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Diesel engines for fast ships

Background, sizing, characteristics

Hugo Grimmelius

Educational goals
• • • • • • explain the working principles of the modern turbocharged diesel engine, understand the most important parameters that make diesel engines light and compact, i.e. the factors determining power density, understand how to obtain reasonable efficiency for these light and compact engines, i.e. the factors determining fuel economy, explain the limits of the engine characteristics in relation with the characteristic of the propulsor, describe the features that can widen the engine characteristic, describe some special topics relating to the installation of diesel engines on board ships.

Last but not least this course will: • provide some factual information on particular engines available in the market (third lecture)

High speed diesel engine

Pagina 1
1

Principle of turbocharging
Inlet Filter Turbocharger Exhaust Silencer

Charge Air Compressor Intercooler

Exhaust Gas Turbine

IC
Exhaust

Inlet Receiver

inl

exh Receiver

Cylinders

P-V diagram as measured

Mean pressure
The indicated work as measured in a p-V diagram:

Wi =

rev

cycle

∫ p ⋅ dV = p ⋅ V

S
def

Mathematically a mean value can be defined: p = This is the mean indicated pressure (MIP) also: indicated mean effective pressure (imep) Mechanical losses:

cycle

∫ p ⋅ dV
VS

p mi =

def

Wi VS

ηm =

def

We Wi
p me =
def

Define the mean effective pressure (MEP) also: brake mean effective pressure (bmep) So:

We VS

p me = η m ⋅ p mi

Pagina 2
2

Work in the diesel engine overview of losses

Qf

Work in the diesel engine overview of losses

Qf

Wi

Work in the diesel engine overview of losses

Qf

friction/pumps etc

Wi

Pagina 3
3

Work in the diesel engine overview of losses

Qf

friction/pumps etc

Wi

We

usefull

Connection with power and torque
Nr of work cycles per second depends on: - rotational speed (n) - NR of cylinders (i) - type 2-stroke: k = 1 4-stroke: k = 2 Power is work per unit time:
PB = We ⋅ f

Engine frequency (in Hz):
f= i⋅n k

We = k ⋅

PB i⋅n

p me = k ⋅

PB i ⋅ n ⋅ VS

Power made specific with a volume flow:

Torque is power divided by angular velocity
MB = PB P = B ω 2π ⋅ n PB = 2π ⋅ M B n

V = i ⋅ n ⋅ VS
MB i ⋅ VS

p me = 2π ⋅ k ⋅

So for a given engine MEP is torque!

Power density
Cluster the formula for mean effective pressure as follows:

p me =

k PB ⋅ n i ⋅ VS

Then power related to total engine cylinder displacement is:

SVSP =

PB p ⋅n = me i ⋅ VS k

“Stroke Volume Specific Power”

Conclusion for high power density: - High speed - High mean effective pressure - 2-stroke instead of 4-stroke !!?

Pagina 4
4

300 0.200 0.400 High/medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines High/medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines Medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Low speed 2-stroke Line engines 0.Trend of power per stroke volume as function of nominal speed 50 High speed 4-stroke V-engines Specific power related to swept volume Power/cyl vol in kW/ltr 40 High/medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines High/medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines Medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Low speed 2-stroke Line engines 30 20 10 0 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 Nominal engine speed in rpm Trend of weight specific power as function of nominal speed 0.400 High/medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines High/medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines Medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Low speed 2-stroke Line engines 0.500 Volume specific powe r High speed 4-stroke V-engines 0.100 Nominal engine speed in rpm Pagina 5 5 .300 0.100 Nominal engine speed in rpm Trend of volume specific power as function of nominal speed 0.200 0.000 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 Volume specific power MW/m3 0.500 Weight specific power High speed 4-stroke V-engines 0.000 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 Weight specific power MW/ton 0.

for 4-stroke divide by k = 2: PB = i ⋅ A B ⋅ Bore area cannot be chosen arbitrarily: π π D 2 L 2 ⋅ n2 A B = ⋅ D B 2 = ⋅ B2 ⋅ S 2 4 4 LS n Introduce ratio Stroke/Bore: λ S = L S / D B For 4-stroke between 1. bore area and “technology”.5 Mean piston speed: c m = 2 ⋅ n ⋅ L S between 8 and 12 m/s! p me ⋅ c m 2⋅k AB = π cm2 1 ⋅ ⋅ 16 λ S 2 n 2 PB = i ⋅ π p me ⋅ c m 3 1 ⋅ ⋅ 32 k ⋅ λ S 2 n 2 Pagina 6 6 .1 and 1.Bore area and mean piston speed Cluster the formula for mean effective pressure as follows: p me = k P ⋅ B n ⋅ LS i ⋅ A B PB p ⋅ n ⋅ LS = me i⋅AB k with: VS = L S ⋅ A B Then power related to total engine bore area is: BASP = “Bore Area Specific Power” Introduce mean piston speed: cm = Then: def distance 2 ⋅ LS = 1 time n c m = 2 ⋅ n ⋅ LS BASP = PB p ⋅c = me m i⋅AB 2⋅k with: p me ⋅ c m “Technology” Trend of technology parameter Technology parameter Diesel Engines 400 High speed 4-stroke V-engines 300 High/medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines High/medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines 100 Medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Low speed 2-stroke Line engines 0 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 Technology: pe*cm in bar * m/s 200 Nominal engine speed in rpm Maximum power from engine block Maximum power is proportional to NR of cylinders.

