HUL 263 Ist semester, 2011-12 Term Paper

Alcoholism among Children And Parental influence.

Submitted By: Kishan Kumar Sachdeva 2010ME10686 Group 2

Made By Kishan Kumar Sachdeva Indian institute of Technology Delhi

Page 1

terms like COA(Children Of Alcoholics) have been coined emphasising the concern about the above stated problem. behaviour and understanding with their child can altogether alter the path a child takes towards alcoholism in his/her life. 2. prevalent culture of alcoholism and alcoholism abuse in the family has abominable effects on a child’s psychology. higher incidence of depression. The problem is so severe in western cultures.A & 3. Adult children of alcoholics have lower self-esteem.(3. parent’s relations. there were an estimated 26. not only during childhood but also when they grow up into adolescents.B)  Further. In recent times.8 million children of alcoholics (COAs) in the United States. Hypothesis  The Drinking pattern an adolescent settles down with is directly related to amount and level of parental intervention into his life.[1]Family alcoholism tends to destroy the harmony and basic foundation of the family as an institution.[1] Children of addicts have an increased suicide rate and on average have total health care costs 32 percent greater than children of non-alcoholic families. The effects are not limited till here but numerous studies have shown that such family cultures promote drinking among children especially in adolescent stage . Alcoholism in family systems refers to the conditions in families wherein indulgent of one or more family members has disgracing effects on the rest of the family. We begin with looking at kinds of relationships with parents affecting drinking among Indian adolescents then we move on to the pressing issue of COAs.C) Made By Kishan Kumar Sachdeva Indian institute of Technology Delhi Page 2 . As of 2001. [2]. with as many as 11 million of them under than age of 18.This has been linked via numerous studies to have a relation with Sexual problems in such adolescents going up to AIDS. alcoholism is defined as “A diseased condition due to the excessive use of alcoholic beverages”. Introduction The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (1966). Adults from alcoholic families confront higher levels of anxiety and lower levels of cohesion than adults raised in non-alcoholic families. Hence it can be ascertained children of drinkers have an increased risk of developing mental health problems.B & 3. 1. and increased likelihood of becoming alcoholics. excessive feelings of responsibility. Especially during adolescence.(3. USA has set up two governmental bodies NIAA(National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) & COA(Children of Alcoholics). Parent behaviour plays a crucial role in alcohol consumption patterns of a child.Alcoholism among Children and the Role of Parents. In this paper we look upon how different type of attitudes and behaviours of parents tend to influence and shape the alcohol consumption patterns in their offspring’s especially during adolescence.dedicated purely to tackle this problem. [1] Family alcoholism has been increasing in recent times.

those students who were more likely to value their friends over parents tended to drink more often. For example. strongly showed that teenage drinking is related to less affectionate relations with their parents.) 21% 51% 41% 42% Discussion The above table exhibitions low order of correlations between rate of teenager drinking and interactions with related adults. Information was gathered from 130 adults in forms of interviews having questionnaires about patterns of family interaction. Similar findings were evident in results on feeling of being close to parents and not being criticized regularly by their parents. The Pennsylvania State University) carried extensive surveys and data collection from four different Indian cities/town. Findings : Percentage of Teenagers’ Drinking and: Related adults as a drinker Teenager spends night out without permission Teenagers peer affinity Teenagers have used drugs Other facts found:   The correlation between one of the parents being a existing drinker. the more frequently they drank which is related also to their independence from parents.3. Mike Charleston (Professors. both rural and urban to test whether peers are more important than parents in influencing an adolescent’s perceptions towards alcohol. 69% of those adolescents who said their fathers praised or encouraged them less than once a month for what they did were drinkers.A To Drink or not to Drink: The Indian adolescent’s Choice between Friends and Family Yoshimitsu Takie. and G. In other words. Patrick Lynch. The older the teenagers were. drinking behaviour and attitudes towards drinking of family members’. and the frequency of drinking among the teenagers is 21% 60% people who were concerned with parents’ disapproval turned out to be drinkers against a 93% who were concerned with friends’ disapproval The older the teenagers were. Parts of the survey intended to obtain data of the teenagers’ evaluation of their relationship with parents. Made By Kishan Kumar Sachdeva Indian institute of Technology Delhi Page 3 . More worryingly. the more frequently they drank (29% increase in no of drinkers on increasing age group by 3 years. the frequency of drinking was quite intensely correlated with use of drugs. whereas only 29% of those who reported their dads said something encouraging to them more than once a week were admitted drinkers at the time of the survey.

