TEX 1 Oxygen Detected in Atmosphere of Saturn's Moon Dione: Discovery Could Mean Ingredients for Life Are Abundant

On Icy Space Bodies
ScienceDaily (Mar. 2, 2012) — Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions (O2+) in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione, one of the 62 known moons orbiting the ringed planet. The research appeared recently in Geophysical Research Letters and was made possible via instruments aboard NASA's Cassini spacecraft, which was launched in 1997. See Also: Dione -- discovered in 1684 by astronomer Giovanni Cassini (after whom the spacecraft was named) -- orbits Saturn at roughly the same distance as our own moon orbits Earth. The tiny moon is a mere 700 miles wide and appears to be a thick, pockmarked layer of water ice surrounding a smaller rock core. As it orbits Saturn every 2.7 days, Dione is bombarded by charged particles (ions) emanating from Saturn's very strong magnetosphere. These ions slam into the surface of Dione, displacing molecular oxygen ions into Dione's thin atmosphere through a process called sputtering. Molecular oxygen ions are then stripped from Dione's exosphere by Saturn's strong magnetosphere. A sensor aboard the Cassini spacecraft called the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected the oxygen ions in Dione's wake during a flyby of the moon in 2010. Los Alamos researchers Robert Tokar and Michelle Thomsen noted the presence of the oxygen ions. "The concentration of oxygen in Dione's atmosphere is roughly similar to what you would find in Earth's atmosphere at an altitude of about 300 miles," Tokar said. "It's not enough to sustain life, but -- together with similar observations of other moons around Saturn and Jupiter -- these are definitive examples of a process by which a lot of oxygen can be produced in icy celestial bodies that are bombarded by charged particles or photons from the Sun or whatever light source happens to be nearby." Perhaps even more exciting is the possibility that on a moon with subsurface water, such as Jupiter's moon Europa, molecular oxygen could combine with carbon in subsurface lakes to form the building blocks of life. Future missions to Europa could help unravel questions about that moon's habitability. Two sensors aboard Cassini built by Los Alamos National Laboratory are expected to come into play beginning later this month, and again in April and May, when the Cassini spacecraft flies by the moon Enceladus. The moon is one of the brightest objects in our solar system, reflecting back nearly all of the sunlight that strikes it, thanks to a shimmering surface of snowy ice crystals. The moon also unleashes plumes ofmaterial from its south polar region. Los Alamos' ion-beam spectrometer and ion-mass spectrometer may help answer key questions about the composition of these plumes. Recommend this story on Facebook, Twitter,

They say adults are rarely affected. while some are not very serious but require treatment. . children more prone to viral infections 21st February. nearly every child in the world has been infected with Rotavirus at least once. Rotavirus A causes more than 90 per cent of infections in humans. B. washing hands with soap before and after meals. in the districts of Hilir Perak and Batang Padang in Perak. Rotavirus infection is usually an easily managed disease of childhood. nearly 500.236 people were diagnosed with Rotavirus. What are the symptoms? She says a viral infection depends on the virus and the symptoms vary from person to person. The public is advised to take precautionary steps to prevent further spread of the virus. Among the different diseases caused by viruses are flu and measles. such as boiling drinking water. the media reported that two babies between two and 10 months old died.TEX 2 Lower immunity. 2012 KUALA LUMPUR: Last Feb 10. where treatment is mandatory. with the majority of patients needing only outpatient treatment. By the age of five. some viral infection cases are very serious. 2. and almost two million more become severely ill.397) and Batang Padang (839). between Jan 27 and Feb 10.000 children under five die from Rotavirus infection each year across the globe. but according to the World Health organisation (WHO). while 2. There are five species of this virus. diarrhea and vomiting. Most victims are children below the age of 12. Authorities are carrying out a detailed investigation. and E. C. The symptoms in most cases were fever. D. On the other hand.236 Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) cases were detected in the districts of Hilir Perak (1. According to doctors. before preparing food and after going to the toilet.” she says. The media reports said Perak’s medical authorities believed that the viral attack was waterborne and from contaminated food. referred to as A. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children. Dr Wong says viruses affect the whole system of the body and hence they may lead to a lot of discomfort. “Some viral infections disappear without the need of taking any kind of treatment. Dr Bernice Wong says viral infections are common and occur as a result of being affected by viruses. According to state health authorities. WHO says.

