the black-market price of water delivered by truck tankers reached US$14 per cubic metre (Bino and Al-Beiruti 1998).9 per cent for 1995-2015 . The public was forced to buy water from vendors. For LDCs. A literature search for prices paid by the unserved urban poor in Muslim countries revealed almost no data available on the topic.

and the primary water use right in Islam.four times the rate paid by the served customers. cited in Bhattia et al. even with recycling. although some water can be saved through domestic conservation practices. The topic of water and equity in MENA countries requires more investigation through methodical. forgotten settlements that they are ignored by mainstream researchers. given the current rate of urbanization. so will the demands of industry as MENA countries begin to industrialize. Therefore. an adjoining country (Abderrahman. followed by industrial needs and finally by agriculture. Even with low tariffs.116 FARUQUI survey (conducted during an International Development Research Centre [IDRC] trip to Amman in December 1998) in the Al Hussein refugee camp in Amman found that residents who were not connected to the municipal water system were buying water from their connected neighbours for prices ranging up to US$2 per cubic metre . unserved residents spend up to 25 per cent of their income on water. the amount is limited because people in the MENA already use water very carefully. Likewise. including raising tariffs. 10 per cent to the domestic sector. Domestic demand is growing and. What will be the mechanism of this intersectoral transfer? Many recommend allowing the market to reallocate the water. However. formal studies . 6). Rapidly growing populations mean that that more water will have to be allocated for domestic purposes. the water will have to come from agriculture. This is higher than the maximum theoretical cost of US$1. 1995. and an unchanging combined industrial-domestic water consumption rate of 342 litres per capita per day (LPCD). this volume). For instance. . by 2030. Where will water on this scale come from? Although the ratio varies from country to country. an IDRC-supported urban water evaluation in Jakarta found that in some cases. Clearly the current situation is inequitable. How can this situation be addressed? To optimize the available water within urban areas. is being compromised. there is no reason to believe that the prices paid by the unserved urban poor are any less in MENA countries than in those countries for which information is available.80 per cubic metre for desalinizing seawater and distributing it in Saudi Arabia. often unpleasant. that of quenching thirst (haq al shafa). However. Eventually. the value of water is at least ten times higher in urban areas than it is in agriculture (Gibbons. typically water is allocated in the MENA as 10 per cent to industry. and 80 per cent to agriculture. whose tariff includes sanitation. the first priority in water allocation will always be for domestic-urban uses. 80 per cent of Israeli freshwater will be used in cities and industry and 20 per cent in agriculture (Lundqvist and Gleick 1997).it is precisely because the unserved poor live in informal. Israel's policy is that as urban populations grow. municipalities will have to undertake a range of demand management options.

the government paid farmers US$120 per hectare for not planting vegetables and annual crops in 1991. and Nehdi in this volume. such as Iran and Saudi Arabia. The city of La Serena met its growing water demand by buying water from farmers at a much lower cost than the alternative of contributing to the construction of the proposed Puclara dam. Water markets in Islam There is no point to examining the feasibility of water markets as a tool for more equitable water management in the MENA. some countries. But in general.14 per cubic metre. or public goods is discussed by Kadouri. it is evident that it can be traded either within or . to supply critical urban and agricultural uses (Bhattia and Falkenmark. have constitutions based upon sharia (Islamic jurisprudence). Islam's impact varies by country. However. the issue of food security. Islam exerts a great influence over the three hundred million Muslims of the region. a clear case of trading established water rights (Shatanawi and AlJayyousi 1995). For example. during a drought period. which has now been postponed indefinitely (Postel 1995). Djebbar. the prerequisites required for sustainable water markets. The permissibility of water markets in Islam depends on whether the following prerequisites of water markets are religiously acceptable: that individuals or groups hold specific rights to water. restricted private goods. 1993). and the need to take an integrated water management approach. The categorization of water in Islam into private goods.a sociocultural force that shapes belief and policy in the region? This chapter examines these issues by discussing the permissibility of markets in Islam. sustainable. and sold. representing 25 per cent more profit than they could get by planting crops. whereas others. Chile's Water Law also allows transfers. In Jordan. Admittedly. can intersectoral water reallocation through markets be carried out in equitable. and economically feasible ways across the MENA region and be compatible with Islam . problems associated with unregulated markets.INTERSECTORAL WATER MARKETS 117 Regulated water markets have been successful in developed countries such as Chile and the United States. In 1991. if they are incompatible with Islam. and if water can be priced to recover costs. As noted in that chapter.10 per cubic metre. The water was then sold at an average price of US$0. private goods and restricted private goods can be owned and sold. and that they may recover the costs of trading their water rights to others. that they may transfer those rights. such as Tunisia. have become quite Westernized. the California Water Bank purchased water from farmers for about US$0.

for domestic animal watering.although this is not discussed at length in Islamic sources . several Australian states. As noted. necessary prerequisites include appropriate legal frameworks.countries such as Saudi Arabia commonly allocate water to industrial and recreation uses after domestic. can and should interfere to determine the utilization priority of water. Mexico.but do they elsewhere? At a minimum. In addition to Chile and the United States. Prerequisites for water markets In parts of the United States. As discussed by Abderrahman (this volume) . the explicit primacy of domestic and animal watering demand over irrigation makes this reallocation easier to support in Muslim countries than in nonMuslim countries. animal watering. economic policies. that Islam allows for both private and public water markets. for agriculture (Mallat 1995). charging a tariff to recover the costs of providing potable water is not only permissible. especially agriculture. that is. and infrastructure. as society evolves from rural and agrarian to urban and industrial. the prerequisites for effective and equitable water markets exist .both historically. institutions. and in Chile. reallocation not only is permissible. In both Iran and Saudi Arabia. It is clear. Obviously. tradeable .118 FARUQUI across sectors. then. Within sectors. are intersectoral water markets to reallocate water desirable in an Islamic context? This question can be answered by examining Islamic water law in terms of utilization priority. the state. as the population grows and settlement patterns change. Islamic scholars accept that water in Islamic societies was traditionally prioritized as follows: first. second. and agricultural needs have been satisfied. there must first be clear property rights to water separate from land ownership. water has been sold in Muslim countries such as Iran . it is recognized in the law. in Persia after the advent of Islam. and recently. In such a case. in recent years. The legal system in Islam recognizes the market institution for water transactions. Before water markets are established for reallocation. but also is necessary to preserve equity and the primacy of the right to quench thirst. and third. The question then becomes. and the charging of tariffs to recover costs for most categories of water. regulatory mechanisms. and those rights must be tradeable. In theory. which ideally acts as the representative of the people and protects the weak. for domestic purposes (the right to quench thirst and the right and requirement to be clean). clear. and Peru have established property rights to water (Chaudhuri 1996). in Iran after the Islamic Revolution.

this is not necessarily explicit in the secular legislation of some MENA countries. excessive government interference in the market. grass. distribution networks ."5 The fulfilment of shura (the duty of rulers to consult their peoples) was required even of the Prophet Muhammad. "(Amongst the) three persons whom Allah will not look at on the Day of Resurrection. is required in Islam . Raising prices for water in urban areas will help simultaneously to re- . including polluting or degrading clean water .. It may be possible for traditional water-sharing arrangements.. institutions that can act as intermediaries between buyers and sellers to enforce fair trading are essential.such as the Yemeni system of water sharing through "spate" irrigation (small dams built during the flood season in communal co-operation) .and allocation mechanisms to evolve into water rights networks. and to allow prices to rise. [is] a man [who] possessed superfluous water on a way. some level of government deregulation may be necessary to allow private sector institutions to formally enter the water market. legislation protecting the environment or third-party water rights from excessive withdrawals must be in place. separate from land. including plants and animals. "there is a reward for serving any animate (living) being."2 The Majalla code identified harim as protected areas . In fact.where it is forbidden to dig a well that would endanger the quality or water supply of an existing source.INTERSECTORAL WATER MARKETS 119 private property rights to water. even acting as substitutes for formal legal action and serving as pressure groups to enhance the efficiency of the bureaucracy. The recent academic concept of community-based resource management and participatory development has always existed in Islam. Also. and he withheld it from travellers. nor will he purify them."1 and "He who digs a well in the desert .for instance. is frowned upon. the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) states. and fire (wood)"4 implies the right to share in the management of these three common property resources. Protection of the environment and the water rights of others.the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said. cannot prevent the animals from slaking their thirst at this well. water. The Prophet's (pbuh) statement that "Muslims have common share in three (things). although a just ruler regulating the affairs of state to protect the weak is important in Islam. Also. are allowable in Islam. Water user associations may be able to play a crucial role. and theirs shall be a severe punishment."3 In addition. the Quran describes believers as those "who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation. including the fixing of prices. In concert with regulation to ensure fair trading. However. Islam makes one liable for withholding or misusing water.

