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Agriculture Farm Business Plan

Executive Summary
Botanical Bounty is an existing farm dedicated to the production of botanical perennials. Botanical Bounty has been formed as an Oregon-based Limited Liability Corp. (L.L.C.) located outside of Albany, Oregon. Botanical Bounty is working hard to become a leading producer of botanical plants for the natural supplement industry as well as plant nurseries. By leveraging a well thought out business plan executed by a skilled management team, Botanical Bounty will generate over $216,000 in year three sales. Keys to Success Botanical Bounty has identified three keys that will be instrumental in their success. The first is the implementation of strict financial controls. By having the proper controls, production efficiency will be maximized. The second key will be the never ending pursuit for the industry's highest concentration levels of botanical ingredients in each plant. The third key is the recognition and implementation of the philosophy that 100% customer satisfaction is required to ensure a profitable business. Profits are a by product of satisfying customers, not the other way around. Products Botanical Bounty is a 10 acre farm that concentrates on the growing of botanical medicinals. Botanical Bounty has chosen five plant species that have significant market demand as well being well suited for growth in the Willamette River Valley. Botanical Bounty will feature: Echinacea - an immune system booster; Ginseng - a source of energy; St John's Wort - for mild depression; Skullcap- for inflammation; and Ginger - a stomach soother. Market Botanical Bounty has three distinct customers: supplement companies, processors of botanicals for supplement companies, and nurseries that resell the plants. The first two customers purchase the plants for use in their products which they ultimately sell to the end consumer. The market for natural supplements is quite exciting. Surveys show that over 158 million consumers (over 55% of U.S. population) use dietary supplements. An estimated 115.3 million consumers buy vitamins and minerals for themselves, and 55.8 million purchase them for other members of their family, including children. Consumer surveys consistently find that nearly half of all Americans now use herbs - a statistic that is particularly remarkable when we realize that today's herbal products industry is just over a quarter century old. Management Team Botanical Bounty will be lead by the husband and wife team of David and Sue Nealon. David brings a wealth of business and project management skills to the company. While working at Yahoo!, David was responsible for the successful launch and market lead capture of Yahoo!s driving directions section. Utilizing these skills, David will be responsible for the business operations of the farm. Sue, with a background of plant biology will be the driving force of the operation, growing the highest active ingredient content plants in the country. Additionally, because of her wealth of knowledge, she will be the leader of the sales department. Financial Plan Botanical Bounty began as a hobby for David and Sue two years ago. Over the last two years they have worked out all of the bugs related to production. Additionally, they are now quite hungry to succeed, creating one of the premier botanical perennial farms in the country. To finance our growth and full-time production, we need to purchase $35,000 worth of new equipment as long-term assets. To that end, we are seeking a $100,000 10-year loan. Sales forecasts conservatively indicate that $190,000 revenue will be generated in year two, rising to $216,000 the following year.

1.1 Objectives
The Botanical Bounty has identified several objectives for the business: 1. 2. 3. Become a leading supplier of botanical perennials for the health/vitamin industry. Reach the point of sustainable profitability. Enjoy work while making a good living.

1.2 Mission
It is Botanical Bounty's mission to become the leading provider of botanical perennials to the health/vitamin industry. This will be accomplished by providing quality plants at fair prices while exceeding customer's expectations.

Initially it was started as a hobby where Susan could use her plant biology skills while covering some of the costs.bplans. Ensuring that all customer's needs are met and they are satisfied with the purchased products. During several of the winter months. After the second year.cfm#ixzz2jLpRhLGb Company Summary Botanical Bounty is an Oregon based perennial farm that grows a variety of botanical medicinal perennials. Botanical Bounty has 10 acres of land which they use for production. 2. 2. Read more: http://www. The farm has been in existence for two years now. The Nealon's were able to achieve this lifestyle due to a windfall that David received as a result of exercised stock options. it would be irresponsible to needlessly spend it so they got serious about the business and made a concerted effort to become profitable. Strict financial controls. Botanical Bounty employs a drip irrigation system for all of the plants. 3.1.L.3 Keys to Success Botanical Bounty will adhere to three keys that will be instrumental in its success: 1. . the Nealon's decided that although they had the money to live on for many years. initially operating as a hobby as rather than a profit producing business. The never ending pursuit of the highest concentration of botanicals in every Company History Botanical Bounty has been in operation for two years. production is moved into their green house for propagation. Botanical Bounty has chosen the Willamette River Valley as an ideal place to grow perennials. The company has been formed as an Oregon L.C.