stomach pain and indigestion. flu and diarrhea. The most commonly observed symptoms of viral infection in children are headache and fever. “The treatment includes treating the symptoms such as fever. If left untreated. Dr Wong says viral infection is dangerous in babies. it cannot be killed. so it cannot be affected by an antibiotic. diarrhea.The medical officer says the most commonly observed symptoms of viral infection in adults are vomiting. viral infection can lead to serious disease. Also. stomach ache and cough. It is difficult to understand the symptoms of viral infection in babies and toddlers because they find it difficult to express what is actually happening to them. she says. parents will observe a change in the child’s eating habits. Antiviral help in treating viral infections. coughs.” she says. “As for the toddlers. there are also drugs known as antiviral that slow the spread of viruses throughout the body.” she says. so proper care should be taken. Dr Wong also says people with weak immune system are more prone to viral infections. They tend to feel tired and weak. cough and common cold are also observed. which kills organisms by disrupting their metabolic processes. they may become sensitive to light and not interested even in playing or performing their normal daily activities. sore throat. and re-programming them to recreate clones of themselves (viruses). “Viruses infect a person by entering his cells. Skin rashes may develop and the baby may appear to be irritated.” she says. make it a point to seek medical treatment before the condition worsens. “As a viral particle is not living. Dr Wong says research has shown that virus is simply a piece of genetic material enclosed in a coat. Apart from treating the symptoms. The affected person may experience body aches and a lack of energy. vomiting and diarrhea. the symptoms of viral infection are not different from those observed in adults. “Those affected may have runny nose. “If you observe these viral infection symptoms in your child. as the baby will tend to eat much less. Some children may also experience sore throat. Since it is not alive. But parents can observe whether there are symptoms in their children. Other symptoms such as fever. “Affected infants may cry non-stop and show lethargy as well as fatigue. it has no metabolic processes. . “In children.” she explains.

Should the rocket explode and kill Glenn. military casualties.S.S.S. the plans reportedly included the possible assassination of Cuban émigrés. Code namedOperation Northwoods. ." The scary thing is none of this stuff comes out until 40 years after.. newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation. The Joint Chiefs even proposed using the potential death of astronaut John Glenn during the first attempt to put an American into orbit as a false pretext for war with Cuba. "the objective is to provide irrevocable proof … that the fault lies with the Communists. sinking boats of Cuban refugees on the high seas.go. America's top military brass even contemplated causing U.. Military Wanted to Provoke War With Cuba 2001-05-01. Robert McNamara. ABC News http://abcnews. cities to create public support for a war against Cuba." The plans had the written approval of all of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and were presented to President Kennedy's defense secretary. Fidel Castro. But they apparently were rejected by the civilian leadership and have gone undisclosed for nearly 40 years." and. and even orchestrating violent terrorism in U. writing: "We could blow up a U. in March 1962.com/US/story?id=92662 In the early 1960s. America's top military leaders reportedly drafted plans to kill innocent people and commit acts of terrorism in U. cities.S.TEX 3 U.S.S.S. "casualty lists in U. blowing up a U. they wrote. The plans were developed as ways to trick the American public and the international community into supporting a war to oust Cuba's . ship. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba. hijacking planes.

shtml On Sept. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld declared war." said Minnery.TEX 4 The War On Waste 2002-01-29."According to some estimates we cannot track $2. 10 [2001]. It's the Pentagon bureaucracy. "The director looked at me and said 'Why do you care about this stuff?' It took me aback. .3 trillion in transactions.." More money for the Pentagon . CBS News http://www. woman and child in America.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/01/29/eveningnews/main325985.. Not on foreign terrorists. Defense Finance and Accounting Service ." Rumsfeld admitted. while its own auditors admit the military cannot account for 25 percent of what it spends.. about the millions he noticed were missing from one defense agency's balance sheets. "my 2003 budget calls for more than $48 billion in new defense spending.. My supervisor asking me why I care about doing a good job. A former Marine turned whistleblower is risking his job by speaking out . the war on waste seems to have been forgotten. Rumsfeld promised change but the next day—Sept. even crisscrossing the country looking for records. tried to follow the money trail.. He was reassigned and says officials then covered up the problem.000 for every man. $2." He said money wasted by the military poses a serious threat. The Pentagon's Inspector General "partially substantiated" several of Minnery's allegations.. "the adversary's closer to home. 11—the world changed and in the rush to fund the war on terrorism.3 trillion—that's $8. Jim Minnery. Just last week President Bush announced.

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