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General Chemistry I Test Bank

Christopher King Department of Chemistry Troy State University Troy, AL 36082 cking@trojan.troyst.edu This document contains 184 test questions and answers that I have used during the past three semesters. The text for the course was Jones and Atkins, Chemistry: Molecules, Matter, and Change, 4th ed., 1999. The questions pertain to chapters 1-4, and 7-9. The equations were created using MathType equation editor 5.1. This is an upgrade to the equation editor that comes with Word. I got it so that the equations could be displayed in a blue font (I show answers in blue on my web pages). To modify the equations, you will need to get the MathType free upgrade (http://www.dessci.com/en/). If you don’t purchase the upgrade, you can only change colors for the first 30 days.

Categories
Components of Atoms .........................................................................................................................2 Symbols of Isotopes..............................................................................................................................3 Using the Periodic Table......................................................................................................................4 Mixtures................................................................................................................................................5 Solution Terminology...........................................................................................................................6 Physical & Chemical Properties...........................................................................................................6 Diatomic Elements................................................................................................................................7 Anion and Cation Terms.......................................................................................................................7 Naming Compounds.............................................................................................................................7 Formulas of Compounds.......................................................................................................................9 Understanding Chemical Formulas....................................................................................................10 Significant Figures..............................................................................................................................10 Dimensional Analysis.........................................................................................................................11 Temperature........................................................................................................................................12 Density................................................................................................................................................12 Avogadro’s Number...........................................................................................................................13 Molar Mass from % Abundance.........................................................................................................14 Molar Mass; grams  moles.........................................................................................................14 Understanding Molar Mass................................................................................................................15 Percent Composition from Formula...................................................................................................15 Formulas from Percent Composition Data.........................................................................................16 Product of Combination Reaction......................................................................................................19 Balanced Reaction of Sodium or Potassium with Water...................................................................19 Oxidation Numbers.............................................................................................................................19 Balance Simple Redox Equations......................................................................................................21 Combustion Reactions........................................................................................................................21 Apply Solubility Rules.......................................................................................................................21 Examples of Strong Acids & Bases...................................................................................................24 Complete the Reaction; Net Ionic Equations.....................................................................................24

Molarity...............................................................................................................................................27 Dilution...............................................................................................................................................28 Titration...............................................................................................................................................28 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, % Yield..................................................................................31 Energy  Wavelength  Frequency........................................................................................35 Quantum Numbers..............................................................................................................................36 Orbitals................................................................................................................................................37 Electron Configurations of Elements.................................................................................................38 Electron Configurations of Ions.........................................................................................................38 Hund’s Rule........................................................................................................................................39 Periodic Trends...................................................................................................................................40 Valence Electrons...............................................................................................................................41 Ionic or Covalent from Electronegativity...........................................................................................41 Formal Charges...................................................................................................................................42 Resonance Structures..........................................................................................................................44 Deviations from Idea Geometry (and some mixed questions)...........................................................44 Lewis Acids, Bases, and Adducts.......................................................................................................46 Lewis Structures, Shapes, and Polarities............................................................................................46 Hybridization; sigma and pi bonds.....................................................................................................49 Molecular Orbitals..............................................................................................................................50 You must show your work to get credit (or partial credit). Watch significant figures and show units. Some constants: c = 3.00 × 108 m/s NA = 6.022 × 1023 h = 6.63 × 10-34 J s RH = 3.29 × 1015 Hz

Components of Atoms
1 2 3 (2 pts) Atoms of the same element, regardless of charge, all have the same number of ___protons______. (2 pts) Comparing the mass of an electron to the mass of a proton, one could say that the electron is _____much less________ massive than the proton. (2 pts) Comparing the mass of a neutron to the mass of a proton, one could say that the neutron a) is much less massive than the proton. b) is less massive than the proton. c) has nearly the same mass as the proton. d) is more massive than the proton. e) is much more massive than the proton. 4 5 (2 pts) How large is the nucleus compared to the size of an atom? Very small. (4 pts) What two kinds of atomic particles are found in the nucleus of an atom? ____protons__________ and _____neutrons_________

6 7 8

(2 pts) Atoms of the same element that have different masses are called isotopes________. (2 pts) What is the charge of the particle in cathode rays? -1 (5 pts) Draw a sketch of an atom. Label the nucleus, protons, neutrons.

nucleus, containing protons and neutrons

9

(6 pts) Draw a sketch of an atom. Label the nucleus, protons, neutrons and electrons.

nucleus, containing protons and neutrons

electrons surround nucleus

10 (4 pts) Rutherford bombarded gold foil with alpha particles. Explain how the results of this experiment lead to the nuclear model of the atom. Some of the alpha particles bounced back from the foil. The only way that this could happen is if most of the mass of the atoms is in one region of space, called the nucleus.

Symbols of Isotopes
11 (6 pts) Give the symbol that identifies the following species. Include the charge if they are not neutral (for example, 1H+) 8 protons, 8 neutrons, 8 electrons:
16

O
98

43 protons, 55 neutrons, 39 electrons: a. 2D b. 4He c. 9Li

Tc4+ e.
165

12 (2 pts) One of the following is an isotope of hydrogen. Circle it. d. 9Be Ho f.
201

Hg

13 (4 pts) Write the name of the isotope that has 108 neutrons, 73 protons, and 73 electrons. (The name should indicate which isotope this is.) 181 Ta or tantalum-181 Recognize that element must be given, select correct element, and include isotope identifier that is correct.