in which wealth redistribution duties (zakaat) are central and compulsory for every Muslim whose wealth qualifies. was allowed to increase urban tariffs above the level of long-term marginal costs. a realistic water price. Second. In Iran. Where does this leave the poor? First. including both capital and depreciation costs. only 30 per cent of the urban population and 10 per cent of the rural population had access to safe water. the very title of which makes the rationale for full-cost pricing selfevident. In the Ivory Coast in 1974. would be less than they currently pay. a 1990 act allows for full (average) cost recovery.five thousand litres per household per month. tariffs can be structured to supply everyone with a lifeline water volume. irrigation water must be sold on the basis of average cost (comprising both operation and maintenance costs and capital depreciation). and this argument finds sympathy in Islam. especially for industrial customers (Bhattia et al. As a result of this bill. including a surcharge for wastewater treatment. but in Israel. not water. For urban areas. Not all . based on an assumed average of six persons per household (Sadr. and the tariff for commercial and industrial use was set higher than for residential consumption. Finally. as is done in Iran. an infrastructure system must be in place to transfer water from buyers to sellers. but higher than that for the serviced urban residents.water rates in LDCs are typically less than one-sixth the full cost of water provision (Bronsro 1998). reversing an earlier policy (Sadr. this volume): this approaches the basic human-need standard of 50 LPCD proposed by Lundqvist and Gleick (1997). where about the first 30 LPCD is provided to all households . 72 per cent of the urban population and 80 per cent of the rural population (through water points) had access to safe water. tariffs were increased by 25-30 per cent where household monthly consumption exceeded 45 cubic metre. Finally. the price. The actual full cost of providing water services will vary from country to country. where the law is based upon sharia. without inordinate transaction costs. Full-cost pricing is allowable in Islam.120 FARUQUI duce the demand of served customers and to provide an economic incentive for intersectoral water markets. which would allow for reinvestment into the system to serve the unserved poor. There is ample room to raise prices for the served middle and upper classes . this volume). in almost every MENA city. the Societe de Distribution d'Eau de la Cote d'lvoire (SODECI). the only country in the MENA where water is charged at full cost in urban areas. by 1989. The reason for this improvement was that the private water company. many economists suggest that governments should subsidize income. in 1996. 1995). is US$1 per cubic metre. This requirement is enshrined in the 1982 Just Distribution of Water Law.

or in other developing countries. if not intersectoral at least intrasectoral. who cannot sink wells as deep as richer farmers. such as Pakistan. the lack of influence or power of the poor is a common thread in both Muslim and nonMuslim countries. Thus. is happening in every MENA city. in turn. Problems and obstacles The problem is. The following discussion illustrates challenges facing equitable and effective development of water markets. Brazil.INTERSECTORAL WATER MARKETS 121 MENA countries yet have such an infrastructure system in place. On the other hand. So also do some non-MENA Muslim countries. State-subsidized cheap electricity has resulted in overpumping. such as weak institutions and inequitable access to land and water rights. This has not prevented unregulated intersectoral water markets from springing up in countries such as Bangladesh. have lost access to groundwater. that the necessary preconditions for the establishment of water markets do not exist in many MENA countries. especially in the Highlands and Southern Ghors. has meant that poorer farmers. to help small farmers by exerting effective pressure on the government and bringing about favourable changes both in policy and services provided (Shatanawi and Al-Jayyousi 1995). However. are selling groundwater to richer farmers or to peri-urban residents for domestic use. Lower groundwater tables will eventually result in streams that are recharged by the groundwater running dry. but some do. and India. . Many authoritarian regimes in Muslim countries certainly do not follow the concept of shura by allowing citizens to participate in the planning of projects that affect them. One problem is that lack of government regulation has often resulted in both third-party effects and externalities. of course. some water trading. This. Furthermore. and in MENA countries such as Jordan and Palestine. and falling groundwater tables. The obstacles to establishing these necessary preconditions transcend water management and include some of the most intractable and difficult development challenges in many countries. In fact. poor farmers in Bihar. such as Jordan. despite what Islam may say about the need to ensure equity for the weaker or poorer members of a society. the wealthy are liable to have excessive influence on government policies. A study that examined the potential for water markets in Jordan recommended strengthening water users' associations. India. excessive withdrawals in many locations. such unplanned and unregulated markets harm third-party interests or the environment.

For instance. None of these problems are posed by Islam. including water tariffs that do not cover the cost of wastewater treatment. Food security Reducing the amount of freshwater available for agriculture understandably raises concerns about national food availability and the socioeconomic impact on poor farmers and farm workers. This reduction of freshwater for agriculture will be accompanied by an expansion of wastewater treatment so that 80 per cent of urban wastewater will be treated and recycled back to agriculture . some of the necessary legal frameworks. Furthermore. An intersectoral transfer policy must be accompanied by increasing urban wastewater treatment. Israel plans to reduce its total freshwater volume allocated to agriculture from 70 per cent in 1996 to 20 per cent by 2030 . as well as the upper class in urban areas. These are valid concerns about which two points can be made. as cited in Lundqvist and Gleick 1997. 37). not less of it. and the notion . it is suggested that agriculture should receive water of a different quality. There are several reasons for this. the amount of freshwater left over for agriculture may be even less than 20 per cent if Israel eventually allocates some portions of the freshwater currently under its control to its neighbours so as to achieve a peace agreement (Shuval. Israel will have essentially the same amount of water for agriculture as it has at present. Finally. they are common to almost all developing countries. according to Islam.122 FARUQUI Large farmers. Despite its permissibility in Islam. In fact. the unsustainability of centralized and highly mechanized plants imported from developed countries. protection of third parties and the environment. for example. Except in Israel and a few other countries such as Tunisia. In some cases. raising water tariffs in this environment is a significant challenge. were developed in Islamic law before they were appeared in modern Western law.in fact. and recycling the same water back to agriculture. so as to ensure that they were equitable. tend to have very strong lobbies for their interests. First. changes in water quality. particularly if the service provided is poor. only a small percentage of wastewater is treated and reused in the MENA. and so forth requires very sophisticated legal and monitoring systems that do not yet exist in most MENA countries. Rather. laws exist but the government ability to monitor or overcome corruption is weak.as a result. the regulation of externalities related to withdrawals. consumption. the prerequisites discussed earlier would all be required before water markets for reallocation could be introduced. in particular.

