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METALURGIA INTERNATIONAL vol. XIV (2009) special issue no.5 .

So, "The new regulations say that working in the sex industry is not immoral any more, and so jobs cannot be turned down without a risk to benefits." Nevertheless, feminism has come a long way for women’ right and now it just simply seems to vanish (and even legally) or go back for 50 years, which leads to a logical question: Why so much woman struggle and effort. Still, is it is global and missing?

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REFERENCES
1. Alexander, Sally, Becoming a Woman, Boston, South England Press, 1956 2. Bauer, Nancy, Simone de Beauvoir (Philosophy and Feminism), Columbia University Press, New York, 2001 3. Bertens, Hans, Literary Theory: The Basics, Rutledge, London, 2001 4. Butler, Judith, Gender Trouble, Routledge, New York, 1900 5. Childs, Peter, Modernism, Taylor and Francis Group, London, 2000 6. Culler, Jonathan, Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, New York, 1997 7. Dobrinescu, Anca Mihaela, Modernist Narrative Discourse- Virginia Woolf, Meridiane, 1997

8. Felman, Shosana, Women and Madness: The Critical Phallacy, New York, Columbia University Press, 1995 9. Gilbert, Sandra si Susan Gubar, The Madwoman in the Attic, Ithaca, New York, 1992 10. Kolodny, Annette, Dancing Through the Minefield: Some Observations on the Theory, Practice and Politics of a Feminist Literary Criticism, 1980 in Feminisms, an anthology of literary theory and criticism, edited by Robyn R. Warhol and Diane Price Herndl, Rutgers, New Jersey, 1997 11. Lodge, David, Twentieth Century Literary Criticism-A Reader, Longman, London, 1972 12. Rosalind Rosenberg, Beyond Separate Spheres, Intellectual Roots of Modern Feminism, Yale College, 1982 13. Sayers, Janet, Sexual Contradictions- Psychology, Psychoanalysis and Feminism, Tavistock Publications Ltd. In association with Methen Inc., New York, 1990 14. Showalter, Elaine, A Literatu7re of Their Own, British Women Novelists from Bronte to Lessing, Vintage Books, New York, 1986 On the web http://fathersforlife.org/feminism/utopia.html http://orient.bowdoin.edu/orient/article.php http://www.cafra.org/article356.html

THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AURIFEROUS MINING EXCAVATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
Florina BRAN1, Raluca Florentina CREŢU1, R. C. CREŢU2

Bucharest University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 1Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies ===================================================================================
Key words: cost-benefit analysis, environment impact, auriferous ore, environment, industrial activities, ecologic risk, pollution

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Abstract: This study wishes to underline the impact of auriferous mining excavation on the environment from the perspective of the cost-benefit analysis. Due to the aggravation of the international crisis, big companies tend to exploit as many fields as possible without taking into account the catastrophic effects of pollution. Often, these activities take place with the local and central public authorities’ complicity, the final aim being that of maximizing the companies’ profit without considering the social and environmental costs. This study presents the impact of economic activity on the environment, underlines the main agents of the environment degradation and develops a trust instrument of the environment externalities, that is the cost-benefit analysis. The theoretical conception has been passed by using the cost-benefit analysis instrument in a few government actions in Great Britain, USA and Europe. As far as our country is concerned, we have chosen to study the cost – benefit analysis within the Roşia Montană project, where we have noticed a huge potential profit for the Gold Corporation company to the detriment of incredible losses caused to the environment. 1. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
Industrial activity causes important changes to the environment. However, not all industrial fields have a major impact on the environment. The main industrial branches having a major impact on the environment are: the energetic industry, the chemical industry, the cement and other construction materials industry, the ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil refinery etc. There are complex industrial processes using raw materials during which various polluting

