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# 1 Data Entry and Basic Statistics - Data Representations (PART 1) (DR SEE KIN HAI) 1.

Click on [Variable View] to change the width, Variable name, error made by you in typing and there is no limit in the length for Variable Name.

2. In the Variable Name, enter the list as shown. The number of decimals that will appear on the screen e.g
23.00

Click on the right and enter the Values, e.g. 1=Male, 2=Female and missing =999

You can give a longer name for the variable. E.g. [ intelligence of students]

## Type [1] and [Label] type [Male] then [Add]

2 Now you get this. Try type [2] into [Value] box and [Female] in [Label] box then [Add]

4. Your [Variable view] is shown below. Click on [Data View] and enter the 12 data as shown.

1=Male, 2=Female

If you want to see what are the [Value Labels] for [Gender], click on [View] then select [Value Labels]. You will see the fig below. Now the [Gender] is shown as [Male] and [Female] not [1.00] and [2.00].

## For bar charts, scatterplots and other graphical representations

Example of simple Analysis to find mean of the Intelligence Click on [Analyze] [Descriptive Statistics] [Descriptives] to open the dialogue box below. Move [Intelligence] to the [Variables] box Then click [OK] and you get the figure below.

This is the average intelligence score= 3.6667 for 12 students. SD = 1.92275 Min score= 1 and Max score = 8

There are 4 types of Measurement scales 1. Nominal it is not the true measurement more of categorical e.g. 1 = female, 2= male. 2. Ordinal for ranking / order (e.g. In a beauty contest , 1= Mary, 2= Jane and 3= Jasmine) 3. Interval equal interval scores e.g. marks (0 = arbitrary, not true zero because a student who gets 0 mark does not mean that this student has nothing in his head) 4. Ratio equal ratio, true zero (height =0 m, weight =0 Kg) There are 2 types of Variables 1. Discrete Variables definite numbers or counting numbers (1,2,3.) 2. Continuous Variables- defined range of values (weight= 45.6 Kg, marks = 72.5%) Statistical Techniques 1. Descriptive describe the main features of each variable (a) Univariate statistics = average age , no of people (b) Bivariate statistics = relationship between 2 or more variables (correlation coefficient) 2. Inferential statistics findings based on sample and Hypothesis testing to find statistical significant different and also correlation coefficient between variables. Research Design 1. Related measures correlated / paired measures with little variability (a) Mean of one (same) sample compared on 2 or more variables taken at different time. (E.g. test score and attitude score for the same sample) (b) 2 or more groups carefully matched. 3. Unrelated measures uncorrelated / unpaired measures. (a) means of 2 different samples compared for certain variable

## 5 Types of statistics to be used in your analysis (these are only suggestions)

Descriptive Statistics Tables and diagrams must be clearly labeled and titled. 1. Frequency table counting of numbers. 2. Pie-Chart - for small number of variables by counting numbers and % (consume space). 3. Bar-Chart for larger number of variables (category scale). 4. Histogram for numerical scores and no space in between. Example of Occupational status and frequencies

Teachers

To summarize frequency data by weighting, click on [Variable View] [Data View] to define the variable and to enter data.

then

Click on the right side of the [Values] to open the dialogue box and type [1] in [Value] box and [Teachers] in [Label] box then [Add] . Repeat till 5. then [OK]

Change 2 to 0 decimal places so that the number will be e.g. 23 and not 23.00

Click on [Values] and enter the value as 1=Teachers, 2=Nursery teachers, 3=TV presenters, 4=Students, 5 = Others Select the [Data View] and enter the data as shown.
To [Weight Cases], select [Data] and click on [Weight Cases] to open the dialogue box. Move [Frequency] into [Frequency Variable] box and select [Weight cases by] then [OK]

The [Occupations] are now weighted by the frequencies as [Weight On] shown at lower right of [Data Editor].

To show the percentage frequencies for the different Occupation 1. Select [Analyze] [Descriptive Statistics] [Frequencies] to open the dialogue. Move [Occupation] into the [Variables] box then select [OK]. To Interpret the Result in the Table
Here the Occupations are shown as the values of the 5 categories as 1,2,3,4 and 5. To change into label as Teachers, Follow the steps below.

To change the values to Label for the Occupation 1. Select the  on the menu bar then [Options] to open the dialogue box.

Select [Output Labels] then change [Values] into [Labels] and [Apply] then [OK]

2. You will get the table as shown. (However, if you do not get it, go to [Analyze] [Descriptive Statistics] [Frequencies] to open the dialogue. Move [Occupation] into the [Variables] box then select [OK].

## Labels are given

When reporting the results, simplify the table, then report only the Category, frequency and the percentage frequency. Omit valid from the table.

This column gives the % frequency for each category including missing values if you have any of them.

## This column gives the % excluding missing values

This column adds the %. E.g. for Nursery teachers = 21.3 + 3.8 = 25.0 %