not agriculture. The water scarcity benchmark level of 1. Tunisia. according to a fatwa of the council of Leading Islamic Scholars in Saudi Arabia. tractor-cultivated crops (UNDP. small-scale. When so little water is available. because safe reuse depends on adequate treatment. Treatment plants will consist largely of decentralized low-cost. As noted. the concept of food self-sufficiency must give way to national food security (Lundqvist and Gleick 1997). The second point to be made regarding food security is that in hard reality. which have high economic and nutritional value. and low-mechanical content-activated sludge in Egypt.000 cubic metres per person per year (m3/p/y) includes the amount necessary for food self-sufficiency (Lundqvist and Gleick 1997). provided that public health is protected. aquatic wetlands using water lettuce or duckweed in the Jordan Valley and Morocco. and in refineries. and Yemen will all have much less than this. should be reserved for domestic production of fresh vegetables. Some of this production may come from the growing practice of urban agriculture intensive vegetable production may use as little as 20 per cent of the water and 17 per cent of the land. natural waste treatment systems. required for rural. and Jordan. and imports of "virtual water" through the purchase of foods and products produced where it is most efficient. Saudi Arabia is currently reusing about 20 per cent of its wastewater for irrigating agricultural crops and landscape plants. cited in Lundqvist and Gleick 1997. expanding wastewater reuse in agriculture is probably the single most important water demand management policy initiative in the MENA. the first priority must be water for drinking and for domestic purposes. Such urban gar- . 25). trickling filters for home gardens in the low-density hill settlements surrounding Jerusalem. This will require higher water tariffs and a major expansion of wastewater treatment. and that freshwater will increasingly be taken away from agriculture. 25 m3/p/y. Given that people in the Middle East are already largely frugal in their water use. for reuse on or near site. In addition to Israel. Shuval (cited in Lundqvist and Gleick 1997) suggests that a small amount of fresh water. or regional food self-sufficiency. The IDRC is currently pilot-testing grey-water treatment using on-site. As a result. reuse of wastewater is allowable in Islam for virtually any purpose. the average water availability in the MENA will be 725 m3/p/y by 2025. most MENA countries simply do not have sufficient water for national food self-sufficiency in any case. it is vital that virtually every drop of wastewater receive at least some treatment. Also. and the latter does not have a policy of food self-sufficiency but tries to ensure food security by annual negotiations with suppliers of cereals. however. water-scarce countries such as Botswana have already accepted this fact. As Abderrahman notes in this volume.INTERSECTORAL WATER MARKETS 123 that wastewater reuse is against Islam.

increasingly and eventually exclusively. most other crops in arid countries will have to be grown. these allocations will have to be reviewed periodically. This. When not enough water is available for all potential uses. with treated wastewater. Other resource sectors. the relative marginal benefits to the national economy (including the effect on the poor) of additional investment in irrigation must be carefully compared to the benefits of investment in the urban sector. A few macro-level plans have been developed . and allocation priorities are not set only by those who are most powerful. A good example of the need for macro-level modelling is provided by a recent World Bank study in Algeria. and how much each should receive. as conditions in a country change. macrolevel modelling. Some will lose their water. and the alternative employment opportunities. Integrated water resources management Intersectoral transfers are not an end in themselves. and decisions made at the lowest appropriate level. hard choices must be made about which sectors. The process itself will probably be iterative. Among other components. the short. and co-operation between government departments. activities. so that all affected stake-holders have a voice. The allocation process will have to begin at the local level. but rather a necessary tool to balance the benefits flowing from water across a society. have well-developed methodologies to relate sectoral and macro plans. In such a case. MENA governments have to view water as a precious national resource and put in place a process to allocate water using an integrated water management approach that acknowledges the interdependence of all water issues. But equity implications across regions and sectors can only be analysed at a national level.124 FARUQUI den vegetables will usually be cheaper for the poor than imported ones. and this will lead to inequities. water management should be decentralized. such as energy. which found that a proposed irrigation project was in direct competition for the same water with another proposed project for urban water supply (Rogers 1993). in turn. Furthermore. requires estimates of the opportunity cost of different water qualities.and long-term effects of dislocating small-scale farmers and farm workers. at least in the short term. and the renewal of permits will be subject to the government's periodic assessment of the best overall use of water in the country. Where feasible. this process requires multi-stake-holder decision-making. and regions should receive water. but once allocations for a given basin are determined. Countries such as Israel are moving toward a system where withdrawal permits are granted only on a short-term basis. if demands from various sectors and regions are fed into a national allocation process.

but they have been used only sporadically (Rogers 1993). Also. Many. transferring 8 units from agriculture requires only a 10 per cent increase in sectoral efficiency. This must be accompanied by expanded wastewater treatment and reuse in agriculture. but nearly doubles the amount available for domestic purposes: and this leaves out of account the possibility that the same volume might be returned to irrigation as treated wastewater. This requires both external and internal integration. and must have stable trading relationships. In order to purchase food grown elsewhere in the region. In fact.INTERSECTORAL WATER MARKETS 125 for water allocation. Governments need to set a vision for national water allocation. if not most. where the majority of the region's absolute poor already live. Conclusion The scarcity of water in the MENA region is becoming critical. and to regulate markets so that transfers will be slow. to urban areas. and thoughtful. and the very high rates of urbanization are pressuring governments to transfer water out of rural areas. where the unserved poor pay very high prices in informal intraurban water markets. the situation of the urban poor will further deteriorate. Thus in Africa. Along with demand management measures to optimize the available water in urban areas. it has been proven that it is not only possible to maintain agricultural production but even to increase it while reducing water use. Using the values quoted earlier. as the amount of water available to cities decreases per capita. if we assume that 100 units of renewable water are available to a country as a whole. including agriculture. nations in the MENA face the inevitable decision to move from a policy of food self-sufficiency to a policy of food security. increases in agricultural production have been achieved in Kenya (Machakos) and Niger (Keita) while reducing the use of water or reversing land degradation (Templeton and Scherr 1997). Also. intersectoral water markets have been suggested as a means to transfer freshwater from farmers in rural areas (who willingly sell it) to urban areas. trade. where most of it is used. particularly in peri-urban agri- . Alongside the inequities in access to water in rural areas is the growing inequity in urban areas. constant. demand management in rural areas is far more likely if users have an economic incentive to voluntarily trade their water use rights. especially when beginning with the low-efficiency irrigation practices common in most MENA countries. tourism. and industry. In addition to external co-operation. states must be able to earn enough foreign currency from industrial exports and tourism. this requires integrated internal policies based upon co-operation among government departments.

World Bank-Overseas Development Institute. some reallocation of freshwater from rural to urban sectors is not only allowable. Water Conservation and Reallocation: Best Practice Cases in Improving Economic Efficiency and Environmental Quality. water will flow primarily to the rich and powerful. D. Al-Bukhari 8.C. UNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme. For most categories of water. and Winpenny. and economic reforms. it is desirable. Cesti. Indeed. M. Shihab N.547. Bhatia. and Palestine." INWRDAM Newsletter 28 (October). REFERENCES Bhattia. growing unregulated markets will result in still greater inequities because. with little left for the poor and marginalized. increasingly. . MENA governments must undertake studies. institutional. Al-Bukhari 3. and Al-Beiruti. M. R. Governments must also consider providing employment opportunities to farmers and farm workers. Abu-Dawood 3470. "Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management (INWRDAM). given the very clear guidelines on the priority of water rights in Islam. institutional. 2.. and intersectoral transfers through water markets are inevitable in the MENA as well. Regulated water markets have been very successful in developed countries such as the United States and Chile. Accordingly.126 FARUQUI culture. Notes 1. D. (1995). in Hadith Encyclopedia. Lebanon. where groundwater tables have dropped alarmingly as a result of farmers selling their water to other farmers or to cities. the growing scarcity of water and its high black-market price have resulted in unregulated water markets in such MENA countries as Jordan. R. and economic measures in place can lead to unsustainable practices such as in India. Without such leadership measures. Water Resources Policies and Urban Poor: Innovative Approaches and Policy Imperatives. (1998). Washington. and Falkenmark. 5. make necessary legal.. 4. R. and establish a process incorporating integrated water management and multi-stake-holder input to thoughtfully allocate water to meet societal goals. Already.38.C. J. Joint Study. 26:38. J. 3. Water and Sanitation Currents. Bino. Al-Bukhari 5550. Unregulated markets without necessary legal. Washington. trading is permissible according to Islam. (1993).

