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Intercultural Management – Bonus test, week 6

Prejudice Causes of prejudice:1. Scapegoating 2. Market economy 3. Social competition / Social dominance 4. (No) intergroup contact Functions of prejudice:1. Protect identity at a personal and cultural level. 2. Support your own values and diminish values from others. 4. Maintain economic power. Strategies in expressing prejudice:1. Face saving  Present positive self-image before expressing a racist/sexist attitude. (“I am not a racist, but…”). 2. Negative “other” presentation  Includes scapegoating, name calling and dehumanization. (Cartoons, disparaging nicknames). 3. Blame the victim  Blame people for their miserable situation. (“Greece must have done something wrong…”). Intercultural sensitivity scale Denial of Difference  No awareness that there is such a thing as different cultures. the Defence of difference group. Awareness of different cultures creates anxiety and as a result you fend off any other culture Minimization of difference  Only focus on things that people have in common. Acceptance of difference  Awareness of cultural difference and creation of curiosity to these belief that all differences. Adaption to difference

Ethnocentrism = Belief in superiority of one’s own ethnic

Ethnorelativism = The cultures are normal.

 You gain the skills that fit and meet other cultures. You bridge the divide. Facial stereotypes  “That which is beautiful is also seemingly to be healthy, wealthy and wise”. (van Leeuwen). Mr. van Leeuwen did an experiment which showed that people remembered/interpreted words more as positive when looking at an attractive face and negative words when looking at an unattractive face. Attractive people are considered to be successful, happy and wise. Attractive face (i.e. people) are hired and promoted easier on the work floor. Symmetry is considered to be attractive. Asymmetry is considered to be unattractive.

Symmetry= hot

Language & nonverbal communication Effect language on trade: Trade between countries with same language 188& more.  Trade between countries with same currency 114% more. Lingua franca  Language used for communication among people of different mother tongues. (A Dutch and a Chinese speaking English) Most popular lingua francas in the right order: English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Portuguese, German. Intercultural trap  If we can understand how language is used in a culture then this basically means that we can understand the culture itself. Low context VS High context countries

Low context countries countries

High context

Low context cultures  Explicit, Direct, Literal, Non-verbal communication is not that important, Start at the core of the message.

Cor e
High context cultures  Person = message, Indirect, Figurative, Non-verbal communication is very important, Relationship oriented.  Never “attack” someone from a high context culture in public. When giving critique:1. Avoid direct criticism Cor 2. See the person 1-on-1 e 3. Stay indirect Ways of saying “no”:1. Use silence 2. Counter the question 3. Make excuses 4. Question the questions 5. Delay giving an answer Non-verbal communication  The intentional use of a non-spoken symbol to communicate a specific message. Functions of nonverbal communication 1. Replacing spoken messages  Because we cannot use words (noisy). 2. Sending uncomfortable messages  When feel bad or negative about something. 3. Forming impressions that guide communication  Clothing. 4. Making relationships clear  Japanese bow, Dutch handshake

5. Regulating interaction  When to talk, when not to talk in meetings, etc. 6. Reinforcing and modifying verbal messages  Seen as sign of sincerity. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Proxemics = Personal space Kinesics = Movements Chronemics = Use of time Paralanguage = movements of voice Silence = Not talking, silence  Shyness/inactiveness Haptics = Study of touch to communicate Clothing and physical appearance Territoriality = Space and individual claims Olfactics = The study of communication via smell