when both the technological process and the resulted product pollute the environment. enabling people to focus both on the quality of their living as well as on that of the environment where they live. on the used technologies. 1: 94 Generally speaking. energetic installations (coal. The environmental impact depends on the stages of life cycle of the product. It does not belong to anyone specifically and therefore. but the used technological processes can seriously inflict upon the environment.7 ratio has been registered in the species preservation case (including trees etc).5 . XIV (2009) special issue no. there are opposite situations as well. however.METALURGIA INTERNATIONAL vol. Other examples refer to: Demographic growth generates environment externalities. CO. economically related population increases the living standard. Education and economic development are the safest ways to demographic stability. the promoted agricultural politics aim at supplying the food needed for the population. Despite all these. the more people. highways (imagine what traffic means to those people living in the neighborhoods). It is important to state that the impact of industrial activities on the environment depends on the following agents that are presented in figure no. Economic growth is a favorable agent for environment degradation. emissions. all poisonous emissions resulted from the anthropic activity will be released in the atmosphere. a national statistic indicator has been identified. Blending the development of economic activities with the nature protection criteria requires admitting the fact that economic growth is able to generate ecologic benefits. The main agents of the environment degradation are underlined under figure no. that is the Gross national product of scrap. in order to diminish the pollution intensity. 2 2 2 . Efficiency of the control technologies of pollution Type of technologic process and the resulted product Poor functioning of the market Governmental actions Dimension and placement of industrial units Materials. society has established its own rules regarding the CO . of the economic resource. Take air for instance: it is one of the freely accessible resources. In the particular case of market’s poor functioning. uranium consumers) etc. promoting the monoculture on extended agricultural areas. Many times it takes days before a certain effect becomes noticeable to us. we are talking about externalities. even if we consider the regenerating resources. high range works with disastrous effects that are irreversible for the environment. When inhabitants affected by industrial activities do not get compensations. This new statistic indicator offers information regarding the soundness of economy and social welfare. The agents of the industrial activities impact on the environment The classics insist on the poor functioning of the market as main cause for the degradation of the environment. In normal use conditions. and in order to keep and consolidate their position. Income increase and better living standard supposes meeting the main material needs. Such examples are often met among people representing the interests of flight companies (noise disturbs the over flown population). the bigger the pressure on the resources. CFC etc. etc. on the nature of the produced goods. the shale at Anina. Such government actions can be typical also for Romanian governments. etc. 2 The main agents of the environment degradation The cost-benefit analysis applied to environment protection activities has proved for instance that in the USA. substances are released into the environment. Greenhouse effect is not to be neglected. the quality of land is degrading. raw material and fuel used Intensity of using the resources Figure no. this happens because no one is in control of the property over the natural resources. the deciding agents are not encouraged to take into account the third parties’ interests as they are only preoccupied by the maximizing of their interests. • government actions that jeopardize most of the times the quality of the environment even if this is not purposely intended. 2: • the poor functioning of the market. NO . Figure 1. but the existing literature in this matter is speaking by itself regarding the ampleness of preoccupations within which. many industrial products don’t have a significant impact on the environment. they often activate actions and sources that have long and medium term impact on society and environment. through methods of intensifying the agricultural production. an intermediary ownership can be accepted such as treaties and agreements establishing a system of rules for accessing and using the resources. There have been taken into consideration the decisions of draining the lakes in the Danube system. Economic development pushes up the society’s aspiration level and generates the premises for improving the environment quality. The methodology of counting the benefits and costs related to the environment and economic activity has not yet been finalized. SO . the 1:3 ratio between expenses and benefits has been registered at the air quality control and in Germany the 1:5. enforcing an exploitation rate of forests bigger than the natural regeneration rate. as well as those linked to fructifying the pyrites in the Călimani Mountains. of four years. Meanwhile. Given the fact that there is no owner of the environment agents. Governments are invested on rather short terms. even if improvements of people’s health and welfare are expected. as well as in all industry branches. When market acts free. A constant. Economic development related to nature’s needs and restrictions enforces setting up a link between economic and ecologic policies in all state levels.