Templeton. 19-24. S. "Waters of Strife. Peter (1997).C. Rogers. S. M. and Al-Jayyousi.. "To Sell a Resource. 88-97. 33-42. pp. D. Population Pressure and the Microeconomy of Land Management in Hills and Mountains of Developing Countries. International Food Policy Research Institute. Peter (1993). (1996)." Natural Resources Forum 10 (February). J. (1998). Allan and Chibli Mallat (eds. Chibli (1995). . Shatanawi. S. A. "Integrated Urban Water Resources Management. pp. New York. R. B. Mallat. "The quest for water use principles." in M.C. (1995).Sustaining Our Waters into the 21st Century. R. pp. Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World . "Evaluating Market-Oriented Water Policies in Jordan: A Comparative Study. Canadian Water Resources Association. pp. Lundqvist. A." Water International 20 (2). S. Postel.). B. Washington. Cambridge. and Scherr. (1997). I. 15 February 1996. Jan and Gleick. "Pricing Urban Water As a Scarce Resource: Lessons from Cities around the World. Chaudhuri. Environment and Production Technology Division. Canada. Stockholm. 35-37. Ont. O. Water in the Middle East." in Proceedings of the CWRA Annual Conference. Victoria. Stockholm Environment Institute.INTERSECTORAL WATER MARKETS 127 Bronsro. Discussion Paper 26." Down to Earth. Tauris." Water 27 (November-December). (1995).

Moore (1992) argues that in the realm of international water law. present and future water resources and uses. water cost from different sources. Conflicts have arisen over the years between riparian states with a shared water resource because of different approaches to the issue of sovereignty. no one law is universally applicable. 128 . This chapter argues that the conceptual legal framework which already exists in theory might serve in the management of shared water resources. existing legal and institutional frameworks. and legal aspects. rules and regulations of universal applicability are not realistic unless they are kept broad and flexible. and groundwater such as aquifers and ground basins. Because the characteristics of each international water resource are specific in hydrologic. on international water issues. including current laws. and users' ability to pay. institutional. that lie within the jurisdiction of two or more states. there is no universally accepted definition of equity in the division of waters between users. climatic conditions and water availability in the basin or region concerned. However. The conflict is always between upstream and downstream states.12 Management of shared waters: A comparison of international and Islamic law lyad Hussein and Odeh Al-Jayyousi International water resources include surface water such as rivers and lakes and their tributaries. Management of such shared water resources must take many factors into account.

which ascribes to upper riparian states absolute sovereignty over rivers flowing through their territory. The last theory has become the most widely advocated by the international legal community (Utton and Teclaff 1978).MANAGEMENT OF SHARED WATERS 129 International water law and practice National water policy is more likely to be influenced by a country's upstream or downstream position within a basin than by international law. The only constraint is the fear of setting unfavourable precedents in further dealings with neighbouring countries and the disapproval of the international community. • Absolute territorial integrity. In 1966. which permits use of rivers so far as no harm is done to other riparian states. The same concept was adopted by the International Law Commission (ILC) of the United Nations (UN) in 1991 in the Draft Articles on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. Traditionally. • Limited territorial sovereignty or equitable utilization theory. there are five theories governing the use of international rivers (Utton and Teclaff 1978): • Absolute territorial sovereignty (the Harmon Doctrine). which embodied this concept and adopted the notion of equitable utilization. The commission finally adopted a text containing thirty-three articles in the summer of 1994 and submitted them to the General Assembly. The main concepts and principles included in the ILC articles (ILC 1997) may be summarized as follows: The articles aim to achieve a balance between the "equitable and reasonable" utilization of an international river by any individual riparian state (article 5) on the one hand. which guarantees to lower riparian states the use of rivers in an unaltered condition. which stresses common development of rivers by all riparian states. which recognizes the existence of a community of interests among riparian states that gives rise to a series of reciprocal rights and obligations. These draft rules were reviewed by UN member states' governments and experts in the field and were reassessed in light of these comments in the 1993 and 1994 meetings of the ILC. • Limited territorial integrity. The community of interests theory recognizes that both upstream and downstream states have a legitimate interest in water resources and tries to balance their use to the mutual benefit of all parties concerned (Wilson 1996). the International Law Association (ILA) formulated the Helsinki Rules on the Uses of Waters of International Rivers. and on the other hand the desirability of . and • Drainage basin development or the community of interests theory. which approved them in May 1997 by Resolution 51/229.

The articles stress the riparian states' obligation to protect international rivers and associated ecosystems (articles 5.130 HUSSEIN AND AL-JAYYOUSI avoiding "significant harm" to other riparian states that are already using the river (article 7). or might want to use it in the future. however. no use of an international watercourse enjoys inherent priority over other uses. They oblige riparian states to co-operate in the optimal utilization and protection of the rivers that they share (article 8) and recognize that agreements between riparian states may cover the entire river basin. downstream dominance was maintained in negotiations with the British over Sudan's water usage. Sudan. The Nile Waters Agreement was reassessed and finalized in 1959. and Egypt. reads: "In the absence of agreement or custom to the contrary. . in the current issues between Jordan and Saudi Arabia involving the Rum Aquifer (Naff and Matson 1984). In July 1993. and 21). In the latter case. Kenya." Article 10. The catchment area of the Nile is shared by eight states between its source and the Mediterranean Sea: Rwanda. an agreement was reached between Egypt and Sudan that allocated the water of the Nile between these two parties." The type of issues. and to consult and cooperate on future water projects that would be mutually beneficial. The upstream states of both the Blue and White Niles are in a weak position because of political and economical instability. in utilizing an international watercourse in their territories." other riparian states' use of the waters in the basin. in the history and background of the Nile Waters Agreement (Flint 1995).8. Ethiopia. and in the case of underground resources. take all appropriate measures to prevent the causing of significant harm to other watercourse states. The leading riparian state in terms of political and physical influence over the Nile is Egypt. Tanzania. on the relationship between different kinds of uses. in the case of rivers. or only part of it (article 3)." to a "significant extent. Uganda. constraints. the agreement should not "adversely affect. and opportunities that prevail in the management of shared water resources appear clearly. During the early years of Egyptian independence. Zaire. a general agreement grounded in international law was reached by the downstream countries with the new Ethiopian government which may mark the beginning of a new era of co-operation. In 1929. The first paragraph of article 7 reads: "Watercourse states shall.20. This agreement included a clause that the upstream countries agreed not to act in a way that might harm the downstream states. It can be concluded that the riparian states of the Nile River will be looking to new developments in international water law including the ILC's study of watercourses for a way to achieve co-operation and coordination in the future.

The two countries have held discussions but no agreement has been reached. an annual yield from the Rum aquifer of 50-70 million cubic metres per year (MCM/y) was identified as an economic resource to supply Amman. and sustainable resource development. Although water may be used . International water law and Islamic water law principles Some Islamic maxims that have specific implications for water planning and management are those involving equitable and reasonable utilization. At present. ownership. and preserving the environment and ecosystem. that is. significant harm. Saudi Arabia's usage of the aquifer is much greater than Jordan's. the issue of sustainable development is complicated by the substantial exploitation of this water resource in the Tebuk region. Use of rights is governed by moral and legal regulations. long-term. the duty of consultation. Exploitation of fossil water of the Rum aquifer amounts to "drawing on capital" and it would be prudent to manage the rate and duration of this exploitation carefully and to work toward alternative. In one evaluation of alternative sources to meet long-term national demand. Waste of any kind is forbidden by Islamic law. and by Jordanian plans involving use of the aquifer.MANAGEMENT OF SHARED WATERS 131 The area of shared groundwater resources in this case study is the Rum Aquifer. free of all restrictions of ownership and conditions that in any way undermine its availability for all humankind. which stretches four hundred kilometres from near Tebuk in Saudi Arabia northward across Jordan to the northern tip of the Dead Sea. At present. The lack of a joint legal and institutional mechanism between Jordan and Saudi Arabia necessitates the adoption of a joint water agreement based on international or Islamic law principles. beneficial use of water is best viewed through the broad provisions against misuse of rights. The former require good conduct and consideration for others as well as conformity to accepted norms. Other studies approach the required yield of the Rum aquifer from a resource balance point of view and indicate that the onehundred-year safe yield would be only 110 MCM/y (Thames Water 1988). These are discussed in the following sections in relation to the main principles of international water law. above all in respect of water. people make use of rivers and lakes that are not owned just as they make use of air and light. Equitable and reasonable utilization In Islam. Thus. Muslim jurists stipulate that every individual has the right to benefit from something that is niubah. with emphasis on the ILC Articles.

