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MATERI 1 Widha K Ningdyah, ST., MT


Sebelum Adam Smith

Periode Adam Smith

Masa Modern

CHANAKYA. QIN SHI HUANG. XENOPHAN. IBN KHALDUN (14th – 17th centuries) Adam Smith ADAM SMITH (1776) >> "an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations“ KEYNES (1936) >> The General Theory of Employment.HISTORY OF ECONOMICS ECONOMICS << Ancient Greek Oikonomia : Management of a household or estate Oikos : Household Nomos : Law ARISTOTLE. Interest and Money John Maynard Keynes (right) . THOMAS AQUINAS.

when added up. Economics is the study of how individuals and societies choose to use the scarce resources that nature and previous generations have provided. The key word in this definition is choose. The choices that people make. (Case. Economics is a behavioral. 2010) . or social. translate into societal choices. In large measure. science. et al. it is the study of how people make choices.

FAKTOR PENGGERAK KEGIATAN EKONOMI Kebutuhan Ekonomi • sifatnya tidak terbatas Kelangkaan (Scarcity) • ketersediaannya terbatas Pilihan (Alternatif)/ Opportunity cost • penggunaan sumberdaya untuk tujuan tertentu Konsep Ekonomi • dibedakan antara kebutuhan (need) dan Keinginan (want) .


when we make a choice or a decision. or give up. Efficient Markets—No Free Lunch • A market in which profit opportunities are eliminated almost instantaneously. Marginalism • The process of analyzing the additional or incremental costs or benefits arising from a choice or decision.TO LEARN A WAY OF THINKING Opportunity Cost • The best alternative that we forgo. .

TO UNDERSTAND SOCIETY The study of economics is an essential part of the study of society. .

.TO UNDERSTAND GLOBAL AFFAIRS An understanding of economics is essential to an understanding of global affairs.

TO BE AN INFORMED CITIZEN To be an informed citizen requires a basic understanding of economics .

.RUANG LINGKUP EKONOMI MICROECONOMICS • The branch of economics that examines the functioning of individual industries and the behavior of individual decision-making units—that is. firms and households. output. and so on—on a national scale. employment. MACROECONOMICS • The branch of economics that examines the economic behavior of aggregates—income.

dengan menilai (baik atau buruk. atau dapat diperbaiki) . tanpa menilai NORMATIVE ECONOMICS • Memahami perilaku.METODE EKONOMI POSITIVE ECONOMICS • Memahami perilaku.

POSITIVE ECONOMICS • Simply compile data that describe facts and economics phenomenon • Statement about economics causalrelationship .

MODEL Model is a formal statement of a theory Variable is a measure that can change from time to time or from observation to observation .

.OCKHAM’S RAZOR The principle that irrelevant detail should be cut away.

.CETERIS PARIBUS Or ALL ELSE EQUAL  A device used to analyze the relationship between two variables while the values of other variables are held unchanged.

therefore because of this”) fallacy The Fallacy of Composition • The erroneous belief that what is true for a part is necessarily true for the whole.PERHATIAN!! The Post Hoc Fallacy • post hoc. ergo propter hoc (or “after this. .

Empirical economics involves the collection and use of data to test economic theories. . In principle. the best model is the one that yields the most accurate predictions.

ECONOMIC POLICY criteria are used most often Efficiency Equity Growth stability. .

Efficiency •An efficient economy is one that produces what people want at the least possible cost. .

Equity •fairness implies a more equal distribution of income and wealth .

Growth •Economic growth is an increase in the total output of an economy .

Stability • A condition in which national output is growing steadily. with low inflation and full employment of resources. .

PSTI-UB. Fair.BAHAN BACAAN  Case. R..  Rosydi. 1996.. . Prentice Hall Business Publishing  Eunike. 10th Editions. Suherman. Pengantar Teori Ekonomi. (2010). & Oster. Power Point Mata Kuliah Pengantar Ekonomika. 2012. Agustina. Raja Grafindo Persyada. Sharon M. Jakarta. K. Principles of Economics.