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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE Zhytomyr State Ivan Franko University

Morphological WordBuilding: (Composition)

Sokolova Alla Group 44

Types of Composition of English Compounds……………………………….3 2...6 3. Word Formation in English……………………………………………………. Meaning in Compounds……………………………………………………….3 1.2 Zhytomyr – 2011 Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………. Endocentric and Exocentric Compounds………………………………………13 7. Composition as the Way of Word-building……………………………………………………………………. Compound Categories…………………………………………………………11 6.10 5..8 4.16 List of Used Literature……………………………………………………………18 .15 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………. The Morphological Structure of a Word………………………………………. Composition (Compounding) in English Language.

compounding. the basic units on the . syntax and semantic. Morphology is a branch of linguistic which investigates the word-formation of a language. Written material is a source of word-formation in which compounding is easily found. It has been universally acknowledged that a great many words have a composite nature and are made up of morphemes. morphology. There are various processes of word-formation. There are components of languages that are interrelated. clipping. This sentence is taken from Tolstoy “God Sees The Truth. O’Grady notes that compounding is the combination of lexical categories (noun. or with a fellow-merchant?” 1. such as: phonology. Mathew states that morphology is a simple term for that branch of linguistic which concerns with formation of word in different uses and construction. backformation. compounding can create a larger word.3 Introduction All languages. Writers tend to use compounding to create a new word which fulfils their desires. on scientifically linguistic point of view. or preposition) to create a larger word. adjective. sometimes cannot be traced back from its constituent. Compounding is one of word-formation processes which is very interesting since it can creates a new word whose meaning. Compounding word can be found both in spoken and written. affixation. are equal. the largest on the morphologic and the smallest on the syntactic plane of linguistic analysis. The Morphological Structure of a Word There are two levels of approach to the study of word. But Waits”: “Where did you spend last night? Were you alone. for instances: conversion. Word is the principal and basic unit of the language system. and reduplication. verb.structure: the level of morphemic analysis and the level of derivational or word-formation analysis. It is in line with O’Grady who also mentions that morphology refers to system of categories and rules that are involved in word-formation and interpretation. blending. Moreover.

Due to this component of their meaning the derivational affixes are classified into affixes building different parts of speech: nouns.g. The Greek suffix –eme has been adopted by linguistic to denote the smallest unit or the minimum distinctive feature. which are defined as the smallest indivisible two-facet language units. it has a very general and abstract lexical meaning common to a set of semantically related words constituting one word-cluster. Inflections carry only grammatical meaning and are thus relevant only for the formation of word-forms.g. e. Affixational morphemes include inflectional affixes or inflections and derivational affixes. e. (to) teach. They are lexically always dependent on the root which they modify. The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of form. The term morpheme is derived from Greek morphe “form”+ -eme. Words that consist of a root and an affix are called derived words or derivatives and are produced by the process of word building known as affixation (or derivation).. Besides the lexical meaning root-morphemes possess all other types of meaning proper to morphemes except the part-of-speech meaning which is not found in roots. Roots and derivational affixes are generally easily distinguished and the difference between them is clearly felt as. in the words helpless. Even a cursory examination of the morphemic structure of English words reveals that they are composed of morphemes of different types: rootmorphemes and affixational morphemes. The root-morpheme is the lexical nucleus of the word. verbs. They possess the same types of meaning as found in roots. handy. although a word may consist of single morpheme. . Morphemes occur in speech only as constituent parts of words. but unlike root-morphemes most of them have the part-of-speech meaning which makes them structurally the important part of the word as they condition the lexico-grammatical class the word belongs to. Derivational affixes are relevant for building various types of words. A form in these cases a recurring discrete unit of speech. not independently. adjectives or adverbs. teaching.4 morphemic level. teacher.