69% $74.000 $3.000 $36.000 $9.000 $8.000 $4.000 2001 2002 $0 $0 0.000 0 2002 $46.000 $0 $0 $0 $0 $50.000 $47.590 78.000 $35.000 80.000 $7.00% $0 0 2001 $45.00% $75.000 $62.Past Performance 2000 Sales Gross Margin Gross Margin % Operating Expenses Collection Period (days) Balance Sheet 2000 Current Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Other Current Assets Total Current Assets Long-term Assets Long-term Assets Accumulated Depreciation $0 $0 $35.000 $35.500 $36.000 0 .000 $7.

The L.000 $0 $0 $12. Botanical Bounty will offer the following excellent: .000 $0 $78.C.090 $0 $0 $13.090 $0 $13.000 $90. The second reason is that the market for medicinal herbs is a very strong industry with excellent growth. business formation has been chosen as a strategic way to shield the Nealons from personal liability.000 $28.000 $13.000 0 $0 0.00 0 $0 0. ensuring demand for their plants.910 $75. allowing the plant to regrow every year).000 $75.00 0 $0 0. therefore the plants have a positive contribution to society by improving people's health.000 $90.C.L.cfm#ixzz2jLpKD8p9 Products Botanical Bounty offers a range of botanical perennials (plants where the root structure remains. Read more: http://www.000 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $12.L. owned by David and Susan Nealon.000 $0 $78. The first is the medicinal value that they offer.090 $0 $61.Total Long-term Assets Total Assets Current Liabilities Accounts Payable Current Borrowing Other Current Liabilities (interest free) Total Current Liabilities Long-term Liabilities Total Liabilities Paid-in Capital Retained Earnings Earnings Total Capital Total Capital and Liabilities Other Inputs Payment Days Sales on Credit Receivables Turnover $0 $0 $28.910 $0 $ Company Ownership Botanical Bounty is an Oregon L. Botanical perennials were chosen for two main reasons.bplans.000 $0 $12.00 2.

John's Wort has been used as a medicinal for thousands of years. vermifuge and vulnerary. sitosterol. bitter iridoids and tannins. scientific study shows it to have anti-inflammatory. especially good on chicken. antitumor activity. astringent. Scientific studies are proving this to be a valuable plant in many areas for mental disorders. Skullcap Skullcap is a powerful medicinal herb. antiviral. anxiety. sedative and strongly tonic. Some valuable constituents found in the plant are scutellarin. Promotes a mild increase in metabolic activity and relaxes heart and artery movements. pectin. it has a spicy. stimulant. used as a emmenagogue. Botanical Bounty concentrates on producing the healthiest plants which have the highest concentration of active botanicals. hot. Ten years ago there were many different ones but through consolidation the industry has grown in size but decreased in the number of different players. which increase white blood cell activity.cfm#ixzz2jLpEtcj4 Market Analysis Summary Botanical Bounty has identified three main customer groups: supplement companies. nervine. Widely used as an alternative medicine ginger contains the valuable constituent aristolochic acid. The companies purchase the plants and extract the active ingredients and transform them into sellable products for their own brand. It has been used for years in alternative medicine to support the immune system. cholagogue. hysteria. antispasmodic. botanical processors. Stimulates the medulla centers and relaxes the central nervous system. hypericin and pseudohypericin. taste and can be eaten fresh in small quantities in salads. delirium tremens. a condiment. abortifacient. nervine. Now proven to have many highly active compounds including rutin. 4. Read more: http://www. or made into a sauce for meat. insomnia. catalpol. The flowers and leaves are medicinal as analgesic.bplans. Ginger Ginger roots and dried herb are medicinal and edible. diuretic. cures warts in some cases and is a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal. antispasmodic. Botanical Bounty sells these excellent perennials in plant form for the botanicals to be extracted by their customers. and to purify the blood. choline. St. Ginseng Ginseng stimulates and increases endocrine activity in the body. it is used in alternative medicine as an anti-inflammatory. Some compounds of the plant have been shown to have potent anti-retroviral activity without serious side effects and they are being researched in the treatment of AIDS. potent plants. but has only recently been studied for its medicinal value. John's Wort St. expectorant. Botanical Bounty will be able to serve the industry by leveraging their competitive edge of healthy. Scientific studies have confirmed the presence of natural chemicals. other volatile oils. febrifuge. . slightly astringent. Skullcap is used in the treatment of a wide range of nervous conditions including epilepsy. antiseptic. withdrawal from barbiturates and tranquilizers.1 Market Segmentation Botanical Bounty has identified three different target market segments which they will sell to: Supplement Companies This customer group manufactures botanical supplements for their own label products. There are a handful of large companies that operate in this market space. echinacosides. resolvent. digestive. especially during season changes and during the cold and flu season. The customer segments are distinct enough to be able to target each one differently. The industry that Botanical Bounty produces for has been undergoing consolidation for several years now. or used to make ginger candy. aromatic.Echinacea Echinacea was used extensively by Native Americans and the early settlers also adopted its use. crispy. and other nurseries.