L/D = 1. 20 cyl.3 Maximum power obtainable from diesel engines Slow speed: 2-stroke. cm = 10 m/s. pe = 24 bar.5 Maximum power obtainable from diesel engines Maximum power in MW Nominal speed in rpm Maximum power of diesel engines for several nominal shaft speeds and technolgies 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Medium speed: 4-stroke. 12 cyl. L/D = 3. cm = 8 m/s. pe = 18 bar. 12 cyl. cm = 8 m/s. cm = 8 m/s. pe = 24 bar. L/D = 3. L/D = 1.5 Medium speed: 4-stroke. pe = 30 bar.3 Nominal speed in rpm Pagina 7 7 . pe = 18 bar. L/D = 1. cm = 12 m/s.Maximum power of diesel engines for several nominal shaft speeds and technologies 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Slow speed: 2-stroke. pe = 18 bar. 12 cyl. 16 cyl. 16 cyl. L/D = 3. cm = 10 m/s.5 Maximum power in MW Nominal speed in rpm Maximum power of diesel engines for several nominal shaft speeds and technolgies 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 High speed: 4-stroke.1 Maximum power obtainable from diesel engines Maximum power in MW Slow speed: 2-stroke.

Maximum power of diesel engines actual from database 90 80 70 60 High speed 4-stroke V-engines High/medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines High/medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines Medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Low speed 2-stroke Line engines 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 Power of Diesel Engines Pb in MW 50 40 30 20 10 0 Nominal engine speed in rpm Maximum power of diesel engines zoom in on medium and high speed Power of Diesel Engines 25 High speed 4-stroke V-engines 20 High/medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines High/medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines Medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Low speed 2-stroke Line engines 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 Pb in MW 15 10 5 Nominal engine speed in rpm Maximum power of diesel engines zoom in on high speed 10 High speed 4-stroke V-engines 8 High/medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines High/medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines Medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Low speed 2-stroke Line engines 0 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 Power of Diesel Engines Pb in MW 6 4 2 Nominal engine speed in rpm Pagina 8 8 .

Efficiency Total efficiency is “work out” divided by “heat in” ηtot = def We W = ηm ⋅ i Qf Qf Losses: Unburned: ηm = def We Wi def “Heat in” originates from fuel: Q f ≅ m f ⋅ LHV Not all heat produced goes into the cycle process: η comb = ηq = d ef Q comb Qf Q Q i Q i = η comb ⋅ η q ⋅ Q f This is equal to an area in a T-S diagram: rev Cooling: com b Qi = combustion ∫ T ⋅ dS Wi Qi Thermodynamic efficiency: So finally for total efficiency: η td = Wi = Qi c y c le ∫ p ⋅ dV ∫ T ⋅ dS η tot = η m ⋅ η com b ⋅ η q ⋅ c o m b u s tio n Heat and work in the diesel engine overview of losses Qf friction/pumps etc Wi We usefull Heat and work in the diesel engine overview of losses combustion loss Qf Qcomb friction/pumps etc Wi We usefull Pagina 9 9 .

Heat and work in the diesel engine overview of losses combustion loss cooling water Qf Qcomb Qi friction/pumps etc Wi We usefull Heat and work in the diesel engine overview of losses combustion loss cooling water Qf Qcomb exhaust gases Qi friction/pumps etc Wi We usefull Trend of efficiency 55% in nominal point as function of nominal speed (= size) Overall efficiency Diesel Engines High speed 4-stroke V-engines Overall efficiency in % 50% High/medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines High/medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Medium speed 4-stroke Line-engines Medium speed 4-stroke V-engines Low speed 2-stroke Line engines 45% 40% 35% 30% 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 Nominal engi ne speed in rpm Pagina 10 10 .

a . c V b= 4 V3 def c= def V5 V4 V6 = V1 V V V V re = 6 = 6 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 4 V5 V3 V4 V5 def re = V3 = V2 V1 V3 V4 r ⋅ ⋅ = c V2 V4 V5 b ⋅ c Dependent parameter ! Pagina 11 11 .P-V diagram p Compression ratio: Geometric Effective V ε = BDC VTDC def rc = def V1 V2 2 V1 < VBDC V2 = VTDC 1 V rc < ε VTDC VS VBDC Seiliger parameter definition p 3 4 5 2 rc = def def V1 V2 p3 p2 V4 V3 a= 6 1 V b= def c= def V5 V4 VTDC VS VBDC V6 = V1 Seiliger parameters rc = a= def def V1 V2 p3 p2 4 independent parameters: rc . b .

