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Engineering › Materials › Cylinders › And › Spheres ›

**Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres
**

Analysis of the Strees and Strain in thhick walled cylinders Palstic Yielding and compound Tubes

Contents 1. Thick Walled Cylinders 2. Internal Pressure Only 3. The Error In The "thin Cylinder" Formula 4. The Plastic Yielding Of Thick Tubes. 5. Compound Tubes. 6. A Hub Shrunk Onto A Solid Shaft 7. Thick Spherical Shells 8. Page Comments

**Thick Walled Cylinders
**

Under Pressures at the surfaces, the three Principal Stresses will be : and . These Stresses may be expected to vary over any cross-section and equations will be found which give their variation with the radius r. It is assumed that the longitudinal Strain e is constant. This implies that the cross-section remains plain after straining and that this will be true for sections remote from any end fixing. Let u be the radial shift at a radius r. i.e. After Straining the radius r becomes (r + u). and it should be noted that u is small compared to r. the action of radial

The increase in Hoop Strain ( Circumferential) is given by:-

(1)

(2) Thus the Radial Shift at an unrestrained radius of . The Radial Strain The derivation of the Strain Equations appears in " Engineering Materials; Compound Stress and Strain". Using the equations given:will be

(3)

(4)

(5) It is necessary to eliminate u from equations (4) and (5). Multiplying Equation (4) by r gives:-

(6) This equation can now be differentiated w.r.t. r

(7) From Equation (5) the above equals:-

(8) Collecting Terms:-

http://www.codecogs.com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind... 3/11/2011

...Cylinder.com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind. (10) Substituting this into equation (9) (11) This can be reduced to :- (12) Equilibrium Equation (Radially) (13) In the limit and neglecting the products of small quantities the above equation reduces to:- (14) Subtracting Equation (14) from (12) (15) (16) Integrating:(17) Subtracting equation (17) from (14) (18) (19) (20) Integrating (21) http://www.Spheres .Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . 3/11/2011 .codecogs. Page 2 of 17 (9) Differentiating equation (3) and since e is constant..And .

.codecogs. If it assumed that the Internal Pressure is at and that the external pressure is zero ( Atmospheric) at a diameter then using equation (22) a diameter of (33) http://www.Cylinder.. half the stress difference):- (31) (32) It will be found that the maximum Principal Stress and maximum Shear Stress occur at the inside surface Internal Pressure Only Pressure Vessels are found in all sorts of engineering applications. The majority of numerical problems can be solved by the application of equations (22) and (23). 3/11/2011 .e. However some examples may require the use of a general formula for in terms of the dimensions and the external pressures.Spheres .Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . This would have meant that equation (3) would have been reduced to :(24) This result coupled with the equilibrium equation (14) allows all the other equations to be obtained.com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind.And . Page 3 of 17 (22) Where d = 2r and b = 4B Putting equation (22) in (17) (23) is constant( i.it is independent of r) The above It follows from equations (3) and (17) that since e is constant analysis could have been considerably shortened is this had been assumed initially..e.. Given an internal pressure of (Internal diameter and external pressure and diameter of then it follows that the radial stresses at these surfaces must be equal to the applied pressures and equation (22)can be written as:- (25) (26) Subtracting and re-arranging:- (27) Similarly (28) Thus from equation (23) (29) And from equation (22) (30) The maximum Shear Stress(i.

com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind. 3/11/2011 .. Page 4 of 17 And (34) Solving these equations for a and b (35) (36) The Stresses at any Diameter d are:- (37) (38) (39) And:- (40) (41) The Stress variations with diameter are shown in the diagram.Spheres .. The two curves are in effect "parallel" since ( See equation (17)):(42) It can be seen that the maximum Hoop Stress occurs when (43) The Maximum Shear Stress is given by:- (44) (45) The longitudinal Stress has been shown to be Constant and for a cylinder with closed ends can be obtained.And . (46) http://www.Cylinder.Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres .codecogs. from the Equilibrium Equation. for any transverse section...

43 in. Thus using equation (45) (54) From which as before. and the maximum Shear Stress to 5 tons/sq.. 3/11/2011 . internal diameter.in. Find also the alteration of thickness of metal in such a tube 8 in internal diameter when the pressure is 5 tons/sq.5. If D is the external diameter..in.in.in. then the maximum tensile Stress is the hoop Stress at the inside.Spheres .com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind. (56) Using equation (43) (57) (58) http://www. Page 5 of 17 (47) The Error In The "thin Cylinder" Formula If the thickness of the cylinder walls is t then and this can be substituted into equation (43) (48) (49) If the ratio of then:- (50) Which is 11% higher than the mean value given by And if the ratio is 20 then which is 5% higher than It can be seen that if the mean diameter is used in the thin cylinder formula. D = 13. (55) Example 2 Find the ratio of thickness to internal diameter for a tube subjected to internal pressure when the ratio of Pressure to Maximum circumferential Stress is 0. then the error is minimal..Cylinder.codecogs. Using equation (43) (51) (52) (53) The maximum Shear Stress is half the "Stress difference" at the inside. The maximum Tensile Stress is limited to 6 tons/sq. Example 1 The cylinder of a Hydraulic Ram has a 6 in..Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . Find the thickness required to withstand an internal pressure of 4 tons/sq.And .