14 (6 pts) Give the symbol that identifies the following isotope. Include the charge if the isotope is not neutral (for example, 1H+) 53 protons, 76 neutrons, 54 electrons:
129 –

I

15 (12 pts) Give the symbol that identifies the following species. Include the charge if the species is not neutral (for example, 1H+) 9 protons, 10 neutrons, 10 electrons:
19 –

F

94 protons, 150 neutrons, 91 electrons:

244

Pu3+

16 (6 pts) Give the symbol that identifies the following isotope. (For example, 1H+) 8 protons, 9 neutrons, 10 electrons: _______ 17O217 (6 pts) Give the symbol that identifies the following species. (For example, 1H+) 16 protons, 16 neutrons, 16 electrons: _______ 32S 92 protons, 146 neutrons, 88 electrons: _______ 238U4+
13 18 (6 pts) Give the number of subatomic particles in 6 C .

protons _____ 6

neutrons _____ 7

electrons _____

6

19 (2 pts) An atom containing which one of the following is an isotope of carbon? a) 6 neutrons and 7 protons b) 7 neutrons and 6 protons c) 12 neutrons and 12 protons d) 13 neutrons and 13 protons e) 14 neutrons and 14 protons 20 (2 pts) The current scientific theory is that the elements heavier than hydrogen (this includes the elements from which we are made) are formed from/in _____stars or supernova___.

Using the Periodic Table
21 (6 pts) Classify the following as metal, nonmetal, or metalloid: chlorine _ nonmetal___; sodium ___metal____; boron __metalloid__ 22 (2 pts) The formula of the ion of sulfur that would be expected to form based on sulfur’s position in the periodic table is _________. S2- Element symbol must have correct charge. 23 (10 pts) Fill in the boxes to identify the five parts of the periodic table that are circled.

transition metals (or elements)

noble gases

halogens

alkali metals

actinides

Mixtures
24 (8 pts) Classify each of the following as a pure substance, a heterogeneous mixture, or a homogeneous mixture. (a) chocolate-chip cookie ______________________ heterogeneous mixture (b) distilled water ______________________ pure substance (c) vodka ______________________ homogeneous mixture (d) a pure gold coin ______________________ pure substance 25 (6 pts) Classify each of the following as a pure substance, a heterogeneous mixture, or a homogeneous mixture. an ear of corn ______________________ heterogeneous mixture sodium chloride ______________________ pure substance sugar water ______________________ homogeneous mixture 26 (8 pts) Classify each of the following as an element, compound, or mixture. (a) the air we breath ______________________ mixture (b) the gas in a tank of chlorine used to disinfect water ______________________ element (c) table salt ______________________ compound (d) a mosquito ______________________ mixture 27 (8 pts) Classify each of the following as an element, compound, or mixture. (a) aluminum metal ______________________ element

32 (6 pts) Describe how to separate a mixture of dirt. B) solvent. Physical & Chemical Properties 31 (3 pts) At 25°C. Chlorine burns in hydrogen to form hydrogen chloride. C) solution.4 kJ/mol.(b) the gas in a tank of propane. matter matter mixtures mixtures homogeneous homogeneous heterogeneous heterogeneous pure substances pure substances elements elements compounds compounds Solution Terminology 29 (2 pts) In the process of dissolving 1 g of sodium perchlorate in water. Filter the mixture to separate the dirt from the salt water.4 and 20. elements. D) precipitate E) solid solution. heterogeneous. Chlorine has a melting point of –101°C and a boiling point of –35°C. B) solvent. the water is referred to as the A) solute. mixtures. D) precipitate E) solid solution. respectively. Underline the chemical property/properties of chlorine. and the energy required to melt and boil chlorine is 6. homogeneous. salt. chlorine is a green-yellow gas with a density of 3 × 10–3 g/cm3. 30 (2 pts) If 1 g of sodium perchlorate is dissolved in water. and pure substances. and water into three components.) . the sodium perchlorate is referred to as the A) solute. Distill the salt water to separate the salt from the water. the liquid that distills is the water. (The solid left behind is the salt. C3H8 ______________________ compound (c) pure water ______________________ compound (d) soil ______________________ mixture 28 (12 pts) Part of the universe can be classified into the following categories: compounds. matter. C) solution. Organize these in the boxes of the following hierarchy chart.

CuNO3·6H2O copper(I)nitrate hexahydrate 5 pts KCN potassium cyanide 2 pts SiC (commonly called carborundum) silicon carbide 3 pts N2O5 dinitrogen pentaoxide 4 pts The common name used for NH3 ammonia 2 pts HCl(g) hydrogen chloride 3 pts HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid 4 pts . F2. D) a carrier gas is unreactive.33 (1 pts) Paper chromatography separations are based on the fact that A) the components to be separated are volatile. Br2. 36 (5 pt) Give the formulas of 4 diatomic elements: N2. I2 1 pt for the subscripts Anion and Cation Terms 37 (2 pt) When an atom loses an electron. but too many people nitrogen just gave symbols instead of names) fluorine chlorine bromine iodine 35 (2 pts) “So. H2. “is chlorine an element or a molecule?” What would be the best answer? It is both. it becomes an ion.” your great-uncle asks you. O2. What is an ion with a negative charge called? An anion Naming Compounds 39 (29 pts) Name the following compounds. Recognize that it is both an element and a molecule. it becomes an ion. –1 for just element. B) The components to be separated have different tendencies to stick to the paper. Diatomic Elements 34 (5 pts) Name five elements that are diatomic. Cl2. hydrogen 5 pts for correct elements oxygen (Wanted to charge 5 pts for spelling. E) the components can be distilled. What is an ion with a positive charge called? A cation 38 (2 pt) When an atom loses an electron. C) liquids are adsorbed on calcium carbonate.