the right to quench thirst. the economic and social needs of each basin state. avoidance of unnecessary waste in the utilization of the waters of the basin. the user is not free to dispose of it or to benefit from it in a manner detrimental to others. its hydrology and climate. however. Small streams or lakes are allocated in the first instance to those dwelling in the vicinity of the water source. and industrial demands. those nearer to the source take first and then those who are further away. its population. the availability of other resources. the Helsinki Rules on the Uses of the Water of International Rivers identify several factors thought to have a bearing upon equity. the water is not present in sufficient quantity to satisfy everyone's needs. the Islamic law provisions regarding the provision of surplus water to others in need strictly applies. consistent with adequate protection of the watercourse. past utilization of its waters. including the expense and labor contributed by each state. and its domestic. and • Commercial and industrial purposes. If. water rights are allocated in the following manner: • Where the water of the stream or source requires no artificial means to be extracted. Large expanses of water that present no problem in allocation of water are shared equally." The factors that should be taken into account when determining a reasonable share of basin waters for each basin state are the geography of the basin. • Domestic use. the comparative cost of alternative means of satisfying the economic and social needs of each state. Islamic law recognizes the following priorities for water use. and the degree to which the needs of . and so on: those occupying higher ground have priority over those occupying lower ground. Chapter 2 of the ILC Rules deals with equitable utilization of the waters of an international drainage basin in article 5: "Watercourse states shall in their respective territories utilize an international watercourse in an equitable and reasonable manner. • Where effort is required to make the water flow. the population dependent on the waters of the basin in each state. • Haq al shafa or shirb . • Irrigation of agricultural lands. However. In international law. an international watercourse shall be used and developed by watercourse states with a view to attaining optimal and sustainable utilization thereof and benefits therefrom. taking into account the interests of the watercourse states concerned. agricultural. including watering animals. More generally. In both cases.132 HUSSEIN AND AL-JAYYOUSI for a variety of purposes. there is no accepted definition of equity. allocation is determined on the basis of several factors. In particular.

any control of water that does not involve possession in the strictest sense that is. • Harmful practices may be tolerated only where they prevent the use of other practices that are considered to be more harmful. In this sense. Islamic law is implemented either directly by supervised application or by judicial remedy. ."1 In line with this. waters that fall under the general category of public ownership are directly supervised by the government and all provisions relating to them are implemented by government officials. and to be liable for pollution for which they are responsible. although wells and artificial springs may be claimed as private property. there is a balancing obligation upon states to be aware of the trans-boundary effects of their activities. a well-known hadith of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) states: "Don't commit any harm or injury to yourself. As discussed there. and Nehdi and by Caponera. any member of the public may seek a judicial decision to establish a water right or to protect it. Thus. pool. It is. ownership of water under international water law consistently accepts that states have the sovereign right to explore and exploit their own natural resources. and do not cause harm or injury to others. although the right of the public to benefit from mubah water is well established. the water nevertheless remains under the supervision and direct protection of the law. Significant harm and compensation In Islam. However. Ownership of water The ownership of water is addressed in the chapters in this volume by Kadouri. and • It is advisable to prevent harm rather than to provide benefits. without causing substantial injury to any other basin state. generally understood in Islamic law that. therefore. and to observance of the following principles. Islamic law gives priority to public interest. storage in a cistern or. Likewise. Therefore.is not to be regarded as ownership. Djebbar. • Harmful practices must be eradicated. the water in them is never regarded as private property until it comes into "possession" in this sense (hiyazah). Punishment for contravening these provisions is through either a jail term or a fine .but more often through a fine. or by any other means that contains the water within well-defined bounds .MANAGEMENT OF SHARED WATERS 133 a basin state may be satisfied. Such claims may be instituted against a person claiming private ownership of water or a member of the public preventing him from use of water.

"2 In the same way. Preserving the environment and ecosystem The importance in Islam of preservation of the environment is established by Amery in this volume. or consulting the public. and control pollution of the watercourse (article 21). In international water law. the ILC Articles provide that watercourse states shall individually or jointly protect and preserve the ecosystem of an international watercourse (article 20). where appropriate. and further work is needed to develop an Islamic water management policy that covers shared waters. Another example of the Islamic stress on the environment is the hadith. Further.134 HUSSEIN AND AL-JAYYOUSI Under international water law. reduce. where significant harm is caused. Reasonable shares. However. there is a lack of literature on Islamic perspectives related to shared waters. the state that causes the harm is obligated to consult with the state suffering the harm to determine whether the use that is responsible for the harm is reasonable and equitable. states also have a duty to consult their neighbours if they intend to exploit a transboundary water resource and there is potential that the activity will have a trans-boundary effect. is one of the bases for decisionmaking by the government and its officials. to make ad hoc adjustments to the use to eliminate or mitigate the harm. Muslims believe that God ordered the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) to consult people in public matters before taking a decision. Conclusions From the foregoing comparison of international water law and Islamic water principles. and prevent. "A Muslim does not plant a sapling but a man or an animal or a bird eats of it. Consultation In Islam. it is a charity for him till the Day of Resurrection. It is recommended that a workshop should be organized between Muslim scholars and water experts in the Muslim world to develop a . article 7 of the Final Articles of the ILC provides that watercourse states must take all appropriate measures to ensure that their activities do not cause significant harm to other such states. shura. it can be concluded that a number of common bases exist and a mutual approach can be established. equity. consulting. and preserving the public interest and the ecosystem are the main elements that overlap. public interest. and to make compensation.

). Colo. Yahia Ibn Sharaf (1983). C. General Assembly Resolution 51/229. Moore. Water in the Middle East: Conflict or Coordination? Westview Press. United Nations Environment Program. Ottawa. "Recent Development of the International Law Commission Regarding International Watercourses and Their Implications for the Nile River. The International Law of Shared Water Resources. Al Nabawiya. Cairo. covering different cases in the Muslim countries. (1992). L. Naff. a consultative council of selected experts with jurists. New York. and Matson. Amman. Water in a Developing World: The Management of a Critical Resource. Water Sharing Regimes in Israel and the Occupied Territories A Technical Analysis. R. Water Quality in Greater Amman Study. REFERENCES Al Baghdadi. Al Baghdadi 32. I. trans. A. and water experts from the Muslim world should be established to set up Islamic water policies and formalize an Islamic water law. vol. Project Report 609. Thames Water (1988). to translate the theory into actions in the real world. in An-Nawawi 1983. E. (1984). Abbasi. G. in Al Baghdadi 1982. T. Dar Ahya us Sunnah. S. Flint. Training Manual on Environmental Law. Riyadh-Us-Saleheen [The garden of the righteous]. a pilot project can be implemented. Ministry of Planning. Abu Abd Al Rahman Mohammed bin Hasan (1982). (1995). United Nations. pp. Once a basis for the Islamic law on shared waters is established. Convention on the Law of the Nonnavigational Uses of International Watercourses. Utton. scholars. Western Special Studies in Natural Resources and Energy Management. P. and Teclaff. 197-204. United Nations Development Programme. Boulder. Wilson. United Nations. (1978). Nairobi. ILC (International Law Commission) (1997).MANAGEMENT OF SHARED WATERS 135 consensus with regard to the position of Islamic law on shared waters. . 2. Afterwards. Dar Al Manhal." Water International 20. M. Note 1. An-Nawawi 135. 1. An-Nawawi. (1996). Karachi. Jamma Al Aloum Wal Hikam [Collection of the sciences and wisdom] (5th ed. Operational Research and Analysis Establishment. New York. Department of National Defense.

