You are on page 1of 6


A person who supports and is responsible for the work of others Help people achieve high performance

Top managers o Guide the performance of the organization as a whole or one of its major parts o Pay special attention to the external environment o Alert to potential long-run problems and opportunities, future-oriented strategic thinkers who make decisions under competitive and uncertain conditions Middle managers o Oversee the work of large departments or divisions o Work with top managers and coordinate to accomplish organizational objective o Project managers: coordinate complex projects with ask deadlines First-line managers/Team leaders/supervisors/Lower-level o Report to middle managers and directly supervise non-managerial workers o Ensure that work teams/units meet performance objectives



Planning: setting performance objectives and deciding how to achieve them Organizing: arranging tasks, people, and other resources to complete the work Leading: inspiring people to work hard to achieve high performance Controlling: measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results

The ability to translate knowledge into action that results in desired performance (skill) Technical: ability to use expertise to perform a task with proficiency (for lower level more than top level) Human skill- ability to work well in co-operation with other people (equal across all levels) Conceptual skils- the ability to think analytically and achieve integrative problem solving (more top level than lower level) Diagnostic skill??

Scientific management o Frederick Taylor o Maximum profit for the employer o Improve productivity by carefully maximizing time, efficiency, etc through motion study (the science of reducing a task to its basic motions) as pioneered by Gilberth Administrative Principles o Henry Fayol  Management can be taught  Management is a variety of skills  Scalar chain principle: there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom in the organization  Unity of command principle: each person should receive orders from just one boss  Unity of direction principle: one person should be in charge of all activities that have the same performance objectives o Marie Parker Follet  Groups were mechanisms through which individuals could combine talents for a greater good Bureaucratic Organization



member satisfaction. BEHAVIOURAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES Maintains that people are social and self-actualizing Hawthorne Studies o Groups can have positive/negative influence on individual productivity o Hawthorne effect: self-fulfilling prophecy  Influenced the human relations movement during 1950s/60s o McGregory Theory X and Y  Theory X: people who work are unreliable. should be led  Theory Y: people can do work. and viability for future action - STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT Forming: initial orientation/interpersonal testing .o o o Max Weber Bureaucracy: rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic. focused. etc. hold each other mutually accountable Teamwork: the process of people actively working together to accomplish common goals TRENDS IN THE USE OF TEAMS Committee: brings people outside of daily job assignment to work in a small team for a specific purpose something narrow. applies expertise and attention to continuous improvement o Quality circle: employees who meet periodically to discuss ways of improving work quality Virtual teams: members who work together through computer-based interactions Self-managing work teams: enjoy a high degree of independence and can make decisions independently Effective teams: achieves and maintains high levels of task performance. accept responsibility. order. can self-direct MODERN APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT Systems o A collection of interrelated parts that function together to achieve a common purpose o Subsystem: smaller component of a larger system o Chester Bernard  Co-operation needs to be created  Subsystems help others and fulfill organizational goals concurrently Organic? - DECISION MAKING The process of making choices among alternative courses of action TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS Decision by lack of response: all other ideas have been discarded by passiveness than critical evaluation Decision by authority rule: leader makes a decision without consultation Decision by minority rule: 2 or 3 dominate the discussion and make a mutually agreeable decision quickly Decision by majority rule: formal voting/poll.drawback: creates winners and losers Decision by consensus: TEAMS AND TEAMWORK TEAMS AND TEAMWORK Teams: group of people who regularly interact to pursue common goals. formality. not permanent basis. and legitimate authority Clear division of labour. and ongoing Project teams/task forces: bring people together from various parts of an organization to work on common problems on a temporary. disbands upon completion of goal Cross functional team: members come from different functional units. essential to horizontal integration Employee involvement team: meets on a regular basis to help achieve continuous improvement.

