MATERIAL

E KIP/IN2 KIP/FT2 KN/M2

KN/MM2
### ### ### ###

DENSITY POISSON' S RATIO KIP/IN3 KIP/FT3
0.30 0.30 0.33 0.17 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###

STEEL 29000 ### 205.000 STAINLESS STEEL 28000 ### 197.930 ALUMINIUM 10000 ### 68.948 CONCRETE 3150 453600 21.718
1 144 12

DENSITY KG/M3 KN/M3
### ### ### ### 76.8195 76.8195 26.6018 23.5616

CRITICAL SHEAR MODULUS (G) ALFA DUMPIN @/ᴼF @/ᴼK KIP/FT2 G
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

KETENTUAN MINIMUM BALOK DAN SLAB 1 ARAH TANPA DEFLEKSI Ketebalan Minimum (h) Terdukun Jenis g 1 Ujung 2 Ujung Kantileve Sederhan Menerus Menerus r a Slab-One Way l/20 l/24 l/28 l/10 Beam l/16 l/18.5 l/21 l/8

3 0.3 0.03 2000 250 4000 4 0.2 0.25 0.03 2000 250 4000 4 0.2 0.4 0.03 750 750 250 4000 6 0.03 400 4D12 4D12 4D12 4D12 15D12-129 15D12-129 15D12-129 15D12-129 15D12-129 15D12-129 4D10 3D12 .BETON Fc' Fy L b h selimut P Q atas bawah sengkan ka g ki tul kg/cm2 kg/cm2 m m m m kg kg/m 250 4000 4 0.3 0.4 0.25 0.03 1500 250 4000 6 0.03 300 250 4000 6 0.25 0.2 0.4 0.

03 300 350 3D12 250 4000 8 0.5 0.4 0.03 .250 4000 6 0.3 0.25 0.

ROLL : FX FY FZ MX MY MZ V V V V V Panjang efektif untuk tekan: Ly. Lz Panjang efectif untuk momen lentur: UNT. UNL . UNB.

17 MINMAIN 16 = Minimum diameter tulangan utama beton D16 MINSEC 10 = Minimum diameter tulangan sekunder beton/sengkang P10 MAXMAIN 16 = Maksimum diameter tulangan utama beton. D16 REINF 0 = Jenis sengkang apakah spiral (1) atau tied (0) .CONCRETE COVER CLB bottom CLS side CLT top • Code : CODE ACI • Kuat beton : FC • Tegangan leleh tulangan utama : FYMAIN • Tegangan leleh tulangan sengkang : FYSEC • Parameter-parameter pendukung lainnya Ec density poisson ratio • Design Balok : DESIGN BEAM • Design Kolom : DESIGN COLUMN • TAKE OFF 25 N/mm2 415 N/mm2 22 kN/mm2 25 kN/m3 0.

1.15 (flexural is dominant) Jika fa adalah tensile atau nol . • Ratio : ratio adalah 1 untuk beban tetap. Jika fa adalah compesive dan fa/Fa lebih besar dari 0. UNT. LY à pada kolom dan beam/rafter.• Code : CODE AISC • Tegangan leleh baja : FYLD KZ à pada seluruh kolom UNB.15 (compression is dominant) Jika fa adalah compesive dan fa/Fa lebih kecil dari 0.3 untuk Beban sementara. • Faktor panjang tekuk • Check code : CHECK CODE Take Off.

.

.

.

.

.

AISCLRFD .

.

LOAD 1 psi psi (lb/in2) 60000 4000 b In 15 Beam h In 21 Re-bar d in 18.d Vc 35860.DESIGN RESULT .23 lb Vs = (Vu/ø) .41 Mu kip-ft 369.17 2.00 FT.79 kip 62.Vc Vs 63043.86 KIP-FT AT 0.92 kip .13 IN dari tinggi total h = 21 IN BAR INFO jumlah dan diameter tulangan yang dipakai 4 # 11 = dipakai 4 tulangan yang berdiameter 11 FROM awal penempatan panjang tulangan dihitung dari sebelah kiri balok / BEAM sebagai titik 0 n FT 0 = 0 IN 0-0/0 = 0 0 IN dari panjang total L = 20 FT TO akhir penempatan panjang tulangan dihitung dari sebelah kiri balok / BEAM sebagai titik 0 n FT 18 = 216 IN 10-0/0 = 10 226 IN dari panjang total L = 20 FT ANCHOR kait yang diberikan pada tiap tulangan START Yes = diberikan kait END No = tidak ada kait CRITICAL NEG/POS MOMENT = REQUIRED STEEL = As ρ min ρ ρ max Fy Fc' L Ft 20 369.46 lb 83.09 0.13 18.λ.86 SHEAR Vu Vc = 2.√fc'.9 kip 35.FLEXURE LENGTH FY FC SIZE LEVEL HEIGHT b h 20 60000 4000 15 21 FT kN/FT2 kN/FT2 INCHES INCHES 132 kip/ft2 penomoran tulangan tinggi tulangan dihitung dari dasar balok / BEAM ke atas FT 1 = 12 IN 6-1/8 = 6.9 n 4 D In 1.bw.