NiCl4·8H2O nickel (IV)chloride octahydrate 5 pts Ca(CN)2 calcium cyanide 3 pts CS2 carbon disulfide 3 pts P2S5 diphosphorus pentasulfide 4 pts NaClO4 sodium perchlorate 4 pts 43 (14 pts) Name the following compounds. Al(ClO3)3 aluminum chlorate 4 pts . FeSO4·7H2O iron(II)sulfate heptahydrate 5 pts NH4CN ammonium cyanide 4 pts ClO2 chlorine dioxide 3 pts IF5 iodine pentafluoride 3 pts HI(g) hydrogen iodide 3 pts HI(aq) hydroiodic acid 4 pts LiNO2 lithium nitrite 3 pts 42 (20 pts) Name the following compounds (Ni. nickel.H2SO4(aq) sulfuric acid 3 pts HClO3(aq) chloric acid 3 pts 40 (30 pts) Name the following compounds. (Co is cobalt. is element number 28). NiSO4·6H2O nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate 5 pts SF6 sulfur hexafluoride 3 pts HBr(g) hydrogen bromide 3 pts HNO3(aq) nitric acid 3 pts 44 (17 pts) Name the following compounds. Z = 27) Na2CO3·10H2O sodium carbonate decahydrate 4 pts Co(CN)2·3H2O cobalt(II)cyanide trihydrate 4 pts SiC (commonly called carborundum) silicon carbide 3 pts P4O10 tetraphosphorus decaoxide 4 pts The common name used for NH3 ammonia 2 pts HCl(g) hydrogen chloride 3 pts HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid 4 pts HNO3(aq) nitric acid 3 pts HIO3(aq) iodic acid 3 pts 41 (25 pts) Name the following compounds (Fe is iron).

1 for deca. iron(II) phosphate Fe3(PO4)2 6 pts sodium sulfate dihydrate Na2SO4·2H2O 8 pts dichlorine dioxide Cl2O2 4 pts 50 (8 pts) Give formulas for the following compounds. 1 for hydrate 46 (6 pts) Name these common laboratory compounds: a) HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid hydro chlor ic acid (acid should be present or absent in both names) 1 1 1 1 b) H2SO4(aq) sulfuric acid sulfur ic 1 1 Formulas of Compounds 47 (22 pts) Give formulas for the following compounds. 1 for carbonate (1 for spelling).Cu(NO3)2·6H2O copper(II) nitrate hexahydrate 5 pts N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide 4 pts HBr(aq) hydrobromic acid 4 pts 45 (5 pts) The name of Na2CO3•10H2O is sodium carbonate decahydrate 2 pts for sodium without numbers. (Vanadium has Z = 23) vanadium(III) iodide VI3 3 pts calcium perchlorate hexahydrate Ca(ClO4)2·6H2O 7 pts dichlorine heptoxide Cl2O7 4 pts perchloric acid HClO4 4 pts sodium hypochlorite NaClO 3 pts 49 (18 pts) Give formulas for the following compounds. (Chromium has Z = 24) chromium(II) sulfate CrSO4 4 pts sodium carbonate monohydrate Na2CO3·H2O 7 pts dibromine heptoxide Br2O7 4 pts perchloric acid HClO4 4 pts sodium hypochlorite NaClO 3 pts 48 (21 pts) Give formulas for the following compounds. .

N2O4 54 (4 pts) The formula for aqueous perchloric acid is _______________.) 2 534. is element number 25) manganese(IV) oxide MnO2 3 pts sodium carbonate hexahydrate Na2CO3·6H2O 9 pts phosphoric acid H3PO4 5 pts perbromic acid HBrO4 4 pts 52 (20 pts) Give formulas for the following compounds. Mn. iron(III) oxide Fe2O3 4 pts potassium sulfite dihydrate K2SO3·2H2O 8 pts diphosphorus trisulfide P2S3 4 pts periodic acid HIO4 4 pts 53 (4 pts) The formula of dinitrogen tetraoxide is _______________.71× 321. (manganese.83 × 0.0019 only has 2 significant figures) .sulfuric acid H2SO4 4 pts phosphoric acid H3PO4 4 pts 51 (21 pts) Give formulas for the following compounds.529 ×10−3 (0. HClO4(aq) The (aq) is optional 55 (9 pts) Give the formula of the compound that is apt to be formed from the following: a) calcium ions and nitrate ions __________ Ca(NO3)2 -2 for Ca3N2 b) aluminum and sulfur __________ Al2S3 56 (8 pts) Give the formula of the compound that is apt to be formed from the following: a) beryllium and chlorine __________ BeCl2 b) boron and oxygen __________ B2O3 Understanding Chemical Formulas 57 (2 pts) How many atoms are in one molecule of (NH4)3PO4? ____ 20 58 (2 pts) How many atoms are in one “formula unit” of Al2(SO4)3? ____ 17 Significant Figures 59 (2 pts) How many significant figures should be given in the result of ? (Note: no calculation is necessary.0019 7.