the cost-benefit analysis has awarded a well deserved status in justifying the alternatives for modernizing installations.METALURGIA INTERNATIONAL vol. a benefit is counted by the willingness to pay CP . environment policy is less influenced by the cost-benefit analysis. VET has two main elements: used value (VF) and unused value (VNF). COST. regional and global level. The main features of the cost-benefit analysis supposes the definition of concepts such as: a) benefit is defined as welfare improvement. as well as calculating the economic and social results produced by putting out or reducing the pollution emissions as well as the financial efforts on the other hand. elaborating environment policies. Activities both in the economic field and the environment protection have to be simultaneous because all measures in the economic field have a certain impact on the environment on a local. Environment degradation generates costs that will be paid by society (environment externalities) representing according to A. In Europe. The base of the cost-benefit analysis consists of the fact that benefits have to exceed the costs in any implementing stage of the project. the investment plan has a positive value. goods prices and economic activities should not reflect the cost of environment protection. Less developed countries that are often affected by poverty. on the old continent. in conformity with the following formula: Efficiency  Efficiency  effort  min effect effect  max effort The cost-benefit analysis can frequently be used by governments for evaluating social costs and benefits of the project (e. Environment protection is not reduced only to costs.BENEFIT ANALYSIS. better options for the treatment of technological scrap. If in Great Britain the new environment law requires the use of the costbenefit analysis by the environment agencies. There is no social entity below or above the individual. Economic science underlines the consumer’s tendency to maximize availability in order to reach price and income performance while producers maximize the profit included in the price performance. do not have the time and money for protecting nature. compared to Great Britain. likewise decisions are stipulated by article 130 R in the United European Act. XIV (2009) special issue no. 95 2. We are talking about the losses produced by pollution in the detriment of the natural environment and the one created by people o none hand. investments. e) if benefits are higher than costs. public goods. but carried it out depends on the budget possibilities. while cost is counted as a loss of the latter. choosing less polluting technologies. roads.CA – WTA. Goods producers say that generally speaking. The general tendency is to estimate mainly the benefits. in the energy field. c) a welfare loss (cost) is counted by capacity of loss tolerance or by the willingness to pay in order top prevent the loss. TRANSACTION INSTRUMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT EXTERNALITIES Significantly important instrument. The methodology for counting costs and benefits (figure no. the latter being a moral duty. 3) related to environment protection and economic activity hasn’t been finalized yet. Every level of the cost-benefit analysis generates a group of rules originating in the economic efficiency concept. It also generates benefits as positive externalities. . The cost-benefit analysis is a method for deciding whether a project has to be developed or not. by comparing the relevant economic costs with potential benefits. therefore society is always seen as an aggregation of individuals. the indirect used value (VFI) and the potential use value (VPF). Existential value is a major element (VE). Environment policies and projects passing the test of the cost-benefit analysis are classified based on the preferences range and carried out depending on the cost-benefit rate. but developed countries having a strong economy and living standard. This method can also be used for private investment projects by calculating the expenses and incomes and estimating the actual net value of the project: if this is positive.g. the cost-benefit analysis is favorably regarded. d) both CA and CP express human preferences with fundamental value within the cost-benefit analysis. tend to allocate more time and resources to solving the environment issues which finally lead to better ecologic conditions. It may not be frequently used by environmental agencies or in taking government decisions. but it surely influences all these. environment protection activities etc) also considering the externalities.5 . VF is made up of the direct use value (VFD). b) a welfare growth.WPA – that is as much as an individual wants to pay to protect his benefit or by the willingness to accept . The correspondence between the income growth and the ecologic concern is the same all over the world. then the project is profitable. Economic activities influence the environment while environment policy influences economy. macro-economic consequences etc. This is why some specialists use the total economic value (VET) of ecologic resources. In Great Britain. Iancu „the direct and indirect effects produced by pollution in economy”. but have instead huge resources.

not even extremely restrictive conditions stipulated by the European and international laws in force would be safe enough to prevent the disasters that might occur from implementing such an important range excavation project. It can be considered that it constitutes an extra information source before taking decisions and it is even wise to do a cost-benefit analysis because economic efficiency is many times forgotten when making political decisions. that is the implementation of this unfriendly project. On top of the negative impact of this project on the environment. the access roads and other facilities require unrigging about 3. after making request and limited resources meet. historians.000 hectares. 4) can be summarized the following way: Fructifying nature is a controversy due to not understanding the issue. these measures can only be limited and relatively short from a time interval point of view. there will be created around half a billion tons of wastes that need to be stocked in several dumps and in the decanting lake on the Valea Cernei that can undertake half of this tonnage.5 .METALURGIA INTERNATIONAL vol. This waste amount. Methodology of counting costs and benefits Obstacles in using the cot-benefit analysis in the environment policies (figure no. which is only a corner within the auriferous quadrangle. we can add the social and human degradation of collocations and the degradation of the archeological treasure. 3. As stocked waste usually contains several chemical compounds (to which cyanide in the decanting lake are added. Nature. Lack of information leads to unclear expression of individual preferences. cyanide. resulting from processing over 150. together with the mines themselves. its part should not be over-estimated. The consumer is the sovereign in an decentralized economy and the outcome of fructifying the environment agents is made up based on the individual preferences. Not all natural resources are commercial merchandise. due to the almost non-existing legislation at that time. there has to be underlined that many times in the past. Once Figure no. Given the fact that reality is far from a perfect market. thus influencing the monetary value. Moral imposes several questions. Even if every legal decision is strengthened by using the cost-benefit analysis in the environment policy. 4 Obstacles in using the cost-benefit analysis within environment policy Cost-benefit supporters state that this could replace taking decisions. therefore there is no settled price for them. despite all measures taken to prevent the contamination. archeologists and other famous Romanian and foreign specialists. The national losses are uncountable and there are no financial solutions and recuperation techniques available. The ecosystem elements are strongly connected to each other so that the sum of the component elements is not higher than the total. heavy metals. Taking into account the geographic area which is very big. it is easy to foresee that the „gold rush” will not be stopped at Roşia Montană. we have finally accepted to sell our country for nothing. many years after the Revolution. These results have been explicitly reasoned by sociologists. USED VALUE UNUSED VALUE Direct used value Indirect used value Potential used value Existential value 3. If we consider the worst possibility. regarded as a production agent shows a limited availability of the natural resources in need for evaluation. Moral Individual preferences Nature frunctifying . the companies closing these excavations have transferred a lot of problems with a seriously negative impact over the next generations.000 tons of cyanide) we can easily imagine that all these will lead to the considerable pollution of the underground and ground level waters with acid waters. AURIFEROUS MINING EXCAVATION IN ROŞIA MONTANĂ According to the Roşia Montană project that estimates the excavation of more than 300 tons of gold and 1600 tons of silver. Some preferences conflicting with moral requirements of society are forbidden. Therefore. after putting an end to the several mining projects developed in various areas in the world. Many economists ignore the link between exploiting nature and fructifying it. prices offer false information regarding the limits of resources especially when it comes to monopoly. Given the above analysis. and these problems are still waiting to be solved even today. TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE 96 Figure no. we still consider that it is too much for the Romanian people to pay for this „political decision”. There is one question in the end: will a few million dollars won after the project cover for future losses?! Even if. some economists saying that there is no economy characterized by the consumer’s un-limited sovereignty. XIV (2009) special issue no.