010 0.0 1.0 0.log v diagram 1000 10000 Log T .s diagram Absolute temperature in K Pressure in bar 100 Nominal case Ambient condition 10 1000 Nominal case Ambient 1 0.100 1.5 2.000 100 0.Logarithmic p-v and T-s diagram log p .0 Specific volume in m3/kg Specific entropy in kJ/kg/K Complete Seiliger definition stage 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 Volume ratio ϕ pressure ratio π Temperature ratioτ V1 def = rc V2 V3 def =1 V2 p2 = rc κ p1 p 3 def =a p2 T2 = rc κ −1 T1 T3 =a T2 T4 =b T3 T4 def =1 T5 κ V4 def =b V3 V5 def =c V4 V6 rc = V5 b ⋅ c V6 def =1 V1 p 4 def =1 p3 p4 =c p5 p 5 ⎛ rc ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ p6 ⎝ b ⋅ c⎠ p6 = p1 rc κ ⋅ a T5 ⎛ rc ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ T6 ⎝ b ⋅ c ⎠ κ κ −1 6-1 ⎛ rc ⎞ c⋅⎜ ⎟ ⎝ b ⋅ c⎠ T6 rc κ −1 ⋅ a ⋅ b = T1 ⎛ rc ⎞ κ −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ b ⋅ c⎠ = a ⋅ b κ ⋅ c κ −1 = a ⋅ b κ ⋅ c κ −1 Heat flows Total “heat in” comprises of 3 stages: q in = q 23 + q 34 + q 56 From basic thermodynamics: q 23 = c v ⋅ (T3 − T2 ) = c v ⋅ T1 ⋅ rc κ −1 ⋅ ( a − 1) q 34 = c p ⋅ (T4 − T3 ) = c v ⋅ T1 ⋅ κ ⋅ rc κ −1 ⋅ a ⋅ ( b − 1) ⎛V ⎞ q 45 = R ⋅ T4 ⋅ ln⎜ 5 ⎟ = c v ⋅ T1 ⋅ ( κ − 1) ⋅ rc κ −1 ⋅ a ⋅ b ⋅ ln( c) ⎝ V4 ⎠ Total “heat out” comprises of the exhaust: q out = q 61 Thermodynamics: q 61 = c v ⋅ (T6 − T1 ) = c v ⋅ T1 ⋅ (a ⋅ b κ ⋅ c κ −1 − 1) Note that all specific heat flows can be expressed in temperature at the beginning. specific heat and the 4 parameters Pagina 12 12 .5 1.

The same answer would be obtained if the net work would have been directly calculated from: w = w + w + w out 34 45 56 w in = w 12 Mean indicated pressure Mean indicated pressure is by definition: p mi = def Wi VS Work = mass x spec.“work in”: w i = w out − w in w i = η td ⋅ q in ηtd = def w out − w in q in wi = η td ⋅ rc κ −1 ⋅ {( a − 1) + κ ⋅ a ⋅ ( b − 1) + ( κ − 1) ⋅ a ⋅ b ⋅ ln( c)} c v ⋅ T1 [ ] When the expression found for the thermodynamic efficiency is substituted the specific work also can be fully expressed in the 4 Seiliger parameters.Thermodynamic efficiency Input heat = “heat in”: q i = q in qi Then: = rc κ −1 ⋅ {( a − 1) + κ ⋅ a ⋅ ( b − 1) + ( κ − 1) ⋅ a ⋅ b ⋅ ln( c)} c v ⋅ T1 Thermodynamic efficiency is by definition: ηtd = def w i w out − w in = qi q in q in − q out q = 1 − out q in q in For closed cycle process: w out − w in = q in − q out Efficiency fully expressed in heat flows!! η td = ηtd = 1 − ⎫ 1 ⎧ a ⋅ b κ ⋅ c κ −1 − 1 ⋅⎨ ⎬ rc κ −1 ⎩ ( a − 1) + κ ⋅ a ⋅ ( b − 1) + ( κ − 1) ⋅ a ⋅ b ⋅ ln( c) ⎭ Specific work Nett work output = “work out” . work: p ⋅V Wi = m1 ⋅ w i = 1 1 ⋅ w i R ⋅ T1 Substitutions: V1 V1 VTDC r = ⋅ = c VS V2 VBDC − VTDC ε − 1 p mi V1 w i = ⋅ p1 VS R ⋅ T1 R ⋅ T1 = c p − c v ⋅ T1 = ( κ − 1) ⋅ c v ⋅ T1 p mi 1 r wi = ⋅ c ⋅ p1 κ − 1 ε − 1 c v ⋅ T1 ( ) p mi η r = td ⋅ c ⋅ r κ −1 ⋅ {(a − 1) + κ ⋅ a ⋅ ( b − 1) + ( κ − 1) ⋅ a ⋅ b ⋅ ln( c)} p1 κ − 1 ε − 1 c [ ] Pagina 13 13 .

