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DNS Interview Questions And Answers

1.What is DNS?
Domain Naming Services or System: - used for resolving host names to IPs and IPs to Host
Names.

2.What is NBNS?
NetBIOS Naming System, ex. - WINS, 2k access resources using DNS naming Conventions

3.What is a Forward Lookup?
Resolving Host Names to IP Addresses

4.What is Reverse Lookup?
It¶s a file contains host names to IP mapping information.

5.What is a Resource Record?
It is a record provides the information about the resources available in the N/W infrastructure.

6.What are the diff. DNS Roles?
Standard Primary, Standard Secondary, & AD Integrated.

7.What is a Zone?
Zone is a sub tree of DNS database. Zone consists of resource records and we require zone for
representing sites.


8.What are types of Zone?
Primary Zone: - zone which is saved as normal text file with filename (.dns) in DBS folder.
Maintains a read, write copy of zone database
Secondary Zone: - maintains a read only copy of zone database on another DNS server.
Provides fault tolerance and load balancing by acting as backup server to primary server.
Stub zone: - contains a copy of name server and SOA records used for reducing the DNS search
orders. Provides fault tolerance and load balancing.

10.What is Caching Only Server?
When we install 2000 & 2003 server it is configured as caching only server where it maintains
the frequently accessed sites information and again when we access the same site for next time it
is obtain from cached information instead of going to the actual site.

11.What is forwarder?
When one DNS server can¶t receive the query it can be forwarded to another DNS once
configured as forwarder.

12.What is secondary DNS Server?
It is backup for primary DNS where it maintains a read only copy of DNS database.

13.How to enable Dynamic updates in DNS?
Start>Program>Admin tools> DNS >Zone properties.

14. What are the properties of DNS server?
INTERFACES, FORWARDERS, ADVANCED, ROUTINGS, SECURITY, MONITORING,
LOGGING, DEBUG LOGGING.

15. Properties of a Zone?
General, SOA, NAMESERVER, WINS, Security, and ZONE Transfer.

16. What is scavenging?
Finding and deleting unwanted records.

17. What are SRV records?
SRV are the service records, there are 6 service records. They are useful for locating the services.

18. What are the types of SRV records?
MSDCS:Contains DCs information
TCP:Contains Global Catalog, Kerberos & LDAP information.
UDP:Contains Sites information
Sites:Contains Sites information
Domain DNS Zone:Conations domain¶s DNS specific information
Forest DNS zone:Contains Forest¶s Specific Information.

19.Where does a Host File Reside?
c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc.

20.What is SOA?
Start of Authority: useful when a zone starts. Provides the zone startup information

21.What is a query?
A request made by the DNS client to provide the name server information.

22.What are the diff. types of Queries?
Recursion, iteration

23.Tools for troubleshooting DNS?
DNS Console, NSLOOKUP, DNSCMD, IPCONFIG, Logs, PM.




What is the main purpose of a DNS server?
DNS servers are used to resolve FQDN hostnames into IP addresses and vice versa.
What is the port no of dns ?
53.
What is a Forward Lookup?
Resolving Host Names to IP Addresses.
What is Reverse Lookup?
It?s a file contains host names to IP mapping information.
What is a Resource Record?
It is a record provides the information about the resources available in the N/W infrastructure.
What are the diff. DNS Roles?
Standard Primary, Standard Secondary, & AD Integrated.
What is a Zone?
Zone is a sub tree of DNS database.
Secure services in your network require reverse name resolution to make it more difficult
to launch successful attacks against the services. To set this up, you configure a reverse
lookup zone and proceed to add records. Which record types do you need to create?
PTR Records
SOA records must be included in every zone. What are they used for ?
SOA records contain a TTL value, used by default in all resource records in the zone. SOA
records contain the e-mail address of the person who is responsible for maintaining the zone.
SOA records contain the current serial number of the zone, which is used in zone transfers.
By default, if the name is not found in the cache or local hosts file, what is the first step the
client takes to resolve the FQDN name into an IP address ?
Performs a recursive search through the primary DNS server based on the network interface
configuration .
What is primary, Secondary, stub & AD Integrated Zone?
Primary Zone: - zone which is saved as normal text file with filename (.dns) in DBS folder.
Maintains a read, write copy of zone database.
Secondary Zone: - maintains a read only copy of zone database on another DNS server. Provides
fault tolerance and load balancing by acting as backup server to primary server.
Stub zone: - contains a copy of name server and SOA records used for reducing the DNS search
orders. Provides fault tolerance and load balancing.
How do you manually create SRV records in DNS?
This is on windows server go to run ---> dnsmgmt.msc rightclick on the zone you want to add
srv record to and choose "other new record" and choose service location(srv).
What is the main purpose of SRV records ?
SRV records are used in locating hosts that provide certain network services.
Before installing your first domain controller in the network, you installed a DNS server
and created a zone, naming it as you would name your AD domain. However, after the
installation of the domain controller, you are unable to locate infrastructure SRV records
anywhere in the zone. What is the most likely cause of this failure ?
The zone you created was not configured to allow dynamic updates. The local interface on the
DNS server was not configured to allow dynamic updates.
Which of the following conditions must be satisfied to configure dynamic DNS updates for
legacy clients ?
The zone to be used for dynamic updates must be configured to allow dynamic updates. The
DHCP server must support, and be configured to allow, dynamic updates for legacy clients.
At some point during the name resolution process, the requesting party received
authoritative reply. Which further actions are likely to be taken after this reply ?
After receiving the authoritative reply, the resolution process is effectively over.
Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones.
Active Directory integrated DNS enables Active Directory storage and replication of DNS zone
databases. Windows 2000 DNS server, the DNS server that is included with Windows 2000
Server, accommodates storing zone data in Active Directory.
When you configure a computer as a DNS server, zones are usually stored as text files on name
servers that is, all of the zones required by DNS are stored in a text file on the server computer.
These text files must be synchronized among DNS name servers by using a system that requires
a separate replication topology and schedule called a zone transfer However, if you use Active
Directory integrated DNS when you configure a domain controller as a DNS name server, zone
data is stored as an Active Directory object and is replicated as part of domain replication.
Your company uses ten domain controllers, three of which are also used as DNS servers.
You have one companywide AD-integrated zone, which contains several thousand resource
records. This zone also allows dynamic updates, and it is critical to keep this zone up-to-
date. Replication between domain controllers takes up a significant amount of bandwidth.
You are looking to cut bandwidth usage for the purpose of replication. What should you
do?
Change the replication scope to all DNS servers in the domain.
You are administering a network connected to the Internet. Your users complain that
everything is slow. Preliminary research of the problem indicates that it takes a
considerable amount of time to resolve names of resources on the Internet. What is the
most likely reason for this?
DNS servers are not caching replies.. Local client computers are not caching replies« The
cache.dns file may have been corrupted on the server.
What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones?
If your DNS topology includes Active Directory, use Active Directory integrated zones. Active
Directory integrated zones enable you to store zone data in the Active Directory database.Zone
information about any primary DNS server within an Active Directory integrated zone is always
replicated.
Because DNS replication is single-master, a primary DNS server in a standard primary DNS
zone can be a single point of failure. In an Active Directory integrated zone, a primary DNS
server cannot be a single point of failure because Active Directory uses multimaster replication.
Updates that are made to any domain controller are replicated to all domain controllers and the
zone information about any primary DNS server within an Active Directory integrated zone is
always replicated.
Active Directory integrated zones: Enable you to secure zones by using secure dynamic update.
Provide increased fault tolerance. Every Active Directory integrated zone can be replicated to all
domain controllers within the Active Directory domain or forest. All DNS servers running on
these domain controllers can act as primary servers for the zone and accept dynamic updates.
Enable replication that propagates changed data only, compresses replicated data, and reduces
network traffic. If you have an Active Directory infrastructure, you can only use Active
Directory integrated zones on Active Directory domain controllers.If you are using Active
Directory integrated zones, you must decide whether or not to store Active Directory integrated
zones in the application directory partition.
You can combine Active Directory integrated zones and file-based zones in the same design. For
example, if the DNS server that is authoritative for the private root zone is running on an
operating system other than Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000, it cannot act as an Active
Directory domain controller. Therefore, you must use file-based zones on that server. However,
you can delegate this zone to any domain controller running either Windows Server 2003 or
Windows 2000.
You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC has not registered its SRV
records in DNS. Name a few possible causes.
The machine cannot be configured with DNS client her own .
The DNS service cannot be run.