Av/s Av s

0.06 in 0.39 in2 7 in

Check ß1 c a c

ß1 0.85 0.85-…

f'c <= 4000 psi > 4000

berkurang 0.05 setiap 1000 psi tp tid

tul single c = ((As*fy)/(0.85*f'c*b))ß tul double c = ((Asmax*fy)/(0.85*f'c*b))ß a = c*ß1

ρb = 0.85*ß1*(f'c/fy)*(87/(87+fy)) ρmin >= (3f'c^(1/2))/fy ρmin >= 200/fy Asmin = ρmin*b*d ρtemp fy 0 40 atau 50 ksi 0 60 0.0018*60/fy > 60 Astemp = ρtemp/(2*b*h) ρmaks single ρmaks = 0.75*ρb doubly ρmaks = 0.75*ρb+ρ'*f'sb/fy ρ' = As'/b*d f'sb = 87*(1-d'/d)*(87+fy)/87 <+ fy single Asmax = 0.75*ρb*b*d doubly Asmax = (0.75*ρb*b*d+ρ'*f'sb/fy)*b*d ρ

singly ρ = As/(b*d) ρ = (ø*fy-((ø*fy)^2-4*(ø*0.59*fy^2/f'c)*(12Mu/(b doubly A's yield f's = (1-(d'/c))*87 >= fy ρ = (0.75*ρb)+(A's/(b*d)) A's doesn't yield f's = (1-(d'/c))*87 < fy ρ = (0.75*ρb)+(A's/(b*d))*(f's/fy)

singly As = ρ*b*d doubly A's yield f's = (1-(d'/c))*87 >= fy As = (0.75*ρb*b*d)+(Mu/ø-0.85*f'c*a*b*(d-a/2))/( A's doesn't yield f's = (1-(d'/c))*87 < fy As = (0.75*ρb*b*d)+((Mu/ø-0.85*f'c*a*b*(d-a/2))/

A's yield f's = (1-(d'/c))*87 >= fy A's = (Mu/ø-0.85*f'c*a*b*(d-a/2))/(fy*(d-d')) A's doesn't yield f's = (1-(d'/c))*87 < fy A's = ((Mu/ø-0.85*f'c*a*b*(d-a/2))/(fy*(d-d')))*(f's/

yard 0.42 0.33 0.01 2.78E-05 1

mil 15000 12000 393.7 1 36000

cm ft 38.1 1.25 30.48 1 1 0.03 0 8.33E-05 91.44 3

in 15 12 0.39 0 36

kN 1 4.45 0 4-NUM.11 atau 4#11 kg

kip 0.22 1 0 lb

N 1000 0 1 kip 0 0 1

Mpa 1 0.01

psi 145.03 1

1 2.2 0.45 1 454.55 1002.09

No 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 As in2 5.44 ok As (DESIGN ) in2 6.25

0.9

Berat lb 0.376 0.668 1.043 1.502 2.045 2.671 3.399 4.308 5.310 7.656 13.606

ø 0.9

Mu/ø kip-ft 410.96

x ft 0

As (STAAD) in2 5.47

ρ min 0 0

ρ 0.02

65 in in f'c n fy = psi .05 setiap 1000 psi tp tidak boleh kurang sampai 0.

*fy^2/f'c)*(12Mu/(b*d^2)))^(1/2))/(2*(ø*0.59*fy^2/f'c)) ø=0.9 85*f'c*a*b*(d-a/2))/(fy*(d-d')) 85*f'c*a*b*(d-a/2))/(fy*(d-d')))*(f's/fy) 2))/(fy*(d-d')) a/2))/(fy*(d-d')))*(f's/fy) .