What is this volume in mL? a) 0.005 L b) 5000 mL c) 500 mL d) 50 mL e) 0.05 L 65 (8 pts) If a little old lady is doing 98.000001830100? 7 Dimensional Analysis 64 (2 pts) A bottle of cola purchased in Europe gave the volume as 50 cL.0 -4.00186 only has 3 significant figures) 61 (1 pts) Do the following measurement calculation. figs.1mile / hour Would get a speeding ticket.965kg × 3hr × = 52. and 27.0 hours? 18.   5280 ft  = 61.54 cm = 1.) ? mile 98.0020340? 5 63 (2 pts) How many significant figures are in the measured number 0.00 inch] (Show how to convert to miles / hour.3km  1000m  1cm  1in.) 62 (2 pts) How many significant figures are there in the measured number 0.529 ×10−3 (Note: no calculation is necessary.965 kg/L.00186 ? 7. will she get a speeding ticket if the speed limit is 55 miles / hour? [USE: 5280 feet = 1 mile and 2.110 kg hr L 1 1 1 1 1 for sig. 11. 66 (5 pts) A supersonic transport (SST) airplane consumes about 18.71× 321.0 (Just counting number of significant figures.83 × 0. What mass of kerosene is consumed on a flight lasting 3. 67 (8 pts) Santa visits about 95.) 3 (0.000 chimneys a minute on a certain night of the year (ask Einstein how he does it).54cm  12in.  1 ft   1mile  =       h h  1km  10−2 m  2. Kerosene has a density of 0.000 L of kerosene per hour of flight.00 7. even if your calculator does it for you. How many sleigh loads per hour is this? [USE: 12 presents = 1 chimney. 000L 0.000 presents = 1 sleigh load] .60 (2 pts) How many significant figures should be given in the result of 534.3 kilometers/hour.

300carat      3.59 g  ? g = 3.?sleigh loads 95. find the mass of the redwood: m .38 g/cm3)? First.59 g/mL. 000 chimneys  60 min   12 presents   sleigh load  =     h min  h   chimney   27.so m = dv v  1.65mL    mL  = 5. mg   10−3 g  ? v = 0. with 1 carat = 200. 000 presents  = 2533 sleigh loads / hour = 2500 sleigh loads / hour Temperature 68 (3 pts) What is the Celsius temperature that corresponds to 0 K? -273°C Density 69 (5 pts) The density of carbon tetrachloride is 1.38 g  ? g = 100cm3    mL  = 38 g d= Second.80 g 70 (8 pts) The density of diamond is 3.so v = v d  cm3   200.0171mL d= 71 (8 pts) What volume (in cm3) of lead (of density 11. The international (but non-SI) unit for reporting the masses of diamonds is the “carat”.3 g/cm3) has the same mass as 100.300 carat? m m .3g   3   cm  = 3.4cm3 . mg. What is the volume of a diamond of mass 0.8035 g = 5.51 g/cm3. cm3 of a piece of redwood (of density 0.51g   1 carat   1mg  = 0.65 mL of carbon tetrachloride? m d = .36cm3 d= = 3. so v = v d 38 g ? cm3 =  11.so m = dv v  0. find the volume of the same mass of lead: m m . What is the mass of 3.

What is the density of 16. 1 pt m = dv. What would you expect the mass to be of a present having a volume of 3.85kg 73 (7 pts) One of Santa’s elves determined that the average Christmas present has a density of 2.022 × 10   1 Cl 2 molecule  = 0.04moles H 2 molecules -2 pts for 0. How many hydrogen atoms are in the water?  6.22 mol of water molecules.08 moles 76 (6 pts) A glass of water contains 4.65 L? m d = .783 kg.0133moles Cl 2 atoms = 0. or 783 g 1 pt. sig.22mol H 2 O     1mol  1 H 2 O molecule  = 5.15 kg/L. figs. What would you expect the mass to be of a present having a volume of 364 mL? m d = .15kg  ? g = 3. 2 pts for (1L / 1000 mL) -2 pts for 783 kg (NOTE: This density is unrealistically high.so m = dv v  2..15 kg/L.022 × 1023   2 H atoms  ? H atoms = 4.08 ×1024 H atoms 77 (6 pts) How many moles of chlorine atoms are in 4 × 1021 chlorine molecules?  1mol   2 Cl atoms  ? moles Cl 2 atoms = 4 ×1021 Cl molecules   23    6.01moles Cl2 atoms .) 74 (2 pts) 8.8475kg = 7.7826 kg = 0.72 (5 pts) The average Christmas present has a density of 2.0 g of granite? 2.15 kg  1 L  ? g = 364mL     L  1000 mL  = 0.7 g/mL Avogadro’s Number 75 (6 pts) How many moles of hydrogen atoms are in 5 × 1022 hydrogen molecules?  1mol   1 H 2 molecule  ? moles H 2 molecules = 5 ×1022 H atoms   23    6.022 × 10   2 H atoms  = 0.0 grams of granite has a density of 2.65 L    L  = 7. and should be changed.so m = dv v  2.7 g/mL.

464 × 10−23 × ( 6.006 moles.022 ×10   1 Br2 molecule  = 0. (NA = 6. 3Ca 3 × 40.003moles Br atoms -2 pts for 0.663 ×10−23 ) × 0.0 g    310. -1 for 0.022 ×1023 ) 10.00266moles Br atoms = 0.-2 pts for 0.828×10-23 ( 1.801 = 1.003 moles 78 (6 pts) How many moles of bromine atoms are in 8 × 1020 bromine molecules.0 g of Ca3(PO4)2?  mol  ? mol = 8.022 × 1023/mol) Mass of an atom % abundance 1.00066 moles Molar Mass from % Abundance 79 (5 pts) A certain element consists of two stable isotopes with the masses and percent abundances given below.0 g of Ca3(PO4)2? . Br2?  1mol   2 Br atoms  ? moles Br atoms = 8 × 1020 Br2 molecules   23    6.663×10-23 1.08 g/mol 2P 2 × 30.199 = 3.18 g/mol 81 (6 pts) How many moles are in 8. Determine the molar mass AND identify this element.828 × 10−23 ) × 0.026mol 82 (5 pts) How many moles are in 2.795 ×10−23 19.309 ×10−24 1.1 + ( 1.9 80. -1 for 0. grams  moles 80 (4 pts) Determine the molar mass of Ca3(PO4)2.00 g/mol 310.02579mol = 0.97 g/mol 8O 8 × 16.0013 moles.18 g  = 0.8 g / mol Identity of element: ___B Molar Mass.