What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones?
Understanding stub zones
A stub zone is a copy of a zone that contains only those resource records necessary to identify
the authoritative Domain Name System (DNS) servers for that zone.
A stub zone is used to resolve names between separate DNS namespaces. This type of resolution
may be necessary when a corporate merger requires that the DNS servers for two separate DNS
namespaces resolve names for clients in both namespaces.
A stub zone consists of:
? The start of authority (SOA) resource record, name server (NS) resource records, and the glue
A resource records for the delegated zone. The IP address of one or more master servers that can
be used to update the stub zone. The master servers for a stub zone are one or more DNS servers
authoritative for the child zone, usually the DNS server hosting the primary zone for the
delegated domain name.
Use stub zones to:
? Keep delegated zone information current.
By updating a stub zone for one of its child zones regularly, the DNS server hosting both the
parent zone and the stub zone will maintain a current list of authoritative DNS servers for the
child zone.
? Improve name resolution.
Stub zones enable a DNS server to perform recursion using the stub zone's list of name servers
without needing to query the Internet or internal root server for the DNS namespace.
? Simplify DNS administration.
By using stub zones throughout your DNS infrastructure, you can distribute a list of the
authoritative DNS servers for a zone without using secondary zones. However, stub zones do not
serve the same purpose as secondary zones and are not an alternative when considering
redundancy and load sharing.
There are two lists of DNS servers involved in the loading and maintenance of a stub zone:
? The list of master servers from which the DNS server loads and updates a stub zone. A master
server may be a primary or secondary DNS server for the zone. In both cases, it will have a
complete list of the DNS servers for the zone.
? The list of the authoritative DNS servers for a zone. This list is contained in the stub zone using
name server (NS) resource records. When a DNS server loads a stub zone, such as
widgets.example.com, it queries the master servers, which can be in different locations, for the
necessary resource records of the authoritative servers for the zone widgets.example.com. The
list of master servers may contain a single server or multiple servers and can be changed
anytime.
What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding?
Rather than having a DNS server forward all queries it cannot resolve to forwarders, the DNS
server can forward queries for different domain names to different DNS servers according to the
specific domain names that are contained in the queries. Forwarding according to these domain-
name conditions improves conventional forwarding by adding a second condition to the
forwarding process.
A conditional forwarder setting consists of a domain name and the IP address of one or more
DNS servers. To configure a DNS server for conditional forwarding, a list of domain names is
set up on the Windows Server 2003-based DNS server along with the DNS server IP address.
When a DNS client or server performs a query operation against a Windows Server 2003- based
DNS server that is configured for forwarding, the DNS server looks to see if the query can be
resolved by using its own zone data or the zone data that is stored in its cache, and then, if the
DNS server is configured to forward for the domain name that is designated in the query (a
match), the query is forwarded to the IP address of a DNS Server that is associated with the
domain name. If the DNS server has no domain name listed for the name that is designated in the
query, it attempts to resolve the query by using standard recursion.

