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CONCRETE

Reading activity Mindess & Young, Concreto, cap 1, 2, 3.1 a 3.3, 3.5,

Some Types of Concrete
• Normal 21 – 42 MPa (3000 – 6000 psi) • High Strength 42 – 140 MPa (6000 a 20000 psi) • Ultra High Strength > 140 MPa (20000 psi) • Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) • High Performance and Ultra High Performance • Law Shrinkage or Compensated Shrinkage • With fibers • Shotcrete

Self Compacting Concrete (SCC)

Concrete Characteristics
Advantages
Any shape and configuration High compressive strength Easy to make (unskilled and semiskilled workers)* Low energy consumption (3.5 GJ/m3)

Disadvantages
Low tensile strength Fragile – low ductility Volumétric changes Susceptible to chemical atacks, ácids, sulfates, chlorides, carbonation Easy to make *

Concrete Materials
• Aggregates
– Coarse – Fine

Aggregates

• • • •

Cement Water Paste Chemical admixtures Suplementary cementing materials

Mortar

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Concrete CONCRETE • Chemical admixtures – Plasticizers – Acelerants/retardants – Rheology modifiers Suplementary cementing materials – – – – Fly ash Silica fume Metakaolin Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) Cement Types • Gypsum – nonhydraulics 2CaSO4.SiO4.Fe2O3 CaSO4. year (Cap 2 de Mindess & Young) Cemento Portland Components .H2O + 3H20 • Lime – nonhydraulics CaCO3 CaO + CO2 • Portland cement – hydraulics Calcium Silicates Portland Cement • Raw materials – Clay – Limestone silicates and aluminates calcium • Read – History .SiO4 3CaO. inventor.2H2O 2CaSO4.SiO4 2CaO.2H20 C3 S C2 S C3 A C4AF CSH2 2 .Portland Cement Silicato tricálcico Silicato dicálcico Aluminato tricálcico Ferro aluminato tetracálcico Yeso 3CaO.Al2O3 3CaO.

0 Hydration Characteristics Reaction Contribution to cement rate Strength Heat liberation -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C3 S Mod.Components .Al2O3 3CaO.6 0.Portland Cement Tricalcium silicate Dicalcium silicate Tricalcium aluminate Tetracalcium aluminoferrite Calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) 3CaO. High High C2 S C3A + CSH2 C4AF + CSH2 Low High Mod. Low initially high later Low Low Low Very high Very High Moderate Heat of Hydration Ventana de manejabilidad Portland Cement • Some Types of Cement .2H20 C3 S C2 S C3 A C4AF CSH2 Components .Fe2O3 CaSO4.SiO4 3CaO.SiO4.ASTM – – – – – – – Tipo I Tipo II Tipo III p Tipo IV Tipo V Adicionados Low shrinkage normal moderate heat of hydration High initial strength g g low heat of hydration + sulfate resistant sulfate resistant clinker + fly ash or slag Types of Cement (ASTM) I 55 18 10 8 365 15 350 II 55 19 6 11 375 14 265 III 55 17 10 8 550 24 370 IV 42 32 4 15 340 4 235 V 55 22 4 12 380 12 310 C3S C2S C3A C4AF Finura Blaine (m²/kg) fc .6 0.Portland Cement Lime Silica Alumina Ferric Oxide Magnesia Alkalis Sulfur trióxide Carbon dióxide Water CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO K2 O Na2O SO3 CO2 H2 O C S A F M K N S C H 63 22 6 2.SiO4 2CaO.5 2.1 día (MPa) Calor de Hidratación (J/g) • The performance of same type cements may vary significantly with source 3 .3 2.

Strenght Development • Higher fineness • Higher fineness • Durability Cement higher water demand higher initial strength higher heat of hydration g y sulfate attack – High C3A cement ASTM C 1157 “Standard Performance Specification for Hydraulic Cement” • • • • • • • General use (GU) Early Strength (ES) Moderate sulfate resistance (MS) High sulfate resistance (HS) Moderate heat of hydration (MH) Low heat of hydration (LH) Low reactivity with alkali-reactive aggregates (R)º Some Special Cements • White cement (type I or III no Iron) • Masonry cement (type I + Ca + air entraining agent • With additions • Expansive cements Especifications and Tests • ASTM Standards (American Society for Testing and Materials) • NTC ( (normas té i técnicas colombianas) l bi ) • ASSHTO Standards Chemical Requirements • Limits on components f(type of cement) • Loss on ignition • Insoluble residue • Content and type of alkalies 4 .

