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Citation & Referencing Guide

B.K. Majumdar Institute of Business Administration

.................................................................. 17 COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS ............................................ 12 USAGE OF APA STYLE IN MICROSOFT WINDOWS ....................................................................... 4 QUOTING........................................... 8 BASIC PROJECT REPORT FORMAT ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 REFERENCE LIST IN APA STYLE . K.......................................................................................................................... SUMMARIZING AND PARAPHRASING .................................... 15 EVALUATING INFORMATION FROM THE INTERNET ..... 14 PLAGIARISM .........................................................................................................CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT THIS GUIDE .................. 18 2 © B......................................... 3 WHAT IS CITATION OR REFERENCING? .......... 7 APA STYLE EXAMPLES ...................................................................................................................... MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION .................................................................................................................................... 5 IN-TEXT REFERENCING IN APA STYLE .....................................................................................................

MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION .M. It is not intended to and does not replace the APA Publication manual. Referring to the Publication manual is highly recommended for any source not exemplified in the present document.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE ABOUT THIS GUIDE Effective written communication and research capabilities are fundamental to undergraduate study and vital tools for the modern business professional. This guide describes the citation conventions that B. currently in its 6th ed.I.B. The primary source for determining how to use APA style documentation is the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. students should use when writing assignments. APA style referencing uses parenthetical references {E. This guide is an abbreviation of APA guidelines. and research papers etc. The referencing style to be used is APA (American Psychological Association) style. industrial projects. (2010).: (Garnier. 2004)} in the body of the paper that refer to an alphabetical Reference List at the end of the paper.A. This document is a basic guide for students. K. 3 © B.K.g.

theory.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE WHAT IS CITATION OR REFERENCING? Academic writing is concerned with bringing together two sources of ideas: one’s own and the ideas of others (found in books. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . A student representing an author’s ideas has the choice to either use the writer’s actual words. which is key to the discussion. and websites). chart. etc. Direct quotation should be employed sparingly. periodicals.e. and the ability to use those ideas to present an argument. i. but not limited to: A direct quotation. or if a point is particularly well expressed by an author.e. Quotations can be used for a point. scholarly literature. paraphrase or summarise. Students are required to give credit for the information they have used by providing proper references. Paraphrase and summary should be used more frequently as they are key processes in academic writing that demonstrate a student understands of different authors’ ideas. K. concept. Anything that is borrowed from another author must be referenced. image. Information that is not “common knowledge” 4 © B. including. i. or rewrite in one’s own words. quote. summary or paraphrase Another author’s idea.

Any of the author’s key terms must be put in “quotation marks” or italics. How to do it: Be selective. A summary is a brief account.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE QUOTING. Use only what is needed for your own purposes. Use quotes sparingly. How to do it: Reproduce the original text exactly and put it in “quotation marks”. rewording of an author’s ideas into one’s own words. SUMMARIZING AND PARAPHRASING A direct quote is when an author’s exact words are borrowed. K. in one’s own words. Any changes to the quote must be placed in [square brackets]. A paraphrase is. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . Use your own style of writing Select only the sections of the original text that are relevant to your own arguments. not to introduce or make new arguments. Use direct quotes to reinforce your own ideas. Remain true to the original author’s intent. It is used when another author expresses an idea in a way that you feel should not be changed. It demonstrates an understanding of the material and is often used to support one’s own arguments. Any of the author’s key terms must be put in “quotation marks” or italics. 5 © B. How to do it: Follow the same order of ideas as the original text. of what an author says.

CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE IN-TEXT REFERENCING IN APA STYLE APA requires that information be cited in 2 different ways—within the text and in a reference list at the end of the paper. and the converse applies for reference list entries. The reference list should be on a new page. The in-text citation consists of: author surname(s) (in the order that they appear on the actual publication). followed by the year of publication of the source that you are citing. Include page numbers for direct quotes. All in-text citations must have a corresponding reference list entry. and for paraphrasing where appropriate The in-text citation is placed immediately after the text which refers to the source being cited 6 © B. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . K.

T. Book and report titles: only the first word of the title and of the subtitle should be capitalized. Operations Management: Champion of the Industry. starting with the earliest. The title should be in italics with no quotation marks. India: Tata McGraw Hill. Works are alphabetized according to the first significant word (omit “a. Co.. If there is no author. Include only the publisher’s name. Article title or chapter title: only the first word of the title and of any subtitle is capitalized. J. & Ferguson. The bibliographic information is displayed in a format called the Reference List. magazines) titles: All major words in titles should be capitalized.. T.” “an. not Bibliography or Works Cited. The entries are listed in alphabetical order. the title is used. but do retain the words Books or Press. or Inc. without any unnecessary words like Publisher. G. (2010). (2010). Smith. newsletters. New Delhi. Only the initials of authors’ first names are used. Use of the ampersand (&): Use an ampersand before the final author and precede it with a comma. There should be no italics or quotation marks. Do not add full stops after the URLs 7 © B.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE REFERENCE LIST IN APA STYLE Bell. K. and titles should also be italicized with no quotation marks. Ahmedabad. Periodical (journals. Multiple works by the same author should be arranged by publication date. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION .. by the authors’ surnames. India: Open University Press. Place of publication: the name of the city should be followed by a comma and the country name. R. Doing your research project: A guide research in management.” and “the”).

