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Published by The Avalon Book Company Limited 8 Denmark Street, London W C 2 H 8LS

© Avalon Book Company, Limited, 2008

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The Avalon Direct English books are designed to be used for lessons in the Avalon method. The books are not designed for self-study or for use by teachers who have not received specific training in the method. These materials may not be used by anyone without the explicit written permission of Avalon School of English. All enquiries should be directed to: Avalon School of English 8 Denmark Street London W C 2 H 8LS

v. to matter If something matters, it is important to you because you care about it. Who are the people that really matter to you ? Do you think people matter more than animals ? Are most of the teachers here men or women ? Do you think it matters ? Do you think it matters i f . . . ... whales become extinct ? ... people smoke in public places ? ... people wear smart clothes to work ? ... you make a few mistakes when you speak English ?

adj. basic

adv. basically

If something is basic it is low-level or simple, eg. I speak Spanish fluently but only basic French. We also use the words basic and basically to give a quick, simple, explanation that can be easily understood. eg. Basically, the problem with this machine is that it's old. Do you still make basic mistakes in English ? Do you think you always will ? Give me an example of someone you have a difficult relationship with. What's the basic problem ? Give me some basic information about these subjects. (Begin with 'Basically, ...') • the difference between a sea and an ocean • the reason why you're studying English • how you spend your free time • your ambitions for the future

v. to socialise

adj. un/sociable

To socialise means to spend time going out and meeting new people or friends. Are you basically a sociable person ? Are you sometimes in an unsociable mood ?

Do hotels usually charge for: a. charge Shops charge people money for goods and services. eg. room service ? b.What kind of people are forced to be sociable at work ? Do you get nervous when you socialise with new people ? Do you socialise with English-speaking people ? Does/Would it help your English ? n. management n. Harrods charges its customers £10 for plastic bags. colleague How many staff are there at the place you work ? What kind of businesses employ a lot of part-time staff ? What is your manager like ? How does he/she treat the staff ? Who is usually given the horrible and boring tasks ? Do you get on well with your colleagues ? Do you socialise outside work ? Do you think the staff sometimes know more about the business than the management? Why do you think that is ? Would you prefer a male or female manager ? Do you think it matters to some people ? v/n. cleaning the room ? What public services are provided free of charge ? In what kind of places are students charged less ? . staff n. manager n.

limited A limit is the most (or least) that something can be. a group of children ? c. What does a diet limit ? Where do people keep large amounts of money ? What about small amounts of cash ? What kind of things do you have a limited amount of time to do ? .v. If you fell asleep on your bus/train home. to own up We use end up to talk about the final result of (doing) something. a baby ? Who is in charge of your country ? Who would take over if he/she became seriously ill ? Give me an example of a film where aliens try to take over the world. The limit for cigarettes is 200 and for alcohol 5 litres. amount n/v. eg. What happens in the end ? phrv. eg. There is a limit to how much alcohol and cigarettes you can bring into the country. a small business ? b. to turn up phr v. to take over Have you ever been a manager ? How many people were you in charge of ? Would you like the responsibility of being in charge of: a. limit adj. to end up phr v. where would you end up ? Do people who take drugs usually end up addicted ? Have you ever promised to meet someone and not turned up ? How would you feel if you invited friends for dinner and no one turned up ? Do children usually own up when they have done something wrong ? n. We waited for a bus for half an hour and ended up taking a taxi instead. to be in charge of phr v.

you eat ? . beer ? c. quality n. Roughly how long have you been in this country ? Can you remember the exact date you arrived ? Can you take as much luggage as you like on a plane ? Do you kaow the exact amount you are allowed ? . you drink ? . which word do we use instead of 'amount' ? Do you think the atmosphere in the class depends on the number of people ? What else does it depend on ? Do Universities have a limited number of places ? Which universities in your country are hard to get into ? n.. bulk The quality of something is how good/bad it is. the number o f . of time you spend on the phone ? And can you always keep to your limit ? Does it matter if you break the speed limit ? What does it depend on ? .... exact adv. With a countable noun. petrol ? b.. The quantity is how much of something there is.. exactly adv... How do we measure quantities of: a. you spend ? . please ? It is exactly .. vegetables/meat ? What things are often bought in large quantities ? What is the advantage of buying things in bulk ? Which brand names are famous for high quality products ? Do you think people have a better quality of life in the city or the countryside ? Why ? adj.. . roughly What is the exact time. ..Do you try to limit the amount: .. quantity n.

Have you ever lost your keys ? Did you find them in the end ? Have you ever had to study something really difficult ? Did you understand it in the end ? v.Is your book exactly the same as his/hers ? What differences are there ? Give me an example of two things that are exactly/roughly the same: a. a job application b. price in the end at the end (of) by the end (of) In the end = eventually. We tried to find his house for hours. to accept adj. acceptable v. shape d. but we gave up in the end. size b. eg. At the end = the last part of something. By the end of = At some time before the end. exactly. What happens at the end ? How many questions have you answered so far ? How many do you think you will have answered by the end of the lesson ? Will we have finished this book by the end of the year ? Predict when. colour c. Give me an example of a very romantic/sad film. eg. as a final result. a University application c. eg. a marriage proposal Why would someone feel rejected ? Do you think everyone finds rejection hard to cope with ? . The teacher asked for our homework at the end of the lesson. rejection Would you accept a drink from a stranger ? Is poverty an acceptable excuse for stealing ? Do you find criticism hard to accept ? What does it depend on ? Give a reason why the following might be rejected: a. to reject n. By the end of the journey everyone was asleep.

or saving someone's life. to save v. would you offer to do the washing up afterwards ? What kind of people should you offer your seat to on a bus ? Have you ever offered to do something you didn't want to do ? Have you ever been offered cheap goods in the street ? Did you buy anything ? Why/Why not ? n. offer Have you ever offered to help a stranger ? Why did they need help ? Why would someone reject a job offer ? If someone cooked dinner for you. 20% off b. sale n. savings If you save something you avoid using. 2 for the price of 1 c. saving time. bargain n. to offer n. special offer n. to save up n.v. 50% off next purchase . wasting or losing it. discount Where would you go for a bargain ? What things can students/old people get a discount on ? What time of year do shops have sales ? What are some popular special offers ? Which special offer is the best bargain ? a. What kind of things do people do to save money ? Do you have any savings ? Where do you keep them ? What machines do we use every day that save us time ? In what way ? Do you know anyone who hates throwing things away ? What kind of things do they save ? v. We often talk about saving money.

He bought his pink plastic watch for £500. Have you ever performed on stage ? Do you perform better or worse when you are being watched ? Why do athletes sometimes take drugs ? What shouldn't you do during a theatre performance ? How can the audience/crowd affect the performance of an actor/player ? Give me an example of a high-performance car. rip-off v. What a rip-off ! What's the opposite of a bargain ? Do tourists often get ripped off ? Has it ever happened to you ? What kind of things do you think are a rip-off ? How much did you pay for your ? Did she/he get a bargain or was she/he ripped off ? v. to perform n. His fantastic performance deserved an Oscar.n. to deserve If you deserve something it is fair that you should get it. performance Actors. eg. musicians and sports people perform in public. Do you deserve to be rich ? Why ? Do you think top football players deserve to be paid so much money ? Even if they perform badly ? lllllllllllllllllllilllllllllllliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii . eg. we do not always get what we deserve. to be/get ripped off If somebody rips you off they charge you too much. However. Would you buy one if you could afford it ? v. We can also use perform and performance to talk about how well something is done.

The teacher tried to explain the grammar but we were confused because he used a lot of words we didn't understand. confusion n. or think about it clearly. v. chaos adj. People who .Do you think all criminals deserve to go to prison ? What else could be a suitable punishment ? Which actor or actress do you think deserves to win an Oscar ? For which performance ? Who do you think has become famous without deserving it ? In your opinion. How can bad communication lead to confusion ? What kind of things do very old people get confused about ? What about young children ? Do you think maps can make us more confused instead of helping ? Are there any English words that you find confusing ? Which ones ? Have you ever been confused by someone's explanation (of something) ? What were they trying to explain ? What kind of things can cause chaos on public transport ? Do you think it's better to have a well organised or a chaotic life ? Which do you think is more interesting/exciting ? Have you ever had a totally chaotic day ? What went wrong ? .. to confuse n. what kind of people deserve to be sacked/paid a lot of money ? 1. An explanation confuses people if it is too complicated or hard to understand. chaotic If someone is confused they can't understand something.. eg.

learn to fly a plane in a month ? A. No. doubt We often use doubt to express a negative opinion about something. trick Are card tricks magic ? n. magic n. a successful job application What's the best way to confirm an order you've made by phone ? Are mobile phones bad for you ? Is there any scientific evidence to confirm this ? v/n.v/n. I doubt he will come = I think he probably won't come (but I'm not sure). eg. because we are not sure about it. confirmation What's the capital of her/his country ? Can you confirm this ? How could you get confirmation of . learn your language in a year ? v./Yes. illusion Have you ever seen a magician perform a trick ? Did you ever work out how it was done ? Have you ever taught a pet to do tricks ? What kind of tricks do circus animals perform ? Do you think they are amusing ? When do people play tricks on each other ? Whcit tricks do you know for cheating in an exam ? . a. Have you ever doubted something you read in a newspaper ? Is there any doubt that smoking is addictive ? Do you think I could: a.. I doubt . a hotel booking b. I've no doubt Tell me something you strongly believe in ? Have you ever had your doubts ? Has anyone ever doubted your honesty ? b.. to confirm n... a flight arrival c.

Does it seem as if summer/winter/autumn/spring is over ? What kinds of things seem as if they are never going to end ? What kinds of things do you always lose around the house ? Does it seem as if they have just disappeared ? Does time seem to pass more quickly as you get older ? Is this true or just an illusion ? CO Avalon Book Company Ltd. happy b. confident What makes you think so ? c. to appear v.Have you ever been tricked into doing something stupid ? How did you feel afterwards ? v.. = like The way something appears is what we believe about it when we see it. eg. You seem a bit sad.. It would seem as if../inf. improving their English quickly Which famous people always seem to be in the news/headlines ? Have you ever tried to appear really confident ? What for ? If I kept yawning during the lesson. Is everything OK ? Does this book seem more difficult than Book 3 ? Which people in the class seem to be: a. how would it seem ? A. 1999 .) as if/though. to seem/to appear (+adj.. to disappear When do the stars appear ? When does the sun disappear below the horizon ? What kind of things are made to appear and disappear in magic tricks ? What do famous people talk about when they appear on chat shows ? v..

... aren't you ? You're about 40..... Do you think there's any such thing as: .... aliens ? ./No. Yes. the perfect man/woman ? . love at first sight ? A... magic ? .. ghosts/fairies/angels ? . there's no such thing as .. Is there any proof ? adj.any such thing/such a thing as. actual adv... what would their actual words be ? Do you think snakes feel horrible to touch ? Have you ever actually touched one ? Do you ever have something to eat even when you're not actually hungry ? How can people appear taller than they actually are ? If you are given a present... don't they ? . actually actual = real or exact actually = in fact How long have you been living in London ? Can you remember the actual date you arrived ? If someone asked me my age. do you always act as if you like it ? Even if you actually think it's horrible ? Have you ever seen someone who looked as if they had seen a ghost ? What had actually happened ? actually (for contradictions) We often use the word 'actually' when someone seems to ~ave the wrong idea. I believe in . proof (uncountable) no such thing as. You're Australian. aren't you ? Brazilians speak Spanish. Proof is the noun from the verb 'to prove' (Bk 3). Is there (any) such thing as = does it exist ? There's no such thing as = it doesn't exist. Answer these questions using 'actually'. n.

What time are you supposed to be at work ? And what time do you actually get there ? Do you know what you are supposed to do if someone faints ? When are you supposed to call 999 ? Why might someone not do it ? What are you meant to do with litter ? Where does a lot of it actually end up ? Are there any road signs in your country that you think cause confusion ? What are they actually meant to tell you ? . We often use them when what actually happens is different from what should happen.Is the King of your country popular ? Are you enjoying Book 3 ? Can you lend me a cigarette ? to be meant to/supposed to These expressions have a similar meaning to should. eg. but sometimes I go home early. I am supposed to stay in the office until 6pm.

What do you assume about someone wearing a gold ring on this finger ? What nationality am I / is . there will never be another world war? In the law of your country is someone assumed to be innocent until they are proved to be guilty ? v/n. I assumed he was in charge because he was telling everyone what to do. Does the sound of someone else's walkman irritate you ? What other sounds can be really irritating ? Can you think of any famous pop groups that sound like each other ? Have you ever heard the sound of your own voice ? How did it sound ? Which student sounds the most confident when they speak ? Do you actually feel confident ? Do holiday brochures make places sound nicer than they are ? Where do you think would be a good place for a school trip ? How does that sound to you ? CO Avalon Book Company Ltd..UNIT 2 v. 1999 .? Do you know that or are you assuming it ? Do you usually assume that policemen are honest ? Do people make assumptions about you because of your nationality ? What do they assume ? Can it be assumed that.... sound What sounds can you hear from outside ? I can hear (the sound of)... Sometimes our assumptions are wrong because we don't have proof.. eg. prices will keep on rising ? b. assumption If you assume something you accept that it is true. a. to assume n.

eg... 1999 . = I bought him the phone because I wanted him to be able to call me in an emergency.. NB We do not always use 'that'. The grandparents looked after the children . a minor problem in your life that.. major adj. eg. Have you ever asked for a letter from Reception ? Why did you need it ? adj.] Which inventions have had a huge impact on everyday life ? CO Avalon Book Company Ltd. world problem c. something hits something else.. We use this linking expression to join two clauses. I locked the door so nobody would disturb us. I bought my son a mobile so that he could call me in an emergency. The rise in tourism has had a big impact on unemployment. The impact of the falling plane destroyed the building.. I wrote someone's phone number on my hand . film star b. a minor illness b. a minor crime c. Which words do we use to describe the impact of one object on another? [crash/bang/smack/thump/wham etc. international company What is the capital of your country ? What are some of the other major cities ? Give me an example of: a.. 2.. an important effect or influence eg. minor Give me an example of a major: a.. Do you think some people only enrol at an English school so that they can get a visa What subject did you study at University ? Why ? Tell us the reason for doing the following things: I came to London . The reason for doing the action in the first clause is to cause the action/situation in the second clause... impact 1.

your country's image abroad ? Give me an example of an event that had a major impact on your life. realistic Does artificial sweetener taste the same as sugar ? Where would you find artificial: a. employment ? b. artificial adj.Is your country's tourist industry growing ? What impact does this have on: a. into Do you apologise if you bump into someone walking down the street ? What parts of the body do people often bump ? Have you ever crashed a car ? What did you crash into ? What kinds of things do people walk into when they are not looking where they are going ? If you 'bumped into' an old friend you hadn't seen for years. bump prep. crash v/n. the environment ? c. what questions would you ask them ? Have you ever bumped into someone in the street when you had just been thinking about them? Do you think it was fate or just coincidence ? Has your computer ever crashed ? Did you lose any important information ? What happens to the price of shares when a stock market crashes ? adj. grass ? Do artificial flowers ever look realistic ? Do you think special effects/computer graphics are becoming very realistic ? What kind of TV shows are supposed to be realistic ? Do you think they actually are ? Which body parts can be replaced with artificial ones ? . flowers ? b. v/n.

Japan. eg. Brazil and Poland. the results varied a lot. You should always concentrate when driving. Is there anyone who often gets on your nerves ? When particularly ? A. eg. Is travelling difficult in this city ? At which times especially ? A. but particularly/especially: a.. Although we used the same drug on all the patients. but particularly in Korea. especially for children ? What kind of things are always nice.adv. v. The economic situation is improving in all countries. with ketchup ? c. especially when the roads are wet.. Do prices vary from country to country ? Does the temperature vary with the season ? What's the range in your country ? What kind of shops sell a variety of goods ? What flowers come in a range of different colours ? In which countries is the landscape really varied ? Is it good to have a varied diet ? Are there usually a variety of reasons why people learn a foreign language ? . at Christmas/New Year ? NB particularly/especially + adjective/verb = really/very eg. I particularly enjoyed the South of France. to vary n.. when you're really tired ? b. especially We use these words when we want to emphasise the importance of the examples we are using. Especially. What kind of things in the house can be dangerous. (usually because these examples are the best or most true).. Particularly when he/she. particularly adv. The temperature in winter can vary from -10 degrees to 15. varied We use these words to talk about how much difference there is between things. variety/range adj. where the weather was especially hot.

We often use if when our opinion is a calculation based on facts and experience. Experts reckon that giving up smoking can add 5 years to your life. he is going to resign very soon. or writing. style Style means a way of making or doing something. We might agree/believe them or not. eg. We also use 'I reckon' to mean 'I think' but this is very informal. art. eg. We often use it to talk about a particular kind of fashion. which player is allowed to pick the ball up ? . We also use this expression to talk about things we have read. Most of the houses in the village are built in a traditional style.n. According to the newspapers. Which painters were famous for having a particular style ? Do your teachers have their own individual styles of teaching ? Can you describe how their styles are different ? Do old styles keep coming back into fashion ? What examples can you think of ? Have you ever had an embarrassing hairstyle ? Did you realise at the time how silly you looked ? Would you write a job application in the same style as a letter to a friend ? How would you change your style ? v. eg. NB. eg. people with small ears cannot be trusted. to copy n. What is reckoned to be the safest way to travel ? According to the rules of football. According to my mother. to reckon We use the phrase according to to show that we are giving someone else's story or opinion. This shop sells furniture in a range of styles. To reckon is to have an opinion. copy Have you ever copied someone else's homework ? What kind of things do children learn by copying adults ? Do you own a copy of the bible ? Can you think of a pop group/singer who has copied someone else's style of music ? according to (someone) v.

Give me an example of a strange opinion that you've heard. According to ... And what do you reckon ? Tell me about a bad decision that you made in the past ? What do you reckon you should have done instead ? Which famous space missions didn't go according to plan ?

n. origin

adj. original

The origin of something is where it was created or where it came from, eg. The origins of the English language are Latin, Greek and German. If something is original it is the first one of its kind (not a copy), eg. Sean Connery was the original James Bond. What kind of things are valuable if they are original ? According to scientists, what is the origin of man ? What do other books/religions say ? Have you ever read a foreign book in its original language ? Does your family have origins in any other country ?

adj. genuine

adj. fake

adj. false

How do painters prove their work is genuine ? How do people check that bank notes are genuine ? Have you been offered fake goods ? What brand was it supposed to be ? Have you ever given a false name/address when you were asked ? Why would someone do this ? Why would someone try to get a false identity/ID ?

n. flavour

n. ingredients

Does rice have a lot of flavour by itself ? What's your favourite flavour of ice cream ? What other food comes in different flavours ?

What are the basic ingredients of: a. a cake b. an omelette c. your favourite recipe ?

What kind of ingredients do you always keep at home ? v. to contain n. contents n. container

What kind of container do we use for: a. matches b. wine c. toothpaste

d. soft drinks

What kind of food contains a lot of: a. fat ? b. protein ? c. vitamin С ? Do you read the contents label on food ? What kind of things do you try to avoid ? Which drinks contain caffeine ?

d. artificial colour/flavour

Does it bother you ...? it wouldn't/doesn't bother me that/if... expr. to get on someone's nerves Describe a TV advert/programme that gets on your nerves. A. The one where ... Have you ever lived with someone who really got on your nerves ? Does it bother you if a film contains a lot of bad language/violence ? Does it bother you if people smoke near you ? Would it bother you if petrol taxes were raised ? Why/Why not ?

n. partner

n. partnership

Give me an example of a famous partnership in: a. film/comedy b. business c. sport

What qualities would you look for in a business partner ? What kind of sacrifices do people make for the sake of their partner ? Are there any organized ways of finding a suitable partner ? Would you consider any of them ? .Would you let your parents choose a marriage partner for you ? Do you know anyone who had an arranged marriage ?

always + present continuous 'Always' is usually used with the present simple, (eg: I always have soup for lunch.) However, we use always with the present continuous to talk about habits or repeated situations, usually because we find them annoying, eg. He won't pass his exams because he is always playing computer games instead of doing his homework. Do you know anyone who is always: ... ... ... ... ... ... Does it bother you ? buying unnecessary things ? asking nosy questions ? trying to lose weight ? getting ill ? bumping into things ? complaining ?

adj. typical If something is typical it is an example that shows all the usual characteristics, eg. He is a typical 11 -year old boy. He likes computer games, football, and making a mess. 'Typical' can also be used to describe someone's annoying behaviour or habits, eg. It was typical of him to keep us waiting for over an hour. Is it typical of children to make a mess when they are playing ? Describe the typical grandmother/policeman/New Year's Eve in your country ? What kind of things is the typical [students nationality] teenager interested in ? Is that what you were like ? Do you think this is a typical English school ? Why/why not ? When was the last time you got on someone's nerves ? Was that typical of you ? What did you do last weekend ? Was that a typical weekend for you ? Use the word 'typical' to describe one of your characteristics. A. It is typical of me to ...

and in-laws. 2. start a new career ? c. related п.n. eg. occasion 1. such as aunts. (It is cheaper than most European countries. (He is not fit compared to a young person. there is a cause that connects them. Relations are people in your family. especially those that are not closely related to you. relative/ly If we say that something is relatively good (or difficult/hot etc. uncles. He is 60 years old but he is relatively fit. relative/relation adj.) Portugal is a relatively cheap country to visit. but he is fitter than most 60 year olds.) Do you think 50 is relatively old to: a. If two events are related. The low attendance for the match might be related to the weather. become a father ? b. Who are your closest relations ? Which ones do you get on best with ? On what occasions do people's relatives get together ? If I married your sister/brother would I be related to you ? What would be our relationship ? Who do you think should be invited to a wedding or funeral ? Do you think lifestyle and health are related ? What problems can lead to an unhealthy lifestyle ? Do you think some social problems are related to each other ? What's the relationship between them ? adj/adv. retire ? Do you think performance-related pay is fair ? What else do you think your salary should be relative to ? Is it relatively warm/cold for the time of year ? Which animals are relatively intelligent ? Are they intelligent compared to humans ? In what places is it relatively easy to get a job ? Compared to where ? .) we mean that it is good compared to what is normal in that particular situation. eg.

Have you ever considered studying any other foreign languages ? Would you ever consider going on holiday: a.UNIT 3 v. on your own ? Can severe weather sometimes have serious consequences ? Have you ever broken the law ? Were there any consequences ? What kind of things do people do without considering the consequences ? Do you consider your neighbours when you're playing music ? Do you think children show enough consideration for old people ? to consider someone/something to be to be considered + verb/noun/adjective We also use consider to talk about opinions and beliefs. particularly when someone has thought about them carefully. you think carefully about the possible result because it is important. a genius ? b. eg. Picasso is considered to be the greatest artist of the 20 th Century. eg. Who do you consider to be the biggest influence on your life ? Which people are considered to be important in the history of your country ? Which people have been considered: a. consideration n. I consider my mother to be the biggest influence on my life. consequence If you consider (doing) something. to a cold place ? b. with all your relatives ? c. to consider n. He is considering changing his job because he needs more money. evil ? . a sporting great ? c.

their children. a. He is capable of passing the exam but he won't because he doesn't study. to achieve n. achievement It you are capable of (doing) something you have the ability to do it or you could learn. However. eg. learning a foreign language e. although you've never actually done it ? Do you think you have achieved everything you are capable of ? What else could you have done ? adj. your friends played a trick on you ? . housekeeping and cooking ? Do you know anyone who takes no pride in it ? Would it hurt your pride if: • a. their country etc. driving be capable of v. someone laughed at your clothes ? b. Your achievements are the things you have successfully done. work ? c. People are proud of their achievements. a. too much pride can make people arrogant. such as winning competitions and getting qualifications. violence c. Which animals are naturally proud ? Are people usually proud of their achievements ? Do you think they feel more proud when their children do well ? What kind of things affect national pride ? Do you take pride in your.. pride Pride is generally considered to be a good thing. murder b. appearance ? b. achieving happiness Can you think of anything that you believe you are capable of. What do you consider to be your greatest achievement ? What are your ambitions ? What are you doing to try to achieve them ? Do you think violence ever achieves anything ? Have you ever failed an exam or test ? Do you think you were capable of passing it ? Do you believe that everyone is capable of.... proud n.

b. shameful/ly Shame is the opposite of pride. eg. My brand new cardigan got shrunk in the wash. Do you think it's a shame that some people never go abroad ? Would it be a shame if you had to go back to your country before finishing this book ? Tell me about a situation that you think is sad. It's a shame that. What do you think about these situations ? a. I was ashamed of my behaviour at the party. shame adj. eg... ashamed adj/adv.Is it possible to criticise someone without hurting their pride ? What does it depend on ? n. Can you think of anyone who has behaved shamefully in public ? Do you think they were ashamed of themselves afterwards ? Could you steal without feeling any shame ? What about lying ? Is there anything which is considered shameful in your country but not everywhere in the world ? Are teenagers sometimes ashamed of their parents ? What is it that embarrasses them so much ? Are most people proud of their country's history ? What kind of things are they sometimes ashamed of ? It's a shame/pity .. Our puppy got run over. What a shame/pity ! We use these expressions when we want to say that a situation is unfortunate or sad. success n. failure Is it natural to be jealous of other people's success ? How do we feel about other people's failure ? . n.. It's a shame you can't come to the next party.