bid'ah sayyi'ah. Despoiling. which includes natural resources such as water. Period of ignorance that Muslims believe preceded the arrival of Islam in Arabia. committing a bad. 136 . al-hawa. mischief. akhlasu. Public treasury. fassad. dhimmis. Non-Muslims who live in an Islamic state. baghi. baitulmal. One who has a deep understanding of Islam. oppressor. Literally "opened up" (or "poured") blessings such as rizq. in which Muslims believe. The Arabic word for the One True God. Genuine in religious beliefs. Corruption. a jurist (plural fuqaha). its laws. faqih. the just and legitimate ruler. shameful deed. and jurisprudence. Allah. anfal. fatahna. Rebel. Only those terms cited in this volume are included.Glossary of Arabic and Islamic terms The definitions given in this glossary are presented in the context of this volume. Many of the terms may have wider meanings. Inquiry prohibited in Islam. or spoiling of anything including water resources. Personal temptations. chaos. who created and sustains all life. djahilyya. including despoiling of natural resources (plural fawhish). Property of the Imam. fahesha. or transgressor. The word Allah is unique in that it has no plural nor any gender connotation.

hisba. ghusl. See faqih. and the area around the Prophet's mosque in Medina." or "the restoration of health. Unanimous agreement of Muslim jurists. founded by Abu Hanifah (d. shafa also means "to heal. See haez. Spending time and effort to take something into possession. One of the main schools of thought in Islam. See muhtasib. Purifying bath that Muslims must take after conjugal relations or prior to offering prayer. Consensus of the jurists since the death of the Prophet (pbuh) on any issue of fiqh. See hiazat. it refers to the effort of supplying. Hanifi. including water. Arabic for "cup. haez. which contains the word of Allah. founded by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d. harim. Guidance or direction given by God to His creation. greet- .).).C. a famous scholar of fiqh. treating.C. Legal ruling on an issue of religious importance (plural fataawaa). storing. are haram. fenjan. In the context of water. huda. One of the main schools of thought in Islam. Local unit of water in some parts of Iran. hadith. and other water sources on which digging a new well is forbidden so as to protect the quality and quantity of the water source. The area around the Ka'ba in Mecca. Literally "striving and self-exertion: independent reasoning." The meanings of "Islam" include: peace. derived from the detailed evidence pertaining to them. did. Literally "one who has or owns" anything. haram." The branch of learning concerned with the injunctions of the sharia relating to human actions. Islam. ijtihad. wells. A narration describing what the Prophet (pbuh) said. related by the Prophet (pbuh). A protected area in which bad behaviour is forbidden and other good behaviours are essential. Hadith qudsi differs from the Quran in that the latter comprises the exact words of God. A special category of hadith. ijma. hiazat. analytical thought": ijtihad is the interpretation of the source materials. and distributing water (singular hiyazah). 855 A. Office of accounting or public inspection." fiqh. Literally "comprehension" or "knowing. hudud. inference of rules from them. hadith qudsi. Protected (from haram): land surrounding canals.GLOSSARY OF ARABIC AND ISLAMIC TERMS 137 fatwa. Literally "the law of thirst" or "the right to quench thirst". Forbidden in Islam. An Arabic word derived from the root words silm and salaam. a famous scholar of fiqh. Sacred or inviolable." haraam. Hanbali. which mean "peace. haq al shafa (shirb). 767 A. or tacitly approved. or giving a legal verdict or decision on any issue on which there is no specific guidance in the Quran and the sunnah.

khutba. A tax levied on conquered land by Khalif Umar. khazen. especially leaders (khulafa) on earth is to ensure that all resources. kharaj. The word khalifa was used after the death of the noble Prophet Muhammad to refer to his successor. 47:11).for instance. istishab. the improvement of land from being idle and waste to being productive." The principle of istihsan applied in a more restricted form. which means seeking that which is more suitable to human welfare than some existing condition . Improving or rehabilitating something: literally "seeking the welfare. madrasa. jizya. The faithful who fear God.C. and sustainable manner. As trustees. loyalty. The public interest. and submission to the will of God. This land was not given as booty to the victorious army. 795 A. . khalifa. It is generally held that the principal objective of the sharia is to realize the genuine maslaha or benefit of the people. as the head of the Muslim community. istislah. One of the main schools of thought in Islam. patron. are used in a reasonable. Viceregent. ma-li.). founded by Malik Ibn Anas al-Asbahi (d. Maliki. successor. mawali . a famous scholar of fiqh. Later. Now used as a title for religious or political authorities. ma'. Abu Bakr. A designation of Allah as "the Protector" (8:40. maslaha. obedience. the role of humans. Finance manager.138 GLOSSARY OF ARABIC AND ISLAMIC TERMS ing. Humans are referred to as the khulafa or stewards of God on earth. An honorific title of local Muslim leaders or Imams in India and Pakistan. allegiance. Literally "tribute": the tax paid by dhimmis in an Islamic state in exchange for the protection provided to them and for their exemption from military service and payment of zakaat. equitable. joraeh. Unit of volume used for water in Iran. including water. "My money": maal signifies wealth or money.Persian mulla): master. or client. it came to be accepted as the office of the head of the Islamic state. or trustee (plural khulafa). The Urdu version of Arabic mawla (p1. but was left to the conquered owners in return for the payment of a tax on the land. Literally "preference": juristic preference where no ruling exists. Religious school (plural madaris). The presumption that fiqh laws applicable to certain conditions remain valid until proven otherwise. itaqu. istihsan. A sermon given by an imam in a mosque before the Friday congregational prayer (salatul-Jum'ah). salutation. maulvis. steward. Water.

Private property with full right of disposal. miri. The companions of the Prophet (pbuh). . salaat. Literally "magazine": a publication of the Ottoman Civil Code in the 1870s. One of the main schools of thought in Islam. muhtasib. is to ensure the proper conduct of people in their public activities. It is a key word in an Islamic greeting. a famous scholar oifiqh. rizq. in such forms as additional income. mustalah al hadith. munkar. nath'ubet. Collective ownership: public lands or state-owned land. Quran. The way of the Prophet (pbuh): sunnah comprises what the Prophet (pbuh) said. The faithful who fear God (from the verb itaqu). Provisions that God destines for a person. An act that is despised by Allah. Islamic law. and encouraged both explicitly and implicitly. such as in the form of precipitations. qiyas. sahaba. The Holy Book.). sunnah. In a general sense. mewat. light. idle. one who submits to God by following the religion of Islam. founded by Abbas ibn Uthman ibn Shafi' (d. In a more specific sense. or fallow lands. See Islam. and water in its natural state. 820 A. A form of collective ownership of land. shahed. did. among other things. shura. The science of hadith criticism. Free of ownership or conditions which undermine the availability for all humankind of the resource so described. clothing. Mejelle. which Muslims believe contains the exact revelations made by Allah to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) through the Angel Gabriel. anyone who submits to God. mubah. Dead. Analogy or relevance. Witness. The Islamic way of life. Muslim. sun an. See fatahna. Peace and harmony of people between themselves or with nature. including all the prophets in whom Muslims believe. Religiously learned. laqua.GLOSSARY OF ARABIC AND ISLAMIC TERMS 139 mawat. shaqa. The officer in charge of the hisba. mushaa. For example. salaah. whose duty. Became scarce. food. sharia. The prayer that must be offered at least five times a day by every adult Muslim. mujtahid.C. or a natural resource such as water. The plural of sunnah. Shafi'i. are all mubah. air. Consultation among decision-makers and between decisionmakers and the general public. Laws. mulk. Misery. glaciers. salam. or large lakes.

or a mosque. usher. Literally "the purification (of wealth)": payment made by every Muslim who can afford it that is given to the poor and needy. for example. a family. intended for the benefit of the poor and the needy. . Ablution: the ritual cleaning of the body before beginning an act of worship.140 GLOSSARY OF ARABIC AND ISLAMIC TERMS tatghou. but not quite compulsory. One of the Five Pillars of Islam. for Muslims. a village. La tatghou: to commit no excess. An endowment of money or property: the return or yield is typically dedicated toward a certain end. It represents a religious obligation. to the maintenance of the poor. A duty that is essential. like zakaat. oppression. Excess. waqf. wajeb. Literally "tenth": a tax representing a percentage of the harvest payable by a Muslim. zakaat. wudu.

