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Unit Test Review 1.

Definitions: a) Prospecting- searching for gold b) Stake a Claim- declare mining rights in a certain area c) Annexation- the act of adding another territory to one’s own d) Flume- an artificial water channel e) Autocratic- A form of government in which one individual has complete control of statutory control f) Co-Opt- To win over or to bring someone into a group by capitalizing on their strengths, even if they disagree with the group g) ―54 40 or Fight‖- A campaign slogan used by democrat James Polk (won presidential election) signifying his determination to obtain the Oregon territory up to the 54˚ 40’N latitude. h) Manifest Destiny- A 19th century belief that the US was destined to expand across the continent i) Kanaka- A person of Hawaiian descent who immigrated to BC to work; many were contracted to work with the HBC j) Aboriginal Title- The claim by Aboriginal peoples that they have ownership of the land because they were the first to occupy it 2. What was the Oregon Territory? What were the cause and consequences of negotiating the boundary between southern BC and the United States? - Oregon Territory: An area in the Pacific Northwest occupied by both the British and Americans, located between the Pacific and the Rockies and sparsely populated by Europeans - Originally, HBC used the land - USA population expanded greatly, needed more space - HBC eventually realized a boundary was needed, but McLaughlin’s Fort Vancouver would be below the extension of the 49 parallel in American Territory - Moved Fort Vancouver to Island - Polk campaigned for Presidency (54 40) on issue, won, however 49 parallel just extended as border - Vancouver Island all British 3. Who was James Douglas and why is he a significant figure in the history of British Columbia? - Born Guyana (half black/Scottish) educated in Scotland - Chief Factor of Fort Vancouver after McLaughlin quit - Moved fort to Victoria - Appointed Governor of Vancouver Island (10 years as factor and governor) - Encouraged immigration and development and had a naval base made

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Actions to protect British Sovereignty, fair interaction with the First Nations (Douglas treaties), and his foresight in building the caribou road earned him the title ―Father of BC‖ - Encouraged Law and Order in BC, with Begbie and the Royal Engineers serving him Explain how the Douglas Treaties were significant. - Allowed First Nations to chose where their reserves would be - Size was also decided by tribe, and reserves included already established villages - First Nations allowed to keep traditional hunting and fishing land/right - Acknowledge Aboriginal Title - First fairly negotiated act which acknowledged the First Nations rights and took into account their needs/ancestry Create a T-Chart that compares the positives and negatives of the Cariboo Gold Rush (people, politics, infrastructure). Positive Negative People -Brought more people -Many were American, fear of Annexation Politics -BC Gained exposure and -Fraser Canyon War legitimacy -Exploited Douglas’ lack of control -Debt: not as much tax revenue from gold rush Infrastructure -Construction of Cariboo -Fell apart as people left Wagon Road after no more gold -Development of communities based on miners What impact did the Gold Rush have on British Columbia? - Led to the addition of much needed immigrants - Started the ball rolling for infrastructure development - Left government in a lot of debt –> led to merging of Island - Exploration of territory (formation of some settlements) - The beginnings of resource industry for BC Arguments for and against confederation For Against - Debt alleviation - Did not trust Canadians - Immigration - Canada too far away - Trade with markets - Different ways of dealing - Common background with issues - US uncertainty or annexation - Northwest Rebellion - Responsible Government What factors contributed to the development of Vancouver? - Saw Mills to mill the lumber- Edward Stamp and Moody - ―Gassy‖ Saloons

- CPR Terminus- Immigration and Supplies - Port city (no ice—close to Asia) export centre for resources 9. Explain how BC developed as a multi-ethnic province. - First Nations- original inhabitants - Europeans- came via CPR o Includes French, British, German, Italians, Russians - Chinese- came to build CPR - Americans- came from gold rush - Blacks- came to escape prejudice even slavery - Kanakas- came to work at HBC - Jewish- came to do business/sales 10. Explain the role immigrants had on the development of British Columbia. - BC largely founded upon immigrants - Relatively small indigenous population- happy to remain isolated and not develop - Modern-day BC, based on business, resources, and agriculture - All this developed by immigrants looking to work hard- BC had the opportunities

NOTE: Smallpox Epidemic- Brought by a San Francisco Miner, Europeans immune/vaccinated, First Nations quarantined. Many First Nations died (nearly half).