g. peer influences (such as involvement in deviant behaviours). role modelling. peer. Depressed mood and emotional instability in the child were expected to impact his behaviours and poorly affect his development during adolescence.  Adolescent’s use of hard liquor during the past year.. father-child relations. The interview consisted of a number of wide variety of questions for assessing father and adolescent personality characteristics (e. inapt drinking norms. Made By Kishan Kumar Sachdeva Indian institute of Technology Delhi Page 4 ..3. pessimistic about the future. The response ranges were collected under the following categories :(1) Up to 3 times a month or less (2) Up to one to many times per week (3) Up to 1 or 2 drinks every day (4) Up to three or more drinks daily Results Various statistical measures of the data collected in the study were indicative of the following : (1) Adolescent personality was significantly related to adolescent alcohol use despite control on all of the other fields. and father attributes lost significance with control on the adolescent’s personality. warmth).g. (3) Peer domain was significant with control on the adolescent’s personality. was obtained from  Adolescent’s use of beer and wine during the past year. and (4) Father attributes domain was no longer related to adolescent alcohol use with control on the environmental.g. ultimately affecting the latter’s alcohol use. father drug and/or alcohol use and HIV status. regularity of adolescent alcohol use. Rough relations with the father are results to a child being depressed. Moreover the findings indicate that Contrary to expectation. perceived discrimination). and generally more emotionally unstable. the father-child relationship (e. and the ease of access of alcohol (in the home).Here we shall concentrate on the finding on father-child relationship and father alcohol/drug use only. however. and environmental factors (e. and adolescent personality domains Also results of the study specified that the father’s actual drinking with his child was more highly related to the adolescent’s alcohol use than the father’s own use of alcohol. Consider the following study from Journal of Addictive Diseases: Procedure Each pair of fathers and adolescents were interviewed separately and in isolated. The dependent variable. suggesting that the father’s drinking with his child incorporates multiple reasons namely.B Bonding with Father and effect on alcoholism. depression. (2) Domains of environmental factors.. the father’s HIV status was not related to the adolescent’s alcohol use either as a main or an interactive factor. demoralized. father-child relations. delinquency).

Interaction plot for father alcohol use and father warmth on the adolescent’s alcohol use.A close and affectionate mutual attachment relationship between the father and child. The finding of no clear relation between HIV status of father and alcoholism is quite unexpected. which includes paternal warmth and the child’s identification with the father.(substantiated by the above graph) Control techniques which are appropriate and designed to provide the youth with structure regarding his or her alcohol use. The parent-child attachment relationship has found to have a positive influence on adolescent development and to be related to decrease in adolescent alcohol use. depressed mood is associated with irritable or hostile behaviour toward individuals with whom one is close. as well as trouble in establishing and maintaining socially skilled behaviours such as effective parenting practices. Discussion As clear from the above stated facts. Made By Kishan Kumar Sachdeva Indian institute of Technology Delhi Page 5 . Perhaps due to recent developments in the cure of HIV have significantly decreased AIDS-related sickness and mortality and thereby possibly decreasing the effects of paternal HIV on children. Adverse family conditions have an impact on adolescent children through the disruption of the parent-child attachment relationship.

Regarding the duration of drinking.C Associations between Fathers’ Heavy Drinking Patterns in Children Of Alcoholics (COAs) As mention before. INDIA)conducted a study to investigate on how deeply family alcoholism affects the next generation. The study group consisted of 50 respondents whose fathers were receiving de-addiction treatment at a private psychiatric hospital in Tiruchirappalli. o 44% said that he became more silent than usual. M. (b) Anticipating treatment promises that at least some variation will occur in fathers’ drinking behavior. Made By Kishan Kumar Sachdeva Indian institute of Technology Delhi Page 6 .3. Ph. the remaining were not sure of the frequency of drinking.D and C. Only adolescents between the age group of 13 and 18 years and who were residents of Tiruchirappalli were included in the sample. o 26% said that he became rowdy and shouted at others o Remaining 20% expressed that he scolding and beating up the family members. Method Selwyn Stanley. Vanitha( National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences Bangalore.\ Findings   40 % of the COAs reported daily drinking by their father while 42% said it was on alternate days. examining patterns of heavy drinking in parents is relevant. India. With regard to the behaviour of the father when drunk. making it possible to adequately report the question of changes over the time. and their children are therefore at greatest risk for maladjustment. because: (a)Treatment-seeking alcoholics may have the most severe drinking problems. 53% said it was up to three years with the remaining respondents mentioning that it was in 3-10 years range.A (SW).