Do you think some people are frightened of failure ? Do you think this stops them from achieving their ambitions ? Do you think success in exams is the most important thing in education ? Do you think it always leads to personal happiness ? Are there any government failures which really annoy you ? Their failure to... What kind of buildings and services need to be able to cope with a power failure ? Give me an example of a very successful product. What do you think is responsible for its success ?

n. officer

adj. official

adv. officially

If something (or someone) is official, it should be right or true because it comes from a proper organisation (such as the government). eg. To get a visa you need an official letter from your company. Give me some examples of officers ? Does your government have an official newspaper ? Do you think the official unemployment figures are reliable ? Do you think the actual figures are higher or lower ? What is your head of government's official residence ? Does he/she actually live there ? Can you think of something that's officially illegal but everyone does it ?

v. to search

v. to locate

n. location

Why would the police search a house/person ? Are people searched at customs ? What do the customs officers search for ? How do planes locate each other ? Do you think it matters where factories are located ? Do you think a shop's location is important to its success ?

n. order

adj. in a row/one after the other

The words in a dictionary are organised in alphabetical order. Put these months in the right order: May, April, March Starting with the smallest, put these countries in order of size: Australia, China, Belgium What is the opposite of order ? Do the students answer questions all together or one after the other ? In your country, does it ever rain for three days in a row ? Could you eat two pizzas one after the other ? Have you ever been on holiday to the same place two years in a row ? What kind of machines always seem to be out of order ?

v. to take turns

n. random

If numbers or words are random there is no order or system, eg. Lottery numbers are picked at random. Can we know what lottery numbers will be picked ? Why not ? What ways do people use to pick something at random ? Are words listed in random order in the dictionary ? What order is used, then ? Do people take turns to play in board games ? Do you Do you Whose Do you share your accommodation with anyone ? take it in turns to do the housework ? turn is it to do the washing up/cook the dinner tonight ? always do the housework when it is your turn ?

expr. have a go

expr. give something a try

Have you ever tried: a. bungee jumping ? b. water-skiing ? Would you like to have a go ?

c. yoga ?

Are you the kind of person who likes giving new things a try ? Have you ever regretted it ? Is there anything you've never done that you have always wanted to have a go at ? Give me some examples of alternative medicine. Which ones are worth giving a try ? Could you draw a rabbit/a penguin/a rocket/the Mona Lisa on the board ? Have a go !

n. factor n. priority

expr. to take (something) into consideration

A factor is something we need to consider because it has an influence on the situation. eg. Luck is a factor in most games. Put these in order of priority: health, wealth, personal happiness, love, power. Which one would you say is a minor/major factor ? Is religion a factor in some wars ? What do you think is the most important factor for: a. a satisfying career ? b. a happy marriage ? c. success in business ?

Does^learning English have priority over everything else in your life ? Do you think governments treat the environment as a priority ? Imagine you are looking for a place to live. Put these factors in order of importance: a. location b. the decor c. peace and quiet d. rent e. the transport links What other factors would you take into consideration ? What factors would you take into consideration when: ... planning a holiday ? ... buying a mobile phone ? ... choosing an English course ? ... starting a family ?

a saucepan b. and operating system are relevant factors. the police to talk/think/read/go through Do you usually talk through personal problems with your parents ? Who else would you consider talking to ? Why should you read through a contract before signing it ? What else should you always read through beforehand ? . cover v. price.adj. your clothes were covered in mud ? roads were covered in snow ? What is an island surrounded by ? Do you like to be surrounded by people all the time ? Who might be surrounded by: a. performance. relevant/irrelevant If something is relevant it is worth considering because it is important to what is happening. do you think the person's private life is relevant ? What kind of job would you like to get ? Do you have any relevant experience ? When judging someone's performance at work which factors are relevant ? v/n. or being discussed. a mobile phone Why would you cover your mouth with your hand ? What about your eyes/ears ? What would you do if: a. screaming fans b. to surround What colour is the cover of your book ? What pictures do they put on the cover of magazines ? What do we call the cover of: a. When considering buying an office computer. the c. Do you think someone's age or sex should be irrelevant when they are looking for a job? In which jobs would they be relevant ? When you're deciding who to vote for. reporters b. Colour is usually irrelevant. a pillow c. your hands were covered in paint ? c. eg.

eg. The teacher got the students working in pairs while she marked their homework. If your car breaks down what can you do to get it going ? Have you ever stayed up late to get your homework finished ? Did you get it done in the end ? At a party. break the ice What subjects do people bring up when they are making conversation ? Do you think it depends on the country ? Do people make small talk before a meeting gets started ? What's a good way to break the ice at parties ? What about on a first date ? .Give me an example of a bad decision you have made in the past. get people dancing ? c. make conversation expr. Get something + gerund is used when we start an action that can continue without us. get people Have you ever tried to get someone drunk ? Do you like to get your housework done all in one go ? Can you drink a pint of beer/swallow a banana/eat a box of chocolates all in one go ? to bring up (a subject) expr. small talk expr. do you go through your notes ? Does it help ? Why would you look through a magazine before buying it ? get + something + gerund/past participle all in one go Both these expressions with 'get' have a meaning similar to 'make something happen'. get people talking to each other ? relaxed ? b. Get something + past participle is used for annoying or difficult jobs that we have to deal with soon. I must get my homework done before the film starts. what is a good way to: a. eg. Had you thought it through properly ? The night before an exam.

you know your best friend's partner has been unfaithful. or grown. you need to borrow money from your parents. clothes ? b.O. to manufacture We use manufacture to talk about goods made in factories. cars ? c. eg. or something makes it happen. man-made n. What is produced when water boils ? . What materials are used in manufacturing: a. goods v. b. gas and wind can all produce electricity. your friend has B. furniture ? What kind of building is used to store goods ? Which shops sell luxury goods ? Where can you buy duty-free goods ? v. Give me an example of a raw material. c.If you knew your friend had failed an exam. to try on phr v. oil. phr v. Give me an example of a man-made material. to put on/take off What's the difference between 'put on' and 'wear' ? And what's the opposite of 'put on' ? Do you take your shoes off as soon as you get home ? Do you put your glasses on as soon as you get out of bed ? What kind of clothes can we buy without trying them on ? Do you like going round the shops and trying on clothes ? Even if you don't buy anything ? n. material n. would you avoid bringing it up ? What kind of subjects would you be embarrassed to bring up in front of your parents ? How would you bring up the following embarrassing subjects ? a. Water. to produce n. production adj. hand-made/built When something is produced it is made.

. . You/They could ..What things are burned to produce electricity ? Where can you buy hand-made goods ? What kind of goods are usually mass-produced ? Why do people sometimes prefer hand-made goods ? How does mass-production affect the quality of a product ? What could be done to increase production in a factory ? A.

you say very strongly that you need it. What do power stations supply ? What does a car battery do ? What kind of food supplies the body with: a. Book 4 is just as . vitamins ? b. a bottle of wine in a restaurant ? b.. If you demand something.. Are you going to take any English exams this year ? What result do you expect to get ? Is living in London more expensive than you expected ? Are you expecting any important news at the moment ? How much would you expect to pay for: a.. bed and breakfast accommodation ? Is Book 4 just as you expected ? A. eg. He demanded that the children pay for the damage they had caused. you believe it will happen in the near future. to expect If you expect something. energy ? What kind of goods are sometimes in short supply ? Have you ever demanded a refund ? What was the^fbblem ? Did you eventually get your money back ? What kind of things do people on strike often demand ? v. or it must happen. we use expect to talk about what we imagine things will be like. eg. a new mobile phone ? c.UNIT 4 v/n. demand To supply somebody with something is to give them the amount they need regularly. eg. Book 4 is different from . . Also. Scotland was much warmer than 1 expected./No. supply v/n. Yes. The city's water is supplied by the lake..

. Is it necessary to call and confirm a flight booking ? A.. not as good as . it rains ? b. they get a headache ? c. a. N. What do people often take with them just in case... . My doctor told me to relax more and take a holiday otherwise I would have a nervous breakdown... In case .. eg. or else .. eg.. Otherwise . . they run out of money ? Do you think it's a good idea to have a spare key just in case you get locked out ? Where could you hide it ? Why does every car have a spare wheel ? A... even better than ... I took a book to the airport just in case the flight was delayed and I had to wait.. . We use otherwise and or else to talk about what will happen if we don't do something. In case .... just as good as .. Have you ever been really disappointed by a book or film ? What did you expect before you saw/read it ? (just) in case otherwise / or else We use (just) in case to talk about things we do because we are not sure what will happen. Why is it important to have plenty of vitamins in your diet ? A.. ... Yes.Can you think of something that you really looked forward to ? Was it as good as you expected ? Y.. It is generally used to talk about a negative consequence.. Why is it important to get insurance if you travel abroad ? A.

v. it doesn't go according to plan. to train n. eg. eg. did things always go well at school ? Who helped you when things were going badly ? v. training Have you ever been trained to do anything ? What did they show you how to do ? What can go wrong if staff don't get proper training ? Could you train someone to do your job ? How long would it take you ? Which animals can be trained ? What are they trained to do ? v. because we couldn't agree about anything. The holiday started to go wrong when we missed our flight and had a big argument. requirement What kind of people have special food requirements ? What jobs require special training ? Do all jobs require qualifications ? Is experience often a requirement ? . The meeting didn't go very well. go wrong v. to require n. go well/badly We use go well/badly to talk about how successful something is. If something goes wrong. What are the signs that a relationship is going wrong ? What are the most famous man-made disasters in your country ? What went wrong ? Have you done any exams recently ? How did they/it go ? How should the people in charge behave when things go badly ? When you were a child.

. Would you call yourself an expert ? When do people reejtrke the services of an expert ? Did you have any knowledge of this country before you came here ? Is there anything you wish you had known beforehand ? Would you describe your knowledge of these subjects as poor. expert or nonexistent ? a. expert n.n. eating meat ? d. knowledge Give me an example of something you know a lot about. lunchtime drinking ? Why does it matter ? When was the last time you were ill ? Have you got anything at home that isn't working properly ? What's wrong with it ? . anything/nothing wrong with .. the history of your country d. limited. double parking ? c. the opposite sex Do you think babies have any knowledge when they are born ? What kind of things do they know ? . skill adj./adj. good (thing) about Do you think there's anything wrong with: a. how a car works b. skilled Have you got basic computer skills ? What jobs are done by very skilled workers ? Have you got any skills that could help you save someone's life ? Do you know anyone who doesn't have good social skills ? Do you think social skills can help you in your career ? Do you think all managers should have special training ? Can management skills really be learnt ? n. expr. spitting in the gutter ? b. computers c. expr.

football team ? c. shallow Which end of a swimming pool is safer: a. being able to speak English Are you married or single ? What's the best thing about being married/single ? And the worst ? What is your favourite: a. cut down (on) Have you ever turned down a job ? What was wrong with it ? Why would someone get turned down for a credit card ? Have you ever let someone down by cancelling an arrangement at the last minute ? Tell us about somepne^who never lets you down. Have you ever let yourself down in an exam ? Why did you perform so badly ? Is there anything you to need cut down on ? Is it easier to give up smoking if you cut down first ? adj. let down v. wide adj. living in this city b.Tell me one good thing about: a. place in your country ? Ask her/him what's so good about it. for young children ? What kind of people work deep underground ? Can you imagine what it would be like ? Which books/films do you think have a deep meaning ? Do you think you completely understood it ? Would you describe a typical Hollywood film as shallow ? Do you think it matters ? Why/Why not ? adj. to dive into ? b. cafe/pub/restaurant ? d. turn down v. TV programme ? b. deep adj. narrow Roughly how wide is this room ? And what are its other dimensions ? . broad adj. v.

What kind of places usually have wide/narrow streets ? What kind of influence do you think the history of the place has ? What kind of goods come in a wide range of colours ? What kind of things are only available in a more limited range ? Are prejudiced people broad or narrow-minded ? What do you think makes them that way ? Would you describe your parents as broad-minded ? What kind of things did/didn't they let you do ? How does travel broaden the mind ? What other experiences can have the same effect ?

v. to breathe

n. breath

Who would ask you to breathe inland breathe out again ? When can you see your breath-?-^ How do people breathe under water ? How long can you hold your breath for ? When do people get out of breath ? In what situation would you need to take a deep breath ?

expr. to be willing to do

expr. to be reluctant to do

If you are willing to do something you don't mind doing it if it is necessary. If you are reluctant to do something you don't really want to do it, even though you might have to. eg. Most people are willing to work a few extra hours during the week, but are reluctant to do extra work at weekends. Which people are you always willing to help ? Were you always willing to help with the housework when you were a child ? Would you be willing to work for free just to get experience ? What kind of things do we always pay for reluctantly ?

Would you be willing or reluctant to: a. do a sponsored run for charity ? c. have a big party in your house ?

b. lend your best friend £50 ?

v. to risk

n. risk

adj. risky

If you take a risk you do something which might be dangerous or have a negative result. However, there is also the possibility that a very positive thing will happen, and that is why we take risks. eg. People take risks when they gamble, and do dangerous sports. We use the verb risk to talk about something which might be lost if things go badly. eg. You are risking your marriage by seeing that woman. Are you risking your health if you smoke heavily ? What illnesses do you risk getting ? Do you agree it's impossible to succeed in business without taking risks ? What kind of risks have to be taken ? Are you generally willing or reluctant to take risks ? When/why is it better to play safe ? Do you think buying shares is a risky business ? Can you think of any other examples ? What kind of people risk their lives as part of their job ? Do you find it exciting to take risks ? What kind of risks ? Have you ever driven home after a couple of drinks ? Wasn't that a bit risky ?

n. opportunity An opportunity is a situation where you can do something that is not normally possible for you. eg. I'm taking next week off, which will give me the opportunity to paint my kitchen. Do men and women have the same opportunities ? Do you believe in equal opportunities ? What opportunities are there for ordinary people to express their opinions on politics ? Which of the following were you given the opportunity to do at school ? a. Study other languages ? b. go swimming ? c. use the internet ?

Do you think rich people have more opportunities in life than poor people ? What kind of opportunities ? Have you ever wasted a good opportunity ?

n.chance If something happens by chance, it is not planned but happens by accident, eg. We hadn't seen each other for years, but then we met by chance in the supermarket. When we talk about the chance(s) of something happening, we mean how possible/likely it is. eg. There's a good chance that it will rain. = It is likely that it will rain this afternoon. He's got no chance of passing the exam, he never comes to the lesson. = It is impossible. England have been playing well, and they have a chance of winning. = It is possible, but not very likely. Do you think most married couples first met each other by chance ? In what kind of situations do they usually meet ? Have you ever found a really amazing place while you were on holiday ? Did you know about it beforehand, or did you just find it by chance ? If you toss a coin, what are the chances that it will be heads ? What about tails ? What are your country's chances of: a. winning the next World Cup ?

b. hosting a major sporting event ?

What chance would I have of getting a job in your country ? What are the chances of winning the lottery ? Why do so many people think they have a chance ? Chance can also be used to mean 'opportunity' How often do you get the chance to: a. Speak English with an English speaker ? from your country ?

b. have a lie-in ?

c. watch TV

Do your teachers give you the chance to ask questions during the lesson ? 'Take a chance' can also be used to mean take a risk' Do you think you have to take a few chances to achieve success in business ?

Has anyone ever hurt your feelings without realising it ? Did you talk it through afterwards ? What kind of things do teenagers try to keep secret from their parents ? Do you think the parents usually realise what is going on ? If I tried to teach when I had a terrible hangover. I only realised she was hurt when she started crying. I want to be involved in the training of new staff. eg. or relevant to it. Do you think most people realise how serious it is ? . involved If you are involved in something (or something involves you). showing them how to use the computers.In what kinds of situation do people take chances with their health and safety ? What chances are you willing to take with your life ? v. Which of your relatives were involved in bringing you up ? If you were married. you are connected. do you think the class would realise ? What would the signs be ? Give me an example of a major problem in the world today. included. would you want your husband/wife to be involved in all your interests ? Would you get involved in theirs ? What kind of jobs involve working with animals/children/old people ? Would you like a job that involves a lot of travel ? Have you ever given something up because it involved too much hard work/risk? Which sports involve quite a lot of risk ? Why do people feel that they are risks worth taking ? Have you ever joined in an argument between two friends ? Did you regret getting involved ? v. When I had children I realised why my parents were strict. and introducing them to the other staff. The training involves explaining the work. involve adj. eg. to realise When you realise something you are aware of it for the first time or you understand its importance.

eg. During the 1980s the British and Chinese governments negotiated the future of Hong Kong What kind of people need negotiation skills ? What kind of things do staff negotiate with management ? Have you ever negotiated a deal ? How many people/companies were involved ? What was the result ? What kind of things are generally the subjepfof negotiations between countries ? v/n. I wanted to meet at 6 o'clock. What are some of the sacrifices that your parents made for you ? Do you think you could make the same sacrifices for your kids ? Do you think you have to sacrifice things if you are in a serious relationship ? What kind of things ? Do you have to be willing to compromise when you negotiate ? What kind of compromises could you offer if you were negotiating with employees who were on strike ? Do you agree that all relationships are built on compromise ? What kind of compromises ? Which shops in this city provide a good compromise between quality and price? Do you think they offer the best value for money ? . eg.v. she wanted to meet at 8. sacrifice v/n. compromise Both of these words mean losing (or giving up) something in order to achieve a result. negotiation When people negotiate they discuss things (usually political or business) in order to make a deal or agreement. A compromise is usually an agreement between two people on a subject they have different opinions about. so we compromised and agreed to meet at 7. negotiate n.

... . and not because it helps you. I am moving back to my hometown for my parents' sake. you need something to wear to a party ? .. you do it only to help that person. .. Do you find mobile phones more convenient than landlines ? Have your friends ever caused you inconvenience ? Do you think it's worth commuting a long way. . There is a bus stop outside our house. you have run out of milk ? . despite the inconvenience ? Do you think the convenience of having a car/washing machine is worth the cost ? Where's the most convenient place to go shopping i f . Do you know anyone who has sacrificed a lot of their time for other people's sake ? Are you learning English for the sake of your career ? Is there anything you would enjoy studying for its own sake ? n. If you do something for the sake of your health/career etc. eg. I love living in the countryside.for the sake of someone/something for someone's/something's sake If you do something for the sake of someone else. eg. which is very convenient. you do it only for that reason. in/convenience If something is convenient it is suitable for people's needs and doesn't cause any problems. necessity What basic facilities would you expect in any hotel room ? What extra luxuries would you expect in a 5-star hotel ? What special facilities do disabled people require ? ... you are getting a month's supply of groceries ? n.. facility n. eg. Do some married couples only stay together for the sake of their children ? Do you think they are doing the right thing ? Why would someone cut down on their drinking/smoking ? For the sake of . but I have to move to London for the sake of my career. luxury n.

a DVD player ? c.What is the biggest luxury in your life at the moment ? What basic necessities should be provided by the government ? Do you think а сотри1ег/р1попеЯ\//саг is a necessity in modern life ? What facilities do big shops provide for the convenience of their customers ? n. eg. Digital technology provides a new means of recording music. a pint of milk ? b. theory. method n. Modern business methods have led to companies employing fewer staff. whereas a means is a physical thing. or system. means Both of these words are used to talk about ways of doing something. Which means of transport are common in this city ? Which ones do you use ? What means of communication were used before the telephone was invented ? Can you imagine what would have been used a thousand years ago ? Which method of payment is most convenient for: a. your bills ? What methods do the police use to collect evidence ? Which skills does this method of studying improve most quickly ? . A method is an idea. such as a machine.

available n. use п. disposable ? b. 1999 .. recycling ? c. eg. insurance ? adj. Can you think of a tool that has many uses ? What are the main uses of: a. designer A design is a plan for how something will be made or built. whereas the use of something is /rawwe use it. revision ? b. diamonds ? Do you have the use of a car/computer in your country ? Which facilities in the school are for the use of the students/staff ? What is the purpose of your visit to this country ? Have you heard this question before ? What is the purpose of: a. leather ? b. to design n. plastic ? c. What products are designed to be: a. They have changed the design of the car to make it safer. assembled at home ? CO Avalon Book Company Ltd. Maps are available at Reception. eg. What facilities are available in a sports centre ? Do you think guns are too easily available in some countries ? What kind of material do you think shouldn't be available on the internet ? Have you ever found that a product you wanted to buy was not available anymore ? What factors can affect the availability of a product ? How does the availability affect the price ? v. re-usable ? c. purpose The purpose of something is why we use it (or do it). design n. availability If something is available it is easily found or bought.UNIT 5 n.

lose weight ? get fit ? find jobs/accommodation ? practise their English ? make money without working ? n. kit Which sports/people need special equipment ? What kind of tools are kept in most people's homes ? What are they used for ? What equipment would you expect in a luxury car ? • Have you got any tools in your house/car ? What kind ?/'Where do you keep them ? . eg.. reading newspapers. You can improve your English by listening to the radio.Have you ever wanted to be a designer ? What would you have liked to design ? Have you ever had anything designed for you ? Have computers made it easier for ordinary people to design things ? What manufactured goods have become famous for their design ? Do you own anything that you think is really well designed ? by doing for doing/noun We use by doing to talk about a method or means of doing something.. ... and chatting to English-speaking people. . It should not be used for other metal products...... winking ? How do people: . .. ... . chewing ? ... This product is for cleaning jewellery. tools n.. We use for doing/noun to talk about the use of an object.. eg. equipment n. What is a remote control for ? Ask him/her what these things are for: blind tea-towel torch notice-board supermarket trolley What parts of your body are used for: . breathing ? .

along n. The bathroom looks terrible. a tool kit b.Tell me a couple of things you would find in: a. where would you end up ? . eg. a bicycle repair kit Which jobs are best left to a professional ? When was the last time you used tools to repair something ? How long did it take you to get the job done ? to need + ing n. turned left out of the door. How long does a lightbulb last before it needs changing ? Have you got any clothes that need dry-cleaning ? Does your/my hair need cutting ? Do any of the rooms in your house need decorating ? What other jobs around the house sometimes need doing ? What jobs do you have to get done this weekend ? adv. went along this street and took the first turning on the left. It really needs painting. past adv. I like to do a few jobs around the house at the weekend. eg. job (2) Job can mean a piece of work. a first aid kit c. needs doing = needs to be done We use this construction when we want to emphasise the job instead of the person who will do it. turning What kind of shops do you walk past on the way here ? Have you ever gone past your stop on the bus/train ? Can you go straight on at the end of this street ? Where does it take you ? if you came out of this school.

eg. where we are unhappy about our lives and can't change our mood. eg. or shout because of something that has happened. cautious n. Which animals are naturally cautious ? Would you say that you are cautious with money ? Do you know anyone who drives very cautiously ? Do you think this makes them a better driver ? Are there times when caution is not the best way ? v. When her rabbit died. started drinking heavily and stopped socialising. eg./adj. I put my toe cautiously into the bath to test the temperature. he became depressed. upset If we are upset. caution If you are cautious you do things carefully in order to avoid risks or mistakes. she was so upset that she cried for days. How do doctors treat depression ? How else can it be cured ? Which famous people have suffered from depression ? Do you think being famous was part of the cause ? . we cry. depressed n. Would you be upset if I shouted at you ? What do you say to someone who seems upset ? Have you ever told a lie to avoid upsetting someone ? Did it work ? Do children try to upset each other on purpose ? How ? Do managers sometimes upset their staff ? How ? When was the last time you had an upset stomach ? What do you think caused it ? adj. argue.adj. depression Depression is a more serious and long-term problem. After losing his job.

We can also use wild to describe people's behaviour when it is uncontrolled. Wild animals. tame Animals that live or work with people. penguins. calm Would you describe yourself as a calm person ? In what situations do you have trouble staying calm ? Have you ever had to calm someone else down ? What was wrong with them ? Why would you tell someone to calm down ? What do you do to calm yourself down when you're stressed ? . wild vb. are tame. such as dogs. horses etc.What are the typical things that people get depressed about ? adj. to calm down adj. violent etc. such as lions. live in their natural environment and can't be controlled by humans.. The soldiers panicked and shot wildly in every direction. etc. to tame adj. eg It was a terrible situation. Where do people go to see wild animals ? Which wild animals can be tamed ? Have you ever been to a wild party ? Did it get out of hand ? Have you ever been to a party that was a bit tame ? What would have got it going ? Have you ever seen a crowd go wild ? What was the event ? Have you ever picked wild flowers/fruit/mushrooms ? Are there any dangers you should be aware of ? v. mad..

and kicking the furniture. In what situations is it important not to panic ? What should you do instead ? What could cause someone to have a panic attack ? Has it ever happened to you ? Did you used to wind your teachers up at school ? Do you know a good trick to wind someone up ? How can you calm someone down if they are panicking ? v. to panic To wind someone up is to make them angry or worried on purpose. as a trick or joke.v. eg. Do you get wound up in traffic jams ? What about if your computer crashes before you've saved your work ? Do you get wound up by certain kinds of people/behaviour ? Would your parents freak out if you got your tongue pierced ? Do you ever really freak out when you dance ? v/n. angry. They were just winding me up. freak (out) (informal) To get wound up is to get very upset or stressed. escape What kind of animals do we catch with traps ? Would you panic if you were trapped underground ? Have you ever seen a film about people trapped in a dangerous situation ? How did they escape in the end ? Do you know where the fire escapes are in this building ? . They told me my team had lost 5-0. But it wasn't true. wind someone up (informal) v. She was screaming. eg. or because something annoying is happening. trap v/n. get wound up (informal) v. She freaked out when she heard the news. throwing plates. To freak out is to behave wildly. because you are panicking. or losing control. He got wound up because everyone was criticising his work. eg. either because people are winding you up on purpose.

prevention n. to prevent prevent + noun n. Have you ever got stuck in a lift ? Do you lose your temper if you get stuck in traffic ? What can you do to amuse yourself if you are stuck indoors on a rainy day ? Would you consider cheating if you got stuck in an exam ? How would you go about it ? What can you do when you get stuck doing a crossword puzzle ? Have you ever been stuck next to someone boring on a train journey ? Did you try to escape ? Have you ever been stuck outside in wild weather ? What kind of animals get stuck up trees ? Does it ever happen to people ? v. precaution eg. What do we use sun tan lotion for ? What precautions do you take when travelling abroad ? What kind of security precautions are taken at airports ? Do you think they actually prevent crimes ? Are you a keen student ? Is there anything that might prevent you from coming to school ? Do you think health warnings prevent people from smoking/drinking ? . They prevented her from leaving because she hadn't paid her bill. This means we can't continue because we don't know the answer. to be/get stuck (somewhere) = trapped We can also get stuck when doing something (such as an exam). by someone talking to you at a party ? v. in a relationship ? c. in a job ? b.Have you ever felt trapped: a. People take medicines when they go abroad to prevent upset stomachs prevent + someone/thing + from + gerund eg.

applying for a visa ? c. Where are your medical records kept ? What documents do you need when: a. Drug companies have to do a lot of research on their products before selling them. Have you ever done research for a project ? Do you think medical research is more important than space research ? Which do you think is more interesting ? What kind of experiments did you do at school ? Would you find it interesting to research the history of your family ? Do you think some kinds of experiments should be banned ? What's the difference between 'search' and 'research' ? n. buying/selling a car What kind of documents do you need to keep very safe ? Which organisations ask for original documents instead of copies ? Why would having a criminal record prevent you from getting a job ? What new ways of recording things has modem technology given us? . experiment If you research something (or do research) you collect information about it. record v. eg. research v. to record n. document We record information by writing it down and keeping it. travelling abroad ? b.What kind of equipment is used to prevent injury in car accidents ? Should people be prevented from doing dangerous things ? For their own sake or to protect the public ? n. to research n.

pay your bill c.rmy b. Do you think economic progress is always a good thing ? In what ways can it harm a country ? Are you happy with your progress in English ? How could you make more progress ? What kinds of technology have progressed a lot over the last decade ? What are you not allowed to do when an exam is in progress ? n. donate money to charity ? Has anyone ever refused to let you into a building ? What was the problem ? In what ways could refuse collection be more environmentally friendly ? n. pros and cons Can you give us an example of something you are strongly in favour of or strongly agajnst ? . continue. to do someone a favour A favour is something you do to help a friend.n. "Can you do me a favour and lend me your car on Saturday ?" What kind of favours do people usually ask for ? Can you rely on your friends to do you a favour ? Has anyone ever refused ? Do you always try to return a favour ? Have you ever regretted doing someone a favour ? expr. eg. or improve. Students make better progress if they come to all the lessons. to refuse Have you ever refused to do what your parents/boss/teacher told you ? What reasons would you give for refusing to: a. join the a. progress v. refuse v. eg. in favour of prep. to progress To progress is to move forward. for/against n. Space research progressed a lot in the 60s. favour expr.