What is the 224.0.1.24 address used for?
WINS server group address. Used to support auto discovery and dynamic configuration of
replication for WINS servers. For more information, see WINS replication overview WINS
server group address. Used to support auto discovery and dynamic configuration of replication
for WINS servers.
Describe the importance of DNS to AD ?
When Microsoft began development on Active Directory, full compatibility with the domain
name system (DNS) was a critical priority. Active Directory was built from the ground up not
just to be fully compatible with DNS but to be so integrated with it that one cannot exist without
the other. Microsoft's direction in this case did not just happen by chance, but because of the
central role that DNS plays in Internet name resolution and Microsoft's desire to make its product
lines embrace the Internet.
While fully conforming to the standards established for DNS, Active Directory can expand upon
the standard feature set of DNS and offer some new capabilities such as AD-Integrated DNS,
which greatly eases the administration required for DNS environments. In addition, Active
Directory can easily adapt to exist in a foreign DNS environment, such as Unix BIND, as long as
the BIND version is 8.2.x or higher. When Microsoft began development on Active Directory,
full compatibility with the domain name system (DNS) was a critical priority.
Active Directory was built from the ground up not just to be fully compatible with DNS but to be
so integrated with it that one cannot exist without the other. Microsoft's direction in this case did
not just happen by chance, but because of the central role that DNS plays in Internet name
resolution and Microsoft's desire to make its product lines embrace the Internet.
While fully conforming to the standards established for DNS, Active Directory can expand upon
the standard feature set of DNS and offer some new capabilities such as AD-Integrated DNS,
which greatly eases the administration required for DNS environments. In addition, Active
Directory can easily adapt to exist in a foreign DNS environment, such as Unix BIND, as long as
the BIND version is 8.2.x or higher.
What is the "in-addr.arpa" zone used for?
In a Domain Name System (DNS) environment, it is common for a user or an application to
request a Reverse Lookup of a host name, given the IP address. This article explains this process.
The following is quoted from RFC 1035: "The Internet uses a special domain to support gateway
location and Internet address to host mapping. Other classes may employ a similar strategy in
other domains. The intent of this domain is to provide a guaranteed method to perform host
address to host name mapping, and to facilitate queries to locate all gateways on a particular
network on the Internet.
"The domain begins at IN-ADDR.ARPA and has a substructure which follows the Internet
addressing structure. "Domain names in the IN-ADDR.ARPA domain are defined to have up to
four labels in addition to the IN-ADDR.ARPA suffix. Each label represents one octet of an
Internet address, and is expressed as a character string for a decimal value in the range 0-255
(with leading zeros omitted except in the case of a zero octet which is represented by a single
zero).
"Host addresses are represented by domain names that have all four labels specified." Reverse
Lookup files use the structure specified in RFC 1035.
For example, if you have a network which is 150.10.0.0, then the Reverse Lookup file for this
network would be 10.150.IN-ADDR.ARPA. Any hosts with IP addresses in the 150.10.0.0
network will have a PTR (or 'Pointer') entry in 10.150.IN- ADDR.ARPA referencing the host
name for that IP address. A single IN- ADDR.ARPA file may contain entries for hosts in many
domains. Consider the following scenario. There is a Reverse Lookup file 10.150.IN-
ADDR.ARPA with the following contents: Exp : 1.20 IN PTR WS1.ACME.COM.

What are the requirements from DNS to support AD?
When you install Active Directory on a member server, the member server is promoted to a
domain controller. Active Directory uses DNS as the location mechanism for domain controllers,
enabling computers on the network to obtain IP addresses of domain controllers. During the
installation of Active Directory, the service (SRV) and address (A) resource records are
dynamically registered in DNS, which are necessary for the successful functionality of the
domain controller locator (Locator) mechanism.
To find domain controllers in a domain or forest, a client queries DNS for the SRV and A DNS
resource records of the domain controller, which provide the client with the names and IP
addresses of the domain controllers. In this context, the SRV and A resource records are referred
to as Locator DNS resource records.
When adding a domain controller to a forest, you are updating a DNS zone hosted on a DNS
server with the Locator DNS resource records and identifying the domain controller. For this
reason, the DNS zone must allow dynamic updates (RFC 2136) and the DNS server hosting that
zone must support the SRV resource records (RFC 2782) to advertise the Active Directory
directory service. For more information about RFCs, see DNS RFCs.
If the DNS server hosting the authoritative DNS zone is not a server running Windows 2000 or
Windows Server 2003, contact your DNS administrator to determine if the DNS server supports
the required standards. If the server does not support the required standards, or the authoritative
DNS zone cannot be configured to allow dynamic updates, then modification is required to your
existing DNS infrastructure.
For more information, see Checklist: Verifying DNS before installing Active Directory and
Using the Active Directory Installation Wizard.
Important
The DNS server used to support Active Directory must support SRV resource records for the
Locator mechanism to function. For more information, see Managing resource records. It is
recommended that the DNS infrastructure allows dynamic updates of Locator DNS resource
records (SRV and A) before installing Active Directory, but your DNS administrator may add
these resource records manually after installation. After installing Active Directory, these records
can be found on the domain controller in the following location:
systemroot\System32\Config\Netlogon.dns .
What does a zone consist of & why do we require a zone?
Zone consists of resource records and we require zone for representing sites.
What is Caching Only Server?
When we install 2000 & 2003 server it is configured as caching only server where it maintains
the frequently accessed sites information and again when we access the same site for next time it
is obtain from cached information instead of going to the actual site.
What is forwarder?
When one DNS server can?t receive the query it can be forwarded to another DNS once
configured as forwarder.
What is secondary DNS Server?
It is backup for primary DNS where it maintains a read only copy of DNS database.
How to enable Dynamic updates in DNS?
Start>Program>Admin tools> DNS >Zone properties.
What are the properties of DNS server?
INTERFACES, FORWARDERS, ADVANCED, ROUTINGS, SECURITY, MONITORING,
LOGGING, DEBUG LOGGING.
Properties of a Zone ?
General, SOA, NAMESERVER, WINS, Security, and ZONE Transfer.
What is scavenging?
Finding and deleting unwanted records.
What are SRV records?
SRV are the service records, there are 6 service records. They are useful for locating the services.
What are the types of SRV records?
MSDCS:Contains DCs information.
TCP:Contains Global Catalog, Kerberos & LDAP information.
UDP:Contains Sites information.
Sites:Contains Sites information.
Domain DNS Zone:Conations domain?s DNS specific information.
Forest DNS zone:Contains Forest?s Specific Information.
Where does a Host File Reside?
c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc.
What is SOA?
Start of Authority: useful when a zone starts. Provides the zone startup information.
What is a query?
A request made by the DNS client to provide the name server information.
What are the diff. types of Queries?
Recursion, iteration.
Tools for troubleshooting DNS?
DNS Console, NSLOOKUP, DNSCMD, IPCONFIG, Logs.
What is WINS server? where we use WINS server? difference between DNS and WINS?
WINS is windows internet name service used to resolve the NetBIOS(computer name)name to
IP address.This is proprietary for Windows.You can use in LAN.DNS is a Domain Naming
System, which resolves Host names to IP addresses. It uses fully qualified domain names. DNS
is an Internet standard used to resolve host names.
What is new in Windows Server 2003 regarding the DNS management?
When DC promotion occurs with an existing forest, the Active Directory Installation Wizard
contacts an existing DC to update the directory and replicate from the DC the required portions
of the directory.
If the wizard fails to locate a DC, it performs debugging and reports what caused the failure and
how to fix the problem. In order to be located on a network, every DC must register in DNS DC
locator DNS records. The Active Directory Installation Wizard verifies a proper configuration of
the DNS infrastructure. All DNS configuration debugging and reporting activity is done with the
Active Directory Installation Wizard.
SOA records must be included in every zone. What are they used for?
SOA records contain a TTL value, used by default in all resource records in the zone. SOA
records contain the e-mail address of the person who is responsible for maintaining the zone.
SOA records contain the current serial number of the zone, which is used in zone transfers.
By default, if the name is not found in the cache or local hosts file, what is the first step the client
takes to resolve the FQDN name into an IP address? Performs a recursive search through the
primary DNS server based on the network interface configuration.
How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server?
Go to cmd prompt and type ipconfig /flushdns .
What is the main purpose of SRV records?
SRV records are used in locating hosts that provide certain network services.
Before installing your first domain controller in the network, you installed a DNS server
and created a zone, naming it as you would name your AD domain. However, after the
installation of the domain controller, you are unable to locate infrastructure SRV records
anywhere in the zone. What is the most likely cause of this failure?
The zone you created was not configured to allow dynamic updates. The local interface on the
DNS server was not configured to allow dynamic updates
What is the "." zone in my forward lookup zone?
This setting designates the Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNS server to be a root hint
server and is usually deleted. If you do not delete this setting, you may not be able to perform
external name resolution to the root hint servers on the Internet.
Do I need to configure forwarders in DNS?
No. By default, Windows 2000 DNS uses the root hint servers on the Internet; however, you can
configure forwarders to send DNS queries directly to your ISP's DNS server or other DNS
servers. Most of the time, when you configure forwarders, DNS performance and efficiency
increases, but this configuration can also introduce a point of failure if the forwarding DNS
server is experiencing problems.
The root hint server can provide a level of redundancy in exchange for slightly increased DNS
traffic on your Internet connection. Windows Server 2003 DNS will query root hints servers if it
cannot query the forwarders.
Should I point the other Windows 2000-based and Windows Server 2003-based computers
on my LAN to my ISP's DNS servers?
No. If a Windows 2000-based or Windows Server 2003-based server or workstation does not
find the domain controller in DNS, you may experience issues joining the domain or logging on
to the domain. A Windows 2000-based or Windows Server 2003-based computer's preferred
DNS setting should point to the Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 domain controller
running DNS.
If you are using DHCP, make sure that you view scope option #15 for the correct DNS server
settings for your LAN.
Do I need to point computers that are running Windows NT 4.0 or Microsoft Windows 95,
Microsoft Windows 98, or Microsoft Windows 98 Second Edition to the Windows 2000 or
Windows Server 2003 DNS server?
Legacy operating systems continue to use NetBIOS for name resolution to find a domain
controller; however it is recommended that you point all computers to the Windows 2000 or
Windows Server 2003 DNS server for name resolution.
What if my Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNS server is behind a proxy server or
firewall?
If you are able to query the ISP's DNS servers from behind the proxy server or firewall,
Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 DNS server is able to query the root hint servers.
UDP and TCP Port 53 should be open on the proxy server or firewall.
What should I do if the domain controller points to itself for DNS, but the SRV records still
do not appear in the zone?
Check for a disjointed namespace, and then run Netdiag.exe /fix.
You must install Support Tools from the Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 CD-
ROM to run Netdiag.exe.
How do I set up DNS for a child domain?
To set up DNS for a child domain, create a delegation record on the parent DNS server for the
child DNS server. Create a secondary zone on the child DNS server that transfers the parent zone
from the parent DNS server.
Note Windows Server 2003 has additional types of zones, such as Stub Zones and forest-level
integrated Active Directory zones, that may be a better fit for your environment. Set the child
domain controller to point to itself first. As soon as an additional domain controller is available,
set the child domain controller to point to this domain controller in the child domain as its
secondary.