Emotional maturity manifests in high self-esteem and enhances one’s social ability. waxing and waning in meaningful patterns. On very similar lines. There is hence an imperative need for therapeutic intervention with this population. This occurs in the data shown above wherein it’s clear that COAs have poorer academic performance than their nCOAs counterparts. Moreover treatment-associated reduction benefits not only the participant but it is equally possible that functioning of the entire family system including adolescent children also gets improved during the fathers’ low-drinking periods and worsened during the high-drinking periods. The two groups of respondents were matched on key socio-demographic variables and the alcoholism of the father of the study group subjects was a major differentiating factor between the two.S No. It reflects a sense of alienation and feelings of insignificance and failure.10 97. Mean value of parameter nCOAs COAs 1 Self-Esteem 81.28 3 Education 17.36 19. In contrast.97 41. Alcoholism in family leads to building up of stress in children from a very young age which leads to low intellectual.08 5 Social Adjustment 40. As the data of this study indicates that the stressful and vitiated domestic environment prevalent in alcohol complicated familial relationships is responsible for the low self-esteem and deficient adjustment seen in adolescent children of alcoholics. who reports that self-esteem ratings for COAs were significantly lower in comparison to ratings for nCOAs. The findings of this study do not agree with number of research papers and researcher who found no significant relationship between parental alcoholism and self-esteem of their children(for example Churchill(1990) [3]). it can be argued that COAs are expected to have lower emotional stabilities and emotional adjustments. the results are congruent with that of Morey (1999) [4].06 36.66 4 Emotional Adjustment 32. thinking and IQ levels.88 138. Also the study brings out the need that any effective de-addiction programme must acknowledge the necessity of adolescent children to overcome and deal with various deficits in their psychosocial functioning. This is reflected in the poor adjustment scores obtained by the COAs in this study. Our findings show that fathers’ heavy drinking patterns and children’s psychosocial problems appear to be closely related to one another over time. Made By Kishan Kumar Sachdeva Indian institute of Technology Delhi Page 7 .26 2 Overall Adjustment 119. such that children’s adjustment was improved during times of parental alleviated drinking and was worsened during times of parental exacerbated drinking. The low self-esteem scores obtained by the study group respondents indicate feelings of dissatisfaction with oneself and feelings of not being skilled.38 MEAN SCORE PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS ON SUBJECT DIMENSIONS Parameter Discussion The study has reveals that the majority of COAs manifest lower levels of self-esteem and a lesser degree of adjustment than nCOAs. Thus the low self-esteem seen in COAs is indicative of poor emotional maturity and may diminish their interpersonal competency. This has a direct effect on child’s educations which gets adversely affected.