pimax = 160. taucharge = 1. It can be expressed in the parameters: p max = p 3 = a ⋅ rc κ ⋅ p1 ⎛ p ⎞κ rc = ⎜ max ⎟ ⎝ a ⋅ p1 ⎠ 1 Parameter ‘a’ is fixed by the premixed stage of the combustion and the injection timing. a = 1.2.5.Constraint: maximum pressure Maximum pressure is important engine limit. c = 2. lambda = 2. If the charge pressure is fixed as well the effective compression ratio is a dependent variable !! Constraint: air excess ratio Air excess is an important limit for diesel combustion. Start with air/fuel ratio: def m Substitutions: ma m1 ⋅ LHV a afr = mf = m1 ⋅ Qf Qf 1 Q q = ⋅ i ≅ i m1 ηcomb ⋅ ηq m1 ηq ma def = ηscav ≅ 1 m1 λ= def afr LHV = ηq ⋅ σ σ ⋅qi λ = ηq ⋅ LHV 1 ⋅ σ ⋅ c v ⋅ T1 rc κ −1 ⋅ {( a − 1) + κ ⋅ a ⋅ ( b − 1) + ( κ − 1) ⋅ a ⋅ b ⋅ ln( c)} b= ⎫ ⎧⎛ LHV 1 ⎞ ⋅ ⎟ − ( a − 1) + κ ⋅ a ⎬ ⎨⎜ ηq ⋅ λ ⋅ σ ⋅ c v ⋅ T1 rc κ −1 ⎠ ⎭ ⎩⎝ ( κ − 1) ⋅ a ⋅ ln( c) + κ ⋅ a Mean indicated pressure Mean indicated pressure as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 40 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Mean indicated pressure in bar 30 20 Nominal point: picharge = 3.5.0 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Pagina 14 14 .

c = 2. c = 2. a = 1.5.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Pagina 15 15 .Mean indicated pressure Mean indicated pressure as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 40 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Mean indicated pressure in bar pm indicated: pimax = 160 30 20 10 Nominal point: picharge = 3. pimax = 160. lambda = 2. taucharge = 1. a = 1.5. lambda = 2. taucharge = 1.5. pimax = 160.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Mean indicated pressure Mean indicated pressure as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 40 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure pm indicated: pimax = 160 Mean indicated pressure in bar 30 pm indicated: pimax = 120 20 10 Nominal point: picharge = 3.2.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Mean indicated pressure Mean indicated pressure as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 40 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure pm indicated: pimax = 240 Mean indicated pressure in bar 30 pm indicated: pimax = 160 20 pm indicated: pimax = 120 10 Nominal point: picharge = 3. a = 1. taucharge = 1. c = 2.5.5. pimax = 160. lambda = 2.2.2.5.

lambda = 2.5.5. pimax = 160.5. c = 2. pimax = 160.2.2.0 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Theoretical efficiency influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 72% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 160 Efficiency (eta) in % 64% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 120 56% 48% Nominal point: picharge = 3. lambda = 2. c = 2. lambda = 2.5.0 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Pagina 16 16 . a = 1.Theoretical efficiency influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 72% Efficiency (eta) in % 64% 56% Nominal point: picharge = 3.5.5. a = 1. taucharge = 1. pimax = 160. taucharge = 1. c = 2. taucharge = 1. a = 1.0 48% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Theoretical efficiency influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 72% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 160 Efficiency (eta) in % 64% 56% 48% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Nominal point: picharge = 3.2.

5. a = 1. a = 1.0 p-v and T-s diagram influence charge pressure log p .log v diagram 1000 Pressure in bar 100 picharge = 1.5 Ambient condition 10 1 0.2.010 0.5. taucharge = 1. lambda = 2.000 Specific volume in m3/kg Pagina 17 17 . c = 2. lambda = 2. c = 2. taucharge = 1.100 1. pimax = 160. pimax = 160.2.Theoretical efficiency influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 72% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 240 Efficiency (eta) in % 64% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 160 56% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 120 48% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Nominal point: picharge = 3.5.5.0 Theoretical efficiency influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 72% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 160 Ideal efficiency: pimax = 240 Efficiency (eta) in % 64% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 120 56% 48% Diesel limit: rc = 12 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Nominal point: picharge = 3.

5 Ambient condition 10 1 0.000 100 0.0 1.000 Specific volume in m3/kg p-v and T-s diagram influence charge pressure log p .0 0.010 0.5 1000 Ambient condition 10 1 0.5 10 1 0.100 1.p-v and T-s diagram influence charge pressure log p .log v diagram 1000 Pressure in bar 100 picharge = 3 picharge = 1.5 2.010 0.5 Absolute temperature in K Pressure in bar picharge = 1.100 1.000 Specific volume in m3/kg p-v and T-s diagram influence charge pressure log p .log v diagram 1000 Pressure in bar 100 picharge = 5 picharge = 3 picharge = 1.100 1.010 0.log v diagram 1000 10000 Log T .s diagram 100 picharge = 5 picharge = 3 picharge = 1.0 Specific volume in m3/kg Specific entropy in kJ/kg/K Pagina 18 18 .5 1.