How would you get out of this building if there was an emergency ? Have you ever had trouble getting into a club ? Did you get past the bouncers in the end ? How do people get over walls when they escape from prison ? How long can a boxer stay on the floor before getting up ? What happens if they can't do it ? Have you ever found something disgusting in your food ? How do you think it got there ? . rival adj. electronics Do you think men are more competitive than women ? Why would a company want to take over a rival ? Would you describe yourself as a competitive person? Do you get wound up when you start losing a game ? to get + prep/adv eg. get over etc. competitive n. soft drinks d. fast food b. to compete n. market How many people compete in a doubles tennis match ? Do they all compete against each other ? Give me an example of two famous sporting rivals . luxury cars c. To get out. Which companies are rivals in the following markets ? a. in your own country ? Do you think the pros outweigh the cons ? What are the pros and cons of doing experiments on animals ? v.Can you think of something that public opinion is divided on ? What are the arguments for and against ? What are the pros and cons of studying English: a. get in. in the UK ? b. get up.

When do the following become harmful ? a. excessive v. harmless If you harm something. compensation Have you ever had a sports injury ? How did you injure yourself ? What kind of injuries require hospital treatment ? Should people get compensation if they are injured at work ? Even if it's their own fault ? . excess adj. eg. People who drink to excess often suffer health problems. In what ways do big stars live excessive lives ? What kind of laws/punishments do you think are excessive ? Have you ever been charged for 'excess baggage' ? Were you surprised that you had exceeded the limit ? c. harm adj. to injure n. animal c.. drug n.. When parents divorce. Do you think banning alcohol would do more harm than good ? Do you think there is any harm in having a few drinks after work ? When can alcohol become harmful ? Give me an example of a harmless: a. it is usually the children who are harmed the most. Have you ever harmed an animal ? Even when you were a child ? Can exercise/hard work/sunshine sometimes be harmful ? Give me an example of an everyday activity that harms the environment. sunshine v. to harm n.v. injury n. harmful adj. . exercise c. eg. alcohol b. to exceed To do something to excess is to do it too much. habit b. in/to excess. you hurt it or cause damage to it. hard work A.

. eg. .. such as something you have done or an opinion. right If you justify something. Some people can claim money from the government to help them with the rent. . . a) I could speak your language ? b) English people drank more tea than any other country ? c) I was related to the Queen. We can also use 'claim' to say that we have the right to something. you explain or show why it is right. claim We use the word 'claim' when someone has said something is true.UNIT 6 v. . to claim + inf. justification n.. eg.. but there is doubt about it.. Some people claim to have seen aliens. Do you know anyone who claims to have seen a UFO/ghost ? Do you believe them ? Would you believe me if I claimed that. to justify + gerund/noun n. v. Do you have the right to work in this country ? At what age do you get the right to vote ? What other rights do you get at this age ? What kind of people have to justify their decisions publicly ? Is there ever any justification for violence ? What about capital punishment ? Do men and women have equal rights at work ? the internet be controlled by the government ? men and women compete against each other in the Olympics ? children learn about sex and drugs at school ? tobacco companies pay compensation to smokers whose health has been damaged ? Can you justify your opinion ? Should: . The Police justified arresting tho man by saying that he had been drunk and violent... eg. such as money../clause n...

to get over To recover from an illness (or accident etc. to tear tore torn v. cracked Would you walk across a bridge if you saw cracks in it ? Why do we get cracked pipes in winter ? What can be done to prevent the problem ? Which materials tear/don't tear easily ? . to recover n.) is to become healthy again. To get over means the same as to recover. to split split split v/n.Have you ever made an insurance claim ? What had happened to you ? Can you think of any claims that scientists have made ? Have they ever been proven ? Have you ever claimed something that you didn't have the right to ? v. How long does it take to get over a cold ? Have you ever had a serious illness ? Did you make a full recovery in the end ? What kind of things should you avoid while recovering from an illness ? Do people sometimes have difficulty getting over bad experiences ? What kind of treatment can they receive ? n. She will come back to work when she recovers from her operation. crack adj. recovery v. bone n. eg. skeleton Have you ever broken a bone ? Do you think men/women with huge muscles look attractive ? Have you ever tried to build your muscles up ? Did it work ? Have you ever seen a human/dinosaur skeleton ? v. muscle n.

Have you ever split your trousers ? Was it embarrassing ? Have you ever torn up someone's photograph ? What had they done ? Do you split your bills with the person you live with ? v. a baby b. the World Cup d. someone else's hand ? v. handlebars ? c. to heal n. to hold up/onto Which hand do you hold your pen in ? What does a belt hold up ? Show me how you would hold: a. to hold v. a gun c. a dirty sock When would someone hold onto: a. a rope ? b. to handle What are you supposed to do before handling food ? Would you mind handling dangerous chemicals at work ? What about if you were given training first ? Are you ever given more than you can handle at work ? What kind of people handle difficult situations every day ? How would you feel if you suddenly had to do your manager's job ? Could you handle it ? . scar How long do broken bones take to heal ? What about torn muscles ? What kind of injuries leave scars after they heal ? Are scars ever attractive ? v.

eg. What aims do you have for the near future ? What is your aim in taking this course ? Do you think most people's main aim in life is to get married and have children ? Give me an example of a famous charity ? What is the main aim of their work ? What age group is pop music aimed at ? Which films are aimed at children ? nn . This car advert is aimed at young women who are professional. a poster on a notice board ? . eg. .. . sticky. a handle back on a cup ? What kind of food can leave a horrible. to stick adj. pieces of paper together ? . independent and confident. . aim An aim is an ambition.v./v. or something you want to achieve. I aim to finish decorating the house by Christmas. sticky How can you stop food sticking to the bottom of a saucepan ? What do we use to stick: . .. to fix Do you ever mend your own clothes ? What do you use ? Have you ever tried to mend something you had broken ? Have you ever fixed a machine that wasn't working ? Have you ever tried to fix something by hitting it ? Did it work ? Have you ever had to call someone in to fix something in your house ? n. mess on your clothes ? v. Products and adverts are often aimed at particular kinds of people. to mend v.

mark Why do we use table mats ? What would leave marks on: a. to commute What do we call people who travel from the edge of the city to the centre every day ? Would you prefer to live in the centre of town or in the suburbs ? Do you think commuting adds to the stress of modern life ? What do we call the area between North and South America ? Do you know anyone who is completely self-centred ? Is getting an English qualification central to your future plans ? v. the decor in this school c. to mark n. likelihood Is it possible that I am the son/daughter of a millionaire ? And how likely is it ? How likely/unlikely are you to do the following things ? .go out this weekend .be arrested in the near future . your own performance in this class ? What's the best/worst mark you've ever had in an exam ? Do you think you deserved it ? n.v. public transport in this city ? b. a car ? c.get married in the next five years . to be un/likely {to do) Do you think it's likely to rain tonight ? And what's the likelihood of snow ? Who is your president/prime minister ? Is he/she likely to be re-elected ? n. centre adj. your mum's cooking ? d. how many marks would you give: a.invent something . your body ? How is a right/wrong answer marked ? In which sports do judges give the contestants marks ? Out of ten. central v. a carpet ? b.

is the sign that means 'divide'. His employers became suspicious when money started to disappear. He divided the class into 4 groups of 3. suspicion If you suspect someone (of doing something) you think there is a possibility that they have done something bad. eg. to separate When you divide something you make it into smaller pieces or parts.) If something is suspicious. but they don't know. eg. v.Give me an example of something which actually happened even though it was unlikely. The teacher separated the two girls that were fighting and made them sit in separate classrooms. call the police. illegal etc. separate v. it is a sign that something might be wrong (bad. to suspect adj. = If 2 things are together you separate them by moving them apart from each other.. to divide adj. (She is under suspicion. What kind of food do we divide up when we share it ? How many states is the USA divided into ? What is your country divided into ? . Police suspect her of shooting her rival. suspicious n. Have you ever seen a stranger behaving suspiciously ? What was it that caught your attention ? Are you suspicious of amazing special offers ? Are they always too good to be true ? What kind of claims do companies make about their products ? Are you ever suspicious of their claims ? What would make a package look suspicious ? Which famous people have been under suspicion in the past ? Did they clear their name in the end ? Which famous people died in suspicious circumstances ? Have you evor been tricked/ripped off ? Didn't you suspect anything beforehand ? v.) eg. . eg. If you see a suspicious package. In Mathematics.

. to put up with Have you ever had to put up with difficult neighbours ? What did they do that was inconsiderate ? Have you ever refused to put up with someone's bad behaviour ? What did you do ? Do other people find it difficult to put up with any of your faults ? over.Do you have any brothers or sisters ? Did you always have separate rooms when you were children ? Do you try to keep your social life separate from work/school ? What problems can it lead to if you don't ? Are school children separated into classes of different abilities ? What are the pros and cons of this system ? Why do couples sometimes decide to separate after many years ? phr.(prefix) = too much Do you often oversleep ? Does it get you into trouble ? Have you ever been overcharged ? Do you think it was done on purpose ? Give me an example of something that is over-priced. v. What about something that is expensive but worth the money ? Do you think it is possible to be over-educated ? What harm does too much education do ? Do you ever overeat ? Why does it happen ? under.(prefix) = not enough Which professions do you think are underpaid ? Do you think a lot of films stars and models are actually underweight ? Do you think this has a harmful effect on society ? Give me an example of an understatement.

solid Give me an example of a: a. What is it used for ? What kind of things have to be pumped up regularly ? . gas b. spray v. liquid c. to flow v. pump We use flow to describe the way a gas. gas n. to block n. solid What do we call water in its solid form ? How long are babies fed on liquids before they can starteating solids ? What is responsible for producing gases that are harmful to the environment ? Do you think enough is being done to limit the problem ? v.v. liquid or electricity moves. Does water flow uphill or downhill ? What's cashflow ? Which river flows through this city ? Which sea/ocean does it flow into ? What liquid is pumped around the body by the heart ? Why do they spray crops ? Do you think it matters what they use ? What kind of machines use a pump ? Give me some examples of a household spray./n. block What happens to traffic when something blocks the road ? What do we use to unblock pipes ? Is your city divided into blocks like in the USA ? Have you ever lived/worked in a tower block ? n. liquid n./n.

. She made a good impression by arriving early on her first day at work.? Has anyone or anything ever made a huge impression on you ? What was it about it/them that you found so impressive ? Have you ever bought someone a really special present ? Did it make the impression that you intended ? Do agree with the expression that 'first impressions last' ? In what circumstances would it be important ? v.. impressive If you impress people they have a positive opinion of you because of what you have done.. He made a bad impression by yawning when he met the boss. How can you make a good impression when you start a new job ? What would make a bad impression ? Would you be impressed if I could speak your language fluently ? What kind of things do young people do to try and impress their friends ? Is it the kind of thing that you grow out of ? Have you travelled to any foreign countries on holiday ? What impressed you the most about . in that/in... The Hindu religion differs from other religions in that it has many gods. to impress n. eg.v. British English differs a little bit from Australian English in vocabulary and pronunciation. impression adj. An impression can be either good or bad.. Is tennis similar to badminton ? In what ways do they differ ? Is British English always the same as American English ? Do they differ a great deal ? How do modern styles of building differ from traditional ones ? How do you think the tastes of your generation differ from those of your parents ? . not just one. They were impressed with his qualifications in the interview. to differ from . eg.

excited ? c. in a really good mood ? . careers ? c. fingerprints ? b.. reaction When someone tells a joke. n. light ? v. to react n. If you tend to do something. When do people tend to get: a. He tends to talk too much when he's nervous. aggressive ? How do you think men and women differ when it comes to: a. laughing and nodding. How do dogs react to cats ? How does a football crowd react to a goal ? What is the most surprising thing your government has done ? What was the public reaction ? If someone scratched my car. we react by smiling. tendency A tendency is a characteristic. stressed ? b.. eg. what tends to happen to the price ? Give me an example of something you tend to do when you are. to tend + inf.. relationships ? b. He reacted badly when I told him to improve his work. children ? Men tend to . drunk ? c. What annoying tendencies do children have ? In what situations do people tend to over-react ? When the demand for a product falls.What are your impressions of London ? How does it differ from what you expected ? v. you often do it and it is typical of you. She has a tendency to get aggressive when criticised. big-headed ? b. do you think shouting would be an over-reaction ? What about if I chased them with a knife ? Have you ever reacted angrily to a question ? Was your reaction justified ? What kind of machines react to: a. temperature ? c. a.. eg. tired ? d.

an apple ? b./adj. to feel like + gerund/noun eg. an eye ? c. I'm in a lazy mood. your living room ? Which of your fingers is the longest ? Have you ever ended up in 'the middle of nowhere' ? Where were you supposed to be going ? n. average What's the average number of students in this lesson ? Is today's attendance above or below average ? On average. and I don't feel like working. middle Do you get sleepy in the middle of the afternoon ? What do you feel like doing ? Have you ever been woken up in the middle of the night by a noise ? Did you find out what it was ?/Was it difficult to get back to sleep again ? Give me an example of someone you know who is middle-aged and/or middle-class ? What's in the middle of: a. how many pages of new work do you study a day ? Are you an above-average student ? Where does the average family tend to go on holiday in your country ? What percentage of these lessons do you attend ? Do you think that's a good average ? .v./adj. Do you feel like going out tonight ? What do you feel like doing ? Have you ever felt like being really rude to someone ? What did you actually say ? Would you call in sick just because you didn't feel like going to work ? Do you eat whenever you feel like it ? When do we have to socialise even though we don't feel like it ? n.

I used to . to draw drew drawn Is your hair straight ? adj. straight n. trees ? c. vegetables ? b. line n. row What do people use to draw straight lines ? When is it hard to walk in a straight line ? Where would you see a row of: a. Are you any good at drawing ? .v. people ? d... cars ? What did you like drawing when you were a child ? A.

to turn v. Do you go straight home after school ? Where else do you go on the way ? When you go to the doctor do they usually see you straight away ? Do you do the washing up straight after dinner ? Do you ever go straight to bed when you get home ? Why ? adv. The bus drove straight past without stopping. to turn back/over Is it easier to turn left or right at a crossroads in this country ? What machines have parts that turn ? What do you do when you have read to the bottom of a page ? Have you ever started a long journey and had to turn back ? What had you forgotten ? What food has to be turned over while it's being cooked ? . I walked straight into his office without knocking. right = completely/exactly What's right in the middle of your face ? [nose] Would you get a good view right at the back of a stadium ? Where would you prefer to be ? What's right at the top of this building ? Would you like to live right next to a pub ? Why/Why not ? Do you like films where you don't find out what's happening till right at the end? Have you ever had an embarrassing moment right in front of lots of people ? Did you feel like crying/running away ? v.UNIT 7 adv. eg. straight = directly We add the word straight before a preposition (or adverb) to mean 'directly'.

to face a problem etc. looking towards it. way (2) Remember. After she turned down my offer of a date.Why would someone keep turning over in bed ? Have you ever turned your back on someone ? What had they done to deserve it ? v. What important decisions do people have to face as they get older ? Are you facing any big decisions in the near future ? In what situations do people find it difficult to face their parents ? Are you willing to give most kinds of food a try ? Is there anything you just couldn't face ? n. expr. to face v..) . Here are some common expressions with way. we can use the word way to mean how to get somewhere (or how to do something). Does your sofa face the TV ? If I turn around what will I be facing ? Does it bother you if you face backwards on a train ? Give me an example of something you might turn around to face you. How do emergency vehicles warn other traffic to get out of the way ? If I left my bicycle outside the classroom would it be in the way ? Where could I put it so that it would be out of the way ? Would you park in the middle of the road ? Why not ? (. Muslims face Mecca when they pray. I couldn't face seeing her again.. We can also use the verb to face to talk about times when we deal with difficult or embarrassing situations.. eg. to turn around If you face something you are opposite the way.

to sort v.. can you usually sort them out on your own? What if you couldn't ? Have you ever fallen out with a friend ? Over what ? Did you sort it out eventually ? expr. do you sort out accommodation before you go ? Have you ever had to sort out something that was in total chaos ? If you're having problems at work.. Do you know the way now ? v. tell if/whether expr. but an expert could.alphabetical order. I can't tell the difference between these two wines.What's the best thing to say to someone who is standing in your way ? What's the quickest way out of this building in an emergency ? Why should you look both ways before crossing the road ? Do children have to learn that they can't always get their own way ? What's the best way to teach them ? Which person usually gets their own way in your family ? How does he/she do it ? n. to sort something (out) .. Can you tell the difference between an Australian and an English accent ? What about Scottish and English ? . ? Ask for directions to his/her house. How are names in an address book sorted ? When you go on holiday. directions Where do you live ? How do you get there ? expr. How can l/do you get to . tell the difference You can tell whether something is real leather by the smell.

back to front What's wrong with the way I'm holding this book ? Is it the right way up now ? How can you tell if someone's got their jumper on inside-out ? [label] What about back-to-front ? Have you ever gone out wearing something inside-out ? How long did it take you to realise ? expr.. upside-down adj. the other way round expr. do people realise you're foreign ? How can they tell ? adj. the wrong way round Am I holding this pen/book/cup/key/cigarette the right way round ? And now ? Does July come before June ? A./adv. good quality wine and cheap plonk ? Can you tell if someone is intelligent just by looking at them ? How can you tell when someone is lying ? Do you think I'm in a good mood today ? How can you tell ? When you speak English. No. No. isn't it ? A. Pepsi and Coke ? d. it's the other. whole milk and skimmed milk ? c../adv. Do parents usually look after children ? Is it ever the other way round ? .Can you tell the difference between these things just from the taste ? a../adv. right way up adj. butter and margarine ? b. it's the other./adv. inside-out adj.. Great Britain is part of England.

you think that they are responsible for the problem. teenage crime ? b. is it your own fault ? Have you ever failed an exam ? Do you think it was your own fault ? Do you know anyone with children who are difficult to handle ? Do you think it's their parents' fault ? Have you ever blamed someone for something even though you knew it wasn't their fault ? If someone breaks the law without realising it. eg. blame expr. Most people blame the other driver in a traffic accident. fault (1) If something is your fault. The goalkeeper cried because he knew that the goal was his fault. the hole in the ozone layer ? Do you think there are some problems that the government can't be held responsible for? n. you are responsible for the problem. Who would you blame if your English wasn't improving ? Have you ever got the blame for something ? Had you done anything to deserve it ? Who got the blame for killing President Kennedy ? Is there any doubt that he actually did it ?/Do you have other suspicions ? Have you ever let someone else take the blame for something you did ? Why didn't you own up ? Who do you think should be held responsible for: a. is it still their fault ? .n/v. eg. Have you ever damaged a car ? Whose fault was it ? If you get a bad hangover. to hold someone responsible If you blame someone for something.

annoying ? expr. cars b. on the bus/train ? b. faulty Your faults are your negative characteristics. Have you ever bought something that was faulty ? What was wrong with it ? What kinds of fault are common with: a. If a machine has a fault (or is faulty) something is wrong with it. completely unfunny ? c. to find something interesting/boring/annoying/difficult (+infinitive) Do you find politics interesting ? What do you find more interesting ? Do you find music relaxing ? Which music in particular ? Give me an example of a game you find easy to play ? Give me an example of something you find difficult to do. computers Are people aware of their own faults ? What's your worst fault ? Tell me someone you like despite their faults. What is it about them that gets on your nerves ? expr. telephones c.п. Have you seen TV programmes where they play tricks to wind people up ? Do you find them funny ? Which comedians/adverts do you find: a. in restaurants ? c. funny ? b. in shops ? . fault (2) adj. to find it interesting/boring/annoying + when/if Would you find it amusing if I fell off my chair ? What if I hurt myself ? What annoying things can happen: a.

gain If you gain something. Some people take a low-paid job just to gain experience. you gain from it. I'm really benefiting from the extra training my company provides. you get more of it or improve your situation. eg.v. dull adj. Would you work for free just to gain experience ? What kind of things help you gain confidence at work ? What can have the opposite effect ? What is one of the most interesting things you have ever done? What do you think you gained from the experience ? How do people try to gain an unfair advantage in sport ? Do you think people gain more from being honest than telling lies ? v. to benefit n. exciting How can you make it more exciting ? What's the most exciting thing that's ever happened to you ? Do you know anyone who always seems to be cheerful ? Have you ever cheered up someone who was feeling sad ? Who can really cheer you up when you're unhappy ? What is it that they do ? v. Do you think everyone benefits from a growing economy ? Who gains the most ? When did you last do something for another person's benefit ? What kind of things did your parents and teachers force you to do ? Do you think it was for your own benefit ? What kind of people can claim state benefit ? . cheerful adj. to gain n. eg. benefit If something benefits you. to cheer up Do you find studying dull ? adj.

п. eg. celebrity Your reputation is the opinion that people have about you. being paranoid ? Do you think their reputation is justified ? What could harm a company's reputation ? Do you think the media sometimes destroys someone's reputation ? Can you think of anyone who has a reputation that they don't deserve ? c. Who is considered to be your country's greatest ever artist/writer/athlete ? In the past. Muhammad Ali to be + considered believed said to + verb reported thought known = people generally think/believe know that. causing trouble ? b.. reputation п. was the Earth believed to be flat ? What shape is it now known to be ? What kind of food is known to be bad for you ? Was it always believed to be unhealthy ? . previous adv. What kind of reputation ? Which celebrities have a reputation for: a. Do you find the lives of celebrities interesting ? Give me an example of a celebrity in your country who has a reputation. previously Which teacher did you have in your previous lesson ? Do you believe that some people have had previous lives ? Which famous companies in your country were previously owned by the state ? What were these people previously called: a.. Marilyn Monroe b. German cars have a reputation for being well built. generosity ? adj.

When people think they have been accused of something they didn't do. being arrogant ? c. what would you accuse me of ? Has anyone accused you of: a. being lazy d. eg. a hero Did people realise at the time ? Who is thought to have been responsible for the World Trade Centre attack ? Where is he said to be now ? Who is thought to have been responsible for the shooting of JFK ? What other organisations are said to have been involved ? Has anything ever been proved ? v. or doing something wrong. "You're trying to steal my girlfriend!" . to deny We accuse people of breaking laws and rules etc. trying to steal their girlfriend/boyfriend ? Did you deny the accusation ? Have you ever made a mistake at work and denied it afterwards ? Why should you think carefully before making accusations ? What kind of people are often accused of bribery and corruption ? . eg.What is the name of the area where planes and boats are reported to have disappeared mysteriously ? Which famous ship sank in 1912 ? Why was it thought to have been impossible ? How are dinosaurs thought to have died out ? Give me an example of someone from history who is considered to have been: a. an evil genius b. to accuse n. they deny it. lying ? b. "Of course I'm not trying to steal her!" -1 denied trying to steal his girlfriend. accusation v. If you caught me looking through your bag.He accused me of trying to steal his girlfriend.