41 1.357 2.88 1.750 3.13 1.75 0.002 Kel in 1.96 0.69 2.56 psi 4000 .991 4.Dia in 0.00 1.321 7.442 0.143 3.431 5.74 kN-m 557.27 1.50 0.179 1.093 ρb 0 ρ max kip-ft 410.267 1.38 0.786 1.17 1 N-cm lb-in ### 8849.000 1.63 0.196 0.110 0.545 3.562 2.252 4.26 Luas in2 0.602 0.307 0.571 1.964 2.

11 1 .0 0.

.

76 4 576.1 1.03 .45 lb/in2 N/cm2 kN/cm2 kip/in2 kip/ft2 4000 2758 2.

.

.

64 -0.67 44.36 Angle Pricipal psi 67.29 psi S = (1/6)*(t^2) σx = SX + MX/S σy = SY + MY/S τxy =SXY + MXY/S TMAX = √((((σx-σy)^2)/4)+(τxy^2)) SMAX = ((σ x + σy)/2) + TMAX SMIN = ((σ x + σy)/2) . SX = 0 pound/inch2 SY = 0 pound/inch2 SXY = 0 pound/inch2 MX = 16.4 pounds/in2 σy 514.07 -44.σ = P/A P A τ = Ps/A Ps 0.27 pounds/in2 ANGLE -23.TMAX ANGLE = (1/2 TAN^-1)*(2τxy/(σx-σy)) VONT = 0.81 pound-inch/inch MXY = 36.07 Vm Tresca psi psi 44.64 22.36 Bottom 0.99 pounds/in2 SMIN 7.72 .3 VONT 605.5 Max 44.5 Min -0.17 in2 σx 101.67 44.86 pounds/in2 τxy 218.72 44.16 kN/mm2 22.707 √((SMAX − SMIN)2 + (SM Plate Principal Stresses Smax Smin Tmax psi(lb/in2) psi psi Top 44.86 pounds/in2 SMAX 608.64 67.43 pound-inch/inch S 0.36 144 0 Calculations are presented for the top surface only.58 pounds/in2 TMAX 300.07 22.9 pound-inch/inch MY = 85.

71 pound-inch/inch S 0.17 in2 σx 17.707 √((SMAX − SMIN)2 + (SM Plate Principal Stresses .97 pounds/in2 τxy 10.86 pound-inch/inch MY = 16. SX = 0 pound/inch2 SY = 0 pound/inch2 SXY = 0 pound/inch2 MX = 2.83 pound-inch/inch MXY = 1.28 pounds/in2 S = (1/6)*(t^2) σx = SX + MX/S σy = SY + MY/S τxy =SXY + MXY/S TMAX = √((((σx-σy)^2)/4)+(τxy^2)) SMAX = ((σ x + σy)/2) + TMAX SMIN = ((σ x + σy)/2) .SOAL 18 PLATE NO 4 Calculations are presented for the top surface only.TMAX ANGLE = (1/2 TAN^-1)*(2τxy/(σx-σy)) VONT = 0.17 pounds/in2 σy 100.

92 Vm Tresca psi psi 95.24 102.15 43.11 Max 102.92 -102.24 102.Max.11 Min 15.21 Tmax psi 43.21 15.21 83. Distortion energy theory (Von Mises & Hencky’s theory): •The criteria of failure for the distortion – energy theory is expressed as Considering the factor of safety •For bi – axial stresses (σ3=0).92 Bottom -15.21 3.21 95.15 Angle Pricipal psi 83.Smax Smin psi(lb/in2) psi Top 102. Maximum principal stress .

.Minimum principal stress •For ductile materials σ1 should not exceed Syt/FoS in tension. FoS = factor of safety For brittle materials  1 should not exceed in tension Boundary The failure or yielding is assumed to take pla member where the max shear stress in a bia reaches a value equal to shear strength obtained from simple tension test. In a biaxial stress case max shear stress devel where τmax = This theory is mostly used for ductile materials.

.This theory is mostly used for ductile materials.