Asit K. Faruqui is a Senior Program Specialist with the International Development Research Centre. Biswas is President of the Third World Centre for Water Management in Mexico City. He was previously the Director of the Environment Research Centre of the Royal Scientific Society. He is a member of the World Commission on Water and Past President of the International Water Resources Association. Bino is the Executive Director of the Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management. 141 . Ottawa. focusing on water management in the Middle East.Volume editors Naser I. Murad J. worldwide. Canada. He was selected by the International Water Resources Association as one of fourteen water leaders of the next generation. Amman. Amman.

de Mexico. Middle East and North Africa Regional Office. Edo. Fax: 20-2-336-7056. Consultant on Natural Resources.eg./Fax: 39-6 8548932.nix or akb@punias. Box 14 Orman. Email: cquiroz® vmredipn. Tel. 11. Dante A.O.ipn. Dina Craissati: Senior Program Officer.iingen./Fax: 52-5-754-8604.mx.unani. Switchboard: 52-5-752-0818/586-0838/586-9370. Switchboard: 52-5-752-0818/586-0838/586-9370. akb@pumas. 54080 Mexico. P.: 20-2-336-7051/52/53. International Association for Water Law. Box 8944. Biswas: International Water Resources Association (CIIEMADIPN). Egypt. 00198 Rome./Fax: 52-5-754-8604.coni. Email: caponera@libero. 11. Italy. de Mexico. 142 . Yemen.unani. Tel. Chairman. Tel. Viveros de la Loma. International Development Research Centre. Cecilia Tortajada: International Water Resources Association (CIIEMAD-IPN). P. Edo. Giza.O. Tel. Viveros de Tlalnepantla No.org. Dokki. Asit K. Caponera: Former Chief. Viveros de la Loma.it. Executive Council.mx. UN/FAO Legislation Branch. 3 Amman Square (5th floor). Tlalnepantla. Email: dcraissati@idrc.iingen. Water and Environmental Law.mx. Email: akbiswas@internet. Viveros de Tlalnepantla No.Workshop participants Abdul Karim Al-Fusail: National Water Resources Authority. 54080 Mexico. Telefax: 231-530. Tlalnepantla. Sana'a. Cairo. Via Montevideo 5.

Email: riverside@hotmail. Water and Wastewater Projects. World Health Organization (WHO). K1G 3H9. Amman 11941. Tel: 613-236-6163 ext. P. P. International Development Research Centre. Program Branch. Odeh Al-Jayyousi: Applied Science University. Tel: 203-482-0223.jo. Hussein A.com. Box 1460. Box 8500.ca.jo. Amman 11110. Civil Engineering Department. Amman 11931. CO 80401-1887 USA. Canada. Fax: 962-6-5232899. Alexandria 21511. Email: nfaruqui@idrc. Box 926963. Tehran 19834. Fax: (303)-273-3751. Kazem Sadr: School of Economics and Political Science. (r) 962-6-515-6099. Saudi Arabia. 2321. Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management (INWRDAM).com. (r) 962-6-5851809. Karim Allaoui: Office of the Vice President (Operations). P.O.. Fax: 972-2-745968.nic. Fax: 98-21-880-8382.:(o) 962-6-5237181. Environmental Health Programme. Egypt.eg. Tel: 966-2-636-1400 ext. Jeddah 21432. Tel: 972-2-747948. Fax: 962-6-568-2150. Nader Al Khateeb: Water and Environmental Development Organization (WEDO). Box 1517.org. and Applied Science University.O. 3 Amman Square (5th floor). Jordan. Tel: (o) 962-6-560-6150/568-7369. Atallah is currently on leave from WHO. Tel: (o) 98-21-240-3020. He can be contacted . ON. Email: hamery@mines. lyad Hussein: Business Development Manager. Shahid Beheshti University. Cairo. (Dr. P. Middle East and North Africa Regional Office. Amman 11183. Jordan.O. Dokki. Fax: 613-567-7749. Islamic Development Bank. College of Engineering. Tel: 20-2-336-7051/52/53.O. (r) 98-21-8083844. Box 14 Orman. Amery: Division of Liberal Arts and International Studies. Fax: 966-2-636-6871. Jordanian Consulting Engineer Co. P. Fax: 20-2-336-7056. Jubayha. Tel: 962-6-533-2993.org.org. Tel. Email: wedo@p-ol.O. P. College of Engineering. Email: inwrdam@amra.jo. Email: iayousi@go.edu. gov. Colorado School of Mines. Giza. Egypt. Sadok Atallah: Director. Email: ceha@who-ceha. P. Iran. Bethlehem. Fax: 962-6-533-2969. Email: kallaoui@isdb. Tel: (303) 273-3944. Palestine. Jordan.sa.com. Murad Jabay Bino: Executive Director. Email: ebaroudy@idrc. Golden. 6729. Jordan. International Development Research Centre.WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS 143 Ellysar Baroudy: Coordinator. Fax: 203-483-8916.O. Box 844.O. Ottawa. Box 5925. Water Demand Management Research Network. Naser Irshad Faruqui: Senior Program Officer.

O.ca. M. Box 493. 51 Westfield Cres. Email: yassine.sa.gov. Nepean. Fax: 03-860-4518.com. Tel: (o) 03-860-2895. Amman 11941. Email: thekhans@home.jo. Water Section Center for Environment and Water Research Institute. BC. Saeed Shah: Head of Hydrology Division.nic. Email: awalid@kfupm. Tel: 92-42-682-2024/1100. Sewage and Drainage Department. Burnaby. Jordan. ON.144 WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS in Tunis at: Email: baby. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). (r) 03-860-6962. Dhahran 31261. Saudi Arabia. Fax: 604-436-6960.edu. Tel: 604-451-6144. Shihab Najib Al-Beiruti: Head of Services and Programs Section. V5H 4G8. Tel: 613-820-0682. University of Engineering and Technology. Box 1460. P. Canada.tn. Walid A. Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering.sdnpk. Fax: 962-6-533-2969. Pakistan. Tel: 962-6-533-2993.) Saeeda Khan: Former Workshop Coordinator.org.djebbar® gvrd. 4330 Kingsway. S.lhr. InterIslamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management (INWRDAM). K2G OT6. . Yassine Djebbar: Project Engineer.. South Areas Division. Email: centre@cewre. Lahore 54890. IDRC. Tel: 216-1-887263. Fax: 216-1-238182. Email: inwrdam@amm. Abderrahman: Manager.world@planet. Jubayha. Canada. Greater Vancouver Regional District.O.bc. P.

69 Bangladesh 11. 62-66 irrigation water 65-66 municipal water supply 62-65 dredging. water conservation equity 2. 50. 91. 86 National Community Water Conservation Programme (NCWCP) 7. 123-124 see also irrigation Algeria 86. 40-43. 122-124. 124 Amman. 50. 132 145 . 117 Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) xv Chile 16. 52-53. 40-43 see also public awareness. 119 community-based water management 18-20. 55 environment 42-43. 57 see also public awareness Egypt 11. Dublin education 6-7. 119 international water law and 134 rights of 2-3. Iran 111 Dublin Conference see International Conference on Water and the Environment. 123 Brazil 121 Burkina Faso 87 California Water Bank 16. 117. 57 protection of 3-4. 5. 49-50. India 121 birth control 9-11 Botswana 16.47 education about 6-7. rights of 2-3. 52-53. Jordan 4. 118 collective ownership 99-100 community participation 35. Pakistan 6. 125 urban agriculture 16. 121 Bihar. 70-71 Dijkot.Index Afghanistan 6 public awareness campaign 54 agriculture 15-17 food security 15-16. Saudi Arabia 68-69. 119 conservation see water conservation contraception 9-11 Council of Leading Islamic Scholars (CLIS) 75 decentralization 19 desalination. 115-116 animals.