He admitted taking the money when I accused him. I must admit If you admit (to) something. v. eg.. People often use insist when there is a disagreement.. very strongly. even though I knew he was wrong. do you try to persuade them or just insist v. I must admit.. Do you ever insist that you are right even though you are not sure ? What kind of rules did your parents/school insist on ? What happened if you broke them ? Do you think teachers should insist that students do all their homework ? If you were sold something faulty would you insist on a refund ? What if you were offered a replacement ? When people don't agree with you. He insisted that he was right.v. Do people find it difficult to admit to their mistakes ? Has your teacher ever admitted that they couldn't answer your question ? Admit or deny these accusations: You stole my pen ! You are just pretending to understand ! You sometimes miss a lesson ! Tell us about one of your faults. to admit expr. you say that you did it or it was your fault. or want to do something. to insist + that / insist + on + noun/gerund To insist means to say something. to grab v. to grip How would you feel if someone grabbed something out of your hand ? Has anyone ever tried to grab your bag in the street ? Where could you go if you needed to grab a bite to eat ? What kind of things need handles that you can grip easily ? . eg.

boring work or do you look for a challenge ? What's the biggest challenge you have ever faced ? What kind of jobs/work/challenges do you feel confident about taking on ? v. Approach is also used to mean a way of doing something. sell you something ? b. and you believe you can do what is necessary to achieve it. explain how something works v. order food in a restaurant b. The car slowed down as it approached the lights. Our funny newspaper adverts didn't work so we decided to try a more serious approach. After his parents retired he took on the whole business and ran it himself. eg. get a donation to charity ? c. to take on n. or a plan.Do you need a good grip of English grammar to: a. talk about their religion? Does our approach to teaching English differ from other schools that you have been to ? What are the basic differences ? How do you prepare for an exam ? Do you think that is the best approach ? Have you ever been approached by a religious organisation ? . eg. a challenge If you take on a job or a responsibility you agree to do it. To take on can also mean to employ. eg. approach To approach means to move towards. Which animals should be approached cautiously ? Would you be suspicious of someone who approached you in the street to: a. to approach n. Why would a company take on new staff ? Have you ever taken on a big task and then regretted it ? What should you have done instead ? Do you prefer easy.

would you help ? If you saw someone famous in the street. a dog ? c. Have you ever gone up to someone in a bar and introduced yourself ? How did they react ? If a stranger came up to you and asked for directions. edge n. would you go up to them ? What would you say ? n. border Which countries share a border with yours ? What controls exist at most borders ? What do we call the edge of the pavement ? [kerb] What kind of things have sharp edges ? What does the expression 'on the edge of my seat' mean ? Which animals are on the edge of extinction ? v. defence Could you defend yourself if you were attacked by: a. go/come up to (informal) Go up to and come up to both mean 'approach'. to attack/defend n. A man came up to me in the street and asked if I wanted to buy a watch. a mugger ? Why would a country defend its borders heavily ? Do you think that Defence should be a priority for governments ? How important is it in relation to health and education ? In which sports do we often talk about attack and defence ? Do you normally defend your country if someone criticises it ? Do you think that's a natural reaction ? . a tiger ? b. eg.v.

I don't agree with her attitude to drugs. What kind of attitude do you think people should have to their work ? Have you ever worked with someone who had a bad attitude ? What was wrong with their attitude ? When can an aggressive attitude be an advantage ? Do you think some people's attitude to life is too broad-minded ? What problems can that cause ? Do you get defensive when people criticise you ? Do you think that is the best attitude ? How would you describe your attitude to: a. attitude adj. Which animals are naturally aggressive ? Why do people drive more aggressively in cities ? Has anyone famous ever got into trouble for aggressive behaviour ? Have you ever had an aggressive boss ? How did it affect your work ? What's a healthy way to get rid of aggression ? In what kind of situations do people tend to get aggressive ? What's the best way to deal with it ? Do you think women are becoming more aggressive ? Do you think there's anything wrong with that ? n. marriage ? . or always try to attack. aggression If you behave aggressively. religion ? b. eg. you get angry easily. We can also use attitude to talk about opinions.adj. pointing his finger in my face and shouting. It's nice to work with people who have a positive and friendly attitude. eg. smoking in public places ? c. aggressive n. eg. defensive Your attitude is the way you behave in a particular situation. When I disagreed with him he became aggressive.

Did you take your parents for granted when you were a child ? When did you start to appreciate how much they did for you ? Do you think people in rich countries appreciate how lucky they are ? What kind of things do they take for granted ? Have you ever felt someone was taking you for granted ? Did you say anything ? How do people show their appreciation ? Have you ever done someone a big favour ? Did they appreciate it ? Have you ever felt unappreciated ? Did you say anything ? adj. and has made a lot of mistakes. You do not treat it as important. casual If you are casual about something. you don't appreciate it properly. sometime negative. Our boss prefers casual conversations to formal meetings. you have a relaxed and informal attitude. eg. If you take something for granted. eg. and how lucky you are to have it.expr. I used to take having a car for granted until I was banned from driving. eg. to take something/someone for granted v. He has been very casual about his work. Are there any jobs where a casual attitude is acceptable ? What about casual clothes ? What is your attitude to casual relationships ? Would you feel comfortable wearing casual clothes to work ? Would it matter to anyone else ? Have you ever done casual work ? Were you paid cash-in-hand ? . I bought him a present to show how much I appreciated his help. to appreciate If you appreciate something you realise how good it is. Sometimes this is positive.

within prep. to bend bent bent v. what kind of things do you like to keep within reach ? Have you reached the right level to take FCE/CAE/CPE ? Are any of these exams completely beyond your reach ? . beyond When relaxing at home. which part of your body should you bend and which part should you keep straight ? v. to stretch Which materials are designed to: a.UNIT 8 v. to reach n. bend ? b. stretch ? Which materials don't bend or stretch at all ? Why do athletes do stretching exercises ? Can you touch your toes without bending your knees ? When picking up something heavy. speed out of (the) reach (of) Can I reach the board from where I am standing ? What about from here ? Why might a child reach out with both arms ? How long do you think it should take an ambulance to reach an accident ? What kind of things can affect its speed ? What kind of clothing do athletes use to improve their speed ? How could your parents reach you in an emergency ? What kind of things should be kept out of the reach of children ? What kind of things would you buy if you could afford them ? Do you think they will always be out of your reach ? prep.

legalising cannabis ? b. planning a holiday ? Are examples sometimes the best way to make a point ? Does it annoy you when people won't listen to your point ? Do you know anyone who talks a lot without getting to the point ? v/n. eg. organised discussion with official rules. point (in a conversation) The point is the subject we are talking about or the thing we want to say.. what kind of things are beyond its control ? n.. capital punishment ? Can you justify your view ? . half an hour of central London ? . an hour's journey from the capital in your country ? Is the government responsible for all society's problems ? So. world poverty ? c...Do you live within: . debate n. issue A debate is a formal. Which issues are often debated by you and your friends ? Is it important to keep to the point in a debate ? What about a casual conversation ? Which issues do you think deserve more attention from the media ? Which issues are 'hot' at the moment ? Where do you stand on the issue of: a. Also.. What do we call a list of points to be discussed in a meeting ? What points would be relevant to a discussion on: a. The second was that we might need new staff. The first was that the company was growing. walking distance of the school ? . global warming ? b. families and groups of friends sometimes have debates about politics and other important issues.. During the meeting she made two points.

a political protest/demonstration ? Do you agree that 'any publicity is good publicity' ? ... to present n... . presentation What kind of people are often asked to present prizes ? Did your school present prizes at the end of the year ? Did you ever win one ? In what kind of situations is presentation really important ? Who would present your case in court ? Have you ever had to give a presentation ? Did you feel you presented your points well ? n. . a a a a young and sexy image ? caring image ? successful image ? shocking image ? Which major companies spend a lot of money on PR ? What image do they try to present ? Which public figures/international companies have suffered a lot of negative publicity ? Do you think it was deserved ? What kind of things do celebrities do to get publicity ? What kind of things could you do to get publicity for: a. image Is Public Relations a growing industry ? What skills are needed for a career in PR ? How does advertising try to create a positive image for a product ? What image do foreigners have of your country ? Is it justified ? What kind of people have: . .. a charity event ? b.v.. Public Relations n... publicity n.

There is no point arguing with him. how would you try to come across ? Why is it an advantage for politicians if they come across well on TV ? Do you think big stars sometimes come across as arrogant/paranoid/vain ? Which ones in particular ? n. blade What sharp objects are kept around the house ? What objects can be sharpened when they become blunt ? What are knife-blades usually made of ? . The way you come across is the way other people think of you from your behaviour. I'm sure I didn't get the job because I came across as arrogant in the interview. What's the point of revision ? Is there any point recycling household waste ? Do you think it is pointless telling teenagers not to smoke ? Can you think of a rule or law that you think is pointless ? Is it always convenient to do someone a favour ? So what's the point ? adj.phr v. we often say What's the point ?. but been unable to put it across ? How did that make you feel ? In a Job interview. pointless What's the point. ? The point can also mean the purpose of something. When we feel something is a waste of time. When giving a presentation. eg. blunt v. to sharpen n. point (reason why something is worth doing) adj. There's no point. The writer gets across the suffering of the soldiers very well. to come across (as) To put (or get) an idea across is to communicate it well. sharp * »** adj. to put/get across phr v. He will never change his mind. eg. eg. what materials might help you put your point across ? Have you ever had a really good idea.. or It's pointless..

Which tool would you use to tighten a screw ? What about to loosen a nut ? Why are roads sometimes widened ? What kind of exercise is good for strengthening your arms/back/stomach ? Which illnesses weaken the immune system ? What kind of problems can lengthen your journey ? v. eg. What do we use to connect pieces of electrical equipment together ? What do you need to connect a computer to the internet ? Why would the electricity company disconnect your supply ? Do they charge to re-connect you ? Do you think there's any connection between poverty and crime ? . connection If two things are connected. eg. eg. They widened the doorway so that people using wheelchairs could get in more easily. the suffix .Are razor blades safer than they used to be ? Give me an example of a blunt question/statement. or touching. There is usually a connection between how hard you study for an exam and the result you get. to connect n. to lengthen means to make something longer. England is now connected to France by the Channel Tunnel. Or there is something about them that is the same.e n .e n We can turn some words into verbs by adding . or related. and so on. Here are the most common examples: widen lengthen/shorten strengthen /weaken loosen/tighten To widen means to make something wider. they are fixed together.

Do you believe there is any connection between: a. water hardening into ice c. Atlanta. 'Top Gun'. Do you think children grow up in stages ? At what age do they reach: a. There are three stages to making bread: mixing it. and Sydney b. point (in time) eg. c. the stage where they disagree with their parents all the time ? . Barcelona. Tom Hanks. the talking stage ? b. Marlon Brando. Denzel Washington. social background and intelligence ? Have you ever missed your connection when travelling ? n. we were playing so badly that I was sure we would lose. computer games and violent behaviour ? c. painted. tedious A process is what happens in order to produce a~result. eg. In this part of the factory each product goes through the same process: it is put together. process adj. printing fake bank notes b.What's the connection between these things? a. the rain forests and global warming ? b. and baking it. checked. leaving it to rise. n. making products in a factory Do you think divorce must be a painful process ? What is the most tedious process you have ever had to go through ? Give me an example of tedious work. stage (in a process) At one point early in the game. the reading and writing stage ? c. 'Rain Man' 'Mission Impossible'. n. Have you ever had to give a blood sample ? Can you describe the process ? Have you ever applied for a visa ? How long did the process take ? What are the following processes known as ? a. Seoul. and packed in a box.

it's time to have children ? b. hoover the carpet .up (used after a verb) Some verbs are often used with the preposition 'up' to show that the process is thoroughly completed. thorough adv. eg.) What would I want you to do if I asked you to drink up ? Did your parents force you to eat up your food when you were a child ? Which natural resources will have been used up by the end of the century ? What are we going to do then ? Which machines can be broken up into parts for recycling ? •Do some rivers dry up in the summer in your country ? .. life is basically unfair ? adj. These are not real phrasal verbs because the basic meaning of the verb is not changed by adding the word 'up'. they are not a child anymore ? c. become an English teacher ? b.Do you think it is easier to give up smoking suddenly or in stages ? Is it something you have experience of ? What happens when a class reaches the end of a book ? Do you think we will have reached that point within the next month ? When did you start studying English ? Are you happy with your progress up to this point ? Do you think there is a point in everyone's life when they realise that: a. eg. I tore up the photograph and threw the little pieces out of the window. I must tidy up my room before my mother gets here. order food in a restaurant ? c. (NB. thoroughly If you do a job thoroughly. If you want to hoover the floor thoroughly.. clean the bath c. dry your hair b. you have to move the furniture. you do it carefully and properly. Are people likely to do a job thoroughly if they feel tired and bored ? Do you need a thorough knowledge of English grammar to: a. negotiate a business deal ? Which of the following do you always do thoroughly ? a.

fold .nk some people over-develop their muscles ? Do you think there is any harm in this ? . it grows.. what can you do to brighten it up ? What might cause the sky to darken in the middle of the day ? v.What's the worst injury you've ever had ? How long did it take to heal up ? What do you do to a letter before you put it in the envelope ? . to develop n. or moves to the next stage. development If something develops.. eg. or the 'bright lights' of the city ? v. What do these animals develop into ? a. v.. to light lit lit adj. bright How did people use to light buildings in the old days ? And how did they light fires ? How is this room lit ? Why are bars and restaurants often dimly lit ? Do you prefer the 'peace and quiet' of the countryside. improves. tadpoles Which illnesses are scientists currently developing cures for ? What other recent developments have there been ? What kind of companies spend a lot of money on Research and Development? Do you thi.. The car industry developed quickly after the second world war. caterpillars b.. soften/harden v. darken/brighten Have you ever tried to soften butter in a microwave ? Did it work ? Do most things harden at low temperatures ? What do we call this process ? If you have a dull room.

eg. Which household products are dangerous if they come into contact with skin/eyes ? Is it relatively easy to contact people anywhere in the world these days ? What recent developments have made this possible ? Do you believe people who claim to have been in contact with aliens ? What evidence is there ? Have you ever tried to make contact with distant relatives ? Do you think adopted children should have the right to contact their natural parents ? expr. get/keep in touch with v. We can also use contact to mean communicate with. to lose touch with How many of your old school friends do you keep in touch with ? How do people keep in touch with friends in other countries ? Is there anyone you regret losing touch with ? Why do you wish you had kept in touch ? Have you ever got back in touch with someone you hadn't seen for years ? How did it go ? Do you plan to keep in touch with anyone you've met at this school ? What would be the best way for your family to get in touch with you in an emergency ? . they touch.How can a bad diet affect a child's development ? Do some rich countries get involved in the development of poor ones ? Are you ever suspicious of their real aims ? Phrases and expressions with develop/development What conditions are vital for developing film ? Do you think developing countries deserve more help ? Where should the money come from ? What should you do if you think you are developing a cold ? v/n. contact If two things come into contact with each other. I tried to contact you but your mobile was switched off.

eg. keep someone on hold ? b. It is reasonable to ask for your money back if you have been sold faulty goods. be late for a dinner party/job interview ? Would you describe yourself as a reasonable person ? Have you ever been unreasonable just because you wanted to wind someone up ? Have you ever had to deal with an unreasonable request/person at work ? How did you handle it ? Do you think that terrorists' demands are always unreasonable ? Would they have more success if they used reasonable methods to achieve their aims ? Do you think it's reasonable for young children to help with the household chores ? At what age can they be reasonably expected to give a hand ? When is the phrase beyond reasonable doubt' used ? at the last minute/moment on the point of + gerund Have you ever changed your mind about a journey at the last minute ? What did you do instead ? . reasonable adj. unreasonable If you are reasonable you have fair reasons for what you say and do. to hang up v. to put/keep somebody on hold v. What do you think is a reasonable amount of time to a. to put someone through Has anyone ever hung up while you were in the middle of talking ? How did you feel ? Have you ever hung up on someone ? What had they done to deserve it ? What do you hear over the phone when you are put on hold? Do you mind being kept on hold ? Are you ever rude to people when you are finally put through ? If you phoned the White House do you think they would put you through to the President ? adj.v. make someone wait on a date ? c.

Pavarotti b. I didn't recognise him without his beard. you suddenly realise that is there.Do you tend to wait until the last minute before: a. avoided them ? b. eg. your favourite high school teacher If an old school friend got in touch with you. revising for exams ? b. If you notice something. What about a song ? Have you ever recognised someone in the street and: a. eg. but I didn't say anything. to recognise v. to notice If you recognise someone/something you realise what it is because you have seen it before. If you don't recognise someone/something you don't realise who/what it is. Give me an example of a picture that everyone would recognise. I noticed that she had a spot on her nose. or happening. how can you calm yourself down ? v. the President/Prime Minister of your country c. doing your Christmas If you're on the point of losing your temper. packing your bags ? shopping ? Do you ever regret it later ? Do you often change your mind at the last minute ? Do you think that is a fault ? c. been really happy to see them ? Would you recognise the following people if you passed them in the street ? a. do you think they would recognise you straight away ? Have you ever worn something inside-out all day without noticing ? When did you finally realise ? Do people usually notice when you change your hairstyle ? What about if you are wearing something new ? What should you do if you notice the smell of gas ? Do you think people notice when you are in a bad mood ? How can they tell ? Do you think someone could steal something from your pocket without you noticing ? What can you do to avoid this happening to you ? Do you think young people's attitude to life changes as they get older ? What changes have you noticed ? .

vital adj. essential Something that is vital (or essential) is completely necessary. Do you think some knowledge of English is vital in today's world ? What about computer skills ? Is it vital to own a car in this city ? Do you think it is essential to have alcohol for a party ? What are essential nutrients ? When travelling. relieved Relief is the emotion we feel when we expected something bad to happen. eg. How would you feel if a policeman changed his mind about arresting you ? How do people feel just before they see their exam results? What about when they realize that they've passed/failed? Is it sometimes a big relief to sit down / take your shoes off? When ? Would you be glad if your Prime Minister/President resigned ? Have you ever been on the point of giving up your studies ? Do you wish you had ?/ Are you glad you didn't ? Have you ever been glad to get home after a holiday ? adj. creative What major problems are created by the weather ? Do you think scientists really know if the world was created or not? Have you ever created a work of art ? Do you like creative work or do you prefer to follow routines ? Do you think schools do enough to encourage children to be creative ? . but in the end it didn't.adj. I was so relieved when the doctor told me that my arm wasn't broken but just badly bruised. glad n. what 'bare essentials' do you always take with you ? v. relief adj. to create adj.

let's play a game.? eg... We could play a game if you like. I'm bored... Why don't you/we. What/how about + noun/gerund? eg. I need a cheap holiday. I'm going out on a date but I haven't got any money.. How about (playing) a game of poker ? What do you suggest ? Everyone laughs at my clothes. to suggest + clause/gerund If you suggest something to someone. ... 'It's a lovely day. What methods would you suggest to someone who wanted to give up smoking ? Has anyone got any other suggestions ? Do you think starving yourself is a good way to lose weight ? What would you suggest doing instead ? I'm going to invite a special friend for dinner. Let's + infinitive eg..' eg... shall we go to the beach ?' (BK3.v... Why don't we play a game if you're bored? We/you could. p59) Here are some other common ways of making a suggestion.. All my friends have more money than me.. eg. I've got a really embarrassing tattoo. I'm frightened of birds/dogs/tall people. we can make a suggestion using 'shall l/we.. you give them an idea which you think is a good thing to do. Where do you suggest I go ? I suggest you go to Portugal. What do you suggest I do to create a romantic atmosphere ? What do think of those suggestions ? Ways of making a suggestion Remember.. eg.

. If I were you I'd. advise If you advise someone. I think my girl/boyfriend has been seeing someone else. The best thing to do is... I can't afford to pay my rent this month. eg. doctors. advice v.. eg. My dog keeps eating the furniture. It is often used for professional advice from lawyers. You had better see a doctor. ... I think you should see a doctor.. eg. teachers etc.. eg.. My lawyer advised me to pay the fine immediately. You had better. you tell them the best thing to do because you know about it. eg.. Which places in your country would you advise me to visit/avoid ? Why do doctors usually advise against crash diets ? Why don't people always follow medical advice ? Have you ever been given bad advice ? Is there any advice you wish you had listened to when you were younger ? Ways of giving advice I think you should. If I were you I'd see a doctor. I'm going out on a date and I feel really nervous.. What's your advice ? I've been ripped off by a perfume salesman in Oxford Street.... The best thing to do is see a doctor.n.....

to take (any/no/some) notice of If you ignore something you pretend that it isn't there.. eg. beautiful countryside c. to your friends ? b. to ignore expr. We can only recommend things that we have already tried and know from our own experience. historical interest When did you go there ? If your friends asked you for advice about living and studying in London. recommendation We use the verb to recommend to suggest things or give advice. for beginners ? c. eg. If you take notice of something. rest and relaxation b. If you want really good Indian food I recommend 'The Bengal Lancer' in Tooting. to recommend + noun/gerund + clause n.. eg. a. Would you recommend this method. a.. Have you ever ignored someone when they spoke to you ? Wasn't that a bit rude ? What kind of advice do parents try to give their children ? Do you think children take any notice ? Have you ever been ignored in a shop ? Did you do anything about it ? Have you ever felt ignored at a party ? Did you try to make conversation ? Do smokers take any notice of health warnings on cigarette packets ? Is it because it's bad advice ? What other warnings or laws do people tend to ignore ? .. what would be your main recommendations ? Is there anything that you would strongly recommend against ? v. because you don't want to deal with it. My mother always told me to take no notice of bullies. with a similar meaning to ignore. I always go there. you pay attention to it because you think it is important.UNIT 9 v. for young children ? Have you been to any restaurants in this city that serve food from your country ? Can you recommend any of them ? What places in your country would you recommend for. The beggar asked me for money but I ignored him. This expression is usually negative.

what politicians say ? b. it is easy to understand or notice from the evidence. What kinds of sounds are difficult to ignore when you're trying to work or sleep ? Do you take any notice of. you're in love with someone but they don't know ? Is the obvious thing to do always the best thing to do ? . It was obvious someone had helped her. people begging in the street ? c.What do spoilt children do when they don't get their own way ? What's the best way of dealing with them ? . a. other students' mistakes/questions ? adj.. What are the obvious signs that someone is: a. ignore/take no notice... because he was sweating and shaking. someone is very rude to you ? b. sleepy ? Is it sometimes obvious when someone is lying ? How can you tell ? Is it obvious to other people that you are not English ? Why ? What is the most obvious difference between European and Asian languages ? What other differences are there ? Would you stop and help someone if they were obviously lost ? What is it about someone's behaviour that makes it obvious ? What is the obvious thing to do if: a. eg.. obvious If something is obvious. happy ? b.. Her homework was much too good. in pain ? c.. It was obvious that he was nervous.

We used to go to Greece every year but we haven't been for a while. but takes ages to cook. Do most computer games get boring after a while ? Are there any you have never got bored of ? Do you know anyone who has lived in this city for ages ? Have you ever saved up for ages ? What was it that you wanted to buy ? Have you ever waited for ages in a queue ? Was it worth the wait ? Have you ever been on a journey that seemed like it lasted for ages ? How much time is meant by 'a while' and 'ages' in these sentences ? a) We walked around the town for a while.ages A while is any short period of time. to supervise n. eg. Ages is any long period of time. questions like .. "I haven't seen her for ages. Both of these words could mean either a few minutes or a few years. it was ages before he felt ready to meet someone new. supervision Have you ever had to work under supervision ? Why ? . a few years] Where is my tea ? I asked you to make me one ages ago ! [i... 20 minutes] Did it take a while for you to get used to living in this country ? What other things take a while to get used to ? What kind of questions do friends ask when they haven't seen each other for a while ? A. f) Rhubarb crumble is delicious.e. d) He eventually hung up after they had kept him on hold for ages. e) After the divorce.n. depending on the situation.e. [i. a while n.. c) Let the tea brew for a while before pouring it." Think of a situation where 'ages' in this sentence could mean: a) hours b) days c) months v. b) It will take a while for the public to accept the new currency. .