and to a smaller degree the nurseries are attractive customers due to the their consistent demand and typical long-term contract needs. They act as a supplier/processor for the retail brands. processors. extract the botanicals and either sell the concentrated botanicals to the end producers or they themselves produce the supplement and sell the final product to other companies for their private label products.58% 21 9 123 153 22 9 129 160 23 9 135 167 24 9 142 175 25 9 149 183 2004 2005 2006 2007 CAGR 4.58% 4. These companies therefore are one layer within the manufacturing system and do not sell to the end consumer. There is significant value to these customers for a . Market Analysis 2003 Potential Customers Supplement Companies Processors Nurseries/Garden Centers Total Growth 5% 4% 5% 4.00% 4. and more difficult to reach.2 Target Market Segment Strategy Botanical Bounty has chosen the three market segments based on the consistent demand for botanical extracts. less consistent in terms of demand.46% 0. Other Nurseries/Garden Centers This customer group purchases the plants which they in turn sell at retail to the individual end consumer. While there are other potential customers.Processors These customers purchase the the plants. The supplement companies. The typical consumer is a health conscious individual who is interested in either extracting the botanical from the plant immediately or growing the plant in their own garden for future use.91% 4. they are smaller. In essence they are the subcontractor for the supplement companies.

direct from sales representatives.S. Supplement Market Surveys show that over 158 million consumers (over 55% of the U. Reasons for botanical growth to occur overseas is typically based on the type of herb and its ability to grow better in the respective region. and on the Internet. on the whole. almost three times the previous year's total of $48 million. making these products readily accessible to children and other vulnerable populations. and alleviating depression. others. . colds. An estimated 22.S.S. U. healthcare professionals and practitioners. which have optimum growing conditions. Approximately 23% of botanical extracts are grown abroad and imported into the United States. Consumer surveys consistently find that nearly half of all Americans now use herbs . mass-market stores Health & natural food stores Healthcare professionals / practitioners Other 42% 30% 20% 4% 4% The 10 largest companies in the botanical and dietary supplement market account for 83% of the total U. The five main channels of distribution are: consumer-direct (includes direct mail/catalog. consumer sales of supplements over the Internet amounted to $142 million. The Nutrition Business Journal estimated that in 1999. annual market.3 Industry Analysis The botanical perennial growing market is typically concentrated in several regions around the U. were sold mainly to adults in health food stores. and the flu. increasing mental sharpness.3 million consumers buy vitamins and minerals for themselves. drug. They also use supplements for very specific medicinal purposes such as treating and preventing serious illnesses. multi-level marketing. and 55. drug. including children. In the past. 4. 78% of the U. mass-market stores.S. Consumers use dietary supplement products to help them achieve their self-care goals that arise out of a sense of alienation from the established health care system. dietary supplements. and an estimated 19. now such products are available in supermarkets.grower to consistently offer the same high level of active botanicals in each plant and to be able to meet the needs of large volume.6 million use them with a prescription product. health and natural food stores. food.S. Internet & infomercial/direct from television).S.8 million purchase them for other members of their family. except for vitamin and mineral products. The consumer's desire for self-care and the widespread use of dietary supplements may cause problems for public health. Channel of Distribution % of $ Sales Consumer-direct Food. The market for supplements is huge and growing: U. long duration contracts. other retail stores. population) use dietary supplements. An estimated 115.8 million consumers use herbal remedies instead of prescription medicine. production comes from growers with 5-20 acres of land.a statistic that is particularly remarkable when we realize that today's herbal products industry is just over a quarter century old. In contrast. The basic reason cited for dietary supplement growth is the desire for self-care. While there are a couple mega farms. Results from a national survey conducted in 1999 by Men's Health magazine show that consumers use dietary supplements as a means of ensuring good health. particularly botanical products.