Obviously. Such solution has to be established on the regenerating resources in the area. it is strongly needed that all interested authorities and institutions in Romania together with scientists. 2001. national security. THE SCIENTIFIC. Ed. Declaring the area as an archeological park belonging to the world patrimony protected by the UNESCO (quite an achievable goal!) would improve tourist interest and could bring European Union funds for the continuation of archeological research. TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL DIMENSION OF NATIONAL SECURITY G. The ASE printing house. innovation. CONCLUSIONS Taking into account the historical potential of the area. Risks and development alternatives in the Roşia Montană area.METALURGIA INTERNATIONAL vol. The environment impact of mineral resources excavations.. the unique archeological remnants and the tourist potential of the area should not be jeopardized. Roşca I. 2. 2Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies ==================================================================================== Key words: research. one protected by law... Bran F. There are already information that the greedy eyes of these companies are longing for the gold in the Apuseni Mountains. and the Roman galleries and other neighboring archeology sites should be included in the world cultural patrimony. Globalization and environment.. Petroşani. Fodor.. Onică. Răgălie Ş. 2004. The Romanian state or the home investors should promote in this area investments having a permanent and long term effect. 5. the unique natural habitat of the Apuseni Mountains. The economic dimension of the environmental impact – Roşia Montană Study. defense industry 1 Abstract: Since 2007. Universitas. The impact of mining industry on the environment. XIV (2009) special issue no. This new position brought important changes from the perspective of national security. no matter how good the intentions might be. Creţu R. Ed. The ASE printing house. Bran F. Haiduc I. on the cultural tourism to which the archeological richness of the area can be counted as a plus. Deva. NĂSTASE1. Until putting into practice such a plan. the present mining excavations could go on in a way and to such an extent so that the environment. The paper aims to bring more light on aspects to be considered in policy making so that Romania to be able to cope with the security challenges. Romania is a member of the European Union and is a trustful partner for companies and countries around the world. Infomin. Cristina POPA2 “Dimitrie Cantemir” Christian University. D. The new vision on scientific research. Baican.G. with ecology and archeology international organizations should join their efforts in order to declare this area as a nationally top important region. Ildiko IOAN 2. creating this example. Manea G. Bran F. (coordinator). An alternative solution has to solve unemployment and poverty issues on the long run. Bucharest 2004. the financial and political power of big multinational companies will not be stopped by any govern.. as well as an alternative for entering Europe for the international commerce and foreign investments. 97 private company level financially potent). 2002 8. I. The university printing house 2008 7. 4. The ASE printing house. Ioan I. a well documented study is required in this respect along with a rigorously planned and coordinated program (either on a government level. the investments in intangible values through scientific discovery and innovation become increasingly important and determine on a large scale the economic progress and social . Onică I. Rojanschi V. or on REFERENCES 1.5 . Economic Industry and Services Centre 6. technological development and innovation proves that the world is heading towards knowledge. Cluj Branch of the Romanian Academy. Evaluation of the ecologic impact and environmental audit. 2001 3. 20/2008. Bran P. article The engineering universe magazine no. Bran F. The ecologic element of economic development decisions: study (forestry and tourism).