Name Resolvers:
There are 2 types of name resolvers:
WINS
DNS

Resolver: It is a file which will contain the mapping information of the clients. Ex. System
name and its IP address


WINS: (Windows Internet Naming Service) It is a service of Microsoft used basically on
windows network to resolve NetBIOS names to IP address and IPs to NetBIOS names.
LMhosts: It is a static text file which contains NetBIOS to IP mapping information it was
used instead of WINS.
WINS follow NetBIOS names: operating systems like NT, 95, workstation, 98 rely on WINS.
Because these OS follow NetBIOS names
NetBIOS Names: Net bios names are the names assigned to network nodes. NetBIOS
names are the names without extensions. They are called µflat names¶.
2000 & 2003 also support WINS.


Query:
Query is a request to find an address of the DNS there are 2 types of queries.
Recursive queries
Iterative queries

Recursive Queries: When a client start a query, query is passed onto local DNS for
resolution if a query cannot find the solution then the DNS on behalf of client forwards the
query to another DNS, And to another DNS and so on until it finds the mapping information
or an answer.

Iterative Query: Query raised by the client to the DNS. If the DNS cannot resolve it sends a
negative response to the client, then the client has to contact another DNS and so on.
In this case the DNS is not forwarding the query but the client itself is contacting other DNS.

DNS (Domain Naming Service):
DNS resolves host names to IP addresses IP addresses to host names. Supports all type of
OS. Ex. Windows, Linux, UNIX, Mac.., etc...

DNS: defines a hierarchical namespace where each level of the namespace is separated by
a ³.´

Resolver:
Resolving: It is a process of converting IPs to host names & host names to IPs.
Computer that requests DNS resolution, Issues queries that ask for specific types of
mapping of computers and IP addresses (records)

Query types determine behavior of DNS server receiving query.
Lookup types determine whether a name to IP mapping or an IP to name mapping is sought.
Records:
It is a database which contains information about the zone
There are a few types of records
Host record (A record) used in FLZ
PTR record (pointer) used in RLZ
Alias record (nick name of a host record)
MX record (used for mail server)

Zone: Zone is a subtree of DNS database. Zone contains the mapping information with the
help of forward lookup zone & reverse look up zone.

