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Aircraft  Structures  &  Optimisation   Kyle  Crawford  (12035068)  

Aircraft  Structures  &  Optimisation  -­‐  Strength  Analysis  


1. Recommendations  for  designers  and  researchers  resulting  from  the  worldwide  failure   exercise  (WWFE).  (P.D.  Soden  et  al.  2004)  

Current  failure  prediction  theories  have  shortcomings  adding  to  complexity  for  designers.  This  may   result   in   the   uneconomic   design   of   a   composite   part   due   to   safety   and   performance   criteria.   The   point  of  the  WWFE  is  to  help  define  a  unified  approach  for  composite  design,  encompassing  a  wide   range  of  laminates  and  loading  conditions,  and  predicting  as  much  behaviour  as  possible.     The   WWFE   examined   unidirectional   laminates   to   understand   the   issues   more   fundamentally.   The   two  main  approaches  used  were  meso-­‐modelling,  and  to  a  lesser  extent  micro-­‐mechanics,  however   the  latter  proved  more  conservative  in  strength  prediction.     “Simplicity,  speed,  and  availability”  when  put  in  the  context  of  available  design  time,  are  important   factors   identified   for   practical   purposes.   Quick   and   simple   methods   such   as   the   netting   and   10%   rules,   and   guidelines   set   out   by   standards   organisations   often   outperform   more   complex   theories   but  only  within  their  well  defined  and  limited  scope.     Some   promising   methods   were   identified   for   a   range   of   laminates   and   loading   conditions,   but   the   WWFE  wasn’t  able  to  provide  wide-­‐ranging  recommendations.  Even  the  experimental  data  provided   could   not   define   the   entire   failure   envelope,   which   prevented   full   evaluation   of   some   theories.   Producing   test   rigs   and   specimens   to   obtain   all   necessary   data   requires   high   levels   of   engineering   and  effort  and  is  an  area  for  future  work.  No  theories  were  able  to  predict  non-­‐linear  stress  strain   curves  at  high  strains  where  the  matrix  dominates  behaviour.     Improved  access  to  computer  codes  of  promising  theories  is  essential  to  improving  design  processes,   as  is  the  codes’  integration  into  FEA  packages.  Significant  issues  not  addressed  by  the  WWFE  include;   delamination,   ply   thickness   &   stacking   sequence,   environmental   conditions   and   exposure   to   high   and  low  temperatures.  There’s  a  lot  of  work  still  to  do,  and  a  lot  left  to  exploit  from  composites.    

  The   principal   methodology   used   for   certification   is   the   building   block   approach   (meso   modelling).  

2. Composite   Materials   Strength   Determination   Within   the   Current   Certification   Methodology  for  Aircraft  Structures.  

Although   relying   extensively   on   testing,   this   approach   provides   the   highest   probability   of   safety   -­‐   especially  key  in  aerospace  -­‐  but  is  expensive  and  time  consuming.  Though  failures  theories  exist  in  

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 and  finally  component  testing  for  certification.  molecular  etc.   matrix   type   failure   is   more   variable   than   fibre-­‐based.  the  non-­‐homogeneous  nature   of   the   composites   has   been   a   challenge.Aircraft  Structures  &  Optimisation   Kyle  Crawford  (12035068)   the  research  world  they  are  incomplete  to  the  level  where  they  are  not  yet  suitable  for  the  design   for  certification  process.  These  then   form  the  basis  for  component  design.   Using   micromechanics   is   currently   not   feasible   due   to   the   computing   costs   and   the   difficulty   in   measuring   several   physical   properties   of   the   composites.   Structural   elements  are  tested  based  on  these  allowables  for  a  wide  range  of  loading  conditions.  and  aren’t  good  enough  to  predict  the  onset  of  damage  across  a  wide  range   of  loading  and  structural  configurations.  Future  challenges  are.   Materials   &   processes   are   developed.     Elastic  behaviour  is  relatively  well  understood.   The  cost  of  introducing  new  materials  is  very  expensive  and  has  a  long  lead-­‐time  due  to  the  material   certification   process.g.g.   6-­‐10%.)  of  modelling  for  sufficiently  accurate  prediction.  breaking  the  dependence  on  test  data.   Lamina   based   strength   criteria   (e.   11-­‐18%   vs.  post-­‐elastic  however.   Tsai-­‐Wu)   are   not   accepted   for   certification   of   margin   of   safety.   Laminate   based   non-­‐ interactive  are  however.   which   gives   allowables.   The  better  the  design  tools  and  the  earlier  they  can  be  used  the  greater  the  reduction  in  cost  for  the   development  of  the  final  component.  but  again  rely  on  experimental  data.   and  determining  the  level  (micro.   e.   Page  2  of  2   .