50g × = 0. figs. What is the average mass of one atom of Kr? 83.2 g/mol 2P 2 × 30.66%Cl mass NaCl 22.0186 mol = 0. 86 (2 pts) The last problem called for calculating the average mass of one atom of krypton.383 × 10-22 g 6. mol  ? mol = 2.99 g / mole + 35. This could be because the element Kr consists of several _____________________.0079 g / mole + 16.009858mol = 0.80 g/mol.0221 × 1023 /mol 1 using NA.97 g/mol 8O 8 × 16.5 g  = 0.4 g 88 (2 pts) How many moles of water molecules are in the above amount of CuBr2•4H2O? 4 × 0.5 g/mol 84 (5 pts) How many moles are in 8.0 g    310.30 g/mol = 1. 1 for getting right answer. 1 for sig.50 g of CuBr2•4H2O? mol 5.18 g  = 0. no atoms of krypton have exactly that mass.0 g of Pb3(PO4)2?  mol  ? mol = 8.00 g/mol 811. 1 for dividing.45 g / mole 91 (4 pts) What is the mass percent of silver in AgCl? .00 g / mole 90 (4 pts) What is the mass percent chlorine in NaCl? mass Cl 35.0099mol Understanding Molar Mass 85 (4 pts) The molar mass of krypton is 83.45 g / mole %Cl = ×100 = = 60.0064mol 83 (4 pts) Determine the molar mass of Pb3(PO4)2. 3Pb 3 × 207.19%H mass H 2O 2 × 1. Actually.0744 mol Percent Composition from Formula 89 (4 pts) What is the percent of hydrogen in H2O? mass H 2 2 × 1.0186mol 295. isotopes 87 (4 pts) How many moles of CuBr2•4H2O are in 5.0079 g / mole %H = × 100 = = 11.0 g    811.

convert to mol.146 mol 0.2 g/mol. 1 each for moles. empirical formula.69 g 11. is 40.28 g O   = 3.01g / mole + 16. 1 for right answer 107. and 53.87 = × 100 35.28% O 40.01g   mol  ? mol = 6. so the molecular formula is C6 H12 O6 .0 g C 53.26% 92 (5 pts) What is the mass percent of nitrogen in N2O (laughing gas)? mass N 2 ×14.72 g H   = 6. 6 pts. divide by smallest. The molar mass of fructose is 180. which has a molar mass of 30g/mol.12 g 0. 6.45 + 107.83% (from not using 2 nitrogens) Formulas from Percent Composition Data 93 (4 pts) 4. get 1 S to 4. . 1 for formula 94 (13 pts) The percentage composition of fructose.87 = 75. 1 pt.33mol O  16.00 g / mole -2 pts for 31. 3 pts. convert to g.0% C 53.69 g of sulfur combined with 11. What is the empirical formula of the gas? (Must show work to get credit.585 mol Divide by smallest.02 O1 3. 180. 1 for 4.00 g  C 3.0% carbon.65%Cl mass N 2 O 2 ×14.28% oxygen.28 g O 6.72% H → 6. a sugar.00.72 O 3.72% hydrogen.72mol H  1.0 g C   = 3.) S + F → an SF compound 4.01g / mole %N = ×100 = = 63.00 F.33 3.72 g H  mol  ? mol = 40. 2 pts. molecular formula.12 g fluorine to produce a gas.% Ag = molar mass Ag ×100 molar mass AgCl 3 for setup.33 = CH 2 O.33 = C1 H2.33 H 6.33mol C  12. so formula is SF4.2g/mol = 6. 30g/mol 1 pt. What is the molecular formula of fructose? 40.008 g   mol  ? mol = 53.33 3.

76% H.008 g   mol  ? mol = 10.88 g C 71. What is the molecular formula of boswellic acid? 78.01g   mol  ? mol = 10. 10.90 g C 10.00 H5. and 71.714mol H  1.00 g  .76 g H   = 5. which has an intolerable garlicky odor and is used in the manufacture of cacodylic acid.59% H → 10.96 g/mol.92 g  C 1. molecular formula. and 10. 105g/mol 1 pt.9525 0.51mol H  1. a cotton herbicide.95 (13 pts) Cacodyl.9525 = C2.51 g O 10.59 g H   = 10.714 As 0. The molar mass of boswellic acid is 456.59% hydrogen. 1 pt. it contains arsenic).008 g   mol  ? mol = 71.905 H 5.01g   mol  ? mol = 5.76% H → 5. 2 pts. Its mass composition is 22.905mol C  12. 6 pts.9525 = C2 H 6 As.570mol C  12.6569mol O  16. -7 pts for C4Has better 96 (13 pts) One of the components of frankincense is boswellic acid.999 As1 0.88% C.96g/mol = 2. so the molecular formula is C4 H12 As2 .90% C 10. convert to mol.9525 0.36% As 22. convert to g.51g O   = 0. 5.51% O 78.59 g H  mol  ? mol = 78. 3 pts.90% carbon.36% As.76 g H  mol  ? mol = 22. 209. which has a molar mass of 105g/mol.51% oxygen. What is the molecular formula of cacodyl? 22.36 g As 5.88 g C   = 1.88% C 71. (Yes. which is 78.36 g As   = 0.9525mol As  74.90 g C   = 6. divide by smallest. has a molar mass of 209.71 g/mol. empirical formula.