115-116 Just Water Distribution Law. 27. 6. 27. 105 see also agriculture Islam xv-xvi. 122-124. Saudi Arabia 76 infrastructure 120-121 institutional reform 91-92 integrated water management see water demand management (WDM). 120 Ivory Coast 120 Jakarta 87. 73 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries 54-55 hadith xx. Iran 109. 120 surface water 109-110 underground water 110-113 water rights 104-106 Iraq 22 irrigation wastewater reuse 7-9. water management Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Demand and Management (INWRDAM) ix International Conference on Water and the Environment. 125 Kurdestan 109 Kuwait. 130. 71. 14. xxi India 17. 108-109. 116 Jordan xvi. 117. 125 full-cost pricing 13-14. 16. 118 privatization 15 water pricing 13-14. 87. 33. 19 International Law Association (ILA) 129 International Law Commission (ILC) 129 international water management 21-22. wastewater reuse 8 . 109-113. 120 Gaza 11 Ghana 87 government role in water markets 106. 123 public awareness 55 wastewater reuse 8 water costs 4. 112 Kenya 17. 131 water markets 16. 22. 124 water allocation priorities 15. 76 water conservation 65-66 water demand management 72-77 water rights 96-98. 17. xxi hisba 45 ijtihad xx. 116-117 food security and 122-124. 120. 121 water shortage 4. 19. 79-80. Dublin xvi-xvii. 35-38. 121.146 INDEX family planning 9-11 fertility rates 11 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) xiv food security 15-16. 85 International Development Research Centre (IDRC) ix-x. 116 water tariffs 13. 115-116 water management 46 international management 130. 129-135 international water law 129-131 Islamic principles and 131-134 consultation 134 environmental protection 134 equitable and reasonable utilization 131-133 ownership 133 significant harm and compensation 133-134 international water resources 128 International Water Resources Association (IWRA) ix intersectoral water markets 15-17. 125 integrated management 124-125 water reallocation 117 see also water markets Iran family planning programme 10-11 water markets 107-108. xv. 123. 121 Indonesia 11 Indus Basin River Treaty 22 industrial water demand management. 122-123. 34 Israel 22. 131 Saudi Arabia 70. 121 groundwater India 121 Iran 110-113 Rum Aquifer 21. 125 Palestine 79-83 Saudi Arabia 7-8.

27. 36. 91. 130. 131 irrigation water demand management 72-77 reduction in wheat price supports 73-74 wastewater reuse 7-8. 53-58 through education 57 through Islamic communication channels 52-53. 87. 103-106 collective ownership 99-100 international water law and 133 land tenure 98-100 transfer and sale of ownership 98 see also water markets wells 94. 120 Iran 109-113 surface water 109-110 underground water 110-113 private vendors 4-5. 33. 74. 120 Saudi Arabia 13. role in public awareness 56-57. Palestine 80 national food security 15-16. 94-95. 85-92. 122-124.87 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 17-18. 72. 72. 56-57. Chile 117 land tenure 98-100 Ministry of Agriculture and Water (MAW). 37. 123 Turkey 22 Uganda 18. 123 well drilling regulation 73 water resources 69-71 water tariffs 13. 22. 85 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 33 . Pakistan Palestine 17. 121 wastewater reuse sociocultural acceptability 79-83 demonstration site visitors 82-83 farmers 81-82 general public 80-81 penalties 43-45 pollution 3-4. Saudi Arabia 68 monopoly 108-109 morality 52 mosques. 88-90. Saudi Arabia 68 Saudi Arabia 68-77. 118 Sharia xx Societe de Distribution d'Eau de la Cote d'lvoire (SODECI) 120 sunnah xx-xxi sustainable development 85 sustenance 44-45 Syria 22 tariffs 13-14. 61-67 Pakistan study 61-67 Quran xx rewards 43-45 right of thirst 95-96 Rum Aquifer 21. 125 Nile 21. 22. 130 Nile Water Agreement 130 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) 66-67 ownership issues 12-13. 50. 86. 131 Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC). 118 see also pricing Tunisia 122.INDEX 147 La Serena. 71. 51 see also environment pricing 13-14. 121 see also Dijkot. 116 domestic water demand management 71-72 industrial water demand management 75 international water management 130. 105 Pakistan 6-7. 125 national-level water management 20-21 Nepal 19 Niger 17. 119-120 full-cost pricing 13-14. 115-116 water demand management 90-92 institutional focus 91-92 market incentives 91 privatization 14-15 public awareness 6-7. 97. 61-67 muhtasib 45 Nablus.

117-126 early Islamic state 106-107 intersectoral markets 15-17. 36 see also wastewater reuse water management integrated management 17-22. 116 wastewater reuse 7-9. 87. Saudi Arabia 69 water conservation 5-7. 76 sociocultural acceptability 79-83 demonstration site visitors 82-83 farmers 81-82 general public 80-81 water access to 4-5 as a social good 1-2. 22-25. 132 ownership issues 12-13. 123-124 urban growth xiii-xiv. Dublin xvi-xvii. 117. 104-106. 36. 94-95. 98-100. water demand management water markets 14-15. 5. 116-117 food security and 122-124. 39. 100-101. public awareness water demand management (WDM) 5-17. 119. 27 availability of xiii. 9 equity and 2. 71. 125 integrated management 124-125 water reallocation 117 monopoly and government supervision 108-109 prerequisites for 118-121 private and public water supply 108 private vendors 4-5. 121 wells 87. 85 United States 16. 88-90. 72. 24 economic instruments 11-17 intersectoral water markets 15-17 markets and privatization 14-15 water tariffs 13-14. 124-125 community-based management 18-20.148 INDEX United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) xiv Water Conference. 16. 97. 125 Palestine 79-83 Saudi Arabia 7-8. 37. 94. 23.97 rights to 12-13. 119 nationaHevel management 20-21 research recommendations 26 Islamic institutions 45 Islamic principles 22-23. 71-72 family planning 9-11 research recommendations 25-26 Saudi Arabia 71-77 domestic water 71-72 industrial water 75 irrigation water 72-77 through pricing 90-92 institutional focus 91-92 market incentives 91 water conservation 5-7. 118 urban agriculture 16. 115-116 privatization 14-15 problems and obstacles 121-122 rise of 107-108 transfer and sale of ownership 98 see also pricing water tariffs 13-14. 120 Saudi Arabia 13. 88-90. 103-106 collective ownership 99-100 international water law and 133 transfer and sale of ownership 98 wells 94. 37. 105 . 94-98. 91. 86. 33. 35-37. 24. 23. 4. 27. 105 right of thirst 95-96 Water and Wastewater Authority (WWA). 131-134 consultation 134 environmental protection 134 equitable and reasonable utilization 131-133 ownership 133 rewards and penalties 43-45 significant harm and compensation 133-134 see also international water management. 49-58 from Islamic perspective 49-50 Islamic strategies 55-57 Islamic teachings 50-53 national activities 54-55 regional/intercountry activities 53-54 see also environment. 27. 118 see also pricing water users associations (WUAs) 35. 35-38. 79-80. 122-123. 118-119 government role 106 international water law and 131-133 irrigation 96-98.

INDEX 149 drilling regulation.36 Workshop on Water Resources Management in the Islamic World ix World Bank xv. 119. 92. 54 Regional Centre for Environmental Health Activities (CEHA) 53-54 World Water Commission (WWC) xv Yemen 9. 6. Saudi Arabia 73 Iran 112 West Bank 11. 22 wheat price supports. 123 . Saudi Arabia 73-74 women 19. 11. 124 World Health Organization (WHO) xiv-xv.

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