Forward Look up zone: Contains host record, which contain host names to IP, address
mapping information
Reverse Lookup zone: it contains mapping information about IPs to host.
Zone Types
Primary Zone: Primary zones are created on the primary DNS servers. It is a read /write
copy.
Secondary Zone: There are created on the second DNS server where it holds a read only
copy of the zone.
Secondary zones provide fall tolerance and load balancing to the primary zone.
Secondary zone is a backup for primary zone
Zone transfer:
Zone transfer is a process of transferring the zone from primary to secondary or secondary to
primary. Zone transfers occur when there is a change or modification taken place on either of the
zones.
AD integrated zones:
These are useful when we want to maintain zone information in the AD . zone is saved in the AD as
a result when we back up AD we are also backing up zone information. If it is a primary zone, zone
is saved as a normal text file as a result we have to back p the zone separately, AD integrated zone is
created when we install AD with a domain name.
Stub zone:
Stub zone is a newly added feature in WIN 2003 stub zone contains name server
information or name server records and SOA records (Start of Authority)
Stub zones provide fault tolerance & load balancing besides providing the name server &
SOA record information. Stub zones are useful for resolving the query faster.

Resource Records (RR):
RRS are useful to provide the information about the zone. There are a few types of
resource records.
Host a record
Pointer record
Alias record
MX record
AAAA record
ATMA HINFO etc«
Service Records: There are also called as SRV records. These are useful for locating the services.
There are totally 6 service records created when we install AD. They are located in DNS under
domain subtree.
DN5 5erver Properties.
forwarders
eveht loggihg
ihterfaces ( used wheh we have multiple NlCs)
0ohitorihg
6ecurity
5oot hihts
'ebug loggihg
$dvahced


,Qterfaces
Useful wheh our system has multiple NlCs ahd the 'N6 cah listeh the queries from all
available NlCs.

Offers load balaQciQJ
Forwarders lf the query is hot resolvable by the local 'N6 it is beihg forwarded to ahother
'N6 server for hame resolutioh

LOGGING. What are the types of SRV records? MSDCS:Contains DCs information TCP:Contains Global Catalog.What is SOA? Start of Authority: useful when a zone starts. SOA. What are the properties of DNS server? INTERFACES. PM. WINS.How to enable Dynamic updates in DNS? Start>Program>Admin tools> DNS >Zone properties. Kerberos & LDAP information. ADVANCED. Logs. FORWARDERS. NAMESERVER.Tools for troubleshooting DNS? DNS Console. 22. DEBUG LOGGING. 18.Where does a Host File Reside? c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc. and ZONE Transfer. They are useful for locating the services. 20.13.What are the diff. Provides the zone startup information 21. SECURITY. NSLOOKUP. . IPCONFIG. UDP:Contains Sites information Sites:Contains Sites information Domain DNS Zone:Conations domain¶s DNS specific information Forest DNS zone:Contains Forest¶s Specific Information. 15. 17. ROUTINGS.What is a query? A request made by the DNS client to provide the name server information. types of Queries? Recursion. 14. Properties of a Zone? General. What are SRV records? SRV are the service records. there are 6 service records. Security. DNSCMD. 16. iteration 23. What is scavenging? Finding and deleting unwanted records. MONITORING. 19.

Provides fault tolerance and load balancing by acting as backup server to primary server. Secure services in your network require reverse name resolution to make it more difficult to launch successful attacks against the services. What is a Resource Record? It is a record provides the information about the resources available in the N/W infrastructure.zone which is saved as normal text file with filename (. What is primary. Standard Secondary. What is a Forward Lookup? Resolving Host Names to IP Addresses. you configure a reverse lookup zone and proceed to add records. . used by default in all resource records in the zone. DNS Roles? Standard Primary. What is Reverse Lookup? It?s a file contains host names to IP mapping information. SOA records contain the current serial number of the zone. Secondary Zone: . Secondary.What is the main purpose of a DNS server? DNS servers are used to resolve FQDN hostnames into IP addresses and vice versa. which is used in zone transfers. Which record types do you need to create? PTR Records SOA records must be included in every zone. what is the first step the client takes to resolve the FQDN name into an IP address ? Performs a recursive search through the primary DNS server based on the network interface configuration . What is a Zone? Zone is a sub tree of DNS database. By default. Maintains a read. What are they used for ? SOA records contain a TTL value. if the name is not found in the cache or local hosts file. write copy of zone database. What is the port no of dns ? 53. SOA records contain the e-mail address of the person who is responsible for maintaining the zone. What are the diff. & AD Integrated.dns) in DBS folder.maintains a read only copy of zone database on another DNS server. Provides fault tolerance and load balancing.contains a copy of name server and SOA records used for reducing the DNS search orders. To set this up. Stub zone: . stub & AD Integrated Zone? Primary Zone: .

you are unable to locate infrastructure SRV records anywhere in the zone. What is the main purpose of SRV records ? SRV records are used in locating hosts that provide certain network services. Your company uses ten domain controllers. You have one companywide AD-integrated zone. which contains several thousand resource records. the resolution process is effectively over. after the installation of the domain controller.msc rightclick on the zone you want to add srv record to and choose "other new record" and choose service location(srv). Windows 2000 DNS server. The local interface on the DNS server was not configured to allow dynamic updates.How do you manually create SRV records in DNS? This is on windows server go to run ---> dnsmgmt. accommodates storing zone data in Active Directory. This zone also allows dynamic updates. . and be configured to allow. if you use Active Directory integrated DNS when you configure a domain controller as a DNS name server. Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. Active Directory integrated DNS enables Active Directory storage and replication of DNS zone databases. naming it as you would name your AD domain. all of the zones required by DNS are stored in a text file on the server computer. dynamic updates for legacy clients. Which further actions are likely to be taken after this reply ? After receiving the authoritative reply. Which of the following conditions must be satisfied to configure dynamic DNS updates for legacy clients ? The zone to be used for dynamic updates must be configured to allow dynamic updates. zone data is stored as an Active Directory object and is replicated as part of domain replication. The DHCP server must support. the DNS server that is included with Windows 2000 Server. What should you do? Change the replication scope to all DNS servers in the domain. When you configure a computer as a DNS server. you installed a DNS server and created a zone. At some point during the name resolution process. zones are usually stored as text files on name servers that is. and it is critical to keep this zone up-todate. You are looking to cut bandwidth usage for the purpose of replication. Before installing your first domain controller in the network. These text files must be synchronized among DNS name servers by using a system that requires a separate replication topology and schedule called a zone transfer However. three of which are also used as DNS servers. However. the requesting party received authoritative reply. What is the most likely cause of this failure ? The zone you created was not configured to allow dynamic updates. Replication between domain controllers takes up a significant amount of bandwidth.