And . what Internal pressure can be applied? Plot curves showing the variation of hoop and radial stresses throughout the material.. and 12 in. If the external pressure is 600 lbs/sq. Page 6 of 17 (59) From which:- (60) (61) (62) Also if On the outside of the tube:(63) Using equation (47) (64) Using Equation (4) (65) (66) (67) At the Outside:(68) (69) (70) (71) (72) (73) Note. 3/11/2011 . Using Equations (22) and (23) (74) The Maximum Stress = The Hoop Stress at the inside http://www.com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind./sq.Cylinder. For those of you unfamiliar with the Imperial System the 2240 converts E into tons/sq..in Example 3 The maximum permitted Stress permitted in a thick Cylinder of radii 8 in. is 2000 lb..Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres .codecogs.in.in.Spheres ..

com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind.304 (U.codecogs. closed at the ends have the same dimensions..Spheres . A is subjected to internal pressure only and B to external pressure only..in At a 10 in.Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . Page 7 of 17 (75) Solving these two equations for a and b gives:- (76) and (77) The Internal Pressure is given by (78) The Constant difference between the Hoop and the radial Stress is 400 lb/sq.L. 3/11/2011 . radius (79) (80) (81) Example 4 Two thick steel cylinders A and B . the inside being 1. Poisson's ratio = 0.Cylinder.And . • When the greatest circumferential Strain has the same numerical value.6 times the inside. Find the ratio of these two pressures:• When the greatest Circumferential Stress has the same numerical value.) Cylinder A The Internal pressure is The greatest circumferential Stress is given by equation (43) :- (82) Substituting values:- (83) The longitudinal Stress can be found from Equation (47) http://www...

.Spheres ... Solving these equations for a and b:- (86) (87) From Equation (23) (88) This reaches its maximum value when (89) (90) Then Longitudinal Stress is given by the equilibrium Equation (91) (92) The Greatest (numerically) Circumferential Strain will occur at the inside and:- (93) Case(1) (94) (95) Case (2) (96) (97) http://www.And .com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind.Cylinder. Page 8 of 17 (84) The Greatest Circumferential Strain is:- (85) Cylinder B Using equation (22) the External Pressure Likewise as the Internal Pressure is zero.Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres .codecogs. 3/11/2011 ..

e. (i.) just reaching the yield conditions at (103) (104) (105) Substituting this value in equations (101) and (102) gives the variations in Stresses in the Plastic Zone. The process involves deliberately overstraining the component with a high internal pressure during manufacture.Spheres . • The Material exhibits a constant yield Stress elastic material.codecogs.e. If the internal pressure of a thick cylinder is increased sufficiently... is:(98) Combining this with equation (14) and integrating gives :(99) If the radial Stress is at the outer radius of the plastic zone . This assumption has been found to be in good agreement with experimental results for ductile material. i.And . A useful application of partial plasticity can be used in the manufacture of gun barrels and pressure vessels.. If the Pressure for complete plasticity can be estimated and used as the "collapse" pressure then a design pressure can be derived by dividing by a suitable "Load Factor".Cylinder. The Strains generated will not initially be excessive since there will be a ring of elastic material around the plastic zone. The result is to impart compressive stresses into the inner layers and this has the effect of reducing the Hoop Stress which occur under normal working conditions. is the boundary between the inner magnitude.com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind.e. provided that are stresses of the opposite type. Assumptions made in the Theory of Plastic Yielding. (100) (101) And using equation (98). the Hoop Stress is given by:- (102) Partially Plastic Wall Consider a thick tube of internal radius and external radius subjected to an internal pressure only of such a is in the plastic state. i. yielding will occur starting at the Internal surface and spreading outwards until the whole cross-section becomes plastic. Note the same effect can be achieved by shrinking one tube over another. that the material below a radius of plastic region and the outer elastic region) If is the radial Stress at .Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . This system was used in the pages on "The Plastic Theory of Bending".e. 3/11/2011 . Page 9 of 17 The Plastic Yielding Of Thick Tubes. in tension and there is NO Strain hardening.:- (106) http://www. Hoop and Radial Stresses in the Plastic Zone The equilibrium equation (14) must apply and the yield criterion based on the assumptions stated above. Collapse will only happen once the final stage is reached.. it is stated by the elastic theory for internal pressure only (Equation (45))that the maximum Stress difference is (i. • Yield takes place when the maximum Stress difference ( or Shear Stress) reaches the value corresponding the yield in simple tension. it is an ideal • The longitudinal Stress in the tube is either zero or lies algebraically between the Hoop and Radial Stresses. From this it follows that the maximum Stress difference is determined by the Hoop and Radial Stresses only.