Physical Requirements • • • • • Fineness Soundness Compressive Strength Time of setting Mortar air content Fineness –Blaine Apparatus cubes. cubes Otawa sand Compressive Strength Time of Setting • Vicat apparatus – 1 mm needle – Special needle p • Gillmore needles Optional Physical Requirements • Heat of hydration • False setting • Sulfate expansion • Density • Consistency Other Tests 5 .

Density Paste Consistency • Vicat apparatus with a 10 mm needle Mortar Tests • • • • • Flow Slump Compressive Strength (cubes) Flexural Strength (beams) Sulfate Expansion Mortar Flow Test Mortar Slump Test Cement Hydration 6 .

Cement Hydration • Cements reacts chemically with water Cement + water hydration Cement Hydration • Cements reacts chemically with water Cement + water C3S + H C2S + H C3A + CSH2 + H hydration cement paste cement paste S-C-H + CH S-C-H + CH Ettringite S-C-H = calcium silicate hydrate CH = calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) Disolución de iones Cement Hydration • Hydration Calor de hidr ratación Inicio de Hidratación Estado Sólido – Is exothermic – Takes years releases energy (heat) Hidratación lenta Inducción Disolución de iones • HCP is compossed mainly by – Calcium silicate hydrate – Calcium Hydroxide – Monosulfoaluminates Continúa hidratación 15 min 2-4 h fraguado Inicial 8-12 h fraguado final Tiempo Hydration Ventana de manejabilidad Concrete Micro-Structure • • • • • S-C-H (calcium silicate hydrate) CH (calcium hydroxide) Monosulfoaluminates (ettringite) Unhydrated cement Voids – Pores – Entrapped air – Entrained air Time Heat of hydration Initial set Final set • Pore solution ionic solution • Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) 7 .

S-C-H Calcium Hydroxide (CH) Ettringite Concrete Micro-Structure Concrete Micro-Structure Concrete Micro-Structure • Calcium silicate sheets + Ca y H2O ions between them 8 .

54 Vcement Vac = V . Lost when HR < 30% shrinkage Lost for HR < 11 % contracción Lost for T > 1000°C (S-C-H decomposes) Water between S-C-H layers: Chemically combined water: Cement 9 .5 – 10 nm 0.010 mm 10 – 50 nm Large mesopores Gel pores 2.5 nm ≤ 0.Voids in Cement Paste Air 1 – 3 mm 0.5 – 2.5 nm Small mesopores Micropores Space between layers Voids Effects Strength/ Permeability Entrapped air Entrained air Macropores Large mesopores Samll Mesopores Micropores Space between layers Shrinkage Creep Pores Yes Yes/No* Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes * Disminuye permeabilidad Porosity Calculations V hydration products V gel pores V capillary pores Water Water in Cement Paste Capillary water: > 50 nm < 50 nm Adsorbed t Ad b d water: Evaporable water Hydration products (gel) free water agua sujeta a fuerzas de superficie (débilmente) = = = Vph = 2 Vcement Vpg = 0.05 – 1 mm Entrapped Entrained Voids in Cement Paste Capillary pores 50 – 10000 nm Macropores 50nm-0.Vph Capillary pores Gel pores “Held on the surface of S-C-H “H ld th f f SCH 6 molecules.

Dr.Water Loss in Cement Paste (a/c) vs Permeability Lost water Shrinkage or creep Pore solution • El agua en los poros es realmente una solución en equilibrio iónico con la pasta hidratada. Balendran 10 . • Básicamente es una solución saturada de hidróxido de calcio (pH > 12) Interfacial Transition Zone ITZ • Alrededor de los agregados hay una zona de transición en que la pasta tiene propiedades diferentes a la del resto: – Menos densa – Más porosa – Efecto pared (los granos de cemento no se acomodan bien) – Cristales se reacomodan Interfacial Transition Zone ITZ Interfacial Transition Zone ITZ University of Hong Kong.

org www.org www.aci-int.Wall Effect American Concrete Institute ACI www.org 11 .aci-int.aci-int.