TMAX 1/2 TAN^-1)*(2τxy/(σx-σy)) 707 √((SMAX − SMIN)2 + (SMAX)2 + (SMIN)2) = psi .(((σx-σy)^2)/4)+(τxy^2)) σ x + σy)/2) + TMAX x + σy)/2) .

SY. MXY SMAX. the unit width is a unit parallel to the local Y axis. TRESCAB Tresca stress. VONB (((σx-σy)^2)/4)+(τxy^2)) σ x + σy)/2) + TMAX x + σy)/2) . |(Smax)| . where TRESCA = MAX[ |(Smax-Smin)| . For M width is a unit distance parallel axis. where VM = 0.SQX.707 (SMAX − SMIN)2 + SMAX2 + SMIN2 TRESCAT. SQY SX. MY.TMAX 1/2 TAN^-1)*(2τxy/(σx-σy)) 707 √((SMAX − SMIN)2 + (SMAX)2 + (SMIN)2) = psi Shear stresses (Force/ unit len Membrane stresses (Force/unit Moments per unit width (Force (For Mx. Mx and My cause bending causes the element to twist out Principal stresses in the plane o (Force/unit area). The 3rd princ Maximum 2D shear stress in th element (Force/unit area) Orientation of the 2D principal 3D Von Mises stress. SXY MX. |(Smin)| . SMIN TMAX ANGLE VONT.

the user must provide the location (local X in the coordinate system for the element. The origin local coordinate system coincides with the center o element. the 3D V stress (VONT & VONB). The 3D max shear stress at the surface is not calculated but wou to the 3D Tresca stress divided by 2. 1. 2.Notes: 1. To obtain element stresses at a specified point w element. the 2 orientation of the principal plane (ANGLE).0. . the maximum 2D shear stress (TMAX).13. 3. The third principal stress is assumed to be zero a for use in Von Mises and Tresca stress calculations. All element stress output is in the local coordinat direction and sense of the element stresses are exp Fig. The 2 nonzero Principal stresses at the surface (S SMIN). and the 3D Tresca stress (TR & TRESCAB) are also printed for the top and bottom of the elements. the TMAX and ANGLE are based only on the 2D inpl stresses (SMAX & SMIN) at the surface. The top and the bottom surfaces a determined on the basis of the direction of the loca 4.

.n Boundary for maximum – normal – stress theory under ed to take place at a point in a tress in a biaxial stress system ear strength of the material st. r stress developed is given by materials.

materials. .

.

|(Smin)| ] .0 2D shear stress in the plane of the orce/unit area) n of the 2D principal plane (Degrees) ses stress. where .) e stresses (Force/unit len. The 3rd principal stress is 0.esses (Force/ unit len. For My./ thk) per unit width (Force x Length/length) e unit width is a unit distance the local Y axis.) tresses in the plane of the element area). the unit unit distance parallel to the local X nd My cause bending./ thk. |(Smax)| . while Mxy element to twist out-of-plane. where + SMAX2 + SMIN2 ess.

in the local coordinate system. The ment stresses are explained in at a specified point within the e the location (local X. local Y) e element. the 2D ne (ANGLE). However. d only on the 2D inplane surface. The origin of the des with the center of the sses at the surface (SMAX & stress (TMAX). assumed to be zero at the surfaces a stress calculations. the 3D Von Mises e 3D Tresca stress (TRESCAT or the top and bottom surfaces he bottom surfaces are direction of the local z-axis. The 3D maximum ot calculated but would be equal .

eory under bi – axial stresses .

.

7 b h FT kN/FT2 kN/FT2 INCHES INCHES 60000 4000 12 12 Tied psi psi (lb/in2) (lb/in2) sq.68 0.8 688.14 My .in Pn Mn P-bal 189.in n 1 in2 sq.33 Mz 66.in sq.89 8 8 9 5.DESIGN RESULT LENGTH FY FC SIZE Reinf Ast Ast (%) As provide Bar Number Reinf PCT ø 7.54 Pu 249.56 0.56 M-bal e-bal COLUMN INTERACTION Po ø Pn kip kip 860.

61 .63 149.6 202.41 168.69 168.97 185.44 166.69 143.48 163.93 171.74 156.52 170.95 170.67 194.93 169.250 200 Axis Title 150 100 50 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 Axis Title 210.81 171.25 169.45 178.

44 132.41 .8 167.COLUMN 71 172 173 137.39 165.25 166.2 127.