. it is not largely psychologically or physiologically based). including rules about alcohol use and disapproval of use.Some major concerns are that they: o Are at more at risk for alcoholism and other drug abuse than children of nonalcoholics. Youths who do not drink are closer to their parents affectively and are under greater control by their parents.  But the parental relational are not completely independent with the drinking patterns. the adolescent’s alcohol use. drinking behaviour can change if community norms related to drinking change. impacted the father’s relationship with his child and the youth’s personality. In Indian teenagers specifically those who drink. consider their friends to be very important.4. tend to be less controlled by and have less affectionate relationships with their parents than their peers who do not drink. o Quality time spent together by the father and youth. Therefore. as well as the adolescent’s peer group.  Paternal characteristics. teenagers tend to drink more as they mature in terms of age to assert their self-reliance. Based on the findings of the above studies. o Experience greater physical and mental health problems and higher health care costs than children from non-alcoholic families. unorthodoxy. and. These dimensions were : o Warm father-child mutual attachment relationship. the father’s attributes are associated with the perceived environment and ultimately.  Father’s child-rearing practices were related to the adolescent’s personality. One way in which adolescents are known to assert their independence or self-sufficiency from parental control is through drinking.  The finding mentioned grave situation in cases of COA (Children Of Alcoholics). o Score lower on tests measuring verbal ability. The degree of attachment to either parents or friends seems to be related to drinking among both teenagers and their younger brothers or sisters. including the child’s identification with his/her father.. we comes to following conclusions Made By Kishan Kumar Sachdeva Indian institute of Technology Delhi Page 8 . such as depression. the drinking behaviour of parents seems to influence the teenagers in this sample. Conclusions  The extent of influence of parental factors where parents do not drink themselves and where alcoholism among children is predominantly in a peer group on the variations in drinking patterns by site illustrate that drinking may be mostly a social phenomenon among many people (viz. o The father’s appropriate control techniques. consistent with the findings of various other studies. if so.  The zeal to claim and to do things without consulting their parents can also be interlinked with escalating drinking frequency as a youth gains age. Therefore. those who drink tend to be youths who report less affectionate ties to their parents. o Show symptoms of depression and phobias more than children of nonalcoholics.  However. which in turn was associated with adolescent alcohol use. and drug and alcohol use.

Made By Kishan Kumar Sachdeva Indian institute of Technology Delhi Page 9 . Nevertheless. Co-dependent adolescent children of alcoholics also merit therapeutic intervention owing to the various deficits in psychosocial functioning manifested in them.to summarize the first hypothesis of direct relation of parental intervention into a child’s life and alcoholic pattern doesn’t seem to be concrete since drinking among youth is largely associated with Socialization trends among youth. With this the .  The need of the hour is to develop programmes for parents of COAs with a strong focus on strengthening flexibility in them and to inculcate desirable personality traits and enhance their psychosocial functioning through appropriate psychotherapeutic procedures. there is still non-negligible effect of Parent-Child relations But the second hypothesis of effects on a child’s psychology due to alcoholism in family stands with the effects as stated above.o Have greater difficulty with intellection and conceptual reasoning.

& Nicholson. Made By Kishan Kumar Sachdeva Indian institute of Technology Delhi Page 10 . Churchill. [4] Morey. (2007). Martin D. Alcohol Use in Adolescents Whose Fathers Abuse Drugs: Merrill Singer. 15.By Selwyn Stanley. C. Journal of Drug Education. References [1] 12. 3.C. Mike Charleston. By Chassin.. Nov 1991. J Pers Soc Psychol. 63-75. [3] Volume 27. Canadian Center on Substance Abuse. Children of alcoholics: a school-based comparative study. 2. Psychiatric Social Worker. Houston. 2003. and alcohol use. 63-75. Sociability. (1974). K. “Addictive Disease”. 13. Barrera. National college health assessment: Reference group executive summary. (1999). PhD. TX 77030. Manuel. Duke. and G. INDIA. Vol 100(4). 9. January 1988. Substance use and symptomatology among adolescent children of alcoholics. 1. 11. "Drinking Patterns. self-efficacy. September 22. Rogosch. 8. N. (1999). By Webb JA. Alcoholism and Its Effect on the Family.Yoshimitsu Takie. (2010). Topper. [2] American College Health Association.L.P. 2010. 29(1). 1996. J. AllPsych Journal December 14. 5.nih. Broida. Patrick Lynch. 97-116. Psychosocial Correlates in Adolescent Children of Alcoholics-Implications for Intervention. Young adults and alcohol: How much is too much? Inaugural Bill Deeks Lecture. National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences. and Navajo Adolescents. World Health Organissation.org http://www. . Bangalore. PhD Michael R. Fred Parsons. 7. Cultural Changes.gov/Pages/default.aspx Influence of family disharmony and parental alcohol use on adolescent social skills. 14. Journal of American Indian Education. "WHO to meet beverage company representatives to discuss health-related alcohol issues". Morey. January 1988. http://www. 71:937-952. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences. K. 6. Children of alcoholics: a school-based comparative study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.5. Baer PE.niaaa. J. Laurie. Journal of Drug Education.Baylor College of Medicine.nacoa. By. Locus of control and self-esteem of adult children of alcoholics. Baltimore: American College Health Association. Number 2. (1990). 4. C. USA. 1. 29(1). 10.

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