100 1.0 Specific volume in m3/kg Specific entropy in kJ/kg/K p-v and T-s diagram influence charge pressure log p .100 1.0 0.0 0.010 0.0 1.0 Specific volume in m3/kg Specific entropy in kJ/kg/K p-v and T-s diagram influence peak pressure log p .0 1.000 100 0.s diagram 100 picharge = 5 picharge = 3 picharge = 1.5 2.p-v and T-s diagram influence charge pressure log p .log v diagram 1000 Pressure in bar 100 pimax = 120 Ambient condition 10 1 0.010 0.000 100 0.5 Absolute temperature in K Pressure in bar picharge = 5 1000 picharge = 3 picharge = 1.5 1.010 0.000 Specific volume in m3/kg Pagina 19 19 .5 Ambient condition 10 1 0.s diagram 100 picharge = 5 picharge = 3 picharge = 1.5 1.5 Absolute temperature in K Pressure in bar picharge = 3 1000 picharge = 1.5 2.100 1.log v diagram 1000 10000 Log T .log v diagram 1000 10000 Log T .5 Ambient condition 10 1 0.

0 1.0 Specific volume in m3/kg Specific entropy in kJ/kg/K Pagina 20 20 .p-v and T-s diagram influence peak pressure log p .010 0.000 100 0.010 0.000 Specific volume in m3/kg p-v and T-s diagram influence peak pressure log p .100 1.5 2.log v diagram 1000 Pressure in bar 100 pimax = 160 pimax = 120 10 Ambient condition 1 0.100 1.000 Specific volume in m3/kg p-v and T-s diagram influence peak pressure log p .5 1.log v diagram 1000 Pressure in bar 100 pimax = 240 pimax = 160 10 pimax = 120 1 0.log v diagram 1000 10000 Log T .010 0.0 0.100 1.s diagram 100 pimax = 240 pimax = 160 10 pimax = 120 Absolute temperature in K Pressure in bar pimax = 120 1000 Ambient condition 1 0.

5 2.s diagram 100 pimax = 240 pimax = 160 10 pimax = 120 Absolute temperature in K Pressure in bar pimax = 240 1000 pimax = 160 pimax = 120 Ambient condition 1 0.0 Specific volume in m3/kg Specific entropy in kJ/kg/K The basic idea of turbocharging including effect of losses Ideal amount of mass in cylinder: m = id gas p c ⋅ VS R a ⋅ Tc air part: m a = η trap ⋅ p c ⋅ VS R a ⋅ Tc Air/fuel ratio afr = def ma mf LHV p ⋅ V LCV = η trap ⋅ c S ⋅ afr R a ⋅ Tc afr (1) Fuel heat: Q f ≅ m f ⋅ LHV Work per cycle: Substitute (1): Q f = ma ⋅ W e = η tot ⋅ Q f where: ηtot = ηm ⋅ ηcomb ⋅ ηq ⋅ ηtd We = η m ⋅ ηcomb ⋅ ηq ⋅ η td ⋅ η trap ⋅ p c ⋅ VS LHV ⋅ R a ⋅ Tc afr Mean effective pressure: Also: p me = η m ⋅ η comb ⋅ ηq ⋅ η trap ⋅ p c 1 LHV ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ η td Tc afr R a p me = η m ⋅ p mi Pagina 21 21 .0 1.100 1.5 1.0 Specific volume in m3/kg Specific entropy in kJ/kg/K p-v and T-s diagram influence peak pressure log p .p-v and T-s diagram influence peak pressure log p .5 1.000 100 0.000 100 0.010 0.0 1.log v diagram 1000 10000 Log T .5 2.0 0.log v diagram 1000 10000 Log T .010 0.100 1.0 0.s diagram 100 pimax = 240 pimax = 160 10 pimax = 120 Absolute temperature in K Pressure in bar pimax = 160 1000 pimax = 120 Ambient condition 1 0.

lambda = 2. pimax = 160.92 Pagina 22 22 .2. taucharge = 1.0.5. a = 1.5.9. eta-q = 0. c = 2. eta-m = 0.Mechanical & heat input efficiency influence of charge pressure 100% 95% Mechanical efficiency Mechanical and heat losses as function of charging ratio (Partial) efficiency in % 90% 85% 80% Nominal value Mechanical efficiency 75% 70% 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Mechanical & heat input efficiency influence of charge pressure 100% 95% Mechanical and heat losses as function of charging ratio Heat input efficiency (Partial) efficiency in % 90% Mechanical efficiency 85% 80% Nominal value Heat input efficiency Nominal value Mechanical efficiency 1 2 3 4 5 75% 70% Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Mean effective pressure Mean effective pressure as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 40 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure pm indicated: pimax = 240 Mean effective pressure in bar 30 pm indicated: pimax = 160 20 pm indicated: pimax = 120 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Nominal point: picharge = 3.