in. equations (110) and (1111) and the maximum Stress difference becomes can only be applied for (112) . at the Hoop Stress is given by:- (119) At using the plastic relationship (120) http://www.. an intermediate zone in which equations (110) and (111) apply and an outer zone. In simple Tension equals 25 tons/sq.Spheres .codecogs. the Hoop stress at the inside in the plastic state is:- (111) If the Longitudinal Stress is zero. bore and with a wall thickness of 3 in. is subjected to an internal pressure sufficient to cause yielding in two thirds of the metal..And . Page 10 of 17 (107) The relationship between the internal Pressure and the radius of yield is given by equation (106) when (108) The Pressure at the Initial Yielding is found by putting (109) The Pressure required for complete yielding through the Wall is given when (110) Since in the Plastic Zone.Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres .Cylind. Calculate this pressure and show the variation of Stresses across the wall. What are the pressures required for initial ield and complete yield? Assume that yield occurs due to maximum shear stress and neglect Strain Hardening. This argument can be modified to take account of any uniform longitudinal Stress. Using Equation (108) which gives the pressure required to produce a given depth of yielding where (116) And using equation (105) (117) (118) Using Equation (107). Example 5 A gun barrel of 4 in.. 3/11/2011 . there will be an inner Zone in which the radial stress is constant and equal to (114) and the Hoop Stress is (115) ( to satisfy the equilibrium equation (14)). If the the tube is thicker than this and the Internal Pressure is raised to the value of (113) .com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind..

In order to even out the stresses the tube may be made in two parts.. When an internal pressure is then applied it causes a tensile Hoop Stress to be superimposed on the "Shrinkage" Stresses and the resultant Stress is the algebraic sum of the two sets. using the conditions that for a tube of inner and outer radii of 4 in.Cylind.one part being shrunk on to the other on to the other (after heating).Spheres .. It can be seen from the figure that the Hoop falls off appreciably as the material near the outside of the tube is not being stressed to the limit. (122) At r = 5 in. and 5 in. (123) The variation of these Stresses in the two zones is shown on the following Diagram.. By this means the inner tube is put into compression and the pouter tube in tension. 3/11/2011 . The pressure for the initial yield can be found from equation (109) (124) And the pressure for a complete yield is found from equation (110) (125) Compound Tubes.Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . Page 11 of 17 In the elastic zone.com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind.codecogs..And . it follows from Equation (41)that the Hoop Stress is given by:- (121) At r = 4 in.. http://www.

. outside diameter is strengthened by shrinking on a second tube of 8 in. The radial pressure at the common surface due to shrinkage is related to the diametral "interference" before the tubes are fitted together. to calculate the stresses due to shrinkage in each component.- (138) http://www. the two tubes may be treated as one.And . substituting in equation (23) For the inner tube:- (130) (131) Solving these two equations for a and b:- (132) (133) Now using equation (23) (134) (135) Similarly for the outer tube:- (136) (137) Solving these two equations for a' and b'. If is the Compressive Hoop stress at the outside of the inner tube and is the tensile Hoop Stress at the inside of the outer tube then due to shrinkage the inner tube diameter is decreased by:- (126) And the outer tube diameter is increased by:- (127) Where d is the common diameter... What is the initial difference of diameters prior to assembly ? (129) Let be the common radial pressure due to shrinkage.in. The difference of these diameters before shrinkage is the sum of the changes and equals:- (128) Example 6 A tube that is 4 in.codecogs. The compound tube is to withstand an internal pressure of 5000 lb. Provided that the tubes are made of the same material.Cylind. inside and 4 in./sq. the procedure is to use the knowledge of the radial pressure at the common surface.. outside diameter. 3/11/2011 .Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . and the shrinkage allowance is to be such that the final maximum stress in each tube is to be the same. Page 12 of 17 In general.com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind. The Stresses due the application of internal pressure are calculated in the usual way. Calculate this stress and show in a diagram the variations of Hoop Stress in the two tubes.Spheres .

Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . Page 13 of 17 (139) (140) (141) The lines marked"Shrinkage Stress" on the diagram are sketched from the results of equations (133) and (140). Equating values obtained for the two tubes:(133) + (146) = (139) + (147) (149) (150) The Numerical value of the Maximum Hoop Stress = (139) + (147) = 6470 lb.Cylind... Stresses due to Internal Pressure:Using Equation (22) again:- (142) (143) Solving these two equations for a'' and b'' gives:- (144) (145) The Hoop Stresses are:- (146) (147) (148) From the results of equations (146) (147) and (148) the lines of "pressure" stressed can be drawn onto the diagram.codecogs.com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind../sq.. The numerical value of is found latter. 3/11/2011 . http://www. The final resultant Hoop Stress in each tube is obtained by the algebraic sum of pressure and shrinkage Stresses.Spheres .And . It has already been pointed out that the maximum Stress occurs at the inside surface.in.

.in. Example 7 A Steel shaft 2 in. lomng..3 for both.And . (158) (159) (160) For the shaft (161) And the decrease in the outside diameter = Hoop Strain X diameter (162) For the Hub Substituting into equation (43) (163) http://www. =(1/E)(The difference in Hoop shrinkage Stresses) X Diameter. The Hub or Slieve is subjected to an internal pressure and is treated as a thick tube under internal pressure.. (151) A Hub Shrunk Onto A Solid Shaft The Shaft will be subjected to an external pressure and if are the Hoop and Radial Stresses at a radius r. (152) The longitudinal Stress is zero and assuming that the longitudinal strain is constant. Both Stresses are constant throughout. (156) Thus the Hoop Stress is compressive and equal to the radial Stress. in diameter is to be pressed into a cast iron hub of 6 in.Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . it follows from equation (1) that:(153) These two equations can be solved as before to yield:- (154) (155) But since the Stresses cannot be infinite at the centre of the shaft b must be zero..Cylind. The coefficient If after assembly the shaft is subjected to an axial compressive Stress of 5 tons /sq. the equilibrium equation (14) will be obtained as for a "Thick Cylinder". diameter and 4 in. of friction between th the surfaces is 0.com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind. Page 14 of 17 The initial difference of diameters at the common surface = The difference of Hoop Strains X Diameter. so that no slip occurs under a torque of 20 ton-in.Spheres . 3/11/2011 ..codecogs. what is the resulting increase in the maximum circumferential Hub Stress (157) Let be the radial pressure at the common surface. Find the necessary force fit allowance and the maximum circumferential Stress in the hub.

Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres .com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind.Spheres .. 3/11/2011 .codecogs. The Strain equations are:- (174) (175) Multiply Equation (104) by r and differentiate the result and equate it to equation (175) (176) (177) Consider the equilibrium of a Hemisphere:- http://www.Cylind. then the corresponding increase in Radail Pressure at the inside surface is determined by the dimensions of the hub... Increase in the Hoop Strain at the outside of the shaft (170) = The increase in ther Hoop Strain at the inside of the Hub..in. If u is the radial shift then it was shown earlier that the Hoop Strain is given by u/r and the radial Strain by du/dr. Page 15 of 17 (164) (165) force fit (166) (167) is the increase in the maximum Hoop Stress in the hub whne a axial stress of 5 tons/sq.And . is applied to the If shaft. (168) (169) The radial and Hoop Stresses in the Shaft must also increase by thwe same amount since they are both equal and compressive. (171) (172) (173) Thick Spherical Shells At any radius r let the circumferential or Hoop Stress be f Tensile and the Radial Stress p Compressive.

and the pressures on these surfaces are (189) (190) Solving these equations gives:- http://www.Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . 3/11/2011 . Page 16 of 17 (178) (179) Substituting from equation (179) into equation (177) (180) Which reduces to :- (181) Integrating (182) Substituting for f from equation (182) in equation (179) (183) This can be re-arranged as:- (184) Integrating gives:- (185) (186) By putting (187) By combuining this result with equation (182) (188) If the inside and outside diameters are respectively.codecogs....And ..Cylind.Spheres .com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind.

(197) And the maximum Shear Stress (198) Last Modified: 2009-01-11 23:05:41 Page Rendered: 2011-03-11 10:36:25 Page Comments You must login to leave a messge CodeCogs is a member of Zyba Ltd © 2004-2010 Home | About | Site Map | Contact Us http://www. 3/11/2011 ..And .Thick Walled cylinders and Spheres . Page 17 of 17 (191) (192) From Equations (187) and (188) (193) (194) If there is internal pressure only:- (195) (196) The Maximum Stress is the value of f at the inside i.Cylind..Spheres ..e..codecogs.com/reference/engineering/materials/cylind.

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