What kind of food attracts bees and wasps ? Do you think it's true that 'opposites attract' ? Can you think of an example ? What are the major tourist attractions in this/your country/city ? What methods do shops use to attract customers ? Can you see the attraction of: a.. camping ? e. bungee jumping b. to go out with Where do people go on a date ? n. being self-employed ? Are there any you would actually like to try ? Would there be any drawbacks ? c. date v. to see the attraction of/in . had a car ? b. were good-looking ? v.Why can the supervision of children be very stressful ? Where do you work ? Who supervises the staff ? Why might an older person have problems being supervised by a young person ? Do you think their problem is understandable ? What learning processes require supervision ? v. had a lot of money ? c. to ask someone out How old were you when you went on your first date ? Did you see each other again ? What's the best way to ask someone out ? Does it take a lot of confidence ? Have you ever wanted to ask someone out but didn't ? Why not ? Which famous people went out with each other for a while ? Does this kind of relationship tend to last ? Would you go out with someone just because they: a. to attract n. a career in accountancy ? d. birdwatching ? .. attraction v.

to cheat on v. for dinner tonight ? Have you ever tried fishing ? Do you fancy having a go ? Was there anyone you fancied when you were at high school ? Did you end up going out with them ? How do people behave when they are talking to someone they fancy ? b. doing at the weekend ? v. to fancy Do you think men are more attracted to women who wear lots of make-up ? Do you think women are more attracted to rich men ? What about the other way round ? Have you ever been attracted to someone just because of their personality ? What do you fancy: a. to finish with someone Have you ever been stood up ? How long did you wait before you realised they weren't coming ? Have you ever told a friend to finish with their partner ? Why ? Did they take your advice ? Do you think cheating on your partner is as bad as stealing ? Why/Why not ? Have you ever finished with someone over the phone ? How long had you been going out ? n. to stand someone up v. reality Which films/books are fantasies ? Do you like this kind of story ? What are you supposed to do if the fire alarm goes off ? What do you think would happen in reality ? What is your ambition ? Is it just a fantasy or a realistic aim ? What is the best holiday you have ever had ? Did it take a while to get back to reality ? .v. to be attracted to v. fantasy n.

a holiday from hell ? c. car ? b. from hell Describe your dream holiday. Does it take more effort to cycle uphill or downhill ? Does it take a lot of effort to get your pronunciation right ? Do you always make the effort ? If you were having problems in a relationship. neighbours from hell ? n. dream + noun What do people mean when they say that something is 'from hell' ? And 'of your dreams' ? Have you met the man/woman of your dreams yet. you try hard to succeed. effort v. eg. expr. eg. of your dreams expr. Coming to the lesson is not enough. job ? b. to take (a lot of) effort If you make an effort. You must make an effort to learn the grammar at home. would you make more effort or just give up ? Did you work hard when you were at school/university ? Was it worth the effort ? Has your best friend ever been out with anyone you didn't like ? Did you make an effort to get on with them ? . or are you still waiting ? What is your dream: a.Do some people have trouble telling the difference between fantasy and reality ? expr. If something takes a lot of effort. house ? Is it just a fantasy ? Have you ever had: a.) effort v. It takes a lot of effort to decorate your own house. but it's much cheaper. it is necessary to try hard if you want to do it. to make (an/the/more etc.

willpower/determination adj. to please adj. eg. Strong-willed (or determined) people do not give up easily and don't change their minds. do you think the will to win is as important as ability ? Is it important to be strong-willed in your career ? What about in relationships ? c. give something up ? b. pleased with/for Is your boss difficult to please ? Have you ever done something just to please your family ? Would you be pleased if there was no lesson tomorrow ? Why/why not ? Do you think the public are ever pleased with their government ? Would you be pleased for your friend if they passed an exam that you failed ? What other feelings might you have ? . She was determined to finish the course. will n.n. even though she was ill. pleased adj. determined adj. Does it take a lot of willpower to give up smoking ? What else takes a lot of willpower ? Do you have enough determination to get what you want in life ? What do you think makes people determined to: a. strong-willed If you are determined to do something you refuse to think about failing because it so important for you to succeed. cause trouble at work? v. become famous ? Have you ever studied something against your will ? Who was forcing you to do it ? In sport.

who usually gets the credit ? Who usually gets the blame for failure ? Have you ever taken credit for someone else's work ? v. If you get credit for doing something. but Apple Macintosh got the credit for developing the home computer. eg. What is the opposite of blame ? Do you think children get enough praise as they grow up ? Why is it important ? What kind of people get a lot of praise in the newspapers ? What for ? Do you think they deserve it ? Do you feel more interested in studying if you get praise from your teacher ? When a company/team is successful. to survive v. I will happily do my share of the housework if you do yours. praise п.n. credit When people give you praise. The police officer received praise for his quick thinking. they encourage you and tell you that you have done well. people say you are responsible for its success. adv. to die out Which animals have died out in the past ? Do you know what caused them to ? Would you mind if mosquitoes died out ? What about sharks ? Which animals are endangered species at the moment ? What kind of things are done to help them survive ? Could you survive a week in the desert ? What would you do for food and water ? v. to be happy to eg. What kind of chores are children usually happy to do for their parents ? . eg. 'happy' and 'happily' mean that you don't mind doing something. It doesn't mean that doing it actually makes you happy. happily I am happy to help you move house this weekend. Microsoft are the biggest software company in the world. In these sentences.

Madonna's book caused a lot of controversy in the 90's. a mobile phone ? b. Which issues are considered controversial in your country at the moment ? Which celebrities are famous for causing controversy ? Do you think they are just looking for publicity ? . (could) do with If you don't need something you can do without it. people have strong opinions about it. but we can't do without water. it would be really useful/nice but not a necessity. and it causes disagreement (or controversy). go and get me a cup of tea In what circumstances would you not be happy to: a. (can/could) do without expr. If you could do with something. controversial n. eg. We can do without food for a few days. controversy If something is controversial. Politics and Religion are often controversial subjects. I could do with a holiday. babysit for friends ? expr. eg. eg.Are teachers usually happy to answer grammar questions ? Which of these things would you happily do if I asked you ? a. I've been working really hard recently. open the window b. Can you do without your credit card if you've got plenty of cash ? What luxuries do you rely on in your daily life ? How long can you do without it/them ? Are there any meals that you tend to do without ? Do you anyone who quite happily does without: a. a TV ? In what circumstances do people have to do without sleep ? How long do you reckon you could do without it ? adj. even though you might want it. stand on your chair c. listen to your friends' problems ? b. give strangers directions in the street ? c. alcohol ? c.

If a solution to a problem works well. insomnia ? Do you think dieting is the best solution to being overweight ? Does it really solve the underlying problem ? Do you think prison is the most effective way of dealing with criminals ? When can it be effective/ineffective ? Can you think of any famous unsolved crimes ? Can science find a solution to all medical problems ? What other methods do people find effective ? Give me an example of something your government has done in the last few years ? What do you think was the point of it ? Do you think it has been effective ? Are there any obvious solutions to the world's problems ? . Do sports referees ever make controversial decisions ? Do you think it spoils the game or adds to the excitement ? Which recent films have been controversial ? n. drowsiness ? d._____. effective To solve a problem is to find an answer to it. it is effective. indigestion ? c. a headache ? b. solution v. to solve adj. What do you find the most effective cure for: a.

cope with. improve your vocabulary ? Can you drive ? Did you pass your test at the first attempt ? Have you ever made a half-hearted attempt to do something ? Why didn't you put much effort in ? In what sports do people often attempt to break world records ? Can you think of any successful attempts ? v. despite making three expensive attempts. Do you think modern technology has made it easier or more difficult to manage our lives ? In what ways ? Do some parents find their children difficult to manage ? Who do you think is to blame ? How do people without much money manage to make ends meet ? Have you ever attempted to do something that was very difficult ? Did you manage it in the end ? How do prisons prevent people from escaping ? So how do they manage to get out ? . We often use it when what we try to do ends in failure. If you manage to do something you succeed despite finding it difficult. Give me an example of something that you tried to do but failed ? Do you think it was worth making the attempt ? Do you make any attempt to: a. Now that she two children and a full-time job she employs a cleaner to help her manage . I managed to escape by swimming to the boat. eg. eg. or organise. eg. However. keep fit ? b.v. save money ? c. The crocodile had bitten off my leg. He never succeeded in flying around the world in his balloon. make any/some/no/an/the attempt To attempt means make an effort or try to do something. to manage We can use manage to mean handle. to attempt n.

he throws them away. He is so fussy about his clothes.v. punctuality ? n. eg. Don't make such a fuss! It's only a broken window and it's very cheap to repair. Are you a fussy eater ? In what way ? Do you know people who are fussy/not fussy about: a. If there is a tiny hole in one of his socks. A lot of accidents happen in icy conditions. fussy To make a fuss is to get upset or cause trouble because of a very small problem. If it is not perfect. ? c. their appearance ? How do fussy parents behave towards their children ? What effect do you think it has on them ? Have you ever lived with anyone who was really fussy ? What kind of things did they make a fuss about ? Why would someone make a fuss in a restaurant ? Have you ever done it ? Is there anyone in your family who tends to make a fuss about nothing ? Why do you think he/she does it. to make a fuss adj. If you are fussy. and they influence what happens. personal hygiene ? b. conditions (plural) The conditions are the kind of situation something is in. you make a fuss. you want everything to be exactly the way you like. eg. dry conditions ? What conditions do most plants prefer ? . eg. Have you ever had to drive in difficult conditions ? How can the government improve people's working conditions ? Do their efforts always work ? What kind of people have to work in horrible conditions ? What words could you use to describe these conditions ? What kind of plants can survive hot.

Do you think it will ever be solved ? Do you think there is a scientific explanation for everything ? What things do you believe will always be a mystery to us ? Which ancient buildings have mysterious origins ? Are there any similar places in your country ? What is the point of a 'mystery tour' ? Can you see the attraction ? What do you think the expression 'God moves in mysterious ways' means ? Do you agree with it ? . work without being paid ? What kind of career involves working in difficult circumstances ? Why are people attracted to these jobs ? Which famous people have died in suspicious circumstances ? How have computers changed the office environment ? Have these changes been for the better or worse ? What factors have an influence on the work environment ? What social problems have a negative impact on the family environment ? Do you know anyone who came from a poor family ? Did they seem happy despite the circumstances ? n. mystery adj. circumstances (plural) We use the environment to mean the natural world. mysterious A mystery is something that is impossible to explain. environment п. In those stressful circumstances. Give me an example of a famous mystery. Circumstances is another word for situation. In what circumstances would you: a. eg. The ideal working environment should be relaxed and professional. steal ? b.n. eg. We use it to describe what is happening to someone at a particular place and time. We also use environment to talk about the situation and conditions that people live and work in. lie ? c. I can understand why he lost his temper. climb out of a window ? d.

(NB We can express the opposite of 'only if' by using 'even if. in good/bad condition Why might someone keep something even though it was in bad condition ? Have you kept any of your old childhood toys ? What kind of condition are they in ? Have you ever stayed in accommodation that was in terrible condition ? What was wrong with it ? How can you keep a car in relatively good condition ? What kind of things can affect the condition of: a. your skin ? b.Has anyone famous in your country ever disappeared in mysterious circumstances on condition that In what circumstances would you lend money to a friend ? Would you make any conditions ? Did your parents ever let you stay out late when you were a teenager ? Was it on condition that you came back by a particular time ? On what condition would you agree to: a. I would marry a man I loved even if he was poor.) Can you only enjoy a party if you drink ? Do you think some people only enjoy themselves when they're drunk ? Do you know anyone who only gets in touch when they need a favour ? Do you think it is alright for parents to smack children as long as it's not too hard ? Do you think it is alright to drink and drive as long as you are under the limit ? expr. your hair ? c. pay more rent c. eg. your heart ? . do all the housework in your flat for a week ? only if/when as long as I would only marry a man if he was rich. work longer hours b.

a maximum height ? c. minimum What is the maximum number of students in a class ? Is there a minimum wage in your country ? What are the pros and cons of a minimum wage ? What is the minimum age in your country for: a. to store v/n. a maximum age b.. are in the building at the moment ? . a loft ? b. You need at least. a good house party ? d. with their friends ? How many people do you reckon: ... buying alcohol ? What kind of things have: a.. voting ? b... a cellar ? c. doing homework ? b.. were in the cafe last time you were there ? . getting married ? c. poker ? A. a shed ? In what kind of order are records usually filed ? Can you think of any other systems ? Do companies keep information about their employees on file ? 'Should you have the right to see them ? . an Avalon class ? b. How many nationalities are there at this school ? How many hours a day do you think a 15-year old ought to spend: a. file What kind of things have to be stored carefully to keep them in good condition? Which animals store food for the winter ? What would you store in: a.. do you speak to each day ? v. with their parents ? d.. maximum n.UNIT 10 n. volleyball ? c. watching TV ? c. a maximum load ? at least no more than at the most How many people do you need for: a.. could squeeze into this classroom ? .

to clash What colour shirt would match your eyes ? What kind of flavours (don't) go well together ? Give me an example of colours that clash/go well together ? Can clashing colours ever look good ? What kind of wine goes best with: a. We make the past simple of a verb by adding 'ed\ All words in English have at least one vowel. beef ? c. generalisation v. We can show that a generalisation is wrong by thinking of an exception. to match v.' is a generalisation. Tell us a generalisation you have heard about people from your country. exception If you generalise. My uncle is an exception because he loves ballet and hates football. you say that something is generally true. 'Men prefer football to ballet. to go (well) together v. 'I before E except after С' . generalise n. An exception is an example that doesn't follow a law or rule. dessert ? Can you always find a matching pair of socks in the morning ? Have you ever worn odd socks to school/work ? n.What are the advantages of computer files over paper files ? Are there any drawbacks ? Are you the kind of person who keeps all their documents carefully filed ? Do you think it is worth making the effort ? v. Does it get on your nerves ? Do you think it is a bad habit to generalise about people ? Do you think it can lead to prejudice ? What common generalisations about England do people in your country make? How true do you think they are ? Can you think of any exceptions to the following rules ? A plural noun is made by adding an's'. eg. fish ? b.

Both of there statements are true. to concentrate n.v.. . They are general statements but not generalisations. Dogs can save lives. what kind of things help your concentration ? In what kind of environment is it difficult to concentrate ? What issues do you think politicians should be concentrating on ? What do they tend to do instead ? What areas of your English do you need to concentrate on improving ? special use of 'can': When we want to say that there are situations where something is true or possible. concentration If you concentrate on something you pay attention to it and think carefully about it. we use 'can'. In what situations do people need to concentrate for a long time ? When studying. (Tigers are dangerous animals). but we want to avoid generalisations. Dogs can be dangerous animals. eg. eg.. It is important to keep your concentration when driving. Which animals can be aggressive ? In what kind of situations ? Is there anyone in your family who can be difficult to cope with ? Do you ever get wound up with them ? What can happen if you lose concentration when driving ? What kind of accidents can happen in the home ? What side effects can some medicines have ? Do you believe that mobile phones can cause cancer ? Do you think it's a serious risk ? Do you usually get seen straight away when you go to the doctor or hospital ? How long can you wait for ? In what ways can pride be a dangerous emotion ? Tell us about an annoying tendency that you have. I can be .

a set of keys. set A set is a group of things that belong together. or a collection of odd knives and forks? Does your family have a set of plates for special occasions ? Can you describe them (the pattern ?) ? Is it worth setting the table when you eat by yourself ? What about for a proper family meal ? How often do you set the table for a proper family meal at home ? What happens when you don't bother ? When do you expect to go back to your country ? Have you actually set a date ? What time do you set your alarm for ? Is that the time you actually get up ? whatever / no matter what We use these words when we want to say that something will not change because of the situation. a chess set. Can you do whatever you want in your parents' house ? What about in your own place ? Should governments refuse to negotiate with terrorists ? No matter what the circumstances ? . Whatever also sometimes means 'anything'. No matter what the weather is like.. whatever the weather is like.v/n. Do you have a spare set of keys ? Where do you keep them ? Do you have a matching set of cutlery at home. a set of plates. eg. eg. Do you know enough English to express whatever you want ? Do you only come to school if the weather is nice ? No .. eg. We will do whatever you ask. When we set something we arrange it or organise it. we will go for a walk.

. lonely ? b. however much they eat ? Does it bother you ? Do parents enjoy watching their children in plays. Where are you living at the moment ? Can you invite whoever you want to stay with you ? Do you think university education should be available to whoever wants it ? Does that mean it should be free ? Are you the kind of person who would help anyone. Who are the people you always keep in touch with. no matter where they are from ? however + adj/adv no matter how + adj/adv Tell us about something you can't do..whoever = any person no matter who. on the point of crying ? d. nauseous ? c. however badly they perform? . however hard you try. however busy you are ? Do you know anyone who never puts on weight. like cheering yourself up ? Is there someone you call whenever you feel a bit down ? What is it about them that helps ? Do you have a set time for meals or do you eat whenever you feel like it ? Do you think that's a good/bad habit ? Do you know someone who sounds tired/angry/bored whenever they speak ? Do you think they are aware of it ? wherever = any place no matter where What things do you always take with you wherever you go ? What kind of food and drink can you find wherever you are in the world ? What kind of things do all people care about. no matter who they were? whenever = any time Give me an example of something you do whenever you feel: a.

a teacher ? How can a building be altered to save energy ? n. On average. a police officer ? b. eg. eg.Have you ever lived with someone who never did any housework. no matter how many times you asked them ? Is it possible to find love. how many items do you buy ? Do you normally use a basket/trolley ? What kind of objects should be kept out of the reach of children ? What's the best way to lift heavy objects ? What kind of news items do they save for last ? . eg. Why would clothes need altering ? Is it something you could do yourself ? Do you think your opinions have altered as you have grown older ? Do you think everyone goes through a similar process ? What is the function of the heart ? What different functions should be performed by: a. no matter how old you are ? v. The function of something is its special purpose. to alter n. The function of a seat belt is to save lives in an accident. object n. item An item is a single thing. An object is a single physical thing. The building was altered so that disabled people could enter more easily. A few of the items on the menu were not available. when you go to a supermarket. eg. Do not put heavy objects on top of this machine. function To alter means to change the position. size or shape of something for a particular reason.

eg.. He told me a lot of personal stuff about his childhood. sticking things together ? b. black. Do you like studying fun stuff or do you prefer serious grammatical stuff ? Who is your favourite band/singer ? Is their old stuff better than their latest stuff ? What kind of stuff do children get covered in when they are playing ? adj.) When you go to a nightclub or theatre. We can't use the word stuff for single. correcting mistakes on a document ? The stuff we use. stuff We use the informal word stuff to talk about anything. (NB. sticky stuff on your jacket. rural adj. urban Are you from a rural or urban area of your country ? How did it affect your upbringing ? What social problems are common in urban areas ? Which of these also exist in rural areas ? Is the urban environment here different from your country ? How does it differ from what you are used to ? Do you think most people prefer an urban lifestyle ? Does rural life hold any attraction for you ? . where can you leave your stuff ? Do you tend to take a lot of stuff on holiday ? How much of it do you end up using ? What's the name of the stuff we use for: a. You've got a horrible.. especially if we don't know what to call it. making your hair feel soft after it's been washed ? c. countable things. You've got some horrible. eg.n. sticky mark/thing on your jacket. black. We would use a word like 'thing' instead.

(The opposite is realist. fitness How fit are you ? Have you ever been to a 'keep fit' class ? Do you think your physical fitness affects your emotions ? Discuss the pros and cons of these ways of keeping fit: a. Also remove can mean take away. etc. aerobics d. out etc. My ideal job would be testing computer games. war etc. jogging b. idealistic adj.) Someone who is cynical is reluctant to believe in positive things. innocent.) adj. They don't believe anyone is really unselfish. such as a world without poverty. cynical We use ideal to describe something completely perfect that we imagine. Describe the ideal boss/teacher/partner ? Do you think such a person really exists ? Do you think it's idealistic to hope for world peace ? Do you think everyone is more cynical these days ? Do you think cynical people have an advantage over idealistic people ? (Or is it the other way round ?) Why do you think some people pretend to be very cynical all the time ? v. If someone is idealistic they believe that ideal things are really possible. fit n. playing sport regularly . to remove Is it possible to have a tattoo removed ? Do you think it's an easy process ? How can you remove a wine stain from a carpet ? Why would someone remove a wall in their house ? Explain the difference between 'remove' and 'take off ? (Formal/informal. using an exercise bike c. employing a personal trainer e. happy. eg.adj. ideal adj.

first left home ? b. camera ? b. watch ? What do you adjust when you drive a car for the first time ? Did you have to adapt your way of life when you: a. This car has been adapted for use by disabled drivers. TV ? c. This TV can be adjusted for a wide-screen or normal picture. eg. Adjust is a smaller or temporary change that we make to a piece of equipment. Adapt is usually for permanent or long-term differences that cannot be changed back. What kind of things are often adapted for use by disabled people ? What kind of tools and equipment are designed to be adjustable ? What can be adjusted on a: a. first came to this city ? c. I'm not sure why he's in hospital. to adjust These two words have a similar meaning. I don't think unemployment has got anything to do with crime. got your first job ? Have older people in your country had to adapt to big changes during their lives ? (got) something/anything/nothing to do with We use this expression to talk about a connection between two things when we are not sure exactly what it is. eg. but it's something to do with his back. to adapt v. Have you been ill recently ? Do you think it has got anything to do with your lifestyle ? Do you think most wars have got something do with history ? Is religion ever a factor ? Do you agree that sport should have nothing to do with politics ? What about the involvement of big business ? Have you seen any graffiti in the toilet ? Has it got anything to do with you ? Do you ever have difficulty being understood when you speak English ? Has it got anything to do with your accent ? . They both mean to alter something to make it suitable for a new situation. eg.v.

eg. do you think that was harsh ? v. to suck v.phr. vb. mild How would you describe your country's climate ? Which animals/plants have adapted to living in: a. to get by (on) phr. to swallow Which musical instruments do you blow into ? Have you ever had a go at playing one ? Why would someone blow: a. on soup ? d. dry climate ? b. If you are unemployed you have to get by on very little money. a cold climate ? Have winters been getting milder in your country ? Do you think it has got anything to do with global warming ? Do you like mild cheese or do you prefer something with a stronger flavour ? Why might someone speak harshly to a child ? Did your parents ever smack you when you were young ? Looking back on it now. harsh adj. on their hands ? Did you suck your thumb when you were a child ? How old were'you when you grew out of it ? . climate adj. to chew v. to make do with Both of these phrasal verbs mean 'cope' or 'survive with the minimum possible'. on a flame ? b. into a plastic bag ? c. a hot. vb. to blow v. Are you rich ? Do you have enough money to get by ? Is living in this city cheap ? How much can you get by on ? Can you usually make do with a sandwich for lunch ? What do you prefer if you have time ? What typical words and expressions do you need to get by in a foreign country ? Does everyone have the opportunity to play sports with the proper equipment ? What do they make do with instead ? n.

Can you think of any sports where you win with a low score rather than a high score ? What kind of food do you heat rather than cook ? On a date. than = would prefer My new car uses diesel rather than petrol. do you think it is better to be yourself rather than try to impress ? Would you rather be poor with lots of friends than be rich and lonely ? Do you think some people would rather have an easy life than work hard for success ? Are you one of them ? Which would you rather happened to you: a. in a building ? rather than = instead of eg. would rather. to cool (down) What kind ofltiingsrnust be kept away from heat ? What is a good way to escape the heat in summer ? How does the human body cool itself down ? How is your house heated ? How effective is it ? What does a radiator do: a. win a major sporting event for your country ? c. heat v. win the lottery ? b. I would rather be poor and happy than rich and lonely.. in a car ? b. marry the man/woman of your dreams ? Why do you think some people would rather borrow money than save up ? .. to heat (up) n.When is it painful to swallow ? Does chewing gum help you to concentrate ? Have you ever swallowed chewing gum ? Did it do you any harm ? Why is it dangerous to let children play with small objects ? Do you suck chocolate or chew it ? v.

Do you think some buildings should be saved rather than demolished ? Which ones ? n. What month is it now ? So when should it start getting warmer/colder ? . a car that wouldn't start ? v. without actually knowing. a shelf to the wall ? b. to fix Does anything in your house need fixing ? Will you do it yourself or will your landlord get it fixed ? Who would you get to fix: a. eg. so they should be home by now. You should apologise for your terrible behaviour. They left 3 hours ago. two pieces of wood together ? In what kind of places is the furniture fixed to the floor ? should (2) Remember: We can use should to give advice or to say what is right or wrong. a burst pipe ? b. a broken fridge ? c. You should not have borrowed my car without asking. We posted it last week so it should have arrived a few days ago. shade n. Should can also be used to talk about a situation which we expect to be true. shadow What's the difference between 'the shade' and 'a shadow' ? Is it hotter in the sun or in the shade ? Where would you rather be on a very hot day ? At what time of day do shadows lengthen ? v. eg. to fix something to something else How is this board fixed to the wall ? What would you use to fix: a.

. . sufficient Sufficient is just enough but no more. respect If you respect someone you consider them to be important or good and it is worth listening to their opinion. a newspaper and a pint of milk ? How much money is sufficient for your weekly shopping ? Do you think a long weekend is sufficient time for a relaxing holiday ? What about a quick break ? Do you always have plenty of food in the house. What do plants need plenty of in order to grow ? Is £10 plenty or sufficient to buy: a. We didn't even finish the beer. a round of drinks f o r . There was plenty to drink at the party. I don't get on with him very well but I respect him for his experience and knowledge. Plenty is (much) more than enough. I'll give you £5. or just sufficient ? If you were having a house party would you buy plenty of booze ? In what situations should you arrive in plenty of time ? n/v. Do you think old people should be treated with respect ? Have you noticed any changes in the attitude of young people Which words can be used to show respect ? Would you lose respect for someone if you found out that you couldn't trust them ? What else would have the same effect ? 9 . That should be sufficient for my cigarettes. eg. an Avalon book ? b.How long should it take the average person to reach this level of English ? How many people are there in the class today ? How much should be enough to buy every one a pint down the pub ? What time is it in your country now ? What do you think your family should be doing now ? adj. eg. plenty adj. people ? c.

to have an attractive body ? b. looking for accommodation ? .. extremely Something that is extreme is much more than necessary or normal. what kind of people deserve respect for the job they do ? Do you think it is important for couples to respect each other ? adj... to impress their boss ? c. someone turned down your offer of a date ? Do you think some people go to extremes: a. extreme adv. It was extremely cold on the mountain. but it is stronger. and they needed hospital treatment when they got down. eg. bringing up a child ? What would be an extreme reaction if: a. Deserts and polar regions have extreme temperatures.Who are the people you respect the most ? Does it matter if you don't respect your boss ? What problems can it lead to ? In your opinion. eg. for thrills and excitement ? What kind of things do they do? . What kind of careers are extremely difficult to get into ? Do you think people with extreme political views can be a dangerous influence? Should they be allowed to have their say ? Have you ever been under extreme pressure ? Do you think you coped with it ? What points do you consider to be extremely important when: . planning a holiday ? . a student was a few minutes late for the class ? b.. Extremely is used in the same way as 'very'...

EXERCISES Units 1-10 .