9. eta-m = 0. c = 2.Mean effective pressure Mean effective pressure as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 40 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure pm indicated: pimax = 240 Mean effective pressure in bar 30 pm indicated: pimax = 160 20 pm indicated: pimax = 120 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Nominal point: picharge = 3.5. pimax = 160. taucharge = 1. taucharge = 1.0.0. a = 1. lambda = 2. taucharge = 1.2.5. pimax = 160. eta-q = 0. eta-q = 0. c = 2.2.92 Mean effective pressure Mean effective pressure as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 40 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure pm indicated: pimax = 240 Mean effective pressure in bar pm indicated: pimax = 160 30 pm indicated: pimax = 120 20 pm effective: pimax = 160 10 pm effective: pimax = 120 0 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Nominal point: picharge = 3.9. a = 1.5. pimax = 160. eta-m = 0.5. eta-q = 0. c = 2.5. a = 1.0. eta-m = 0.5.92 Mean effective pressure Mean effective pressure as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 40 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure pm indicated: pimax = 240 Mean effective pressure in bar pm indicated: pimax = 160 30 pm indicated: pimax = 120 20 10 pm effective: pimax = 160 0 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Nominal point: picharge = 3.92 Pagina 23 23 .2. lambda = 2.9. lambda = 2.

taucharge = 1.5.5. eta-q = 0. pimax = 160.5. a = 1.2.92 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Efficiency 72% influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio Ideal efficiency: pimax = 240 Efficiency (eta) in % 64% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 160 56% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 120 48% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Nominal point: picharge = 3. eta-q = 0.5. pimax = 160. eta-m = 0. c = 2. taucharge = 1.0. a = 1.2.9.5. eta-m = 0.92 Efficiency 72% influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio Ideal efficiency: pimax = 240 Efficiency (eta) in % 64% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 160 56% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 120 48% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Nominal point: picharge = 3.9. a = 1. lambda = 2.9. c = 2. lambda = 2. eta-m = 0.5.0. lambda = 2. pimax = 160. eta-q = 0.0. taucharge = 1.2.92 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Pagina 24 24 .Mean effective pressure Mean effective pressure as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio 40 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure pm indicated: pimax = 240 pm indicated: pimax = 160 Mean effective pressure in bar 30 pm indicated: pimax = 120 pm effective: pimax = 240 20 pm effective: pimax = 160 10 pm effective: pimax = 120 0 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Nominal point: picharge = 3. c = 2.

c = 2.0.0.9.5.2.5. lambda = 2. a = 1. eta-m = 0.92 Efficiency 72% influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio Ideal efficiency: pimax = 240 Ideal efficiency: pimax = 160 Efficiency (eta) in % 64% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 120 56% Total efficiency: pimax = 160 48% Total efficiency: pimax = 120 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Nominal point: picharge = 3.5.0. eta-q = 0.2.2.9. c = 2. pimax = 160. eta-q = 0. c = 2.9.5. pimax = 160. taucharge = 1. taucharge = 1.Efficiency 72% influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio Ideal efficiency: pimax = 240 Ideal efficiency: pimax = 160 Efficiency (eta) in % 64% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 120 56% Total efficiency: pimax = 160 48% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Nominal point: picharge = 3.92 Efficiency 72% influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio Ideal efficiency: pimax = 240 Ideal efficiency: pimax = 160 Efficiency (eta) in % 64% Ideal efficiency: pimax = 120 Total efficiency: pimax = 240 56% Total efficiency: pimax = 160 48% Total efficiency: pimax = 120 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Nominal point: picharge = 3. lambda = 2. a = 1.5.5. taucharge = 1. eta-m = 0. eta-q = 0. pimax = 160. lambda = 2. a = 1.92 Pagina 25 25 . eta-m = 0.

taucharge = 1.5 picharge = 5 1969 20 30 40 pimax = 800 pimax = 400 piscav = 1.4 1999 pimax = 220 pimax = 160 picharge = 8 50 60 Brake mean effective pressure (bmep) in bar Reaching 60% overall efficiency? Trade-off between fuel economy and power density 65% Total efficiency (eta-tot) in % 60% 55% 50% 45% 40% 35% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Constant bmep Constant picharge Constant ε Brake mean effective pressure (bmep) in bar Pagina 26 26 .0. lambda = 2. pimax = 160. c = 2.5. eta-m = 0.Efficiency 72% influence of charge pressure and Ideal efficiency: pimax = 240 pressure maximum Efficiency as function of charging and maximum pressure ratio Ideal efficiency: pimax = 160 Ideal efficiency: pimax = 120 Efficiency (eta) in % 64% Total efficiency: pimax = 240 56% Total efficiency: pimax = 160 Total efficiency: pimax = 120 48% Nominal point: picharge = 3.2.9.3 ε = 14 1999 picharge = 3 10 ε= 1969 picharge = 1.5. eta-q = 0.92 Diesel limit: rc = 12 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Charging pressure ratio pc/p0 Variation of charge & maximum pressure Trade-off between fuel economy and power density 65% Total efficiency (eta-tot) in % 60% 55% 50% 45% 40% 35% 0 10 ε = 30 piscav = 1. a = 1.