confidence. persuasive way high task. relationship  Participating.let subordinates know what is expected o Supportive./orientation) CLASSICAL APPROACHES Autocratic: task over people Laissez-faire: high group concern Democratic: combination of the two CONTINGENCY APPROACHES Fielder’s Contingency Model o Leadership style is part of personality and therefore can’t change o Quality of leader-member relations o Degree of task structure o Amount of position power Hersey-Blanchard o Based on maturity aka readiness o 4 behaviours:  Delegating. high relationship  Telling. consult individually. low relationship House’s Path-Goal Leadership Theory o Directive. flexibility LEADERSHIP STYLES Recurring patterns of behaviours exhibited by leaders Important are concern for task and concern for people (task orientation. delegate Drucker’s old fashioned leadership o Plain hard work is needed to be a leader Path-Goal Leadership Theory o Managers should use leadership styles that fit situational needs - - - C OMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION PROCESS Process of sending and receiving symbols with meanings attached to them Sender encodes intended meaning through a message/channel to a receiver who decodes it and sends feedback EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Intended meaning is fully understood by the receiver Efficient communication: occurs at minimum cost in terms of resources expended COMMUNICATION BARRIERS .- Storming: stage of conflict over tasks and working as a tetam Norming: stage of consolidation around task and operating agendas Performing: stage of teamwork and focused task performance Adjourning: stage of task completion and disengagement L EADERSHIP Leadership: the process of inspiring others to work hard and accomplish important tasks Visionary leadership.setting challenging goals o Participative. facilitate (group discussion/share problem).brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an understanding of how to get there Leadership traits: drive.explaining task directions in support. high-relationship  Selling. creativity.involving subordinates in decision making Vroom Jago o decide alone. business specific instructions.make work more pleasant o Achievement oriented. high takes responsibilities for decisions.shared ideas. low task. consult with group. low task. motivation.

procedures. spoken o Channel richness: the capacity of a communication channel to carry information effectively Failure to recognize non-verbal signals Physical distractions Status effects o Filtering: intentional distortion of information to make it appear favourable to the recipient MANAGEMENT BY WANDERING AROUND (MBWA) Managers spend time outside of their offices to talk with workers of all levels 360 degree feedback: views of bosses. and resentment as well as personality clashes Functional conflict. organize. distrust. and job assignments Emotional conflicts: results from feelings of anger. peers. policies.constructive and helps task performance Dysfunctional conflict: destructive and hurts task performance Caused by: o Role ambiguities o Resource scarcities o Task interdependencies o Structural differentiation (differences in organization structures/characteristics of people staging them) o Unresolved prior conflicts Conflict resolution the removal of the substantial/emotional reasons for conflict - CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES Co-cooperativeness: desire to satisfy another party’s needs and concerns Assertiveness: the desire to satisfy one’s own needs and concerns Five conflict management styles: o Lose-lose conflict  Avoidance  Accommodation o Win-lose conflict  Competition  Compromise o Win-win conflict: Collaboration P LANNING . and subordinates in performance appraisals PERCEPTION Process through which people receive. fear. dislike. rewards. resources.- - Noise: anything that interferes with the communication process Poor choice of channels o Channel is the medium through which a message is conveyed o Written. and interpret information from the environment Perception exerts its influence through attribution which is the process of developing explanations for events o Attribution error: overestimates internal factors and underestimates external factors as influences on someone’s behaviour (someone blaming another thing instead of themselves) o Self-serving bias: blaming external factors for failures and explaining success by internal causes Perceptual tendencies and distortions o Stereotypes o Halo effects: when one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person or situation o Selective perception: tendency to define problems from one’s own point of view o Projection: the assignment of personal attributes to other people - C ONFLICT M ANAGEMENT Disagreement over issues of substance/emotional antagonism Substantive conflicts: involves disagreements over goals.