(year) . New Castle. G. 1979). (year) . Book title .. Doing your research project: A guide research in management. J. Conger and Davidson conducted a study which showed that… Reference list Format: Author & Author. Conger conducted a study which showed that… Reference list Format: Author .: Conger. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . K. Australia: Open University Press. 8 © B. Place of publication : Publisher .. Place of publication : Publisher . (1979). (1979).: Conger.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE APA STYLE EXAMPLES Book (Single Author) In-text: . Book (Two Authors) In-text: . K. E. J. (2005) states that children learnt. Place of publication : Publisher . Doing your research project: A guide research in management.g... Book title . 1979)... OR In 1979... Ahmedabad. J.This was seen in an Australian study (Conger. India: Open University Press. E..This was seen in an Australian study (Conger & Davidson.: Bell..g. Reference list Format: Author et al. E. Doing your research project: A guide research in management. OR Conger & Davidson (1979) argue that. New Castle... (year) .g. 2005 . OR In 1979. Australia: Open University Press. Masserton. Book (Multiple authors) In-text: In one developmental study Bell et al. and Slowinski. Book title . OR Conger (1979) has argued that. & Davidson R.

E. (2011. Section and page(s) . 653-663.g. Page range . (year) . On to the centennial. Reference list Format: Author . Police investigate third murder this year. Periodical/journal Title. 2001). 9 © B. Scientific Literature. Newspaper Name. A3.: Budd.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE Article in a periodical/journal In-text: (Budd. M. Reference list Format: Author . (2004). 2004) – include page number if direct quotation. L. (year. Newspaper article In-text: (Klein.g.: Klein. K. Indian express. A1. E. April 23). 76(4). Article title . J. month day) . MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . 3 pp. Article title . Volume(issue) .

except if the content of the page is subject to frequent changes. If the URL is used. If no DOI is available. 31(4). Where no author is available. Children & Society. no retrieval date is necessary. the URL for the home page of the material should be provided instead. 3(1). Reference list Format: Author . DOIs are usually displayed prominently on the first page of articles found online. transfer the organisation behind the website. 2005) – include page number if direct quotation. (year) . 3-18.g.x Article in an online periodical without DOI In-text: (Oswal. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . 413-420.tb00565. It now recommends the inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in the reference list whenever possible.xxxxxxx E. Volume(issue) . or the title. doi : xx.: Oswal. (1989). K. Attitudes of foster parents towards children. 6th Edition. and are sometimes provided for websites or online books or magazines as well. Use n. page range . to the author space. Article title . changed its guidelines for referencing electronic documents.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS The APA Publication Manual. (2005).d. Work and well-being in a growing society.1989. Periodical Title . L. (year) .g. Reference list Format: Author . Retrieved from URL E. 1989) – include page number if direct quotation. Article title . page range . Periodical title . Volume(issue) . Article in an online periodical with DOI In-text: (Colton. doi:10. Retrieved from http://economics.: Colton. M. Indian Public Policy.1099-0860. (no date) where no publication date is available.in/cpp/en/ 10 © B.1111/j.

g. from URL E. 2010) Reference list Format: Author . (n. (2012.d. A. February 7). (2010). Article title . Research letter: Group Psychotherapy Association.d. Interviewer.) Reference list Format: Author . K.: Joyce. Article title . Place E.: Shah. from URL E. Mehta.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE Article on a website (no date mentioned) In-text: (Joyce. Ahmedabad. 11 © B.) . month day). n. Retrieved October 26. 2009. A.cgpa. Interviewer). Post. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . Retrieved Month day. (S. Retrieved October 26.g.cgpa. (Year. (year) . Research letter: Group Psychotherapy Association. Retrieved Month day. S. from http://www.d.). 2009. A. year . Manager.: Joyce. (n. S. 2010) Reference list Format: Author.g. from http://www.ca/Research-Letter INTERVIEW In-text: (Shah.ca/Research-Letter Article on a website (with date) In-text: (Joyce. India. year .

iv. The final projects have to be submitted in two copies which have to be exactly identical. The report should include. The final projects have to be submitted in two copies which have to be exactly identical. Departmentalization and its basis b) Production i.ndard font Times New Roman should be used. the following: 1) Cover/Title Page 2) Certificate 3) Acknowledgment (Should be signed by the student) 4) Preface 5) Table of Contents (including relevant page numbers) 6) Introduction: A general introduction to the Company. It is to be subdivided into the following sections: a) Organisational Design i. Organisational Structure and chart. this section could include the following: a) Brief Overview of the Industry b) History of the Company c) Introduction to the Founding Members d) Philosophy/Motto/Objectives of the Company 7) General Analysis sections: The general section touches upon the various areas of management. Hierarchy iii. The font size to be used is 12 and any standard style for font like Times New Roman should be used. in order. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Will be provided by the Institute . Top Management ii. Plant location ii. K.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE BASIC PROJECT REPORT FORMAT The report will be prepared on A4 size paper with single spacing. Plant Operation 12 © B. Product Portfolio iii.