92 40% 36% 0 8 16 24 32 40 Brake mean effective pressure in bar Trade-off DE cycle performance Trade-off between fuel economy and power density 52% influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Total efficiency (eta-tot) in % pimax = 160 48% 44% 40% Nominal point: picharge = 3.2. pimax = 160.5. eta-m = 0.9.5. a = 1. taucharge = 1. lambda = 2.0. taucharge = 1. pimax = 160.92 Pagina 27 27 .92 36% 0 8 16 24 32 40 Brake mean effective pressure in bar Trade-off DE cycle performance Trade-off between fuel economy and power density 52% pimax = 160 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Total efficiency (eta-tot) in % 48% 44% pimax = 120 40% 36% 0 8 16 24 32 40 Brake mean effective pressure in bar Nominal point: picharge = 3. eta-q = 0.0.9.5.5.2. eta-m = 0. a = 1. lambda = 2. c = 2. c = 2. taucharge = 1.5. eta-q = 0.5. c = 2.9.2.Trade-off DE cycle performance Trade-off between fuel economy and power density 52% influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Total efficiency (eta-tot) in % 48% 44% Nominal point: picharge = 3. eta-q = 0. lambda = 2.0. pimax = 160. a = 1. eta-m = 0.

pimax = 160. eta-m = 0. eta-q = 0.92 Trade-off DE cycle performance Trade-off between fuel economy and power density 52% pimax = 240 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Total efficiency (eta-tot) in % pimax = 160 48% pimax = 120 44% picharge = 3 40% picharge = 1 36% 0 8 16 24 32 40 Brake mean effective pressure in bar Nominal point: picharge = 3. pimax = 160. eta-m = 0.92 Pagina 28 28 . eta-m = 0.9. c = 2. a = 1.5. taucharge = 1. pimax = 160.5.9. taucharge = 1.Trade-off DE cycle performance Trade-off between fuel economy and power density 52% pimax = 240 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Total efficiency (eta-tot) in % 48% pimax = 160 44% pimax = 120 40% 36% 0 8 16 24 32 40 Brake mean effective pressure in bar Nominal point: picharge = 3.5. c = 2.2. eta-q = 0.0. c = 2. taucharge = 1.92 Trade-off DE cycle performance Trade-off between fuel economy and power density 52% pimax = 240 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure Total efficiency (eta-tot) in % pimax = 160 48% 44% pimax = 120 40% picharge = 3 36% 0 8 16 24 32 40 Brake mean effective pressure in bar Nominal point: picharge = 3.0. a = 1.2. lambda = 2. eta-q = 0.2.5.9.0. lambda = 2.5.5. a = 1. lambda = 2.

lambda = 2.92 Diesel limit: rc = 12 Comparison GT .9.0.5.Trade-off DE cycle performance Trade-off between fuel economy and power density 52% pimax = 240 influence of charge pressure and maximum pressure pimax = 160 Total efficiency (eta-tot) in % 48% pimax = 120 44% picharge = 5 picharge = 3 40% picharge = 1 36% 0 8 16 24 32 40 Brake mean effective pressure in bar Nominal point: picharge = 3.92 Trade-off DE cycle performance Trade-off between fuel economy and power density 52% pimax = 160 influence of charge pressure and pimax = 240 maximum pressure Total efficiency (eta-tot) in % pimax = 120 48% picharge = 5 44% picharge = 3 40% picharge = 1 36% 0 8 16 24 32 40 Brake mean effective pressure in bar Nominal point: picharge = 3. eta-m = 0.5.2. eta-q = 0. taucharge = 1.0. c = 2. taucharge = 1. eta-m = 0. a = 1. lambda = 2.5. a = 1.DE Trade-off between efficiency and specific w ork 60% IC-RH2-HE DE Cycle efficiency 50% IC 40% SC IC-RH2 30% 20% 200 400 600 800 1000 Specific work in kJ/kg Pagina 29 29 .9. pimax = 160. pimax = 160.5. eta-q = 0. c = 2.2.

highly turbocharged engine Pagina 30 30 .Two-stage turbocharging Inlet Filter LP Turbocharger Exhaust Silencer LP Charge Air Compressor LP Intercooler LP Exhaust Gas Turbine IC HP Turbocharger HP Charge Air Compressor HP Intercooler HP Exhaust Gas Turbine IC Exhaust Inlet Receiver inl exh Receiver Cylinders Limits in engine characteristic Max power Engine power (kW) Max rpm min rpm Min power Engine speed (rpm) Power speed characteristic real high speed.

Three load curves for part load Engine characteristic 100% Power in % of nominal 80% 60% Constant speed 40% Nominal point 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Engine speed in % of nominal Three load curves for part load Engine characteristic 100% Power in % of nominal 80% 60% Propeller law Constant speed 40% Nominal point 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Engine speed in % of nominal Three load curves for part load Engine characteristic 100% Power in % of nominal 80% 60% Constant torque Propeller law 40% Constant speed Nominal point 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Engine speed in % of nominal Pagina 31 31 .

0 Nominal point 1.0 Propeller law 2.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Power in % of nominal Pagina 32 32 .0 0.0 0.0 Constant speed Nominal point 1.Charge pressure at part load Charge pressure vs power 4.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Power in % of nominal Charge pressure at part load Charge pressure vs power 4.0 0.0 Charge pressure in bar 3.0 Charge pressure in bar 3.0 Charge pressure in bar 3.0 Constant speed 2.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Power in % of nominal Charge pressure at part load Charge pressure vs power 4.0 Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point 1.0 Constant torque 2.