5 blackness. hand-. and –less. In the word-cluster please. in the word undesirable there is only one free morpheme desire-.and hold-. -ness. All the representations of the given morpheme. Distinction is also made of free and bound morphemes. pleasure. so the morpheme boy. Free morphemes coincide with word-forms of independently functioning words. theoretical. for example. -sion. -er. Allomorph is defined as a positional variant of a morpheme occurring in a specific environment and so characterized by complementary description. The morphemes theor.in Anglo-Saxon. pleasant the phonemic shapes of the word stand in complementary distribution or in alternation with each other. Afr.forms. -y. Thus.: the root-morphemes help-.in the words horror. refill. pleasing. consequently all derivational morphemes.in the word boy is a free morpheme.in Afro-Asian are all bound roots as there are no identical word-forms. they do not differ in meaning or function but show a slight difference in sound form depending on the final phoneme of the preceding stem. fill-. Root-morphemes may be both free and bound. such as – ness. allomorphs).are felt as morphemes dependent on these roots. are understood as the lexical centers of the words. Angl. black-. London-. horrify. the word pen-holder has two free morphemes pen. -able. The combining form allo. Complementary distribution is said to take place. -ion. etc. that manifest alternation are called allomorphs or morphemic variants of that morpheme. re. -ation are the positional variants of the same suffix. Londoner. They are considered as variants of one and the same morpheme and called its allomorphs. It is obvious that free morphemes can be found only among roots. -er are bound. when two linguistic variants cannot appear in the same environment. or horr.in the words theory. . It should also be noted that morphemes may have different phonemic shapes. It follows that bound morphemes are those that do not coincide with separate word.from Greek allos “other” is used in linguistic terminology to denote elements of a group whose members together consistute a structural unit of the language (allophones. -tion. horrible.

clipping. in long a: length. which are not made up of full linguistic signs. new words). There are different types of word formation: • • compounding. prefixation. if they occur in the same environment they signal different meanings.: expressive symbolism. and back derivation). Two or more sound forms of a stem existing under conditions of complementary distribution may also be regarded as allomorphs. It’s a process of forming words by combining root and affixal morphemes. According to certain patterns specific for the language or without any outward means there are 2 major groups of word formation: 1) Words formed as grammatical syntagmas. It is a branch of science of the language. because adjectives in –able mean “ capable of beings”. for instance. not allomorphs. composition).6 Different morphemes are characterized by contrastive distribution. are different morphemes. Word Formation in English Word-formation – the process of forming words by combining root and affixal morphemes according to certain patterns specific for the language (affixation. 2) Words. which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical items (new unities. combinations of full linguistic signs (types: compounding. rhyme and some others. as. The suffixes –able and –ed. prefixation. for instance. conversion. suffixation. or without any outward means of word formation (conversion. semantic derivation). 2. which are not grammatical syntagmas. . Their form then depends on the initials of the stem with which they will assimilate. Common for both groups is that a new word is based on synchronic relationship between morphemes. Ex. Allomorphs will also occur among prefixes. blending.

e. All polymorphic word fall into two subgroups: derived words and compound words – according to the number of root-morphemes they have. i. e. light-mindedness. 2) their frequency value in actual speech. derived words.g. derivation and composition the most productive ways of word building. compound. small. give. According to the available word counts made in different parts of speech. shortenings) represent the main structural types of Modern English words.g. The clue to the correct understanding of their comparative value lies in a careful consideration of: 1) the importance of each type in the existing wordstock. adjectives about 86%. Frequency is by far the most important factor. dog. whereas compound nouns make about 15% and adjectives about 4%. There can be both root. conversation (zero derivation). Monomorphic or root-words consist of only one root-morpheme. The four types (root words. etc. a trifle more than the number of compound words.7 • • suffixation. the number of derivational morphemes being insignificant. disagreeable. adjectives root words come to approximately 12%.and derivational morphemes in compounds as in pen-holder. Derived words are composed of one root-morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes. Root words come to 18% in nouns. we find that derived words numerically constitute the largest class of words in the existing wordstock. etc.e. Compound words are those which contain at least two root-morphemes. outdo. The morphological analysis of word-structure on the morphemic level aims at splitting the word into its constituent morphemes – the basic units at this level of analysis – and at determining their number and types. eye-ball. acceptable. derived nouns comprise approximately 67% of the total number. and conversion. According to the number of morphemes words can be classified into monomorphic and polymorphic. etc. or only root-morphemes as in lamp-shade. . These structural types are not of equal importance. make.

Root. Furthermore. clipping. Composition (Compounding) in English Language.words also serve as parent forms for all types of derived and compound words. composition is the formation of new lexeme by joining two or more lexemes. . verbs. Thus it is the root-words that constitute the foundation and the backbone of the vocabulary and that are of paramount importance in speech. the word formation is the use of variety of operation or process to modify the structure of word itself in order to express a new meaning. reduplication and composition. O’Grady proposes that composition is the combination of lexical category (noun. blending. such as conversion. according to the recent frequency counts. It can be concluded that composition is a word formation process that combine two or more words to create a new word whose meaning sometimes cannot be traced back from its constituents. or prepositions) to create a larger word. back formation. 3.2% in adjectives. There are some processes of word formation.8 But we cannot fail to perceive that root-words occupy a predominant place. Lexemes are abstract dictionary words and they are realized by one or more word forms. adjective. about 60% of the total number of nouns and 62% of the total number of adjectives in current use are root-words. In English. It should also be mentioned that root words are characterized by a high degree of collocability and a complex variety of meanings in contrast with words of other structural types whose semantic structures are much poorer. Katamba mentions that compound word is a word made up of at least two bases which can occur elsewhere as independent word. According to Bauer. affixation. Of the total number of adjectives and nouns. derived words comprise about 38% and 37% respectively while compound words comprise an insignificant 2% in nouns and 0. Composition as the Way of Word-building Morphology refers to the system of categories and rules which are involved in word formation and interpretation.