The manager our department. Sonia C. he didn't put any signs or send any e-mails any of us the day before.. He said his assistant forgot advertise it. at/in at/to out in of up to until There are problems the office where I work..UNIT 1 A. I just don't like . My only worry is that you are not planning to increase the number of managers/colleagues. Read this e-mail sent by a manager to her boss. Unfortunately.. who is charge organising staff social events. but in/at the end the amount/quality of the product may suffer.. It doesn't important/matter if we get a bit of paperwork wrong. Basically. Which words are right ? Kevin I read through your proposal and I think it's very interesting.. but why can't he just own the fact that it was his fault? B. If we have even more to do we will end/turn up making mistakes. and put a limit/an amount on the number of hours we work on the factory floor each day. especially when we have to cover for staff sickness. They ended going the pub and then going home early. We spend a lot of time to help/helping out on the factory floor. So only 3 12 people turned up. the whole thing was a disaster and my colleagues and I were quite angry. I hope you're not going to charge us (or. Put these prepositions in the right place in this text. we need more staff.. Finish these sentences i was in an unsociable mood so I. . Some are used several times. We suggest that you give us all an exactly/exact job description. Basically. This leaves us a limit/limited amount of time for things like planning and paperwork. I agree that now we are receiving more bulk/quantity orders. I have spoken to Mike and Liz. The Management/Manager Staff are already over-worked. organised an evening the cinema. and they feel the same way.

no-one . give examples of: a bargain a rip-off a terrible performance a disappointing rejection a sensible speed limit in city centres bad management a basic mistake in English that you still make E. Unfortunately. In/By the end.She ended up sleeping at a friend's house because . By the end of this year.. From your own experience. Match the two halves of the expression job unsociable free of deserve speed quality brand special confirm save a pay rise offer hours application a booking of life name limit money charge F... At the hotel.. Choose the right word To: Ron Dodge EasySun Holidays 298 Prince St Birmingham Dear Mr Dodge My family went on a package holiday to Tenerife with your company last week. but we had to wait 2 hours. Their offer is unacceptable because .. When we arrived at the airport no one turned up to collect us. we were very disappointed with the quality/amount of the service and accommodation.. the hotel sent a bus to pick us up. D.

wanted/seemed to be expecting us and they didn't have a room ready. we felt we had been ripped off/charged. Yours sincerely A. 4. Your holiday sounds like very nice. The Reception area was in chaos/chaotic. I can't believe you doubt of my honesty. He's not a very responsibility person. she said that we shouldn't complain because we were not being charged/offered the full price. 2. 5. 10. Correct the mistakes 1. 3. we still have the right to proper service. The players ought to perform better because they have had a pay raise. Secondly/Basically. . In/By the end of our holiday we were all very angry. You are behaving as like I am a child. I think my family and I are entitled to both an apology and a refund. I find this totally unacceptable/ unsociable. When I complained to the manager.Poplectic I look forward to G. are you ? 8. The bargain/discount we received should not make any difference. We accepted/offered the apologies of the Manager but the problems did not end there. hearing from you soon. the meals were dull and sometimes served cold. There is no such a thing as a perfect man. and the staff seemed very confusing/confused. I think lawyers charges too much for their services. 6. 9. they are not actual. Although the price of this holiday was a special offer/bargain. I don't think you supposed to do that. and the swimming pool was much smaller than what we expected from the brochure. What is the exactly time ? 7. The room was not cleaned every day. Magic shows are just illusions.

We can't B. It's going to be great ! I would have felt less guilty if I had up to the terrible thing I did. but I was frightened of being punished. off! up these days.. If you don't know the real information just up I My alarm off on time. They should take on some more staff. it will take you a while to Everyone finds it strange at the beginning. Just Everyone is really him alone. Can you make phrasal verbs to complete these sentences ? me up from the station. it The extra training they gave the staff Don't worry. You have to fill in the whole form. sociable major basic limited accept exactly . with all this work.UNIT 2 A. but there was no one I was expecting someone to there. to the party on Friday. to our computer system. I'll over at 4 o'clock. to much better performance. Think of a word that means the opposite of. That car isn't worth £8000. You were I don't like the way children are them do what they want. If you drive for the first 2 hours.. 12. but I just fell back to sleep. 11. Their parents seem to just let Don't even try to speak to him when he's in that kind of mood.

number 9. staff are spending a lot of time (11) with customers who don't buy anything. the immediate effect of the offer was that we had a lot of interest from customers. it 8. The heavy advertising of the (10) has brought a lot more visitors to our shops. and I have no doubt that this problem is stopping us (9) our performance. For this reason. Choose the best word for each gap. Staff are certainly more busy. to improve . The delayed effect may be due to the fact (6) we did not complete the necessary staff training until April. there was a clear rise when compared (5) the previous year. offering since (2) . This (12) to be the main difficulty for the company at the moment. why would be basically rip-offs time on because there quantity to improving are roughly sales days at which sales amount from improve have been exactly quantity centre from that business quality from improving 7. but a lot of them are 'just looking'. to 6. Some customers have complained that the (8) of service in our shops has suffered. actually 3. REPORT ON THE SPRING DISCOUNT I have been looking at the impact of the discounts that we (1) March.bargain appear artificial end up C. By the (4) of April. end 5. 1. bargains 4. but that (3) were more or less average for the time of year. Over May and June (7) was no further increase. had been 2. however.

only the old ones. 4. It doesn't me if people ask me for directions. but I hate it when they don't thank me afterwards. It doesn't ourselves. if the manager is not here because we can work by 3. offered instead of money E. 6. The police don't the newspaper. . to throw away all the books. 5. It really gets on my nerves. 3. radio 11. 7. 8. to deal 12. 2. He's running to the boss to tell her about the mistakes we make.. the man to be dangerous. 9. sounds TV dealing appears media to sell accepts offer selling deserves D. Give an example of something that can be . 4.. 6. 1. You weren't 2. 5. flavourless stylish varied artificial unrealistic performed rejected saved up confirmed 10. 1. No one was killed in the accident. Choose the right words.10.

he is guilty. Children of that age are not usually relatively meant as if consider matter according to capable so that F. bother always This house might seem expensive but it's 10. I am considering buying/to buy a flat. 6. You were only supposed blowing/to blow the doors off ! 7. 9. 2. There were strange sound coming from the engine. Which is the right verb form ? 1. 5. I know him well. Maria is in charge of organising/to organise the games. G. They have put the information on the internet it. We ended up sleeping/to sleep on the floor.7. and he is not capable of doing/to do such a thing. 10. 2. but he hasn't had a trial yet. 9. We are saving up going/to go to Egypt. Correct the mistakes in these sentences 1. She seems being/to be happier these days. of understanding scientific ideas. They are always playing/to play their music late at night. 8. I needed some help because I was confuse. . cheap for the area. 3. Everyone talks everyone can use 8. You don't deserve having/to have a new car. She was too ashamed owning/to own up. 4.

Hi ! I didn't see you for such a long time ! . This drink contains only realistic fruit. 7. I left a not on the table so that he would know where I was if he was coming home. I don't think I will ever achievement my dreams. according the weather forecast. 6. 5. They don't think this current increase in prices related to the war. She takes a lot of proud of her appearance. 10. It's going to rain. with nothing artificial. 4.3. The prices can be vary from £20 to £45. 9. 8.

4. but it's quite common. She won the Women's Singles at Wimbledon three times a row. At a big supermarket you can do the whole month's shopping all one go. 10.change the word to the right form 1. I don't think he is capable learning this job. (MEAN) 5. (SPECIAL) 6. I wouldn't bring . (TYPE) 8. What I said wasn't to be hurtful. The telephone's gone dead. This rip-off is of a tourist place like this. You look silly wearing sunglasses indoors. (PERFORM) 3. Word transformations . (SHAME) B. 9. The only way to get this done is Did you read through Who's in charge of C. They used their to build a house by the sea. We've never been on a group tour before but we'll give a try. 3. Prices can from £500 to £1200. 2. (OFFICE) 10. It will be difficult to get there in this weather. (SAVE) 2. (RELATE) 9. Put them in the right places. (VARIETY) 7. (CHAOS) 4. 1. Putting this tent up is easy compared to the last one. 5. Finish these sentences It seemed as if Do you think there is any such thing as It gets on my nerves when This is considered to be I don't think I'll ever be capable of It's a shame that one after the other. My husband and I take turns to cook dinner. Prepositions & Pronouns These 14 words have been removed from the 10 sentences. Take ! She was ill on the day of the exam and they should take consideration. He can usually get working again. They smashed every window in the house one the other. Formula One is a waste of money and fuel. We were not helped by the situation in the office. 7 8.UNIT 3 A. Driving at 80mph is illegal. He's sensitive about failing the exam. 6. The company's this year has been disappointing. Call Nick.

Just give to it a try. 8. 5. . GLOBALISATION When you make a telephone call to a big company or government organisation. 7. It doesn't matter is you have never played this before. 8. I put on six different pairs of jeans before I bought these. With modern communications it is not expensive to redirect calls one country to another. 3. 1. well because their economies are still growing. 6. The government gives foreign companies the which is good for employment. Correct the mistakes It's shame that you can't come on holiday with us. think who every willing train universities requirement there with have expect from reluctant training learning expert required to supply he in capable trained demand opportunity useful for build - E. Critics of this situation say that the foreign companies don't really need to go abroad. Others argue that there is nothing wrong this. So companies often choose to locate their call centres in places where wage costs are lower. 9. populations. They offered her a good job but she is going to let it down. 7. 9. 10. 4. or another major British city. there is not much skills. I surrounded my eyes with my hands when the film was frightening.D. But for these to set up business. 10. because there are people at home with the skills They are just looking for cheap labour. 4. I asked him about his family. The good thing about live here is that you can come when you want. 6. They say I can take the course if I success the exam. He prefers to get the washing up done as soon he has finished eating. Some of these countries also have well educated. Local people are often to work for much less money. 2. It is good for employment. The company was failed because they didn't really think their plans through. Just to make a conversation. you might to speak to someone in the head office in London. 2. 1. 5. the person answers your call could be sitting anywhere from Dublin to Delhi. and it means that they can their goods and services more cheaply for the customer. 3. However.

. Give an example of something that. She wasn't expeting me to call. 5.. 4. Don't ask me ! I'm not the expart. .. 2. 4.. 10. 6. . . 9.. . you would not be willing to do for a million pounds. 2. you wouldn't expect to see in a hospital. Our furniture is made from natural matereals.... Correct the spelling mistakes Passing the exam is a fantastic achivement. is man-made. G. I don't think you are suposed to be taking that money.... 5. . 8. 1. you would take off before swimming. . We are not officialy allowed to give you this information. 3.. I couldn't hear you because I was surounded by noisy children. is produced by burning gas..F. All young people shoud have the same opportunities in life. . 1. 7.. 3. 6. We can build any computer to your requairements They appeared very relucktant to help us. can go wrong with a car.

Leave this task to someone who has had the (9) relevant/expert training. Also. If you are in any doubt. Ask someone with the legal knowledge.UNIT 4 A. When you are arranging to look at flats. at a bargain price. but are your expectations realistic? . make a list of the factors you are going to take into your consideration. this doesn't have to be your priority. the ink (8) manufactures/produces a toxic gas when hot. please do not try to refill the machines (7) when/or else they run out of ink. or unpopular. They contain dangerous (2) thing/materials and (3) it/there is a risk of skin bums. He/She will arrange for someone from the company that (5) supplies/contains the machines to come in. please do not try to repair them yourselves. However. don't sign. In large quantities. B. and call your manager. Agents just want to get their property rented and will say anything (or to persuade you. To: Re: Choose the right words All staff New Printing Equipment If any of these machines (1) go/are wrong. Most of the lines in this text have one or two words that should not be there. Otherwise this. Read through your contract before signing it. try to book a few of appointments in the same area and see lots of places all in one go. Put a sign on the machine saying 'Out Of (4) Order/The Order'. Some areas are unfashionable. so take what they say with a pinch of salt! Remember that your list and keep thinking about what your requirements really are. Don't get your hopes up too much high or else you might be disappointed ! Everybody wants to live in a big flat that surrounded by a lovely garden.. It is important that you do not touch the inside of the machine. you will be waste a lot of time travelling to and from appointments. We are aware that more staff (10) reguire/realise this training and we expect to begin this in the next few weeks. (6) in case/otherwise the repairs will not be covered by the guarantee. Looking for a flat ? Just follow to these suggestions and nothing will go wrong! The main factor that affects on price is location. but that doesn't mean so there is anything wrong with them. Before you going to see the flat..

10. have their hours cut. 3. prove what I could do. 8. The UN is helping both countries to negotiate We don't think it's a good idea to get involved This location is not very convenient All children given the opportunity to try a variety of sports. in history. and we demand an apology. (VARY) When the bell goes you are (MEAN) new. agreement. when she saw the flag. 1. 7. She was (SURROUND) They were never (OFFICIAL) His family were treated (SHAMEFUL) Her heart was filled with (PROUD) married but lived together for 25 years. the fantastic view. 9. you are I never had a chance the meal was going to cost. 5. 6. those people. sake of my family. I decided to give up golf for . 4. We didn't realise how None of the staff is willing The best thing about this flat If you borrow that much money. people who don't have cars. of different entries for the to leave the building immediately. D.С. by the police. a big risk. 2. by photographers when she left the court. Put the word in brackets into the correct form. There is a word missing from each of these sentences. This car is not very expensive and it's (RELATE) Rolls and Royce had one of the most famous business (PARTNER) The judges were amazed by the competition.

The one bad thing (14) London. All these deals then have to be communicated back to head office. you consider to be a luxury.. a narrow-minded idea.E. a reason for turning down a job. that always depends on chance. Choose the right word I had always wanted a career that involved (1) travel.. (5) it has been an adventure. lawyers negotiate. 9. in with to reluctant at - able when . ... 5. that even experts don't understand.. Give an example of something . 10. . I have to meet the designers of our products (7) listen to their plans. 2.. . my life here has been difficult. (4) the end we compromised. .. Before I came I was worried that houses here had only basic (12) but I actually have more luxuries here than back home ! I now realise that my pre-conceived ideas about Indonesia were all mistaken. For the first few months I survived by (10) lots of coffee ! I don't have much time to (11) but my life here is very comfortable. 1. in 2. Travel really does (13) the mind.. .. willing 4.. so when I heard there was a chance (2) someone in our office to go and work in Indonesia I jumped at it. for the experience is that I miss my boyfriend back in 3. 8. . 6. something you would sacrifice for the sake of your career/family. that involves a lot of hard work.... 3. He said that he couldn't afford to lose someone from our department for 2 years. They don't always have the staff (8) to complete the orders on time so very often I have to negotiate a deal (9) get the work done. and he agreed to let me go for 12 months.. 7. Then I visit the factories. a basic requirement for most jobs. F... .... 4. .... 1... . Before I came I didn't realise how hard it (6) be. . The boss was (3) to let me go. a reason to risk your life.

necessity 13.5. broaden 14. socialise 12. of despite to so willing by drinking social life necessary broad about in spite of would to used to - sociable necessities broader to . although 6. available 9. will 7.drink 11. for 8. for 10.

C. What are the words being defined ? A special ability that we have learned. or necessary. 3. 5. 6. B. What do you think the following expressions mean ? Match them with the situations underneath. 4. A once-in-a-lifetime chance. The most important thing to consider. Chance meeting Unconfirmed report Utter chaos Style icon Heart failure Complete confusion and disorder. Something that is needed. Saving money by buying in large amounts. 3. A lot of people wanting to buy a product. What something is made of. 78. Someone you didn't expect to 'bump into'. Here are some definitions. The opposite of success. 9. or in real life . Either on stage. Chosen without any order or be suddenly absent. Someone who is copied by the fashion-conscious. You will look stupid if you answer. 4. The opposite of to be proud of an action. 6.UNITS A. Sentence Transformations 1. S R G A F R P I M D I t e d e m у t I d 10. 8. 9. A cause of death. The thing that is most important. 2. 2. GET He . 1. 7. 10. You might upset him if you ask him why he failed. The opposite of fake. 5. Not important for this situation. Golden opportunity Bulk order Trick question Disappearing act Key factor 1. There are rumours but no official news.

I agree that she has (2) let/turned you down by lying to you. that nobody went to his party! He spent ages doing the 2.2. She (3) will/won't speak to you about her problems if she thinks you are going to freak out. GET No-one D. Somebody ought to tidy up the office. STUCK He .. I think if you can avoid (8) getting/to get upset she will realise (9) in/at the end that you are only thinking about what's best for her. E. TYPICAL It 4. It's impossible to enter the building without keys. 3. He is always taking crazy risks. and I will see you next week. He panicked halfway up the ladder and couldn't move. Next time you want to speak to her. Why don't you take a deep (6) breath/breathe each time you say something ? If she tries to argue with you. NEEDS The 3. Don't worry if you've never sung in public before. but shouting and screaming doesn't help. and that would really (4) harm to/harm your relationship. Just have and seQ what happens. from 1996 . 5. Read this e-mail and choose the right word. . and she can shout at me for a change. He won it 3 years in to 1999. What food. Dear Mum I know my sister can be (1) really/actually annoying but you must try not to get wound up.. Remember how horrible I (10) used/was used to be when I was her age ! Good luck. 1. He was the King of Wimbledon. you need some method for (5) keeping/ keep calm. Fill in the gaps by finishing the expression. don't (7) get/be involved.

any of medical treatment is harmful in excess. but bring your passport just 7. Several top stars claim that they got into shape by using the plan and many of users say that they make quicker progress. 5. But experiments at Soho University have been shown that by cutting all carbohydrate out of your diet. So don't open a bottle just sake. they tested the blood of people on the diet and found that 70% of them had the very high levels of protein. So I wait until the end of the week and do it all 6. I don't think we need any ID. "Any diet can be unhealthy if it is misused. There is 1 wrong word in most of these lines. but it was a trick. In fact. 8. . FATKINS FAD FATAL ! New research which published today suggests that the fashionable Fatkins Diet could be too harmful to your health. Dr Fatkins has told to the media that the criticism is not justified. you risk damaging to your heart and kidneys." Government Health Officials were advised anyone who wants to lose their weight to see a doctor before going on any diet. I don't mind if I have wine or beer. They sent me to buy a left-handed screwdriver. Doing laundry is so boring. He claims that his diet is no more dangerous than its rivals. Using specially-designed equipment. Building a house requires careful consideration.4. There is thing as a left-handed screwdriver! F. It will end in chaos if you don't through.

... The problem was solved without the of the Police. here is the list of jobs that need doing. 4. (LUXURY) 6. . . is expensive but has no practical use. 9. Please replace the cracked window in Room 5. . . it is illegal to copy. that that that that that that that that that that needs a lot of looking after. If the manager is please try again tomorrow. . There is a chance that the drugs will work but it is (DOUBT) 1. 5. is worth trying if you get an opportunity. you are always willing to do for a friend.. . B. C. people often sacrifice for the sake of their children. Form new words from the ones in brackets. 8. Read this text and answer the questions. .. 2. 1. (AVAILABLE) [what is the opposite 7\ 3. (RECORD) [the sentence is passive] 2. Business class is not as as First Class. Some of the workers were not with protective gloves. I can do the job but it will be a bit (TRICK) 7.UNIT 6 A. makes a horrible sound. All appointments must be in the diary. I love her hat. . contains a lot of artificial additives. . (INVOLVE) [you need a noun] 4. Give an example of something .. Our company is of holding the event.. 7.. makes modern life more convenient. It makes her look really (STYLE) 9.. 3. . 6. Willard. (CAPABLE) 10.. The answers you need are words you have not studied yet ! The first one is done for you and there are some clues to help you guess. is dangerous to get involved in.. There are products which claim to cure baldness.. (VARY) 8. (EQUIP) [you need an adjective] 5. 10..

4. There is no glass in the window in Room 5 The light in Room 5 does not come on The walls in Room 8 are dirty Room 8 needs a new door Hadrian knows that the blade of the saw is blunt The blind in room 7 doesn't work Hadrian will want to know how the work is going True / False True / False True / False True / False True/False True / False True / False D. The manufacturers do / are not responsible for any damage caused by misuse. The blind in Room 7 is torn. 6. Can you have a look at it ? The handle in Room 8 is always getting stuck. 3. 1. Maybe the bulb is loose. It keeps blinking.There is something wrong with the light in Room 5. Her new job helped her to say goodbye . 2. There is an electric saw in the tool kit. You always get wound up if people calm down 2. Now choose the right answers. 7. Further information is available from / to our website. 5. Read this text through. Do not overload. Thanks Hadrian Are these statements True or False? 1. It is too wide at the moment. so please cut it down to the correct size. It must not be used for any other purpose / work than transporting goods within and around buildings. Match the beginnings of these sentences with the endings. Please fix it ASAP. because I'll call you to get an update on your progress. Also please clean the marks off the walls. so people can't open the door. This trolley must not be used for carrying people. buy another one and keep the receipt. Repairs must be carried out by a qualified equipment / engineer. E. Mike will send it to the people who made it. that would be great. Where would you see a text like this ? Thank you for buying this product / goods. If you could get these things done over the weekend. We have ordered a new door for Room 2. Please read the instructions for use / using: This trolley is not designed for / by carrying loads heavier than 50Kg. Please take it down. Keep your mobile on. If the blade is a bit blunt. and they will mend it.

he started to get stuck 5.3. They were upset because we didn't drink to excess . When we apologised. You'll need to give them a hand if they prevent accidents 8. In his wild years he used to be cautious 4. The equipment is there to criticise you 7. It's a tricky situation and you need to get over her depression 6.

6. 4. A negative answer 19. Mistake 12. disgust . You are making no progress. The things you hope to do 9. The colour of the sky . They connect your feet to your legs. using the clues below. What a mouse gets caught in 16. Organisation that finds a job. Giving a good reason 2. or get better. Noise to express surprise. To move forward. a holiday. The possessive pronoun for you ! 6.on a nice day. a spanner. A piece of work that needs doing 3. The opposite of she ? 17. or you can't move. or a partner for you. A screwdriver. The plural of 'I' . develop. or don't tell the truth 8.UNIT 7 A. 5. DOWN 1. You choose your food from this 7. Not more 15. Wanted to express 10. ACROSS I. or love. for example 14. or a drill. When you sleep. 3.or anything ! 13. Fill in the crossword. Animal that is supposed to be greedy and ugly 18. Repairs I I .

Which major competition was held in Japan & South Korea in 2002 ? What. who was the Greek Goddess of Victory ? In slang. in population terms. 9. 4. 1. Ghana. where in the world would you be? Options: Greenwich.В. 8. 0° longitude. Which city is believed to be the oldest in the world ? . Which country in the world sends the most letters abroad ? Lending her name to a famous brand. If your geographical position was 0° latitude. The Atlantic Ocean 6. is the largest Spanish speaking country in the world? What is the UK's biggest export ? Where was gunpowder invented ? 10. 2. Put each word into the correct column differ separate capable related for the sake react in charge tend typical willing in favour according recover + of + to + from C. Do you know the answers to these questions ? The answers are on the next page. 3. how much money is a 'monkey' ? Which is the best selling car name of all time ? (25 million vehicles sold in 142 countries) 5. 7. These words and expressions collocate with prepositions.

4. 2. Mexico 9. E. He has completely recovered his injuries. Choose the correct word The patient had an operation to (1) fix / repair broken bones in her left leg. However. 3. (9) If / W h e n the patient has any reaction to these. Atlantic Ocean 8. she should discontinue their (10) use / purpose and contact the clinic. (5) particular/ particularly in the upper leg. You'll have to commute to centre of town. China 10. Anti-inflammatory drugs have been prescribed. World Cup 7. Chemicals/Drugs D.UK 2. We unlikely to win but we want to have a go. 3. Nike 5. It is estimated that the leg will take about 8 weeks (4) to heal / for healing. 8. The kids were excited. whilst there was a clean break in the femur (3) which_/ what required a steel pin. 9. How would you describe the language used in this text ? How is it different from a friendly conversation ? Which words are typical of this sort of text ? . I haven't had chance sit down all day. 1. 6. but we eventually got them to calm. All of equipment we have needs cleaning. and a full (7) scar / recovery is not (8) likely / finished until 16-20 weeks . He quit the job for sake of his health. The tibia was (2) cracked / cracking and needed setting. 500 pounds 4.Answers: 1. Physiotherapy will be required in order to rebuild the muscles. Damascus (Capital of modern Syria) What are the missing words ? Dogs tend enjoy being with people. I am available interview any time. 5. 7. the leg should not (6) b e / have overloaded in the first 10 weeks. Toyota Corolla 6.

This is one half of a conversation between two old friends who haven't seen each other for a while. We're getting married in September Thanks. Do you think so ? Oh thanks. . Same old thing. Are you still with Jo ? That's a shame. and write it down. I'll send you an invitation. Yeah. that's really impressive Me ? Nothing special. Is it going well ? W o w . Imagine what the other person is saying. or the teacher. Give me your address. Then you can practise with your classmates.UNIT 8 A. Guess what. Hi I haven't seen you for ages ! What have you been doing with yourself ? Sounds nice. I've been to the gym a bit.

. . 8... 2.....on..way. .В.. . .... 6....interesting. suspici_us sep_rate straig_t musje achi_ve knowle_ge impresjon comjjte ex iting res_arch su_round colleag_e C.the boss. I couldn't go to a stranger and ask for money. .up. 5.... He insisted opening the top of the machine. He thought to be very We felt eating something from a barbecue.. ... 7. .straight. .. Keep it the right round in case the lid falls off.. ..if.. She hates politics but I find it. All these words have one letter missing.. I couldn't tell he was joking or not.. 9. They are going to hold responsible.. . 10.. 1... 4... W h e r e do the words go in the sentences ? He resigned after the match.....out. . Just give them to me and I'll sort them.

8. 2. is in trouble. Think of an ending for these sentences. gossip wages casual attack blame that he reputation admitted admits famous performances excessive defend accuse is impression denied denies challenge celebrity matches impressive progress suspect to be favour known claims success 10. His attitude in training is very (3) . and it is affecting his performance. 1.. 'Lofty is taking his success for granted. he has to (4) ' * The Allstars have lost 4 matches in a row. and many fans (5) Longshorts for their terrible form. W h e n the team doesn't have the ball. He is worried that the gossip will ruin his (7) Although the 1. but his (2) lately have been very poor. Although they have a bad reputation. friends say that privately he has faced up to his mistakes. 9. 4.. 5. .. 1. 7. 6. 3. He gets aggressive when.. match E. and believes the next season is the biggest (10) of his career.98 m star has publicly (8) that he has personal problems. star of basketball champions London Allstars. Today his coach publicly criticised him for his (1) lifestyle. He (9) he has been playing badly. Choose the best word Lofty Longshorts. 2. He is believed (6) very depressed about reports in some papers that he has been unfaithful to his wife.D.