34 g O  mol  ? mol = 90. convert to g.63 g C 14.027g/mol 1 pt. which has a molar mass of 14.130mol C  12. 1 pt. convert to g. molecular formula.657 = C10 H16 O.26mol H  1.C 6.4375 0.  mol  ? mol = 85. 4 pts. 2 pts.00 g  Pb 0.37 g H 2 pts.  mol  ? mol = 14.34 g O   = 0.08 g/mol. so the molecular formula is C3 H 6 . . 98 (10 pts) A red compound composed of lead and oxygen contains 90. 4 pts.08g/mol = 3. 3 pts.01g  4 pts. divide by smallest. empirical formula.51 O 0.000 7. convert to mol. 2 pts.37% H. 3 pts.130 4 pts = CH 2 . molecular formula.37 g H   = 14. 152.26 = C1 H2. when combined with oxygen.57 H 10. 1 pt.66% Pb 90. 3 pts 14. has been used as an anesthetic. What is the empirical formula of the compound? 90.34% O 9.66 g Pb   = 0.334 = Pb3/ 3 O4 / 3 0.63% C 14. The compound has a molar mass of 42. 97 (13 pts) Cyclopropane.130 H 14.66 g Pb →→ 9.7g/mol 1 pt.66% Pb. convert to mol.5838mol O  16. convert to g. Its mass percent composition is 85.37% H → 85.2g/mol = 3. empirical formula. What is the molecular formula of cyclopropane? 85.008 g  C 7.03g/mol. 456.657 = C10 H16 O1 0. 42.130 7.63% C and 14.657 0. convert to Pb3O4.657 0.2g/mol. 3 pts. 6 pts. convert to mol.5838 = Pb1O1.63 g C   = 7. divide by smallest.2 g   mol  ? mol = 9.4375 O 0. so the molecular formula is C30 H 48 O3 . 2 pts.4375mol Pb  207.4375 = Pb3O4 1 pt. divide by smallest. which has a molar mass of 152.

What is its molecular formula? The molar mass of C2H2N is 40 g/mol. Mg3N2 (-1 for Mg2N3) Balanced Reaction of Sodium or Potassium with Water 104(8 pts) Write a balanced equation describing the reaction of sodium metal with water to produce hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide.1 g/mol and its empirical formula is C2H2N. convert to P2O5. 3 pts. 2 for balancing Oxidation Numbers 106(17 pts) a) Give the oxidation number of each element in the following chemical reaction: + Al(s)  Al3+ + 3NO2(g) + 3OH3HNO3(aq) .523mol O  16.64% P 43.409mol P  30. Dividing 180 by 30 gives 6.99 (10 pts) A white compound that is used to absorb water contains 43. divide by smallest. 2K(s) + 2H2O(l) → H2(g) + 2KOH(aq) 1 pt for states. Give the formula of the solid.64% P and 56.409 1.409 = P2 O5 1 pt. What is its molecular formula? The molar mass of CH2O is 30 g/mol. Its empirical formula is CH2O. Give the formula of the solid. so its molecular formula is C4H4N2. so its molecular formula is C6H12O6.1 g/mol. What is the empirical formula of the compound? 43.97 g   mol  ? mol = 56. 4 pts.64 g P   = 1. AlBr3 103(4 pts) Magnesium and nitrogen react to form a gray solid.409 O 3.500 = P2 / 2 O5 / 2 1.36% oxygen. Product of Combination Reaction 102(4 pts) Bromine and aluminum react to form a white solid. The molar mass of pyrazine is twice that. 101(4 pts) A certain edible compound has a molar mass of 180. 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) → H2(g) + 2NaOH(aq) 1 pt for states -1 for H instead of H2 105(7 pts) Write a balanced equation describing the reaction of potassium metal with water to produce hydrogen gas and potassium hydroxide.36 g O  mol  ? mol = 43.36% O 56. indicating the molecule consists of 6 empirical formula “units”. 100(4 pts) The molar mass of pyrazine is 80.64 g P →→ 56. 2 pts.523 = P1O2.00 g  P1.36 g O   = 3. convert to g. convert to mol.

6+ b) O in O2 0 c) Fe in Fe2O3 3111(5 pts) Give the oxidation number of the following: a) P in PO43. x – 4 = 0. The Fe therefore has been oxidized.+5 b) H in H2 0 x + 4(-2) = -3. x – 8 = -1.H: +1 N: +5 O: -2 Al: 0 Al: +3 N: +4 O: -2 O: -2 H: +1 For N in HNO3: x + 3(-2) = -1. 2Fe(s) + 3H2O(g) → Fe2O3(s) + 3H2(g) oxidation numbers: 0 +3 2 pts each Does the iron get oxidized or reduced? 1 pt Fe(s) has oxidation number 0. x – 8 = -3. so x = +6 112(5 pt) In the following reaction give the oxidation number of Fe in the reactant and product. 113(3 pts) What is the oxidation number of chlorine in ClO4–? For Cl in ClO : x + 4(-2) = -1. – 4 +7 . so x = 4 108(4 pts) The following reaction destroys ozone in the stratosphere. so x = -1 + 8 = +7 114(3 pts) Circle the species that gets oxidized in the following reaction. x – 6 = -1. Fe in Fe2O3 has oxidation number +3. 3 pts c) Which element got reduced (give a reason for your answer)? N: gained electrons going from NO3. What are the oxidation numbers of the indicated elements? NO(g) + O3(g) → NO2(g) + O2(g) O: ___-2 N: ___+2 O: ___0 N: ___+4 109(1 pts) Is the N oxidized or reduced in the above reaction? ___________________ oxidized 110(6 pts) Give the oxidation number of the following: a) S in SO42. so x = -1 + 6 = +5 11 pts (2 each for the N’s) b) Which element got oxidized (give a reason for your answer)? Al: lost electrons going from Al to Al3+.to NO 3 pts 107(10 pts) Give the oxidation number of each element in the following chemical reaction: + SO2(g) S: +4 O: -2 → 3S S: 0 10 pts + 2H2O(l) 3H2S(g) H: +1 S: -2 For S in SO2: x + 2(-2) = 0. so x = -3 + 8 = +5 3 pts 2 pts x + 4(-2) = -2.