e. The structural unity of a compound word depends upon : a) the unity of stress. Spelling in English compounds is not very reliable as well because they can have different spelling even in the same text. airbus. air piracy. blood-vessel. underfoot can be spelt solidly and with a break. to bloodtransfuse.g. These are charachteristic features of compound words in all languages. hard-cover. astrodynamics. In such cases we have idiomatic compounds where the meaning of the whole is not a sum of meanings of its components. The third pattern is easily mixed up with word-groups unless they have solid or hyphenated spelling. penguin suit etc. cargo module. c) semantic unity. e.g. snowwhite. All the more so that there has appeared in Modern English a special type of compound words which are called block compounds. English compounds have the unity of morphological and syntactical . e. coin change. As a rule English compounds have one uniting stress (usually on the first component).9 Composition is the way of word-building when a word is formed by joining two or more stems to form one word. g.g. The semantic unity of a compound word is often very strong. e.g. best-seller.g. they have one uniting stress but are spelt with a break. d) unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. For English compounds some of these factors are not very reliable. skinhead. In nonidiomatic compounds semantic unity is not strong. with the main stress on the first component and with a secondary stress on the second component. etc. to ghostwrite. e. brain-drain etc. insofar.g. b) solid or hyphenated spelling. war-ship. sky-blue.. bloodvessel can be spelt through a hyphen and also with a break. We can also have a double stress in an English compound. The third pattern of stresses is two level stresses. e. e.

that is they can be used as words with a distinctive meaning of their own. A-bomb (atomic bomb). The two-stem pattern distinguishes English compounds from German ones. blackbird derivational. bedroom.” ”Chatter-boxes” is a predicative in the sentence and only the second component changes grammatically. «a green-house» and ”a green house”.e. There are such subtypes of neutral compounds: • simple neutral compounds . V-day (victory day). 4.have a shortened stem in their structure (усеченный корень): H-bag (handbag). middleof-the-road. The sound pattern will be the same except for the stresses. up-and-doing etc. e. or derived compounds . crybaby (плакса).have affixes in their structure: longlegged. broad-minded. There are two characteristic features of English compounds: a) both components in an English compound are free stems. They are used in a sentence as one part of it and only one component changes grammatically. “These girls are chatter-boxes. off-the-record.consist of simple affixless stems: sunflower. e.g.two stems are joined together without any connecting elements (i. globe-trotter contracted compounds . • • . TV-set (television set).10 functioning. e. they are juxtaposed): scarecrow. Types of Composition of English Compounds There are three types of composition of English compounds: • Neutral • Morphological • Syntactic Neutral compounds . b) English compounds have a two-stem pattern. goldfish. Whereas for example in Russian compounds the stems are bound morphemes. as a rule. with the exception of compound words which have form-word stems in their structure.g.g.

Syntactic compounds are formed by the whole fragments of speech: man-ofwar (военный корабль). or prepositions) produces a compound word. Compound categories Combining various lexical categories (nouns. and in some cases also a preposition. toothbrush The first of the two compounds may be descriptive (i. mother-in-law. Otherwise. adjectives. Types of word-composition 5. ‘i’. craftsman. wallpaper. an adjective. Noun compounds The most common type of word formation is the combination of two (or more) nouns in order to form a resulting noun: Noun + Noun = Noun Examples: landmine. ‘s’): videophone. the morpheme which decides the category of the whole word is known as the head. handicraft. a verb. a cloth with which to clean or cloth tables).e. verbs. microchip. tragicomic. tablecloth. forget-me-not.components are joined by a linking element (‘o’. or both compounds may create a whole new .11 Morphological compounds . In most compounds the right-most element of the compound determines the linguistic category of the entire word. which may be a noun.