Air and fuel flow at part load Inlet mass flow vs power Inlet massflow in % of nominal 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Constant speed Nominal point Power in % of nominal Air and fuel flow at part load Inlet mass flow vs power Inlet massflow in % of nominal 100% 80% 60% 40% Nominal point 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Propeller law Constant speed Power in % of nominal Air and fuel flow at part load Inlet mass flow vs power Inlet massflow in % of nominal 100% 80% Constant torque 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point Power in % of nominal Pagina 33 33 .

2 Air and fuel flow at part load Inlet mass flow vs power Fuel mass flow vs power Fuel massflow in % of nominal 100% 80% 60% 40% Nominal point 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Propeller law Constant speed Inlet massflow in % of nominal 100% 80% Constant torque 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point Power in % of nominal Power in % of nominal Air and fuel flow at part load Inlet mass flow vs power Inlet massflow in % of nominal Fuel massflow in % of nominal 100% 80% Constant torque 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Constant torque Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point Fuel mass flow vs power Power in % of nominal Power in % of nominal Pagina 34 34 .Air and fuel flow at part load Inlet mass flow vs power Inlet massflow in % of nominal Fuel massflow in % of nominal 100% 80% Constant torque 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Constant speed Fuel mass flow vs power Nominal point Power in % of nominal Power in % of nominal 8.

0 1.0 Air excess ratio in cylinder 2.5 2.5 1.5 2.Air excess and sfc at part load Air excess ratio vs power 3.0 1.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Constant torque Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point Power in % of nominal Pagina 35 35 .0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Nominal point Constant speed Power in % of nominal Air excess and sfc at part load Air excess ratio vs power 3.0 Air excess ratio in cylinder 2.5 1.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point Power in % of nominal Air excess and sfc at part load Air excess ratio vs power 3.5 0.0 Air excess ratio in cylinder 2.5 2.5 1.0 1.5 0.0 0.

5 sfc in g/kWh 2.Air excess and sfc at part load Air excess ratio vs power 3.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Constant torque Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point 240 220 200 180 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Constant speed Nominal point Power in % of nominal Power in % of nominal Air excess and sfc at part load Air excess ratio vs power 3.0 1.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Constant torque Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point Propeller law 240 Constant speed 220 200 180 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Nominal point Power in % of nominal Power in % of nominal Air excess and sfc at part load Air excess ratio vs power 3.0 0.0 Specific fuel consumption vs power 280 260 Air excess ratio in cylinder 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.0 1.5 0.5 1.5 sfc in g/kWh 2.5 1.0 Specific fuel consumption vs power 280 260 Air excess ratio in cylinder 2.0 0.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Constant torque Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point Constant torque 240 220 200 180 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Propeller law Constant speed Nominal point Power in % of nominal Power in % of nominal Pagina 36 36 .0 Specific fuel consumption vs power 280 260 Air excess ratio in cylinder 2.5 0.5 sfc in g/kWh 2.5 0.

0 Charge pressure in bar 3.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Inlet mass flow in % of nominal Trajectories in compressor map Compressor characteristic 4.0 Propeller law 2.0 0.0 Constant speed 2.0 Charge pressure in bar 3.0 Constant speed Nominal point 1.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Inlet mass flow in % of nominal Pagina 37 37 .0 Propeller law Constant speed 1.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Inlet mass flow in % of nominal Trajectories in compressor map Compressor characteristic 4.0 0.0 Charge pressure in bar 3.0 Nominal point 0.0 Constant torque 2.0 Nominal point 1.Trajectories in compressor map Compressor characteristic 4.

Methods to broaden engine characteristics Sequential turbocharging Inlet Filter Exhaust Silencer Inlet Filter IC IC Cylinders bank A Cylinders bank B exhaust receiver Inlet receiver A Sequential turbocharging principle lay-out Inlet receiver A Pagina 38 38 .

Sequential turbocharging influence on power/speed characteristic Resilient mounting Fast ROPAX ferry CPP 5400 mm 144rpm PTO 3800 kW WÄRTSILÄ 12V46 11 200 kW Auxpac 1140W6L20 1 140 kW Auxpac 1140W6L20 1 140 kW WÄRTSILÄ 12V46 11 200 kW Stern thruster 1 x 1500 kW WÄRTSILÄ 12V46 11 200 kW Bow thrusters 3 x 1500 kW Auxpac 1140W6L20 1 140 kW WÄRTSILÄ 12V46 CPP 5400 mm 144 rpm PTO 3800 kW 11 200 kW Auxpac 1140W6L20 1 140 kW Engine loading (%MCR) incl Sea Margin 10% Port 2 x 12 V46 2 x 12V46 2 x Auxpac 2 x Auxpac SG SG 1 x 69% - INSTALLED POWER : Mechanical power Electrical power 44 800 kW 4 560 kW Man. 50% 50% 82% 82% 79% 79% 27 kn 80% 80% 29% 29% Mech Electrical Total installed power 49 360 kW Pagina 39 39 .

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