Therefore. . What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones? If your DNS topology includes Active Directory. Every Active Directory integrated zone can be replicated to all domain controllers within the Active Directory domain or forest. For example. a primary DNS server in a standard primary DNS zone can be a single point of failure. and reduces network traffic. you must use file-based zones on that server. Enable replication that propagates changed data only. Active Directory integrated zones: Enable you to secure zones by using secure dynamic update. What is the most likely reason for this? DNS servers are not caching replies. a primary DNS server cannot be a single point of failure because Active Directory uses multimaster replication.Zone information about any primary DNS server within an Active Directory integrated zone is always replicated. Active Directory integrated zones enable you to store zone data in the Active Directory database. you must decide whether or not to store Active Directory integrated zones in the application directory partition. However. Updates that are made to any domain controller are replicated to all domain controllers and the zone information about any primary DNS server within an Active Directory integrated zone is always replicated. Your users complain that everything is slow. it cannot act as an Active Directory domain controller. compresses replicated data. The machine cannot be configured with DNS client her own . Because DNS replication is single-master. Preliminary research of the problem indicates that it takes a considerable amount of time to resolve names of resources on the Internet.. if the DNS server that is authoritative for the private root zone is running on an operating system other than Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000. The DNS service cannot be run. you can only use Active Directory integrated zones on Active Directory domain controllers. Name a few possible causes. In an Active Directory integrated zone. Provide increased fault tolerance.You are administering a network connected to the Internet. You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC has not registered its SRV records in DNS. If you have an Active Directory infrastructure. All DNS servers running on these domain controllers can act as primary servers for the zone and accept dynamic updates. You can combine Active Directory integrated zones and file-based zones in the same design.If you are using Active Directory integrated zones.dns file may have been corrupted on the server. use Active Directory integrated zones. Local client computers are not caching replies« The cache. you can delegate this zone to any domain controller running either Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000.

name server (NS) resource records. In both cases. This type of resolution may be necessary when a corporate merger requires that the DNS servers for two separate DNS namespaces resolve names for clients in both namespaces. Stub zones enable a DNS server to perform recursion using the stub zone's list of name servers without needing to query the Internet or internal root server for the DNS namespace.example. ? Improve name resolution. The IP address of one or more master servers that can be used to update the stub zone. you can distribute a list of the authoritative DNS servers for a zone without using secondary zones. and the glue A resource records for the delegated zone. it queries the master servers. stub zones do not serve the same purpose as secondary zones and are not an alternative when considering redundancy and load sharing. However.com. for the necessary resource records of the authoritative servers for the zone widgets.example. . it will have a complete list of the DNS servers for the zone. Use stub zones to: ? Keep delegated zone information current. This list is contained in the stub zone using name server (NS) resource records. A master server may be a primary or secondary DNS server for the zone. The master servers for a stub zone are one or more DNS servers authoritative for the child zone.com. such as widgets. ? Simplify DNS administration. The list of master servers may contain a single server or multiple servers and can be changed anytime. When a DNS server loads a stub zone. ? The list of the authoritative DNS servers for a zone. By updating a stub zone for one of its child zones regularly. usually the DNS server hosting the primary zone for the delegated domain name. the DNS server hosting both the parent zone and the stub zone will maintain a current list of authoritative DNS servers for the child zone.What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones? Understanding stub zones A stub zone is a copy of a zone that contains only those resource records necessary to identify the authoritative Domain Name System (DNS) servers for that zone. A stub zone consists of: ? The start of authority (SOA) resource record. There are two lists of DNS servers involved in the loading and maintenance of a stub zone: ? The list of master servers from which the DNS server loads and updates a stub zone. which can be in different locations. A stub zone is used to resolve names between separate DNS namespaces. By using stub zones throughout your DNS infrastructure.

if the DNS server is configured to forward for the domain name that is designated in the query (a match).2. but because of the central role that DNS plays in Internet name resolution and Microsoft's desire to make its product lines embrace the Internet. Used to support auto discovery and dynamic configuration of replication for WINS servers. the DNS server looks to see if the query can be resolved by using its own zone data or the zone data that is stored in its cache. the DNS server can forward queries for different domain names to different DNS servers according to the specific domain names that are contained in the queries. Active Directory was built from the ground up not just to be fully compatible with DNS but to be so integrated with it that one cannot exist without the other. When Microsoft began development on Active Directory. Microsoft's direction in this case did not just happen by chance.x or higher.24 address used for? WINS server group address. When a DNS client or server performs a query operation against a Windows Server 2003. which greatly eases the administration required for DNS environments. For more information. What is the 224. If the DNS server has no domain name listed for the name that is designated in the query.What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding? Rather than having a DNS server forward all queries it cannot resolve to forwarders.1. such as Unix BIND. the query is forwarded to the IP address of a DNS Server that is associated with the domain name. Describe the importance of DNS to AD ? When Microsoft began development on Active Directory. Used to support auto discovery and dynamic configuration of replication for WINS servers. as long as the BIND version is 8. In addition.based DNS server that is configured for forwarding. a list of domain names is set up on the Windows Server 2003-based DNS server along with the DNS server IP address. and then. full compatibility with the domain name system (DNS) was a critical priority. but because of the central role that DNS plays in Internet name resolution and Microsoft's desire to make its product lines embrace the Internet. A conditional forwarder setting consists of a domain name and the IP address of one or more DNS servers. Forwarding according to these domainname conditions improves conventional forwarding by adding a second condition to the forwarding process. Active Directory can easily adapt to exist in a foreign DNS environment. Active Directory was built from the ground up not just to be fully compatible with DNS but to be so integrated with it that one cannot exist without the other. While fully conforming to the standards established for DNS. To configure a DNS server for conditional forwarding.0. Active Directory can expand upon the standard feature set of DNS and offer some new capabilities such as AD-Integrated DNS. Microsoft's direction in this case did not just happen by chance. it attempts to resolve the query by using standard recursion. see WINS replication overview WINS server group address. . full compatibility with the domain name system (DNS) was a critical priority.