competition takes two forms.1 Competition and Buying Patterns $1. The similarly sized farms range in size from 5-30 As mentioned previously.00 $287. . The choice of plants grown is based on owner preference as well as location and the ability of the local growing conditions to support the different plants.10 $590. Read more: http://www. The buying patterns of the different customers are typically based on these variables:      Price Availability Ability to deliver consistently on long-term contracts Significant % of active ingredients Consistency. farms similar in size and production capacity to Botanical Bounty and megafarms. These farms are huge. On the other end of spectrum is the megafarm.Company 2001 Sales General Nutrition Companies Nu Skin Enterprises Herbalife International Perrigo NBTY Rexall Sundown Weider Nutrition International Twinlab Nature's Sunshine Chattem 4.40 $272.4 Milestones The value of Botanical Bounty's milestones is in creating a set of measurable activities that will be achievable goals. however they differ greatly in production capacity.cfm#ixzz2jLp4YVDQ 5. peaking at 300 acres. These growers however are few number.4 billion* $921.bplans. typically not less than 100 acres. The number of different herbs grown varies from a handful to upwards of 50. These farms have a similar range of species cultivated.20 $335. The achievement of the milestones will be closely monitored and the assigned person will be held accountable for hitting the milestones.60 $899.3.70 $877.50 $321.60 $610.

After this direction service became the market leader for this niche. custom driving directions. and management of Yahoo!'s driving directions David studied at Pomona College. a small liberal arts school in central California. launching. David recognized the value of providing people with precise. but David was able to generate sufficient advertising dollars specifically for his service. Initially is was a daunting task to develop revenue for this service which the individual users did not pay for.Milestones Milestone Start Date End Date 2/1/2003 4/30/2003 4/4/2004 7/30/2004 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Budget Manager Department David Sue Sue Strategic planning Sales Sales Business plan completion 1/1/2003 First large contract $100K in revenue Profitability Totals 1/1/2003 1/1/2003 1/1/2003 David Operations Read more: http://www. providing him with a wealth of project management and operations skills. David worked at a bicycle shop for a year before joining Yahoo! as employee number 34. David was a Project Manager and was in charge some business development activities.cfm#ixzz2jLoufUXM Management Summary The Botanical Bounty management team is made up of the husband and wife team of David and Sue Nealon.bplans. David moved on to other projects at Yahoo! David spent a total of four years at Yahoo! providing him with a wealth of experience. David graduated with a dual major of Business and Philosophy. . David was ultimately responsible for the entire project. His first "home run" was the development.

000 2004 $18. first receiving her undergraduate degree in biology and later her Master's in Plant Biology. Sue's Master's thesis was a dual thesis in plant fertility and herbal concentrations. The plant fertility topic was a study of different types of compost and the effects on $29.bplans. and some growing responsibility. while David handles the business operations. the cutting schedules.000 $27. As head grower she is responsible for supervising. scheduling plant production. accounting.000 $32.000 $18. growing schedules. Playing to their strengths Sue will manage the farming operations and sales. Personnel Plan 2003 David Sue Grower Laborers Total People Total Payroll $18. crop selection. The topics of her thesis were chosen based on her desire to continue with her education professionally as a grower.000 $18. Some of the responsibilities of the laborers are soil tilling. The second topic explored the interrelationships of nutrients and temperature and the effect that they have on the plants' production of the respective botanicals. irrigation system development.1 Personnel Plan   David: Operations including vendor relations.000 $27. plant collections and trimming.cfm#ixzz2jLoqYR3s Financial Plan The following sections will outline important financial information. fertilizer selection and application schedules. Sue: Head grower and sales. Wanting to be closer to her parents.000 Read more: http://www. Because Sue has the technical knowledge regarding the plants and their industry leading botanical concentrations.000 $18.000 6 $92. she will be in charge of sales which will include qualifying leads as   well as participating in the final negotiations and account management. After school Sue moved down to California to work at one of the largest indoor growing operations in California. compost distribution.000 $29. however.Sue Derent Nealon is the biology/horticulture manager for Botanical Bounty. Grower: Sue will have the assistance of a full-time grower in order to allow her to meet her sales responsibilities. 6. and pest control.000 6 $97.000 2005 $18. After several serious conversations. there will always be some laborers on staff throughout the year.000 4 $87. Laborers: The laborer positions will be seasonal as there is more work required in the summer months. they decided to really make the farm a business. . the Sue and David moved to the Willamette River Valley in Oregon in pursuit of Sue's dream of running her own farm.000 $24. For the first two years she ran the farm as a hobby. Sue studied at the University of Oregon. just figuring things out without a concern for profits.