for example.) It is also possible to form words whose components are equally important or descriptive of its meaning. And their meanings are quite comprehensible even for those who encounter them for the first time. Another possibility is that the noun supports the adjective. silverspoon (a spoon made of silver). In most cases. More common and shorter compounds appear as one word whereas those longer and less common are linked by a hyphen. many more different ways how compound nouns. Those rules do also apply to the linking of nouns and participial adjectives: English-speaking. of course. as an intensifier:dirt-cheap = cheap as dirt. fireman (somebody who fights fire). Hyphens between the segments of a compound noun are absolutely exceptional.12 meaning altogether (railroad. while the noun explaines the objective. which is not a "road" in the typical sense of the word. shopwindow (a shop's window). Compound nouns usually appear as two separate words. paper-thin = thin as paper. however. In this case. There are. i. a washer-dryer refers to an object combining two functions.e. bookpage (a page in a book). and usually compounds with no more than three syllables are found as one word. They can be related to each other and how their new meanings can best be explained grammatically. those found in every-day language. dockyard (a yard for docks). doorkey (a key for the door). Examples: windowsill (the sill attached under a window). waterpipe (a pipe that carries water). the nature of these compounds is selfexplanatory. Adjective compounds Nouns and adjectives can also be compounded in the opposite order: Noun + Adjective = Adjective Camera + shy = camera-shy (Shy in respect of appearing or speaking before cameras). More examples of all subtypes: . frost-bitten. only those more commonly used. soul-destroying. the resultant is an adjective.

in short. both segments can be related in other ways. airworthy (an aircraft safely flyable).e. compound word is classified into endocentric and exocentric compound. bookworthy (something worth being published). far fetched. narrow-minded. Examples: walkway (a way to walk on). the noun may stand for a adverb of place: walkway = people walk on the walkway. Endocentric compound is a construction of compound that is hyponym of the head . the noun is the direct object. runway (a strip of flat land where aircraft start or land ["run"]). bare-handed. onto. 6. Verb compounds Here verbs describe what is done with an object or what a subject "does". deaf-mute. Endocentric and Exocentric Compound There are two types of compound words. divecenter (a place where one goes diving). i. lowyielding. The usual rules apply to spelling. aural-oral. They are not very common in English language too. high-climbing. seaworthy (a ship withstanding the dangers of the sea). Anglo-Saxon. There are various other types of compounds. A drawbridge is a bridge that can be inclined in order to allow ships to pass. From the point of view of its “head”. Here. usually referring to something concrete. Adjective + Participle far-reaching. single-minded. and the verb defines the action related to it: Verb + Noun = Noun: draw + bridge = drawbridge. blameworthy (a person deserving blame). red-painted. filter-paper (paper used for filtering liquids or gases).13 waterproof (proof or resistant against water). Adjective+Adjective bitter-sweet. Compound prepositions Compound prepositions are not very common in the English language: into. Besides that. a new noun is formed.

The word schoolboy is made up of school (noun) and boy (noun). for example: schoolboy. From the above explanation.14 element. Exocentric compound has characteristics as follows: There is no element in compound that functions as the semantic head of the compound which is modified by the non head element. Since the meaning of this construction can not be traced back from its constituent. In addition. The meaning of this construction is opaque. adjective-noun. exocentric compound tends to be used less frequently than endocentric compound in the creation of new word. and compound adjective is made up from noun-adjective and adjective-adjective. this construction is said to be exocentric. It is impossible to work out what an exocentric compound means from the sum of the meanings of its constituent. verbnoun. It is found that: compound verb is formed from verb-preposition. it can be concluded that endocentric construction is more productive than exocentric. Exocentric compound is a construction of compound that the compound is not hyponym of the head element. endocentric compound has certain characteristics as follows: They contain a constituent which function as the syntactic head. The head is on the right hand (phrasal verb form clear and large class of exception to this generalization) There is a tendency for the semantic relation between the head and non head to be one modification. Due to the fact above. . This construction often cannot be transparently guessed from its constituent part. compound noun is derived from noun-noun. Schoolboy is a kind of boy. The syntactic properties of the head categories percolate to the entire compound word. the construction of sugar daddy is not a type of sugar-coated father but a woman’s lover who is deemed to be both overgenerous and much too old for her. Hence.