0 OK SYARAT GEMPA B/D RATIO >= 0.IN 4000 LB.63 PERKIRAAN TEBAL KOLOM 15.42 INCH CRITICAL POS/NEG MOMENT 189.0 PANJANG BALOK EFEKTIF225.0090 ROWMX 0.00 BAR INFO AT ROW 2.00 FT 0.0214 / 4.5 / 8 2.0000 ROWMN ρ max BAR DIA.94 INCH / 31.3 ### > 0.8 0 .0 / 0 3.77 M u x ø / ø f kip-ftt 0.26 37.5 / 8 20 0 .0032 ### ρ 0. DEVELOPMENT LENGTH CHECKED ρ min 0.3 OK LEBAR BALOK >= 15 > ### FT 0 FROM TO FT IN FT IN 3 NUM 9 2 4 .77 KIP-FT REQUIRED STEEL 2. Mu kip-ft 1.9 ##0 # As = Mu / ø fy j d j ø As 0.63 240.0106 ρb 0.0 4d < Le 75.4800 IN2 MAX/MIN/ACTUAL BAR SPACING 7.6 < 225.50 / BASIC/REQD.95 12.BEAM DESIGN RESULT OF FLEXURE LENGTH FY FC SIZE b h d LEVEL IN 20 FT 60000 LB.13 189.85 0.IN 15INCHES 21INCHES 19INCHES HEIGHT IN 2 .38 28.

8 6.4835 ρ #N/A ρb 0.0381 0.40 963.68 PERKIRAAN TEBAL KOLOM PANJANG BALOK EFEKTIF 4d < Le ### < 5715.fc'. DEVELOPMENT LENGTH As (DESIGN ) in2 #NAME? CHECKED ρ min 0.9920 MM2 MAX/MIN/ACTUAL BAR SPACING 190.fy/0.BEAM DESIGN RESULT OF FLEXURE LENGTH FY FC SIZE b h d LEVEL MM LOAD ROWMN 1.25 a=As.0033 6096 MM 414 N.93 BAR INFO FROM IN CRITICAL POS/NEG MOMENT ### N-MM REQUIRED STEEL 62.85.MM 381 MM 533 MM 480 MM HEIGHT IN 2 .00 0.MM 28 N.5 / 8 66.50 / BASIC/REQD.48 As in2 2.3 LEBAR BALOK >= OK 250 MM ANCHOR START END FT 0 FT 3 NUM 9 2 4 85.79 ρ max As = Mu / ø fy j d j ø As 0.85 0.b .08 AT ROW 57.95 727.0 OK SYARAT GEMPA B/D RATIO >= 0.0000 As (STAAD ) in2 2.

00 0.AAN TEBAL KOLOM 381. Mu As M x (STAAD u ) ø / ø ft kip-ft in2 0.48 As in2 0 As (DESIGN ) in2 #NAME? .0 SYARAT GEMPA B/D RATIO >= 0.0033 ρ max kip-ft #N/A 189.0 G BALOK EFEKTIF 5715.00 ### MM 0.08 6096.0214 / 125.0 / 0 727.3 ### > 0.77 BAR DIA.0090 ROWMX 0.5 / 8 20 0 .3 OK LEBAR BALOK >= ### > ### OK 250 MM FROM TO IN FT IN .9 ##0 # 2.07 MM ANCHOR START END LOAD ROWMN 1.48 MM / 798.

128 h = 21 d = 19 b = 15 KONTROL c/d εt 0.015 ok <= >= 0.005 ρ ### > > ok ρmin 0.375 0.166 ok 0.c = 3.0033 .

85 T = 135600 .571 ß 0.659 C = 135600 d .(a/2) 17.εc = 0 a = 2.

b.a T=As.Fy ε=0.003(d/t-1) .F'c.c C=0.a=ß.85.

750 3.991 4.606 Dia in 0.357 2.88 1.321 7.69 2.307 0.41 1.75 0.442 0.179 1.571 1.63 0.376 0.143 3.562 2.502 2.000 1.093 kip-ft 210.27 1.668 1.26 Luas in2 0.267 1.74 kN-m 285.002 Kel in 1.786 1.50 0.No 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 19 22 23 25 Berat lb 0.043 1.545 3.11 .671 3.431 5.38 0.310 7.656 13.196 0.602 0.13 1.964 2.045 2.252 4.399 4.110 0.88 1 0 N-cm 0.86 0.308 5.00 1.