This article explains this process.10.INADDR. and is expressed as a character string for a decimal value in the range 0-255 (with leading zeros omitted except in the case of a zero octet which is represented by a single zero). if you have a network which is 150. . To find domain controllers in a domain or forest. The following is quoted from RFC 1035: "The Internet uses a special domain to support gateway location and Internet address to host mapping. which are necessary for the successful functionality of the domain controller locator (Locator) mechanism.ARPA and has a substructure which follows the Internet addressing structure. Each label represents one octet of an Internet address. Active Directory can easily adapt to exist in a foreign DNS environment. In this context. "Domain names in the IN-ADDR. which greatly eases the administration required for DNS environments. There is a Reverse Lookup file 10.ARPA domain are defined to have up to four labels in addition to the IN-ADDR.COM.10. The intent of this domain is to provide a guaranteed method to perform host address to host name mapping. Any hosts with IP addresses in the 150.ADDR. which provide the client with the names and IP addresses of the domain controllers.2." Reverse Lookup files use the structure specified in RFC 1035.ACME. In addition.ARPA referencing the host name for that IP address.ARPA with the following contents: Exp : 1. What is the "in-addr.ARPA file may contain entries for hosts in many domains.IN. such as Unix BIND. then the Reverse Lookup file for this network would be 10. What are the requirements from DNS to support AD? When you install Active Directory on a member server. the SRV and A resource records are referred to as Locator DNS resource records. For example. a client queries DNS for the SRV and A DNS resource records of the domain controller.0. A single IN. Other classes may employ a similar strategy in other domains. Active Directory can expand upon the standard feature set of DNS and offer some new capabilities such as AD-Integrated DNS.ARPA suffix.0 network will have a PTR (or 'Pointer') entry in 10.IN-ADDR. the service (SRV) and address (A) resource records are dynamically registered in DNS. and to facilitate queries to locate all gateways on a particular network on the Internet.While fully conforming to the standards established for DNS. given the IP address.arpa" zone used for? In a Domain Name System (DNS) environment.ARPA.0. "Host addresses are represented by domain names that have all four labels specified. the member server is promoted to a domain controller.150. it is common for a user or an application to request a Reverse Lookup of a host name.150. Active Directory uses DNS as the location mechanism for domain controllers.0.ADDR.20 IN PTR WS1. as long as the BIND version is 8.x or higher. "The domain begins at IN-ADDR.150. Consider the following scenario. During the installation of Active Directory. enabling computers on the network to obtain IP addresses of domain controllers.

or the authoritative DNS zone cannot be configured to allow dynamic updates. see Checklist: Verifying DNS before installing Active Directory and Using the Active Directory Installation Wizard. you are updating a DNS zone hosted on a DNS server with the Locator DNS resource records and identifying the domain controller. For more information. but your DNS administrator may add these resource records manually after installation. the DNS zone must allow dynamic updates (RFC 2136) and the DNS server hosting that zone must support the SRV resource records (RFC 2782) to advertise the Active Directory directory service. contact your DNS administrator to determine if the DNS server supports the required standards. What is Caching Only Server? When we install 2000 & 2003 server it is configured as caching only server where it maintains the frequently accessed sites information and again when we access the same site for next time it is obtain from cached information instead of going to the actual site. What is secondary DNS Server? It is backup for primary DNS where it maintains a read only copy of DNS database. SECURITY. What does a zone consist of & why do we require a zone? Zone consists of resource records and we require zone for representing sites. ROUTINGS. How to enable Dynamic updates in DNS? Start>Program>Admin tools> DNS >Zone properties. LOGGING. If the server does not support the required standards. ADVANCED. After installing Active Directory. For more information about RFCs. It is recommended that the DNS infrastructure allows dynamic updates of Locator DNS resource records (SRV and A) before installing Active Directory. DEBUG LOGGING. For more information. see DNS RFCs.dns . If the DNS server hosting the authoritative DNS zone is not a server running Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003. What is forwarder? When one DNS server can?t receive the query it can be forwarded to another DNS once configured as forwarder. What are the properties of DNS server? INTERFACES. these records can be found on the domain controller in the following location: systemroot\System32\Config\Netlogon. then modification is required to your existing DNS infrastructure. Important The DNS server used to support Active Directory must support SRV resource records for the Locator mechanism to function. see Managing resource records. For this reason. MONITORING. .When adding a domain controller to a forest. FORWARDERS.

which resolves Host names to IP addresses. NAMESERVER. What is scavenging? Finding and deleting unwanted records. types of Queries? Recursion. SOA. The Active Directory Installation Wizard verifies a proper configuration of . Provides the zone startup information. What are the diff. Kerberos & LDAP information. TCP:Contains Global Catalog. What are the types of SRV records? MSDCS:Contains DCs information. It uses fully qualified domain names.You can use in LAN. Where does a Host File Reside? c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc. DNSCMD. IPCONFIG. If the wizard fails to locate a DC. Tools for troubleshooting DNS? DNS Console.DNS is a Domain Naming System. What is new in Windows Server 2003 regarding the DNS management? When DC promotion occurs with an existing forest. What is SOA? Start of Authority: useful when a zone starts. the Active Directory Installation Wizard contacts an existing DC to update the directory and replicate from the DC the required portions of the directory. it performs debugging and reports what caused the failure and how to fix the problem. UDP:Contains Sites information. What is a query? A request made by the DNS client to provide the name server information. NSLOOKUP. WINS. there are 6 service records. In order to be located on a network. What is WINS server? where we use WINS server? difference between DNS and WINS? WINS is windows internet name service used to resolve the NetBIOS(computer name)name to IP address.Properties of a Zone ? General. DNS is an Internet standard used to resolve host names. and ZONE Transfer. Domain DNS Zone:Conations domain?s DNS specific information. Sites:Contains Sites information. every DC must register in DNS DC locator DNS records. Security. Logs. iteration. Forest DNS zone:Contains Forest?s Specific Information.This is proprietary for Windows. What are SRV records? SRV are the service records. They are useful for locating the services.