. A man came up to me in the street and said..... He completely denied.. 5.3. They are excited about taking on. 4. .

Firstly. For example. However that. I know I asked for you to brighten it up a bit. but I just think there are too many of different colours. Cheers Mark B. Most of the lines in this text have one or two words that should not be there.. I'm not sure what the solution is it. What's the opposite of. Maybe we could get rid of the orange. rather than a children's restaurant. I would be happy to come round and discuss about it. So we could do with some adults in the picture.UNIT 9 A. Maybe to cut down the amount of text ? Anyway.. we want to come across as a family restaurant. I don't think the colours are quite right. I am not sure of people will notice it if they just flick through the magazine. and just we have the blue and yellow? The other thing is that the text is small. getting the credit a dream holiday reasonable bright soften take something for granted to admit impressive . RE: OUR MAGAZINE AD Hi Claire You asked me for feedback and here are my some suggestions. Secondly.

4. 2. 1. 'He just uses her methods (8) like / as a means of relaxing .justified tame C. 5. Here is a piece of political gossip from the Web. or anything like that. The drug is more 10. Which words were really used ? (1) Controversy / controversial surrounds the Prime Minister last night after several newspapers printed interviews with his personal motivation guru. ' T h e Brewery Approach is a life programme that helps people to use their natural creative abilities more (4) effectively /'s a very stressful job'. They weren't D. (please) (appreciate) (connect) (create) (relief) (advice) (supervise) (environment) (effect) (attract) We need do think much more They looked They when I told them the good news. . It's genuine science. a spokeswoman said today. because you never thank her. It's got nothing to do (6) for / with magic or astrology. Ms Brewery has been (2) advised / advising the PM for the last two years. but enjoyed talking. to each other.' she explained.' The Prime Minister's office (7) denied / refused that he used Ms Brewery's system for professional purposes. 8. 3. and claims to (3) be / have helped him reach a number of major decisions. He will work under your The damage was very serious as a pill than an injection. I was really She feels What's the with the results. Eileen Brewery. 9. Change the word in brackets to fit the gap. 7. me to sell the property last year. between him and you ? about this. Ms Brewery went on to justify her methods: ' T h e (5) whole / all thing is based on will power. 6.

2. 10. 3. Only on A tedious Happy At I'm just Make House See Lost Get the attraction of it putting you through rid of all the rubbish touch with each other the last minute process condition that you accept the job to help of his dreams a big fuss about it . 'This is yet another sign that the Prime Minister is losing touch (10) with / of reality. 7.' Howard Michael told reporters. Collocations. 5. 8.Opponents in other parties were not (9) impressed / progressed. E. Which words on the left go with those on the right ? 1. 6. 4. 9.

c. The (6) however. c. a. PRICE The (3) price is £100 per square metre. a. LOCATION The building (9) in a busy shopping area with a lot of passing trade. They also agreed that all the (8) of the building would be cleared out. b. a. c. b. and would be quite suitable for us. We have looked at the building and (2) our conclusions. with several attractive original fittings. CONDITION The interior is (5) good condition. was this is official have the exterior taken exterior located We which c. c. a. REPORT INTO P R O P O S E D NEW PREMISES INTRO It (1) been decided that the business needs more space. c. is these are cheap make in building given contents locates Research just b. a. is in a relatively poor state. has those are expensive take some contents sorted circumstances is located However such .UNIT 10 A. c. (13) we should try to bargain the price down a little and ensure that the landlords claims are (14) and that all the legal documents are in order. It needs cleaning and painting. (10) suggests that it would be one of the best parts of the city to locate a business (11) as ours. a. One property that we are considering is 62 Carmichael Road. c. c. b. particularly when you (4) the location into consideration. which should bring in plenty of customers. a. b. Choose the best word. c. b. b. GENERAL The building is believed to be worth (12) on so that the business can expand. b. c. but they may be willing to negotiate. b. b. b. The landlords claim that this would be (7) out before we occupied the building. This seems to be a reasonable price. a. a. a. a.

б. Whenever b. I'd rather sleep in a tent than a dirty hotel. but he didn't listen. We gave him advice. Our teacher told us that passing the exam had very little to do with how (4) many / much grammar we knew. at the time you finish you are exhausted. Use the word in brackets to write another sentence with the same meaning. genuine b. and I just needed to work on it more carefully. W h e n the big day finally came I was really nervous. I didn't believe him. (effort) It's because they they deserve praise. 1. 4. it will be busy. (prefer) I in a tent than a dirty hotel You would expect the match to be over by now. basically. actually. sufticient c. and that seemed (9) giving / to give me more energy. (only) They'll you pay. But I thought I might have a (2) chance / success if I really concentrated (3) to / on my studies for a couple of months . I always knew it would be (1) extremely / sufficiently difficult to pass the FCE exam. obvious B. 5. (notice) He didn't advice. take a. It's because they tried so hard that they deserve praise. taking c. Whatever time you travel. However c. Whatever а. all on one day. C. 3. Especially because most of the homework he set was grammar (6) items / stuff I But I was pleased to see that (7) I had / was already studied most of it. . They won't give you the books unless you pay. So (8) by /. Decide which word makes more sense.instead of my social life. 2. to take b.a. (whenever) It will you travel. and more to do (5) with / to our communication abilities. The worst thing about the exam was the fact that we had to do 3 tests in a row. (should) The match by now.

you can ask your teacher and they will try to explain. it could be 2 words that you always mix up. 7. 8. 2. Whatever grade I get. 1. 5. and see if he/she finds it confusing. long as you can explain it to the other students. 6. Use some examples from your own country if you like . a piece of vocabulary that you don't know how to use. If so. Confusions Think of something that always confuses you.Now all I have to do is wait for the result. 4. Check with your neighbour. A famous unsolved mystery A part of the world with an extreme climate An idealistic hope A generalisation you don't agree with A controversial decision Something you can't see the attraction of Some really good advice you've had Someone you'd like to get back in touch with E. Think of one example of all these things. . For example. I'll be happy (10) as soon as / as long as I manage to pass. D. or a grammar rule that is not clear to you.

-en (suffix) awhile accept (to) acceptable according to accusation accuse (to) achieve (to) achievement actual actually adapt (to) adjust (to) admit (to) advice advise (to) against ages aggression aggressive aim aim (to) all in one go along alter (to) always + present continuous amount any such thing appear (to) appreciate (to) approach approach (to) artificial as if as long as as though ashamed ask someone out (to) assume (to) assumption at least at the end (of) at the most attack (to) 88 100 8 8 20 78 78 26 26 14 14 120 120 79 97 97 55 100 82 82 61 61 32 49 117 23 6 14 13 83 80 80 18 13 111 13 27 101 16 16 112 8 112 81 attempt attempt (to) attitude attract (to) attracted (to be) attraction availability available average back to front bargain basic basically bend (to) benefit benefit (to) beyond blade (to) blame blame (to) block block (to) blow (to) blunt bone border bother (to) break the ice (to) breath breathe (to) bright brighten (to) bring up a subject (to) broad bulk bump bump (to) by doing by the end (of) calm calm down (to) can (special use) capable of (to be) casual 108 108 82 101 102 101 47 47 68 73 9 4 4 84 76 76 84 87 74 74 65 65 121 87 59 81 22 32 40 40 91 91 32 39 7 18 18 48 8 51 51 114 26 83 .

(to) get across (to) get by on (to) get in touch with (to) get on someome's nerves (to) get over (to) get something done get something going give something a try (to) glad go badly (to) go out with (to) 102 102 74 75 75 55 68 112 112 75 75 102 119 119 61 123 123 21 65 55 48 52 103 117 109 109 76 76 65 113 113 21 56 87 121 92 22 59 32 32 29 95 37 101 .die out (to) differ (to) directions disappear (to) discount divide (to) do someone a favour (to) do with (can) do without (can) document doubt doubt (to) draw (to) dream dull edge effective effort end up (to) environment equipment escape escape (to) especially essential exact exactly exceed (to) exception excess excessive exciting expect (to) experiment expert extreme extremely face (to) face a problem (to) facility factor failure fake false 105 66 72 13 9 63 55 106 106 54 12 12 69 103 76 81 107 103 6 110 48 52 52 19 95 7 7 57 113 57 57 76 35 54 38 125 125 71 71 45 30 27 21 21 fancy (to) fantasy fault (1) fault (2) faulty favour feel like + gereund (to) file file (to) find it + adj./adv. + when / if find something + adj. (to) finish with someone (to) fit fitness fix (1) (to) fix (2) (to) fix something to something (to) flavour flow (to) for for doing freak out (to) from hell function fuss fussy gain gain (to) gas generalisation generalise (to) genuine get + prep.

caution cautious celebrity central centre challenge chance chaos chaotic charge charge (to) cheat on someone (to) cheer up (to) cheerful chew (to) circumstances claim claim (to) clash (to) climate colleague come across (to) come up to (to) commute (to) compensation compete (to) competitive compromise compromise (to) concentrate (to) concentration condition (good / bad) conditions confirm (to) confirmation confuse (to) confusion connect (to) connection consequence consider (to) consideration considered (to be) contact 50 50 77 62 62 80 42 11 11 5 5 102 76 76 121 110 58 58 113 121 5 87 81 62 57 56 56 44 44 114 114 111 109 12 12 11 11 88 88 25 25 25 25 92 contact (to) contain (to) container contents controversial controversy convenience convenient cool (down) (to) copy copy (to) cover cover (to) crack crack (to) cracked crash crash (to) create (to) creative credit cut down on (to) cynical darken (to) date debate debate (to) deep defence defend (to) defensive demand demand (to) deny (to) depressed depression deserve (to) design design (to) designer determination determined develop (to) development 92 22 22 22 106 106 45 45 122 20 20 31 31 59 59 59 18 18 95 95 105 $9 119 91 101 85 85 39 81 81 82 35 35 78 50 50 10 47 47 47 104 104 91 91 .

I must admit ideal idealistic ignore (to) illusion image impact impress (to) impression impressive in a row in case (just) in charge of (to be) 31 113 81 37 37 38 33 79 79 33 60 33 93 105 105 91 57 57 57 57 121 120 29 60 122 122 60 74 60 72 116 79 119 119 98 12 86 17 66 66 66 29 36 6 in favour of in the end inconvenience incovenient ingredients injure (to) injury inside-out insist on (to) insist that (to) into involve (to) involved irrelevant issue item it's / what a pity it's / what a shame job justification justify (to) keep in touch with (to) keep somebody on hold (to) kit knowledge last minute / moment (at the) lengthen (to) let (someone) down (to) light (to) likelihood likely limit limit (to) limited line liquid locate (to) location loosen (to) lose touch with (to) luxury magic major . make an effort (to) 55 8 45 45 21 57 57 73 79 79 18 43 43 31 85 117 27 27 49 58 58 92 93 48 38 93 88 39 91 62 62 6 6 6 69 65 28 28 88 92 45 12 17 103 .go through (to) go together (to) go up to (to) go well (to) go wrong (to) good (thing) about goods grab (to) grip (to) hand-built handle (to) hand-made hang up (to) happily happy to (to be) harden (to) harm harm (to) harmful harmless harsh have (something) to do with (to) have a go (to) heal (to) heat heat (up) (to) hold (to) hold someone responsible (to) hold up/onto (to) how can I get to/do you get to? however + adj./adv.

no matter what no matter where no matter who no more than no such thing as notice (to) number of object obvious occasion of your dreams offer offer (to) 32 121 108 5 5 33 33 62 62 56 113 33 4 112 46 15 61 46 68 121 112 17 59 110 110 39 45 49 44 44 116 115 116 116 112 14 94 7 117 99 24 103 9 9 officer official officially on condition that on the point of + gerund (to be) one after the other only if / when opportunity or else order origin original other way round otherwise out of reach + past part.(prefix) own up (to) panic (to) particularly partner partnership passive .make conversation (to) make do with (to) manage (to) management manager man-made manufacture (to) mark mark (to) market match (to) material matter (to) maximum means meant to (to be) mend (to) method middle mild minimum minor muscle mysterious mystery narrow necessity need + gerund (to) negotiate (to) negotiation no matter how + adj. + inf. past perform (to) performance please (to) pleased pleased with / for plenty point (in a conversation) point (in time) point (why it's worth doing) pointless praise precaution present (to) presentation prevent (to) prevention previous previously pride priority process г 28 28 28 111 93 29 111 41 36 29 21 21 73 36 84 64 6 52 19 22 22 '77 49 10 10 104 104 104 124 85 89 87 87 105 53 86 86 53 53 77 77 26 30 89 ./adv.

produce (to) production progress progress (to) proof pros and cons proud Public Relations (PR) publicity pump pump (to) purpose put across {to) put on (to) put somebody on hold (to) put up with (to) quality quantity random range rather than reach (to) react (to) reaction read through (to) realise (to) realistic reality reasonable reckon (to) recognise (to) recommend (to) recommendation record record (to) recover (to) recovery refuse refuse (to) reject (to) rejection related relation relative 33 33 55 55 14 55 26 86 86 65 65 47 87 33 93 64 7 7 29 19 122 84 67 67 31 43 18 102 93 20 94 98 98 54 54 59 59 55 55 8 8 24 24 24 relative relatively relevant relief relieved reluctant (to be) remove (to) reputation require (to) requirement research research (to) respect respect (to) right right (adv.) right way up rip-off ripped off (to be / get) risk risk (to) risky (to) 41 rival roughly row rural sacrifice sacrifice (to) sake sale save (to) save up (to) savings scar search (to) seem (to) separate separate (to) set set (to) shade shadow shallow shame 24 24 31 95 95 40 119 77 37 37 54 54 124 124 58 70 73 10 10 41 41 56 7 69 118 44 44 45 9 9 9 9 60 28 13 63 63 115 115 123 123 39 27 .

shameful shamefully sharp sharpen (to) shorten (to) should skeleton skill skilled small talk so that sociable socialise (to) soften (to) solid solution solve (to) sort (to) sort something out (to) sound sound (to) special offer speed split (to) spray spray (to) staff stage (in a process) stand someone up (to) stick (to) sticky store (to) straight (adj.) straight (adv.) strengthen (to) stretch (to) strong-willed stuck (to be / get) stuff style success such a thing as suck (to) sufficient 27 27 87 87 88 123 59 38 38 32 17 4 4 91 65 107 107 72 72 16 16 9 84 59 65 65 5 89 102 61 61 112 69 70 88 84 104 53 118 20 27 14 121 124 suggest (to) supervise (to) supervision supply supply (to) supposed to (to be) surround (to) survive (to) suspect (to) suspicion suspicious swallow (to) take into consideration (to) take effort (to) take notice of (to) take off (to) take on (to) take over (to) take for granted (to) take turns (to) talk through (to) tame tame (to) tear (to) tedious tell if / whether (to) tell the difference (to) tend (to) tendency think through (to) thorough thoroughly tighten (to) tools train (to) training trap trap (to) trick trick (to) try on (to) turn (to) turn around (to) turn back / over (to) 96 100 100 35 35 15 31 105 63 63 63 121 30 103 98 33 80 6 83 29 31 51 51 59 89 72 72 67 67 31 90 90 88 48 37 37 52 52 12 12 33 70 71 70 .

(prefix) unlikely unreasonable unsociable up (after a verb) upset upset (to) upside-down urban use (noun) varied variety vary (to) vital way ways of giving advice ways of making a suggestion weaken (to) whatever what's the point whenever wherever whoever wide widen (to) wild will willing (to be) willpower wind someone up (to) within would rather wound up (to get) wrong way round wrong with something 39 6 49 23 64 62 93 4 90 50 50 73 118 47 19 19 19 95 71 97 96 88 115 87 116 116 116 39 88 51 104 40 104 52 84 122 52 73 38 .turn down (to) turn up (to) turning typical under.

выступать.Unit 1 TO MATTER – BASIC – BASICALLY – TO SOCIALISE – UN/SOCIABLE – иметь значение основной в основном. – количество. руководство. организатор. отклонение TO SAVE – спасать. ограничение LIMITED – ограниченный …THE NUMBER OF. сумма. мошенничество. распродажа) DISCOUNT – скидка RIP – OFF – воровство. экономить TO SAVE UP – делать сбережения SAVINGS – сбережения TO OFFER – предлагать OFFER – предложение BARGAIN – выгодная покупка. отклонять REJECTION – отказ. в конечном счёте AT THE END (OF) – в конце (чего-л) BY THE END (OF) – до конца (чего-л) TO ACCEPT – принимать. отвергать. дёшево купленная вещь SALE – распродажа SPECIAL OFFER – специальное [особое] предложение (обычно. быть коммуникабельным не / коммуникабельный. захватить власть TO END UP – закончиться. копить (деньги). счет QUALITY – качество QUANTITY – количество IN BULK – оптом EXACT – точный EXACTLY – точно ROUGHLY – грубо IN THE END – в конце (в итоге). топ-менеджер. представление. оказаться (в итоге. в заключение. исполнение . в результате) TO TURN UP – появляться TO OWN UP – откровенно признаваться. общительный. недобросовестная компиляция или переработка. ответственный MANAGEMENT – управление. отказывать. дружелюбный STAFF – персонал MANAGER – глава. по существу общаться. руководить. запрашивать цену TO BE IN CHARGE OF – заведовать. сохранять. менеджмент COLLEAGUE – коллега CHARGE – цена. продажа товара со скидкой. контактный. в своей основе. величина LIMIT – ограничивать. ценовое ограбление (значительное завышение розничных цен) TO BE/GET RIPPED OFF – переплатить TO PERFORM – представлять. управлять TO TAKE OVER – принимать (должность. заведующий. обязанности) от другого. плагиат. удовлетворительный TO REJECT – отказываться. число. допустимый. соглашаться ACCEPTABLE – приемлемый. компанейский. директор. исполнять PERFORMANCE – выступление. сознаться (в дурном поступке) AMOUNT – количество. руководитель. налог. управляющий. заведование...

путаница.. предполагать предположение. расходиться VARIETY/RANGE – ряд. разниться. быть достойным (чего-л.) INTO – в. по TO RECKON – полагать. смешивать.. действующий ACTUALLY – на самом деле. в высокой степени ESPECIALLY – особенно. подлинный.нет чего-либо такого. разбиваться. – MAJOR – MINOR – IMPACT – CRASH – принимать.) . в особенности.. настоящий. ассортимент. оригинальный . второстепенный влияние грохот. создавать впечатление. допускать. многообразие. на. ненатуральный. напоминать. что.. треск.. фактически. сомнение TO CONFIRM – подтверждать CONFIRMATION – подтверждение TRICK – шутка. придерживаться мнения ORIGIN – происхождение ORIGINAL – истинный. обман чувств. особым образом... мираж TO APPEAR – появляться. считать.. теряться TO SEEM/TO APPEAR – казаться AS IF/THOUGH..) TO CONFUSE – путать.. bump into . реальный. воспроизводить COPY – копия. разнообразие VARIED – различный. авария. волшебство ILLUSION – иллюзия. ударяться. отличаться. звук для того чтобы. выбор. обманывать. дубликат ACCORDING TO (SOMEONE) – в соответствии с. подшучивать MAGIC – магия. должным Unit 2 TO ASSUME – ASSUMPTION – SOUND – . главным образом TO VARY – меняться. изменяться. – такое как PROOF – доказательство NO SUCH THING AS.– так. различаться. врезаться. показываться TO DISAPPEAR – исчезать. обман. пропадать. обанкротиться BUMP – глухой тяжёлый удар. неразбериха CHAOS – хаос CHAOTIC – хаотичный DOUBT – сомневаться. согласно. чрезвычайно. трюк. как будто ANY SUCH THING/SUCH A THING AS. до ARTIFICIAL – искусственный. так что важный. рассматривать. наталкиваться. разнообразный STYLE – стиль TO COPY – копировать.TO DESERVE – заслуживать. реалистический PARTICULARLY – особенно. с тем результатом. значительный несущественный. очень. как ACTUAL – фактический.. фокус. натолкнуться на (кого-л. действительно TO BE MEANT TO/SUPPOSED TO – быть обязанным. допущение звучать. сбивать с толку CONFUSION – замешательство. потерпеть крах. множество. уловка. неестественный REALISTIC – реалистичный.SO THAT. с грохотом рушиться. столкновение (обычно сильное).случайно встретиться с (кем-л. снимать копию.

содержание. беспокоить. TO HAVE A GO – попробовать. определять место (местонахождение). последствие. уважение. заказ. гордыня. TO TAKE TURNS – делать по очереди. приказ. проводить осмотр. компания. включать. RANDOM – наугад. докучать. раздражать. расстраивать PARTNER – партнер. TO LOCATE – помещать. SHAME – стыд. случай. ложный вкус. формальный. оглавление вместилище. авария. донимать. OFFICER – офицер. . IN A ROW/ONE AFTER THE OTHER – подряд. товарищество TYPICAL – типичный RELATIVE/RELATION – родственник. обшаривать. беспорядочный. фальшивый. чувство собственного достоинства. компаньон. завоевание. надменный. постыдный(о). фальшивый неверный. удача. емкость беспокоиться. расположение. LOCATION – определение (места). особенность. провал. официальный. PROUD – гордый. вмещать содержимое. надоедать. на нервы. CONSIDERATION – рассмотрение. PRIDE – гордость. должностное лицо. неправильный. неудачник. OFFICIALLY – официально. порядок срочности. GIVE SOMETHING A TRY – попробовать. позор. срам. должностной. подлинный. RELEVANT – уместный. ASHAMED – пристыженный. момент. сравнительно UNIT 3 TO CONSIDER – рассматривать. сравнительный. считать. добиваться. происшествие. местонахождение. случайный. наобум. старшинство.GENUINE – FAKE – FALSE – FLAVOUR – INGREDIENTS – TO CONTAIN – CONTENTS – CONTAINER – BOTHER – истинный. чиновник. обстоятельство RELATIVE/LY – относительный. TO GET ON SOMEONE’S NERVES – действовать кому-л.WHAT A SHAME/PITY! – Как жаль! Какая жалость! SUCCESS – успех. иметь в своём составе. волноваться. значение. FACTOR – фактор. OFFICIAL – служебный. SHAMEFUL (LY) – позорный(о). родственница RELATED – связанный OCCASION – возможность. FAILURE – неуспех. CONSEQUENCE – следствие. сотрудник PARTNERSHIP – сотрудничество. реальный поддельный. шанс. ACHIEVEMENT – достижение. ингредиенты. выполнение. движущая сила. TO SEARCH – обыскивать. внимание. выполнять. компоненты содержать в себе. подумывать. IT’S A SHAME/PITY… . TO BE CAPABLE OF быть способным на… ACHIEVE – достигать. важное событие. неподдельный. PRIORITY – приоритет. важность. повод. относящийся к делу. один за другим. принимать во внимание. TO TAKE (SOMETHING) INTO CONSIDERATION – брать во внимание. сосуд. привкус составляющие. регламент. формально. испытать. относительно. последовательность. ошибочный. ORDER – порядок. неудача. исправность.

обучение. TO MANUFACTURE – производить. разочаровать CUT DOWN (ON) – сокращать DEEP – глубокий SHALLOW – мелкий WIDE – широкий. позитивная сторона TURN DOWN – отвергать. прикрытие. отклонять. вещество. специалист adj. PUT ON – одевать. SMALL TALK – светская болтовня. закрывать. вырабатывать. обступать. прикрывать. заводить разговор о чем-то. изготовление. укрывать. обеспечивать DEMAND – n. продукция. вещи. ручной работы. BREAK THE ICE – ломать лед. материя. чехол. ALL IN ONE GO – все за раз. снабжать. TO GO THROUGH – просматривать. MATERIAL – материал. не относящийся к делу. отказаться LET DOWN – подвести. нуждаться REQUIREMENT – нужда. по-другому. квалифицированный. требование SKILL – мастерство. требование v. обложка. MAKE CONVERSATION – заводить разговор. дрессировка TO REQUIRE – требовать. умение SKILLED – искусный. синтетический. TO TALK THROUGH – обговаривать. HAND-MADE/BUILT – сделанный вручную. футляр. пойти не по плану GO WELL/BADLY – пройти благополучно/неудачно TO TRAIN – обучать(ся). обертка. охватывать. не в порядке GOOD (THING) ABOUT – хорошо. TO PRODUCE – производить. требовать EXPECT – ожидать (JUST) IN CASE – на всякий случай. TRY ON – примерять. в случае OTHERWISE – иначе. TO BRING UP (A SUBJECT) – поднимать вопрос. эксперт. MAN-MADE – исскуственный. TO READ THROUGH – перечитывать. Unit 4 SUPPLY – n. крышка. квалифицированный EXPERT – n. TO THINK THROUGH – обдумывать. тренировать(ся) TRAINING – подготовка. TAKE OFF – снимать. переживать. снабжение v. опытный KNOWLEDGE – знание ANYTHING/NOTHING WRONG WITH – что-то не так. обрабатывать. PRODUCTION – производство. TO SURROUND – окружать. потребность. обсуждать. перерабатывать. обширный BROAD – широкий NARROW – узкий TO BREATHE – дышать . а то GO WRONG – сложиться неудачно.IRRELEVANT – COVER – неуместный. покрывать. GOODS – товары. покрывало.