. Two compounds that have the same bases but different distributional patterns will have different meanings (a finger-ring. Inseparability of compounds has graphical (one word or a hyphen). morphological (only 2 base shows grammatical category) and semantic (grammatical forms differ from the forms of the motivating words (richer – more oil-richer) criteria. Meaning in Compounds The lexical meaning of compounds is determined by the lexical meanings of its bases and the structural meaning of its distributional pattern. They are only pronounced as lexical units (a red rose. They are not formed in speech like free-word combinations.15 7.producing a similar effect or acting in a typical way – a rattle-snake. Semantic relations between the compounds can be described as certain types: . a nose-ring. As a rule a second base determines the part of speech meaning of the compound. a redskin).special – a garden-party. If the meaning of the compound and the semantic relations between the bases are clear then the compound is motivated (red-current). phonetic (stress). a ring-finger). Compounds are inseparable lexical units that are presented in dictionaries in special entries and sub-entries. The lexical meaning of a compound doesn't coincide with the combined meanings of its bases. If the meaning of the compound and the semantic relations between the bases are not clear then the compound is non-motivated (redneck). a bodyguard.functional – a key-hole. The distributional pattern shows the order and arrangement of the bases. Compounds are reproduced and used in speech as lexical units. a dollhouse/ a babysitter. . a finger-ring.snow-white.resemblance . . There is always some additional semantic element that reflects among objects and phenomena in the outer world. .

In addition. Another branch of lexicology is called descriptive and studies the vocabulary at a definite stage of its development. Fully aware of the importance of words. e. their semantic relations and the development of their sound form and meaning. Lexicology can study the development of the vocabulary. It is the smallest unit of a language which can stand alone as a complete utterance. In fact. The term «word-group» denotes a group of words which exists in the language as a ready-made unit. has the unity of meaning. Compounding is the most common productive way of creating new words in English. a good understanding of English is essential for the teaching and learning of English as a foreign language. the word-group «as loose as a goose» means «clumsy» and is used in a sentence as a predicative / He is as loose as a goose/. In this case it is called historical lexicology. the unity of syntactical function. the author is to study English words. and without an extensive vocabulary. the status of vocabulary in a curriculum has been considerably enhanced. communication in English just cannot occur in a meaningful way.g. The term «vocabulary» is used to denote the system of words and wordgroups that the language possesses. The vocabulary of English consists of several hundred thousand words. the origin of words and word-groups. word-classes and wordformation with a view to improving the understanding of words in term of grammar. The term «word» denotes the main lexical unit of a language resulting from the association of a group of sounds with a meaning. partly as a result of the development of the communicative approaches to language teaching and partly through the stimulus of comprehension-based methods. .16 Conclusion Lexicology is the part of linguistics which deals with the vocabulary and characteristic features of words and word-groups. This unit is used in grammatical functions characteristic of it.

can teachers and learners of.and open-classes. to study. Only by mastering the grammatical features of English words.17 English words are interesting. We have dealt with different definitions of words. the two classes of words including closed. types of morpheme and word-formation processes. but difficult. It is my suggestion for teachers of English that they should be aware of the complication of words in terms of grammar and base their teaching on their learners’ English levels so that they could avoid overwhelming their learners. learning and translation. and translators into and out of English do good jobs of teaching. and morphemes. .

О. – М. Introduction into English Wordformation.П.W. Lnd. 8. «Павлин». Adams V. інозем. Арбекова Т. 1959. М. Н. Лексикология английского языка (практический курс): Учеб. И. / М. мов. – 260 с. пособие для студентов / Г. И. 14.encyclopedia.V. Афанасьева. Беляева Т.18 List of Used Literature 1.. Б. 1956. 13. – 117 с. The English Language. И.: Основа. Сасіна В. Арнольд И. Практикум з лексикології сучасної англійської мови: Навч. 1957. І.Б.Н. Мостовий М.В.. Пособие / А.wordpress. Potter S. Трофимова З. Морозова. Dictionary of New Words and New Meanings. для ін-тів і фак. 1993. 1999. М.C. Мостовий. Lnd. 7. 1979.І. Изд. 16. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. Лексикология современного английского языка. – 240 с. 10.. Этимологические основы словарного состава современного английского языка. 1979. В. 2000. 12.: Дрофа. Атрушина Г. Антрушина.S.І. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. . Arnold I. Смирницкий А.com/doc/1O29 COMPOUNDWORD. Lnd. 6. пособие / Т. 9. – X. Інтернет-ресурси: [http://chusnihadiati. 1986.. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. 1985.. Інтернет-ресурси: [http://www. Квеселевич Д. 3.. 4. Амосова Н. Словообразовательная валентность глагольных основ в английском языке. Арбекова.html].П. Квеселевич.com/2011/01/17/ english-compounding]. M. – 256 с. 1998. et al.: Омен. M. – М. И. 1977. – М.М. 11.: Высшая школа. посібник / Д. 1983. 1993. The English Word. Сасіна. І. Смирницкий.Н. Ginzburg R. – Житомир: Поліграфічний центр Житомирського педуніверситету.В. Лексикологія англійської мови: Підруч. 15. – 288 с. 2. Burchfield R. 5.М. Modern Linguistics.

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