Recruitment Policy iii. Exports d) Finance i. Place: Distribution Network iv. 4 P’s/ 7 P’s of Marketing ii. Promotion and advertising campaign vi. Training and Development iv. Strength of the Personnel Department. Reward System f) Social Responsibility & Environment Protection Measures g) Awards and achievements 8) Conclusions 9) Recommendations 10) Reference List 11) Appendices 13 © B. Competitors vii. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . K. Price v. Sources of finance ii.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE iv. Target customers iii. Basic Ratios e) Personnel i. ii. Capital structure iii. Quality Control c) Marketing i.

CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE USAGE OF APA STYLE IN MICROSOFT WINDOWS To use the bibliography styles open a word document. 14 © B. go to the references tab and under ‘Citations and Bibliography’ click ‘Insert Citation’ Then click ‘Add New Source’ Select the source and fill in all the details of that source. go to ‘References’ tab and under ‘Citations and Bibliography’ change the style to ‘APA’ To start citation. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . K.

This includes copying directly from the original. As well as these informal means of detecting plagiarism. Summarising and paraphrasing another’s work without acknowledging the source. computer-based materials or artistic piece without acknowledging the source. Asking another person to write an assignment. In the simplest form. Using or extracting another person’s concepts. Moreover. email) or by other means. There may be many reasons for its prevalence. results. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . but one certainly relates to the ease with which information can be accessed and downloaded from the Internet. if a student includes in their own writing some unattributed work of a published writer. there are now electronic processes which are being employed. There are severe penalties for this kind of academic 15 © B. or conclusions and passing them off as one’s own. AVOIDING PLAGIARISM Plagiarism usually occurs in two ways.g. DETECTING PLAGIARISM The lecturers who mark a student’s assigned work have a deep and broad knowledge of their field which often enables them to recognise the words of published authors. The first is deliberate. WHAT IS PLAGIARISM? Copying out part(s) of any document. including memorising. K.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE PLAGIARISM Plagiarism is currently a major problem for universities around the world. where students attempt to cheat by copying others’ work. fax. photocopy. or from a secondary source (e. Preparing an assignment collaboratively and submitting work that is substantially the same as another student’s in cases where the assignment is intended to be individual work – not group work. the differences in writing style can be readily perceived. search engines such as Google can match an entered text fragment to its original source.

In order to avoid plagiarism. these are skills which have already been learned at school. K. More commonly. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . students also need to make use of the key academic techniques of summarising and paraphrasing. but for many. students plagiarise unintentionally. however. For some people. students need to first understand and apply the rules of referencing. As well as learning to reference accurately.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE misconduct. or by failing to follow academic procedures for acknowledging the ideas/words of others. 16 © B. they need to be developed while at college. either through being unaware of what constitutes plagiarism.

it is essential that students evaluate any data found for credibility before using or quoting it. CHECKLIST FOR BUSINESS INFORMATION AUTHORITY Does a statement of ownership appear on the document? Is it the official site of the company or organisation? How can one tell? Is there a copyright statement for the owner or company? ACCURACY Can one verify actual information provided? Are sources given? Does the company provide a link to outside sources such as stock exchange reports to verify its claims? RECENCY Are there dates on the page to indicate: When the page was written? When the page was first placed on the Web? When the page was last updated? Are there any other indications that the material is kept current? For material from the company’s annual report. K. is the date of the report listed? 17 © B. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION .CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE EVALUATING INFORMATION FROM THE INTERNET Information found on the Internet can come from any source. As it is not necessarily assessed or reviewed before publishing.

. app. eqs et al. edns eq.. no. figs fn. ibid. K. para. n. bk C.CITATION & REFERENCING GUIDE COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS The abbreviations listed below may appear in bibliographies. paras pl. col. art. ex.. vols Appendix Article book approximately.d. about (Latin circa). exx. and notes.... fnn. eds edn. for example.. lists of references. pp. nn. ch. c. ill... pt. pts vol. nos p. MAJUMDAR INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . id. cols ed... ills n. fig. 1835 chapter column(s) editor(s) edition(s) equation(s) and others example(s) figure(s) footnote(s) in the same work (Latin ibidem) the same (Latin idem) illustrator(s) note(s) no date number(s) page(s) paragraph(s) plural part(s) volume(s) 18 © B..