00% 0 2005 3 10.00% 4.2 Break-even Analysis The Break-even Analysis is shown below. General Assumptions 2003 Plan Month Current Interest Rate Long-term Interest Rate Tax Rate Other 1 10.00% 30.00% 0 7.737 $13.7.00% 0 2004 2 10.00% 4.00% 30.00% 4. Break-even Analysis Monthly Revenue Break-even Assumptions: Average Percent Variable Cost Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost 8% $12.770 .00% 30.1 Important Assumptions The following table details important Financial Assumptions.

3 Projected Profit and Loss The following table and charts show the Projected Profit and Loss. .7.

835 $14.246 $0 $16.313 $0 $14.Pro Forma Profit and Loss 2003 Sales Direct Cost of Sales Other Costs of Goods Total Cost of Sales Gross Margin $84.839 $6.613 $16.476 2004 $190.522 2005 $216.363 $78.246 $200.363 $0 $6.313 $176.367 .

27% $92.000 $7.000 $6.400 $160.000 $2.50% 92.29% 7. and the loan (and principal repayment) related to the farm's expansion.000 $2.000 $2.846 ($74.596 $15.926 $22.400 $168.550 $2. .000 $6.50% 92.374) $3.400 $152.000 $6.Gross Margin % Expenses Payroll Sales and Marketing and Other Expenses Depreciation Mortgage Utilities Insurance Payroll Taxes Other Total Operating Expenses Profit Before Interest and Taxes EBITDA Interest Expense Taxes Incurred Net Profit Net Profit/Sales 92.996 $24.000 $12.400 $14.000 $7.996 $24.370) ($67.623 $20.346 $32.400 $13.000 $10.017 $3.800 $2.021 $39. including our purchase of new equipment.000 $14.400 $13.922 $3.050 $2.000 $7.908 $0 ($78.278) -92.51% $97.640 $3.50% $87.280 $8.4 Projected Cash Flow The following table and chart display the Projected Cash Flow.686 $8.119 9.600 4.996 $24.

709 $126.785 $47.575 $79.647 2005 $21.493 $212. VAT.525 2004 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $212. HST/GST Received New Current Borrowing New Other Liabilities (interest-free) New Long-term Liabilities Sales of Other Current Assets Sales of Long-term Assets New Investment Received Subtotal Cash Received Expenditures $0 $0 $0 $100.000 $0 $0 $0 $179.153 $158.210 $58.647 2004 2005 .Pro Forma Cash Flow 2003 Cash Received Cash from Operations Cash Sales Cash from Receivables Subtotal Cash from Operations Additional Cash Received Sales Tax.525 $54.816 $174.785 2003 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $174.

702 $29.000 $0 $0 $0 $181.702 $0 $10 $0 $10.273 $97.504 $3.273 ($6.335 $164.737 7.000 $27.900 $17.748) $3.335 $92. VAT. Pro Forma Balance Sheet 2003 Assets Current Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Other Current Assets Total Current Assets Long-term Assets $10.330 $4.5 Projected Balance Sheet The Projected Balance Sheet table appears below.000 $91.747 $13.000 $0 $35.000 $81.364 $4.550) $10.000 $54.Expenditures from Operations Cash Spending Bill Payments Subtotal Spent on Operations Additional Cash Spent Sales Tax.601 $87.000 $0 $0 $0 $198.932 2004 2005 .273 $173.000 $0 $204.450 $13.000 $37.601 $33.450 $0 $0 $0 $8.737 $188. HST/GST Paid Out Principal Repayment of Current Borrowing Other Liabilities Principal Repayment Long-term Liabilities Principal Repayment Purchase Other Current Assets Purchase Long-term Assets Dividends Subtotal Cash Spent Net Cash Flow Cash Balance $0 $0 $0 $5.335 ($24.054 $4.000 $77.066 $17.