projects or programs  Fixed. human resources Policies and procedures o Policy: standing plan that sets broad guidelines o Procedure: sets exactly what should happen in specific situations Budgets and Projects o Budget. financial.single-use plans that commit resources to activities. facilities.Includes everyone in the planning Staff Planners: people employed to help coordinate planning for the organization - S TRATEGIC M ANAGEMENT STRATEGY .fixed amount for specific purpose  Flexible.identifies alternate courses of action to take when things go wrong Scenario Planning: identifies alternative future scenarios to make plans and deal with each (long term version of contingency planning) Benchmarking: uses external comparisons to evaluate one’s performance o Best Practices: things that lead to superior performance Participatory Planning.THE PLANNING PROCESS Objectives: identify specific results/desired outcomes Plan: statement of action steps to be taken in order to accomplish the objectives o Define your objectives o Know where you stand o Develop premises regarding future conditions o Analyze and choose among action alternatives o Implement the plan and evaluate results BENEFITS OF PLANNING Improves focus/flexibility o Organization with focus: does what it knows best o Individual with focus: knows where he/she wants to go o Organization with flexibility: adapts to shifting circumstances o Individual with flexibility: adjusts career plans to fit new and developing opportunities Improces action orientation Improves coordination o Means-end chain. long-term action directions Operational plans: identifies activities to implement strategic plans o time activities that have clear beginning and end points o Project management: involves making sure that activities required to complete a project are fulfilled - PLANNING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Forecasting: the process of predicting what will happen in the future o Qualitative: using expert opinions o Quantitative: uses mathematical models Contingency Planning.allows for allocation to vary in proportion with various levels of activity  Zero-based: deals with every new budget period as if it were new (no guarantee of renewal) o Projects. marketing. lower level objectives help accomplish higher-level ones Improves time-management Improves control - TYPES OF PLANS Short range plans: one year or less Intermediate: one to two years Long range plans: three or more years into the future Strategic plans: set broad. comprehensive.

direct attention towards cost minimization to operate more efficiently (President’s Choice Cola) o Focused differentiation.find a niche and offer the lowest cost (red cherry pop) BCG Matrix o Analyzes business opportunities according to market growth rate and market share  Stars: high market share/high business growth  Cash cows: high market share/low business growth  Question marks: low market share/high business growth  Dogs: low market share/low business growth - - STRATEGIES USED BY ORGANIZATIONS Levels of Strategy o Corporate strategy: sets long term direction for the whole enterprise o Business strategy: identifies how a division or strategic business unit will compete in its product or service domain o Strategic business unit: major business area that operates with some autonomy o Functional strategy: guides activities within one specific area of operations Growth strategy: involves expansion of the organization’s current operations o Concentration: expansion within the same business area o Diversification: growth through the acquisition or investment in new business areas o Vertical Integration: Acquisition of suppliers (backward) or distributors (forward) Restructuring and Divestiture Stratgies o Retrenchment strategies: changes operations to correct weaknesses o Restructuring: reduces the scale/mix of operations  Downsizing: decreasing the size of operations  Divestiture: sells of parts of the organization to refocus attention on core business areas Global strategies o Globalization strategies: Adopts standardized products/advertising worldwide o Multi-domestic strategy: customizes products and advertising to best fit local needs o Transnational strategy: seeks balance between global operations and responsiveness to local firms Cooperative strategy o Strategic alliance: organizations join together in partnership to pursue an area of mutual interest E-Business o Uses internet to gain competitive advantage o B2B business strategy: uses IT to link organizations vertically in supply chains - - - - .find a niche/offer a completely unique product (Canada Dry) o Focused cost leadership.- Comprehensive action plan that identifies long term direction for an organization and guides resource utilization to accomplish goals with sustainable competitive advantage Strategic intent: focuses and applies organizational energies on an unifying and compelling goal Strategic management: process of formulating and implementing strategies o Oligopoly environment: contains a few players who compete against one another o Environment of hypercompetition: several players compete against one another o Strategic formulation: the process of creating strategies o Strategic implementation: the process of allocating resources and putting strategies into action STRATEGY FORMULATION SWOT o Identify core competencies: special strength that gives and organization a competitive advantage Porter’s Five Forces o Industry competition o New entrants o Suppliers o Customers o Substitute products Porter’s Generic Stratgies o Differntiation: organizations makes its product seems different from competition (cola/pepsi) o Cost leadership.