нарушать пищеварение угнетенный давление. пользование цель. буйный. приходить к соглашению NEGOTIATION – обсуждение. доступный наличие. проект. домашний. переговоры SACRIFICE – n. по поворот осторожный. замышлять план. система MEANS – способ. предосторожность быть в подавленном настроении опрокидывать.BREATH – дыхание TO BE WILLING TO DO – быть склонным. жертвовать COMPROMISE – n. тоска дикий. комплект принадлежностей нуждаться. иметь надобность работа. расстраивать. послушный приручать. набор инструментов. расположенным. необдуманный ручной. возможность INVOLVE – вовлекать. бурный. компромисс v. осмотрительный осторожность. необходимость METHOD – метод(ика). прирученный. проектировать. запутанный. опасный OPPORTUNITY – возможность. использование. удобный случай CHANCE – шанс. укрощать успокаивать(ся) спокойный . дело. предостережение. средство Unit 5 USE – PURPOSE – AVAILABLE – AVAILABILITY – TO DESIGN – DESIGN – DESIGNER – EQUIPMENT – TOOLS – KIT – NEED + ING – JOB – PAST – ALONG – TURNING – CAUTIOUS – CAUTION – UPSET – (to be/feel u. намерение имеющийся в продаже. готовым TO BE RELUCTANT TO DO – не хотеть TO RISK – рисковать RISK – риск RISKY – рискованный.) – TO UPSET – DEPRESSED – DEPRESSION – WILD – TAME – TO TAME – TO CALM DOWN – CALM – употребление. конструкция. вести переговоры. дизайн. конструктор. случай. модель модельер. оформлять. экипировка инструменты снаряжение. доступность составлять план. вовлеченный TO REALISE – осознавать TO NEGOTIATE – договариваться. занятие мимо вдоль. (по)влечь за собой INVOLVED – сложный. дизайнер снаряжение. депрессия. пойти на компромисс/приходить к компромиссу FOR THE SAKE OF (FOR SOMEONE’S/SOMETHING’S SAKE) – ради чего-то/кого-то CONVENIENT – удобный. подходящий CONVENIENCE – удобство FACILITY – условия (для работы) LUXURY – роскошь NECESSITY – нужда. впутывать. жертва v. узор.

пагубный HARMLESS безвредный.. конкурировать COMPETITIVE – соперничающий. вред. компенсация . одобрение. невинный. капканы. дорожать TO GET OVER оправиться (от болезни). оскорбить. заманивать ESCAPE – бегство. превосходить TO INJURE – повредить кому-л. плена). свидетельство PROGRESS – продвижение. регистрировать DOCUMENT – документ. эксперимент RECORD – запись. конкурирующий MARKET – рынок. ушиб COMPENSATION возмещение. предохранять. развитие TO PROGRESS – продвигаться. ущерб. ускользать TO BE/GET STUCK = TRAPPED – застрять TO PREVENT – предотвращать.TO WIND SOMEBODY UP – взвинчивать. переходить границы. ушибить. в защиту FOR/AGAINST за/против PROS AND CONS за/против TO COMPETE – состязаться. не допускать PREVENTION – предотвращение. обида HARMFUL вредный. ранить INJURY – оскорбление. безобидный EXCESS – избыток. зло. западня TO TRAP – ставить ловушки. одолжение TO DO SOMEONE A FAVOUR – оказать услугу IN FAVOUR OF – за. базар. силок. PRECAUTION – предосторожность. вознаграждение. преодолевать (трудности). конкурент TO GET OUT – выходить. мусор TO REFUSE – отказывать(ся). прогресс. подниматься. капкан. отчет. торговля RIVAL – соперник. развиваться. перелезть TO HARM – вредить HARM – вред. предупреждать. обидеть. прийти в ярость. утечка TO ESCAPE – спастись. соревноваться. отвергать FAVOUR – благосклонность. официальный документ. тщательные поиски TO RESEARCH – заниматься исследованиями EXPERIMENT – опыт. ошеломлять TO GET WOUND UP – расстроиться TO FREAK OUT – выйти из себя. прогрессировать. излишек EXCESSIVE – чрезмерный TO EXCEED – превышать. избавление. подшутить над кем-нибудь TO PANIC – пугать. остатки. рана. давать утечку. рекорд TO RECORD – записывать. бежать (из тюрьмы. обида. предостережение RESEARCH – исследование. наводить панику. повреждение. изыскание. совершенствоваться REFUSE – отбросы. прийти в возбуждение TRAP – ловушка. расположение. выйти TO GET IN входить TO GET UP – вставать.

TO MEND – чинить. острота. V. не двигаться. сосредоточивать (взгляд. застывать. заживать. схема. V. ADJ. N. полагать. запоминать. закреплять. треск./clause – требовать. V. обращаться. . характеризовать. мускул. требование. разделять. показывать. служить отличительным признаком. направляться. терпеть. RECOVERY – возврат. брать. прилипать. upon). восстановление. TO HEAL – исцелять. разъединять. вязкий. N. ставить цену (на товаре). штамповать. V. TO HANDLE – трогать. V. TO HOLD держать. исправлять. SKELETON – скелет. возлагать. выздоровление. обозначать./V. TO TEAR – разрывать. отрывать. BONE – кость. рубец. налаживать. поправляться. отличать. фиксировать (краску. TO CLAIM + inf. вырывать. V.on. N. определять. каркас. MUSCLE – мышца. TO MARK – запачкать. вмещать. устанавливать. рваться. куда-л. V/N. считать. приводить в порядок. отмечать. устраивать. AIM – цель. укреплять. торговать. TO FIX устанавливать. JUSTIFICATION – оправдание. улаживать. чинить. торговую марку. заявление. твердеть. TO SPLIT колоть. занести (что-л. возмещать. V. устремлять. TO HOLD UP/ONTO – поддерживать/ держаться за что-н. регулировать. вернуть. просовывать. CRACK – пробивать щель. V. привлекать (внимание). прикреплять. раскалываться. задержать. треснуть/трещина. ставить метку. ставить знак. прицеливаться. N. подстроить. прицел. взламывать. ставить балл. V. изображение при печатании фотографий и т. размечать. вехи.). кратко зафиксировать (что-л. V. оседать. держаться. обходиться. выздоравливать. готовить.). расщеплять. липкий. договориться. поправляться. N. V. оценивать. щёлканье. чем-л. применять обозначение. возмещение. залечивать. оставлять шрам. . примечательным. стремиться. попытка ADJ. закреплять. рубец. щель. N. быть привлекательным. очерчивать границы. сорвать. отмечать. V. щелкнуть. целить.. обращать внимание. ремонтировать./ направлять. мчаться. нестись. иметь. строить план. N. густеть. RIGHT – права. STICKY – клейкий. приклеивать.Unit 6 V. внимание на ком-л. выносить. состряпать. сломанный. приниматься за что-н.). заживать. выздоравливать. ставить метки. TO STICK – воткнуть. п. CLAIM утверждение. уставиться. след. организовать (с помощью взятки и т. справляться. замечать. TO GET OVER выздоравливать. назначать. N. костяк. CRACKED – треснутый.). штопать. занимать должность. TO JUSTIFY + gerund/noun – оправдывать. приготовить. подготавливать. взыскивать. ставить фабричную марку. отметку. замахиваться. SCAR шрам. треснуть. TO RECOVER – получить обратно. составлять карту. N. исправляться. п. штемпелевать. утверждать. ознаменовывать. V.

V. тираж. особый. предполагать. PUMP – качать./ насос. искажать. SEPARATE – отдельный. развязываться. выдергивать. соблазнять. ровный. вызывать.(PREFIX) = too much – сверх достаточно. срывать. деформировать.отличаться от. эффект. – присматривать. массивный.. удлинять. N. затягивать. V. важность N. натягивать. перевозить. V. бревно. впечатление. влечь. рисовать. запечатлевать. фабричная марка. признак. привкус./ADJ. набрасывать рисунок. критерий. CENTRE – центр. TO BE UN/LIKELY (TO DO) – вероятно/ навряд ли. N. GAS – газовый. AVERAGE – среднее число/ средний./ADJ. волочить. ценник. фабричное клеймо. V./N. TO REACT – реагировать. продлевать. отделяться. главный. TO SPRAY – опрыскивать. . V. побуждать к действию. преграждать. стандарт. рубец. помпа. V. V. MARK - денежная единица марка. отвечать. TENDENCY – тенденция. мерило. подходить. балл. навлекать. вытягивать. оценка. отпечаток. TO FLOW течь. LIQUID – жидкий.N. прочный. норма. метка. V. TO BLOCK загораживать. V. морщить. V. торговая марка. производить впечатление. N. честный. расходиться. ADJ. ADJ. N. неразбавленный. ADJ. TO SEPARATE* отделять. уровень. квартал. яркий. SOLID – твердый. сжимать. насильно вербовать. штемпель. а) штамп. сильный. характерная черта. единодушный. ярлык. TO DIFFER FROM … IN THAT… . распылять. вырывать. сопротивляться. V. SUSPICIOUS – подозрительный. непрерывный. откровенность и т. TO IMPRESS – вытиснять. N. значительность. выкачивать. собирать. чертить. V. мириться. CENTRAL – центральный. растягивать. отметка. ADJ. шрам. TO TEND + inf. перемещать. примириться. раздражать. представление. N. IMPRESSIVE внушительный. совершать./N. пачка. STRAIGHT – прямой. OVER. N. экстрагировать. UNDER. засорять. блок. солидный. разлучать. извлекать. расходиться V. V. оттенок. литься. цель. надежный. DIVIDE –ADJ. недоверчивый. п. брусок. мишень. сомневаться. предчувствовать. впечатляющий. TO PUT UP WITH – терпеть. V. PHR. IMPRESSION – отпечаток. показатель. набрасывать. сморщивать. SUSPICION – подозрение. BLOCK – чурбан. ADJ. туфля-лодочка. ясный. мера веса для серебра и золота. TO FEEL LIKE + gerund/noun . притягивать. ADJ. вытаскивать. приближаться. TO DRAW тащить. ADJ. тянуть. хотеть. привлекать. склоняться. знак. отличать. вытягивать. колода. втягивать. накачивать. вдыхать. след. TO COMMUTE – смягчать.быть склонным. ADJ. внушать. LIKELIHOOD – вероятность. начинка. вбирать. REACTION – реакция. вызывать на разговор. известность. TO SUSPECT подозревать. MIDDLE – середина/ средний. приводить. выводить из себя.(PREFIX) = not enough – недостаточно. N.

v. to turn around – перевернути expr. cheerful – радісний./adv. морщины.Як ти добираєшся до.. черта. How do you get to.в правильному положенні adj. to benefit – приносить користь n. fault(1) – провина n. right – точно. to gain – здобувати n. користь n. exciting – захоплюючий v. ROW – верёвка.N. складка. докір. to face – стояти обличчям до обличчя v.. ряд. правильно v. blame – ім. строка. to tell the difference – розуміти різницю adj. вигода v. прогулка на лодке. to find something interesting – знаходити щось цікавим expr. accuse – звинувачувати. inside-out – навиворіт adj. UNIT 7 adv. to turn over/back – перегортати/повертатися v. сорт. fault(2) – недолік adj./adv. to admit – погоджуватися . previously – попередньо considered to be – вважатися believed to be – вірити v. to cheer up – взяти себе в руки adj. faulty – ушкоджений expr. to find it interesting + If – знаходити це цікавим якщо. way – шлях n. dull – нудний adj. модель. to deny – заперечувати v. род. back to front – в неправильному положенні expr. LINE – N. straight – прямо. celebrity – відома людина. hold someone responsible – бути відповідальним n. діесл. right way up . линия связи. expr. везение.. accusation – звинувачення v. линия. upside-down – догори дном adj. веселий adj./v. directions – інструкція expr. to tell if/whether – розуміти. to face a problem – наштовхнутися на проблему n. the other way round ../adv. популярність adj. штрих. to sort something (out) – вирішувати expr./adv. знати щось expr. gain – прибуток. to sort – розподіляти expr. the wrong way round – неправильно n. to turn – повертати v. reputation – репутація n.. кабель. benefit – прибуток. негайно. ряд. previous – попередній adv. шум. докоряти n. спор. відразу adv.. сора. . докоряти expr.зовсім навпаки expr.

border – кордон v. розм. aggression – агресія adj. to stretch – розтягувати v. to insist that/ on+noun. tedious – нудний n. to grip – вхопити phr. defence – оборона adj. to appreciate – цінувати (допомогу) v. думка v. edge – край n. put/get across – успішно завершити справу phr. наближатися n. presentation – презентація n. to reach – досягати out of reach – недоступний n. всередині prep./n. attitude – поведінка. beyond – далеко. challenge – складна задача v.зв'язок з суспільством n.безглуздий What’s the point … ? . point (in time) – період . відношення adj. connection – з`єднання n. на відстані n. користь adj. to attack/defend – атакувати/захищати n. сasual – легковажний. process – процес adj. within – в. blunt – тупий v. to take on – взятися за щось (бізнес) n. to present – вручати n. issue – сумнівне питання v. пиближеня go/come up to – підходити. в рамках. point – глузд. випадковий UNIT 8 v. debate – дебати. to bend – згинати v. speed – швидкість prep. publicity – суспільство n. I must admit – Я повинен признати v. to sharpen – точити n. to approach – наближатися n. обговорювати n. sharp – гострий adj. gerund – наполягати що/ наполягати на чомусь v.Яка користь? adj. aggressive – агресивнй n.expr. to connect – з`єднувати n. point – тема. to grab – вихоплювати v. defensive – оборонний v. come across – бути зрозумілим n. pointless . approach – наступ. blade – лезо v. image – образ phr. Public Relations (PR) . to take something for granted – вважати належним чином adj.

n. stage (in a process) – фаза, етап adj. thorough – повний, досконалий adv. thoroughly – повністю, ретельно v. to light – освічувати adj. bright – яскравий, блискучий v. to soften/harden – полегшувати/ускладнювати v. to darken/brighten – затемняти/висвітлювати v. to develop – розвивати n. development – розвиток v/n. сontact – спілкуватися, контакт, зв`язок expr. get/keep in touch with – мати стосунки v. to lose touch with – втратити зв`язок phr. v. to hang up – перебивати v. to put/keep somebody on hold – змусити когось чекати phr. v. to put someone through – з`єднувати когось з кимось adj. reasonable – розсудливий adj. unreasonable – нерозсудливий at the last minute/moment – в останню мить on the point of + gerund – на межі v. to recognise – впізнавати v. to notice – помічати adj. glad – задоволений n. relief – полегшення adj. relieved – полегшений, розслаблений adj. vital – необхідний, суттєвий adj. essential – важливий, основний v. to create – створювати adj. creative – винахідливий v. to suggest + clause/gerund – радити n. advice – порада v. advise – давати пораду UNIT 9 to recommend - рекомендовать, советовать, предлагать v. to ignore - игнорировать, пренебрегать, не придавать значения expr. to take (a ny/no/some) notice of - замечать obvious - очевидный, заметный n. a while - время, промежуток времени n. ages - вечность v. to supervise - наблюдать (за чем-л.) ; надзирать; заведовать n. Supervision - надзор, наблюдение; заведование, контроль v. to go out with - встречаться n. date - свидание v. to ask someone out - назначить свидание v. to attract -привлекать, притягивать (внимание, инвестиции) n. attraction - влечение; привлекательность, притягательность, аттракцион v. to see the attraction of/in … - находить что-то привлекательным wasp - оса to be attracted to - passive of to attract v. to fancy - 1) очень хотеть, страстно желать2) воображать, представлять себе3) думать, считать, предполагать v. to stand someone up - заставлять ждать v. to finish with someone - разорвать отношения

v. to cheat on - изменять n. fantasy - воображение, фантазия n. reality - действительность, реальность expr. of your dreams - совершенный, безупречный expr. dream + noun (car)- (машина) мечты expr. from hell - ужасный n. effort - усилие, попытка; напряжение v. to make (an/the/more etc.) effort - сделать усилие, попытаться v. to take (a lot of) effort - требует много усилий n. Will - воля n. willpower/determination - сила воли adj. strong-willed - решительный; твёрдый, волевой adj. determined - решительный, твёрдый, непоколебимый v. to please - радовать, доставлять удовольствие; adj. pleased - довольный adj. pleased with/for – довольный чем-то \ рад за кого-то n. praise -(по)хвала n. credit-заслуга, честь v. to survive выдержать, пережить, перенести v. to die out вымирать, отмирать to be happy to -готовый (сделать что-л.) ; охотно делающий (что-л. adv. happily-с удовольствием; охотно, с готовностью expr. (can/could) do without обходиться (без; не использовать) expr. (could) do with - to find useful adj. controversial -спорный, сомнительный; дискуссионный n. controversy -дебаты, дискуссия, полемика, спор n. solution -решение, разрешение v. to solve -решать, разрешать adj. effective -действенный, результативный, эффективный indigestion - несварение желудка; нарушение пищеварения drowsiness - дремота n. make any/some/no/an/the attempt- пытаться, стараться, стремиться to manage - справляться, обходиться, руководить, управлять to make a fuss - суетиться, волноваться из-за пустяков adj. fussy - суетливый; нервный conditions (plural) - условия environment - окружение, окружающая обстановка n. circumstances (plural) - обстоятельство; случай; условие n. mystery - тайна, загадка, головоломка ,детективный роман adj. mysterious - таинственный; загадочный, непостижимый mystery tour - an excursion to an unspecified destination on condition that - при условии если only if/when - never...except when - никогда ,кроме as long as - 1) пока; до тех пор пока 2) так как, если, поскольку, раз expr. in good/bad condition - в хорошем/плохом состоянии unit 10 maximum максимум; максимальное значение; высшая степень minimum минимум; минимальное количество at least по крайней мере, во всяком случае no more than не более чем at (the) most самое большее, не менее чем

to store запасать, накапливать, складировать file регистрировать (документы) ; подшивать к делу, архивировать 2) хранить в определённом порядке; папка, скоросшиватель, файл to match соответствовать, подходить, сочетать to go (well) together (хорошо) сочетаться, гармонировать to clash быть несовместимым, несочетающимся, не гармонировать generalisation обобщение, общее правило to generalise обобщать; делать вывод, заключение exception исключение, отклонение от нормы, несоответствие правилам to concentrate концентрироваться, сосредоточиваться, собираться concentration концентрация; сосредоточенность set комплект, ряд, группа; партия изделий; ставить, класть, размещать, располагать, устанавливать; установленный whatever что-либо, что угодно no matter what…независимо от того, что whoever кто-либо, кто угодно no matter who… независимо от того, кто whenever всякий раз когда, когда угодно, в любое время wherever где угодно, где бы ни; куда бы ни (в любом месте) no matter where независимо от того, где however однако, тем не менее, несмотря на (э)то, как бы ни no matter how независимо от того, как to alter изменять; менять; видоизменять, вносить изменения, переделывать function назначение, функция object предмет, вещь, объект item пункт, параграф, статья, элемент, единица stuff материал, состав, штука, штуковина rural деревенский, сельский urban городской ideal безукоризненный, безупречный, идеальный, совершенный idealistic идеалистический idealism идеализм to remove убирать, снимать, перемещать fit подходящий, годный, пригодный; соответствующий fitness (при)годность, адекватность, соответствие, хорошая физическая форма to adapt приспосабливать; пригонять, прилаживать to adjust регулировать; выверять, настраивать (got) something/anything/nothing to do with иметь что-либо общее, быть связанным с to get by (on) обходиться (чем-л.) to make do with справляться, обходиться (чем-л., имеющимся в наличии) climate климат harsh жёсткий, суровый (о климате, условиях жизнедеятельности) mild мягкий, умеренный (о климате) ; безветренный, тихий, спокойный, ясный (о погоде) to blow дуть to suck сосать; высасывать to chew жевать; пережёвывать пищу to swallow глотать, проглатывать to heat (up) нагревать, подогревать, разогревать heat жара, жаркий период года to cool (down) охлаждать rather than скорее, точнее, вернее

тон. крайне. укреплять. крайний extremely чрезвычайно. признание.would rather . полумрак. в высшей степени. и перен. почтительное отношение. охотнее. особенный. предпочтительнее shade тень. обоснованный. прикреплять. исключительный. налаживать to fix something to something else прикреплять что-либо к чему-либо plenty обильный. прохлада. многочисленный. избыток sufficient достаточный. оттенок shadow тень (прям.. приводить в порядок. очень polar полярный. уважаемый extreme непомерный.. полюсный . достаточное количество respect уважение. than лучше. почёт. закреплять.) to fix устанавливать. почтение. множество.

AVALON DIRECT ENGLISH – BOOK 4 UNIT 1 Dictation 61 If you want to have more time for your baby. however. It seems as though they are not very interested in the job. He really gets on my nerves! UNIT 3 Dictation 65 When starting a business you have to take into consideration such factors as location. Although he often speaks of such things as discounts. That’s why they deserve to be paid a lot of money. which will cover the cost of damages caused by fire. he lost the key to his hotel room and was . Women are often forced to make lots of sacrifices for the sake of their husbands. After that. He must have read the recipe carelessly because he mixed too many ingredients together when preparing his favourite omelette. Dictation 62 Do you think it matters if people socialize outside wotk? Does it help them perform better? Do you think it matters if you are treated roughly at work? He didn’t get the job because he wore scruffy clothes to the interview. Last week he planned to prepare a fancy cake. Dictation 64 It’s typical of him to invite all his relatives to dinner and then spoil it all. There are. flood or even theft. UNIT 2 Dictation 63 Arranged marriages are popular in countries like India and Pakistan. If you are going to choose a manufacturing business. First. whilst the services are usually located in or near the central area. some unsociable people who don’t get on well with their colleagues. Then. the production should take place away from the city centre. Later on the success turned into a failure. his son dived into shallow water and had to go to hospital for a couple of days. Moreover. Zak was accused of dealing in drugs and his flat was searched by the police. they often die in unexplained circumstances. His latest success – getting the highest possible mark in his finals – has been officially confirmed by the school authorities. local laws. he knows how to rip his customers off. etc. The other day he used the wrong recipe and forgot to add baking powder to the cake. you can work part-time. You can imagine the consequences when they found a considerable amount of heroine in his flat! UNIT 4 Dictation 67 Ted had a nervous breakdown because everything went wrong during his holiday. advertising costs. sales and special offers. It’s also worth buying insurance. the weather was much worse than he had expected. they seldom accept boring tasks which have to be done no matter how horrible they are. In our company the staff are competent and always perform well. Dictation 66 Zak’s parents and teachers were proud of his numerous achievements and many considered him to be a genius. Sometimes they are drowned by their own jealous mother in law and sometimes even burned alive. He now owns a clothes shop and is quite successful. production. If they do not bring enough money into the family.

However. Would you be willing to sacrifice your career? Or would you rather choose a quiet lifestyle of a devoted wife and mother? UNIT 5 Dictation 69 Luxury goods. he was fined for double parking. It was partially due to the husband’s long recovery from his last illness. Dictation 70 He’s an extremely mysterious person. however. you are sexist. No wonder he lost his reputation soon after and his rivals benefited from his fall. It was the worst holiday he had ever had. Each car should contain such equipment as a first aid kit or an air-bag. get married and have children. One day he is depressed. are available in small quantities only. No one knows him well enough. Another thing was the poor condition of their house: cracked walls and a damaged roof. you have to go past the paint shop. They claim they deserve more and sometimes tend to get bigheaded about themselves. My friend is involved in the project concerned with equal opportunities. when he was shown the evidence. If you want to get to the administration building. Finally. the other day he gets wild and you have to calm him down. They justified their decision by saying that their financial situation was really complicated. where the cars are painted. I must admit his main fault was his . How many of them are likely to succeed in their attempts? UNIT 7 Dictation 73 The previous minister was accused of bribery and corruption. To make things worse. such as designer clothes. we will show you where the cars are assembled. What can you do not to feel trapped in a relationship? Are there any precautions against unhappy marriage? UNIT 6 Dictation 71 She had split with her husband just to claim social benefit from the government. with those at the bottom struggling to get to the top. Society will always remain divided into separate social classes. he admitted to the crime.AVALON DIRECT ENGLISH – BOOK 4 locked out for five hours until the receptionist found the spare key. it soon turned out that they were still living in the same house. She hopes it will help women realize their ambitions without having to compromise. the wife had to commute to Leeds five days a week. Dictation 68 Do you think that men and women have the same opportunities? If you are reluctant to give a woman a job. which he denied it. Some people. Everyone should know what the purpose of insurance is. However. differ from the vast majority in their ambitions and want a little more than the relative security of a steady job and a family. Dictation 72 The average person’s major aim in life is to find a good job. On another occasion he gets wound up because everyone criticizes his research results. When you visit our factory.

your business ought to be environmentally-friendly. Are you interested in pursuing a career in Public Relations? Legalizing freedom parades was one of the most debated issue in the parliament. they’ll be strong-willed enough to avoid any exposures. What are the drawbacks of having cameras installed in the workplace? I don’t think the workers will fancy being under constant supervision. The class didn’t like the maths teacher as they often had to listen to tedious remarks about their lack of progress. I don’t approve of your narrow-minded attitude to life. During his trial he insisted on a thorough examination of the other ministers. UNIT 8 Dictation75 The manager’s position was completely beyond his reach. He couldn’t concentrate. When you set up a restaurant you ought to be familiar with hygiene requirements. He stretched his right arm out hoping to reach the table. no matter how hard he tried.AVALON DIRECT ENGLISH – BOOK 4 shortsightedness. In what circumstances would you ask your next-door neighbours out? UNIT 10 Dictation 79 Try to avoid generalisations when judging people. They had to alter the company’s organization in order to save money. Some people can’t touch their toes without bending their knees. I couldn’t eat the meat because it hadn’t been cooked thoroughly. Dictation 76 When a blade of a knife gets blunt it needs to be sharpened. Dictation 78 How long does it take to brew tea? The class won’t be pleased to discuss such controversial subjects as indigestion or overweight. What’s more. It was obvious that she didn’t want to help you because her explanations were somewhat strange. I don’t understand your obsession with celebrities. UNIT 9 Dictation 77 We didn’t follow your recommendations when choosing the place to live and now we regret our decision. Dictation 74 Some clever people can balance a plate on its edge. The noun of the verb ‘to widen’ is ‘width’. The management of a business has to deal with clashes of interests between the company’s owners and the workers.A confident person does not get defensive when criticised. Would you wear casual clothes to a party? I did him a favour but he did not show his appreciation. Children brought up in rural areas should have the same opportunities as those living in urban areas. The judge was too cheerful throughout the trial and nobody took him seriously. I don’t think fast food contains any essential nutrients. On the contrary. .