you are unable to locate infrastructure SRV records anywhere in the zone. after the installation of the domain controller. If you do not delete this setting. used by default in all resource records in the zone. Before installing your first domain controller in the network. A Windows 2000-based or Windows Server 2003-based computer's preferred . Should I point the other Windows 2000-based and Windows Server 2003-based computers on my LAN to my ISP's DNS servers? No. but this configuration can also introduce a point of failure if the forwarding DNS server is experiencing problems. What are they used for? SOA records contain a TTL value. By default. All DNS configuration debugging and reporting activity is done with the Active Directory Installation Wizard. Windows Server 2003 DNS will query root hints servers if it cannot query the forwarders. you may not be able to perform external name resolution to the root hint servers on the Internet. you can configure forwarders to send DNS queries directly to your ISP's DNS server or other DNS servers. By default." zone in my forward lookup zone? This setting designates the Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNS server to be a root hint server and is usually deleted. How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server? Go to cmd prompt and type ipconfig /flushdns . what is the first step the client takes to resolve the FQDN name into an IP address? Performs a recursive search through the primary DNS server based on the network interface configuration. Do I need to configure forwarders in DNS? No. The local interface on the DNS server was not configured to allow dynamic updates What is the ".the DNS infrastructure. What is the main purpose of SRV records? SRV records are used in locating hosts that provide certain network services. DNS performance and efficiency increases. you installed a DNS server and created a zone. if the name is not found in the cache or local hosts file. The root hint server can provide a level of redundancy in exchange for slightly increased DNS traffic on your Internet connection. Most of the time. SOA records contain the e-mail address of the person who is responsible for maintaining the zone. Windows 2000 DNS uses the root hint servers on the Internet. when you configure forwarders. naming it as you would name your AD domain. you may experience issues joining the domain or logging on to the domain. however. which is used in zone transfers. However. What is the most likely cause of this failure? The zone you created was not configured to allow dynamic updates. SOA records must be included in every zone. SOA records contain the current serial number of the zone. If a Windows 2000-based or Windows Server 2003-based server or workstation does not find the domain controller in DNS.

exe. UDP and TCP Port 53 should be open on the proxy server or firewall. but the SRV records still do not appear in the zone? Check for a disjointed namespace.0 or Microsoft Windows 95. such as Stub Zones and forest-level integrated Active Directory zones. and then run Netdiag. Name Resolvers: There are 2 types of name resolvers: WINS DNS . that may be a better fit for your environment. or Microsoft Windows 98 Second Edition to the Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNS server? Legacy operating systems continue to use NetBIOS for name resolution to find a domain controller. Microsoft Windows 98. Note Windows Server 2003 has additional types of zones. What should I do if the domain controller points to itself for DNS.exe /fix. How do I set up DNS for a child domain? To set up DNS for a child domain. What if my Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNS server is behind a proxy server or firewall? If you are able to query the ISP's DNS servers from behind the proxy server or firewall. Create a secondary zone on the child DNS server that transfers the parent zone from the parent DNS server. Do I need to point computers that are running Windows NT 4. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 DNS server is able to query the root hint servers. make sure that you view scope option #15 for the correct DNS server settings for your LAN. You must install Support Tools from the Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 CDROM to run Netdiag. create a delegation record on the parent DNS server for the child DNS server.DNS setting should point to the Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 domain controller running DNS. If you are using DHCP. however it is recommended that you point all computers to the Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNS server for name resolution. Set the child domain controller to point to itself first. set the child domain controller to point to this domain controller in the child domain as its secondary. As soon as an additional domain controller is available.

WINS follow NetBIOS names: operating systems like NT. workstation. query is passed onto local DNS for resolution if a query cannot find the solution then the DNS on behalf of client forwards the query to another DNS.. Supports all type of OS. If the DNS cannot resolve it sends a negative response to the client. then the client has to contact another DNS and so on. 2000 & 2003 also support WINS. Computer that requests DNS resolution. Recursive queries Iterative queries Recursive Queries: When a client start a query.´ Resolver: Resolving: It is a process of converting IPs to host names & host names to IPs. 95. NetBIOS names are the names without extensions. 98 rely on WINS.Resolver: It is a file which will contain the mapping information of the clients. DNS (Domain Naming Service): DNS resolves host names to IP addresses IP addresses to host names. Ex. They are called µflat names¶. . DNS: defines a hierarchical namespace where each level of the namespace is separated by a ³. And to another DNS and so on until it finds the mapping information or an answer. Linux. Query: Query is a request to find an address of the DNS there are 2 types of queries. System name and its IP address WINS: (Windows Internet Naming Service) It is a service of Microsoft used basically on windows network to resolve NetBIOS names to IP address and IPs to NetBIOS names... Issues queries that ask for specific types of mapping of computers and IP addresses (records) Query types determine behavior of DNS server receiving query. Mac. UNIX. Windows. Iterative Query: Query raised by the client to the DNS. LMhosts: It is a static text file which contains NetBIOS to IP mapping information it was used instead of WINS. In this case the DNS is not forwarding the query but the client itself is contacting other DNS.. Lookup types determine whether a name to IP mapping or an IP to name mapping is sought. Because these OS follow NetBIOS names NetBIOS Names: Net bios names are the names assigned to network nodes. Ex. etc.

If it is a primary zone. Secondary zones provide fall tolerance and load balancing to the primary zone. zone is saved in the AD as a result when we back up AD we are also backing up zone information. There are a few types of resource records. AD integrated zones: These are useful when we want to maintain zone information in the AD . which contain host names to IP. Stub zones are useful for resolving the query faster. . Forward Look up zone: Contains host record. zone is saved as a normal text file as a result we have to back p the zone separately. address mapping information Reverse Lookup zone: it contains mapping information about IPs to host. Zone contains the mapping information with the help of forward lookup zone & reverse look up zone. Stub zone: Stub zone is a newly added feature in WIN 2003 stub zone contains name server information or name server records and SOA records (Start of Authority) Stub zones provide fault tolerance & load balancing besides providing the name server & SOA record information. Secondary zone is a backup for primary zone Zone transfer: Zone transfer is a process of transferring the zone from primary to secondary or secondary to primary. AD integrated zone is created when we install AD with a domain name. Secondary Zone: There are created on the second DNS server where it holds a read only copy of the zone. It is a read /write copy.Records: It is a database which contains information about the zone There are a few types of records Host record (A record) used in FLZ PTR record (pointer) used in RLZ Alias record (nick name of a host record) MX record (used for mail server) Zone: Zone is a subtree of DNS database. Resource Records (RR): RRS are useful to provide the information about the zone. Zone Types Primary Zone: Primary zones are created on the primary DNS servers. Zone transfers occur when there is a change or modification taken place on either of the zones.

There are totally 6 service records created when we install AD. They are located in DNS under domain subtree. These are useful for locating the services.&V.Host a record Pointer record Alias record MX record AAAA record ATMA HINFO etc« Service Records: There are also called as SRV records. '166HUYHU3URSHUWLHV  IRUZDUGHUV  HYHQWORJJLQJ  LQWHUIDFHV XVHGZKHQZHKDYHPXOWLSOH1.

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