2 C4H10 + 13 O2(g) → 8 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(l) 121(6 pts) Give the balanced equation for the combustion of heptane. conc. oxalates. 2 C6H14 + 19 O2(g) → 12 CO2(g) + 14 H2O(l) 124(9 pts) Give a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. in air. C5H12 + 8 O2(g) → 5 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l) 123(7 pts) Give the balanced equation for the combustion of C6H14. 2Ag+(aq) + Cu(s) → 2Ag(s) + Cu+2(aq) -2 pts if just have 2Ag+ b) Is the silver oxidized or reduced? Reduced 116(4 pts) a) Balance the following equation. C4H10 in air. C7H16. C7H16 + 11 O2(g) → 7 CO2(g) + 8 H2O(l) 122(3 pts) Give the balanced equation for the combustion of C5H12.Cu(s) + 2H2SO4(aq. Fe2+(aq) + Cu(s) → Fe(s) + Cu+(aq) Fe2+(aq) + 2Cu(s) → Fe(s) + 2Cu+(aq) 117(3 pts) Balance the following redox reaction.) 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(g) 4 pts ( -2 pts for 2H(g) + O(g) → H2O(g) ) Apply Solubility Rules Solubility rules for inorganic compounds Soluble compounds compounds of group 1 elements Insoluble compounds carbonates. chromates. (Show the states in your equation. 2 Fe2+(aq) + Sn4+(aq) → 2 Fe3+(aq) + Sn2+(aq) 118(4 pts) Balance the following reaction (this one’s a bit challenging): 3F2(g) + 3H2O(l) → 1O3(g) + 6HF(g) 119(4 pts) Balance the following reaction: 2Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) → 3H2(g) + 2AlCl3(aq) -2 pts if just have 2Cu+ 1 pt b) Is the copper oxidized or reduced? Oxidized Combustion Reactions 120(7 pts) Give the balanced equation for the combustion of butane.) → Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) 3 pts (-2 pt for Cu2+) Which species is the reducing agent? ________ Cu(s) 1 pt (must be same as part a) Balance Simple Redox Equations 115(4 pts) a) Balance the following equation. and .

A precipitate forms. A precipitate forms. You add potassium chloride and a precipitate forms. ZnS is insoluble. Ba2+ was not present. Since no precipitate formed. CaSO4 is insoluble. Hg22+. and Ag+ 2+ 2+ 2+ phosphates. The precipitate was filtered out. except those of the group 1 and 2 elements 125(6 pts) You are asked to analyze a solution for the cations Hg22+. CuSO4 is soluble. and then add hydrogen sulfide to the solution. and Pb2+ nitrates. According to the solubility rules. Which of the three cations ions were present in the original solution? (Hint: use the solubility rules. You filter out this solid also. Ca2+ and Cu2+ may still be present in the solution. Sr . bromides. CuS is insoluble. indicating that Zn2+ was present. You filter out the solid and add potassium sulfate to the solution. Ba2+. You add potassium chloride and a precipitate forms. A precipitate forms. AgCl is insoluble. chlorates. Pb2+. Hg2Cl2 is insoluble. Since a precipitate formed. Potassium sulftae was then added to the solution. Hg22+ was present. Which ions were originally present in the solution? (Hint: use the solubility rules. Ca2+ was not present. acetates. The solution may still contain Zn2+. and Zn2+. Nothing appears to happen. and iodides. Ba . Ca2+. 126(6 pts) You are asked to analyze a solution for the cations Ag+. You filter out this solid and add sulfuric acid to the solution. According to the solubility rules. A precipitate forms. A white precipitate forms. which adds sulfate to the solution. You filter out the solid and add potassium sulfate to the solution. indicating that Cu2+ was present. Ag+ was present. except those of the group 1 elements and NH4+ hydroxides and oxides. except those of Ag+. The precipitate was filtered out. BaSO4 is insoluble. except those of Ca . Potassium sulfide is added to the solution. CaCl2 and CuCl2 are both soluble. ZnSO4 is soluble. Since no precipitate formed. 127(6 pts) You are asked to analyze a solution for the cations Zn2+. Ag+. which adds sulfate to the solution. Hg22+. Ba2+ and Zn2+ may still be present in the solution. Since a precipitate formed.) Hg22+ and Cu2+ Adding KCl adds chloride to the solution. except those of the group 1 elements and NH4+ sulfides. BaCl2 and ZnCl2 are both soluble. Nothing appears to happen.ammonium compounds chlorides. and perchlorates sulfates. and Ba2+. Potassium sulfide is added to the solution. Then you add potassium sulfide.) Adding KCl adds chloride to the solution. Potassium sulfate was then added to the solution. The solution may still contain Cu2+. Then you add potassium sulfide. so the mercurous ion has been removed from the solution. You add hydrochloric acid. A precipitate forms. so the silver ion has been removed from the solution. Nothing appears to happen. and Cu2+. Which cations were present in the original solution? .