56 1 .lb-in ### 8849.

15 1000 ### 0.65 1 20.kg MODULUS ELASTICITY (e) Nmm kip ft ton m lb ft kip in kN m kg m kN cm 1 9806.89 101.1 .43 0.97 20885.

81E-06 1.20E-03 1.kampustekniksipil.2 6.11 1.84 35.81 30 kip = 2.37 3.00E-03 Kg N KN MN T dyN lb kip mton Contoh 2 : 30 Jawab : Satuan lama Satuan baru yang diinginkan = = kip N kip = …….75E-02 deg grad rad .cc satuan baru Rumus Konversi = satuan lama x angka pengali Contoh 1 : 0.5 Konversi Volume 1 1000000 1000000000 61023.00E-03 0.09 Konversi Area 1 10000 1000000 1550. N Sesuaikan dengan tabel konversi disamping Ambil angka (nilai) yang ada ditabel untuk dijadikan perbandingan 9.2 2.2 m2 cm2 mm2 sq in sq ft sq yd m km cm mm in ft yd Jawab : http://www.5 cm = 0.98 2.5 cm = …….31 264.81E-03 9.81 9.Converting Units Of Measurement Konversi Panjang 1 0 100 1000 39.0164 ft x 0.76 1. ft Satuan lama Satuan baru yang diinginkan = = cm ft Sesuaikan dengan tabel konversi disamping Ambil angka (nilai) yang ada ditabel untuk dijadikan perbandingan 3.co.28 0.31 1.20E-03 30 kip = 133500 N x 30 Konversi Sudut 1 1.5 cm = 100 0.39 10.28 1.29 219.97 m2 cm3 mm3 cu in cu ft cu yd gal(USA) barrel(oil) gal(UK) Konversi Berat 1 9.

yd t.m MN.67 9806.00E-03 1.in t.m t.cm kg.ft kg.39 9.94E-02 9.00E-09 kg/m2 kg/cm2 kg/mm2 Pa Kpa Mpa t/m2 t/cm2 t/mm2 Contoh 3 : Konversi Momen Jawab : 1 100 1000 1.yd KN.00E-04 1.22E-05 3.m N.09 9.09 3.m kg.ft t.07E-02 3.1 1 1.07E-05 3.mm kg.00E-06 9.mm t.mm KN.98 9.ft MN.81 980.mm N.28E-03 3.cm N.81E-06 1.in MN.00E-03 0.cm t.00E-07 1.65 10.cm KN.22E-02 0.yd N.81E-06 9.mm MN.Konversi Tekanan 1 1.m KN.81E-03 1.37 1.in KN.09E-03 3.81 1.81E-03 0.ft N.81E-04 9.yd kg.86E-04 kg.81E-06 25 Mpa = 254.81 9.00E-04 25 Mpa = 9.72 32.929 kg/cm2 x 25 .ft KN.in Satuan lama Satuan baru yang diinginkan = = Mpa kg/cm2 25 Mpa = …….yd MN.in N.81E-03 9.cm MN. kg/cm2 Sesuaikan dengan tabel konversi disamping Ambil angka (nilai) yang ada ditabel untuk dijadikan perbandingan 1.28 39.17 386.

67 1 0 erbandingan .22 1000 2204.03 0.39 0 36 Mpa 1 0.03 ### 3 in 1 12 0.09 101.2 0.6 1.57 1 999.1 0.25 kip 0 0 1 0.76 99.45 1 454.97 0.33 0.01 psi 145.81 Ton 0 dyN 0.81 9806.08 1 0.44 445.angka pengali yard 0.1 0 1 0.01 2.7 1 36000 cm 2.54 30.2 0 kN 0.45 0.55 1002.98 0 4.02 2.01 N 9.94 224.1 980.46 4457.65 0.44 ft 0.78E-05 1 mil 1000 12000 393.66 0 1 9.22 0 2.03 1 erbandingan kg lb 1 2.01 10 0 0.48 1 0 91.73 0.45 4.

=1 kg.yard 1.9.09 451939.36 salah erbandingan .29 Converts 100 square feet into square meters (9.m ke kg.290304).

.

290304).(9. .

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.