768) $86.6 Business Ratios Business ratios for Botanical Bounty.593 $77.768) $20.368) $8.17% .842 $87.004 $83.9905.000 $27.593 $0 ($7.600 ($7.508 ($16.842 $0 $0 $6.351 $96. Ratio Analysis 2003 Sales Growth Percent of Total Assets Accounts Receivable 15.988 $42.876 $0 $0 $4.000 $84.368) $83.94% 2005 13.63% 34.51% Industry Profile 10. SIC industry class: Herb or spice farm.11% 34.31% 82.278) ($16.876 $0 $61.351 7. code 0139.944 $12.000 $13.603 ($10) $0 $7.768) $7.876 $95.842 $0 ($16.074 ($7.074 2004 $70.Long-term Assets Accumulated Depreciation Total Long-term Assets Total Assets Liabilities and Capital Current Liabilities Accounts Payable Current Borrowing Other Current Liabilities Subtotal Current Liabilities Long-term Liabilities Total Liabilities Paid-in Capital Retained Earnings Earnings Total Capital Total Liabilities and Capital Net Worth $70.992 $49.38% 7.508 2003 $70.000 $20.012 $96.119 $12.910 ($78.368) $6.996 $56.45% 2004 124.944 2005 $4.008 $86.000 $93.000 $99.

65% 43.00% 5.64 5.08% 109.94% 67.a n.74% 27.38% 0.55 0.00% 92.00% 47.27% 0.26% 0.76% 119.95% 0.13% 56.26% 232.60% 478.00% -87.a 4.29% 162.00% 7.00% 7.65% 2005 9.42 109.79% 32.02% -158.46% 44.24% -93.35% 100.83% 79.87 59 4.23 7.24% n.87 70 n.64 119.02% -9.00% 92.78% 100.16% 14.02% 4.23 87.82% 5.00% 14.06% 100.78% 100.97% 55.66% 100.a .34% 100.00% 92.33% 0.22% 47.00% 8.00% 5.95% 101. General & Administrative Expenses Advertising Expenses Profit Before Interest and Taxes Main Ratios Current Quick Total Debt to Total Assets Pre-tax Return on Net Worth Pre-tax Return on Assets Additional Ratios Net Profit Margin Return on Equity Activity Ratios Accounts Receivable Turnover Collection Days 4.70% 29.84% 113.27% 2004 4.84% 33.03% 100.51% 0.43% 87.50% 85.42 5.a n.86% 61.00% 24.74% 2003 -92.50% 90.87 54 4.60% 4.06% 56.00% 7.66% 43.50% 191.86% 2.Other Current Assets Total Current Assets Long-term Assets Total Assets Current Liabilities Long-term Liabilities Total Liabilities Net Worth Percent of Sales Sales Gross Margin Selling.14% 28.12% 0.26% 12.08% 52.89% 1.60% -19.94% 100.16 0.

07 6.cfm#ixzz2jLoiBAsg .17 32 1.a n.bplans.45 8% 2.00 12.a n.00 0.09 n.Accounts Payable Turnover Payment Days Total Asset Turnover Debt Ratios Debt to Net Worth Current Liab. to Liab. Liquidity Ratios Net Working Capital Interest Coverage Additional Ratios Assets to Sales Current Debt/Total Assets Acid Test Sales/Net Worth Dividend Payout 14.45 8% 1.a n.a n.224 4.03 $30.85 0.00 0.38 $47.628 -19.05 0.00 0.a 0.a $22.00 n.54 0.a n.13 0.a n.00 0.17 26 2.23 n.17 28 2.96 0.a 0.00 0.a Read more: http://www.a n.76 n.02 12.339 9.85 17.a n.98 6% 2.