Hydrogen sulfide is added to the solution. but Hg22+ isn’t present here. indicating that Hg2+ was present. The calcium sulfate precipitate was filtered out. which adds sulfate to the solution. so the silver ion has been removed from the solution. 129(5 pts) Circle the correct description of the solubility in water of the following salts. The solution may still contain Hg2+. Hydrogen sulfide is added to the solution. indicating that Zn2+ was not present. HgSO4 is soluble. d) lead(II) carbonate soluble insoluble . 128(3 pts) You are asked to analyze a solution for the cations Ag+. but no precipitate forms.Adding HCl adds chloride to the solution. AgCl is insoluble. You filter out the solid and add hydrogen sulfide to the solution. Since a precipitate formed. Ag+ was absent. Ca2+ and Hg2+ may still be present in the solution. CaSO4 is insoluble. Ba2+ was present. You add hydrochloric acid. ZnS is insoluble. Sulfuric acid was then added to the solution. You then add sulfuric acid to the solution and a white precipitate forms. Ca2+. HgS is insoluble. BaSO 4 is insoluble. so now both the Ag+ and Ba2+ have been removed. and Hg2+. A precipitate forms. Since a precipitate formed. According to the solubility rules. Ca2+ was present. The solution may still contain Zn2+. Since no precipitate formed. The precipitate was filtered out. Nothing appears to happen. Which ions were present in the original solution? Ca2+. a) silver(I) chloride b) silver(I) sulfide c) silver(I) acetate e) silver(I) sulfate a) lead(II) sulfide b) lead(II) acetate c) Hg2Cl2 e) lead(II) sulfate soluble insoluble soluble insoluble soluble insoluble soluble insoluble soluble insoluble soluble insoluble soluble insoluble soluble insoluble d) silver(I) carbonate soluble insoluble 130(5 pts) Circle the correct description of the solubility in water of the following salts. According to the solubility rules. Sulfuric acid was then added to the solution. Ba2+ and Zn2+ may still be present in the solution. AgCl is insoluble. (The compound Hg2SO4 is insoluble. Hg2+ Adding HCl adds chloride to the solution. ZnSO4 is soluble. which adds sulfate to the solution. A black precipitate forms.) Since a precipitate formed. BaCl2 and ZnCl2 are both soluble. Ag+ was present. CaCl2 and HgCl2 are both soluble.

2 pts for separating ions.) Include the state (aq. H2SO4. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + K2SO4(aq) → PbSO4(s) + 2KNO3(aq) Pb SO4 (s) 3 K NO3 (aq) 7 pts net ionic equation: 2+ Pb (aq) + SO42–(aq) → PbSO4(s) 1 pt for the (aq)’s. even though it doesn’t contain hydroxide. HCl. 1 pts for balancing correctly. then write the net ionic equation for each. or g) and charges in the net ionic equation. s. H3O+ 133(6 pts) a) Give an example of a weak acid. which shows how ammonia acts as a base. H3PO4 are common examples b) Give an example of a weak base. l. HF. (You may find it helpful to first write the ionic equation. s. or CH3CO2H b) Give an example of a weak base. NH3 -1 pt for NH4+ c) Give the formula of the hydronium ion. (Tip: chromate is CrO42-) (NH4)2CrO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) → 2NH4NO3(aq) + PbCrO4(s) Examples of Strong Acids & Bases 132(6 pts) a) Give an example of a strong acid. HCN. 6 pts ____________ H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) → K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) -2 pts for KSO4 + H3O+ 2 K 2 SO4 (aq) 2 H2O 7 pts net ionic equation: 2H+(aq) + SO4–(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) → 2K+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2H2O(l) 2H+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) → 2H2O(l) or H+(aq) + OH–(aq) → H2O(l) 5 pts 136(41 pts) Complete and balance the following chemical equations. NH3 -1 pt for NH4+ c) Give the formula of the hydronium ion. then write the net ionic equation for each. H3O+ 134(4 pts) Complete the following reaction. NH3(aq) + H2O(l) → NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) Complete the Reaction.131(10 pts) Write the balanced equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of ammonium chromate and lead(II) nitrate are mixed. l. 2 pts for showing charges. HNO3. Net Ionic Equations 135(25 pts) Complete and balance the following chemical equations. Include the state (aq. Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + 3BaOH(aq) → 2Fe(OH)3(s) + 3BaSO4(s) 3 2 Fe OH 3 (s) 3 Ba SO4 (s) 10 pts net ionic equation: 2Fe3+(aq) + 3SO42–(aq) + 3Ba2+(aq) + 3OH–(aq) → 2Fe(OH)3(s) + 3BaSO4(s) . or g).

138(25 pts) Complete and balance the following chemical equations. s. Include the state (aq. or g). net ionic equation: Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) → PbSO4(s) 2 pts. 7 pts ____________ AgNO3(aq) + KBr(aq) → AgCl(s) + KNO3(aq) Ag Cl (s) K NO3 (aq) 1 pt for balancing 7 pts net ionic equation: + Ag (aq) + NO3–(aq) + K+(aq) + Br–(aq) → AgCl(s) + K+(aq) + NO3–(aq) Ag+(aq) + Br–(aq) → AgCl(s) 1 pt for (aq)’s. 2 for charges. FeCl3(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) → Fe(OH)3(s) + 3NaCl(aq) net ionic equation: Fe3+(aq) + 3OH-(aq) → Fe(OH)3(s) 7 pts. then write the net ionic equation for each. 2 pts for separating ions. 3 pts. Na2SO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) → PbSO4(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) 7 pts net ionic equation: Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) → PbSO4(s) 6 pts (1 for separating ions. H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) → K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) net ionic equation: 2H+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) → 2H2O(l) or H+(aq) + OH-(aq) → H2O(l) 4 pts. 2 pt for separating ions. or g). l. 2 pts for showing charges.1 pt for the (aq)’s. 2 pts for showing charges 5 pts ____________ H3PO4(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) → Na3PO4(aq) + 3H2O(l) 3 Na 3 PO4 (aq) 3 H2O 7 pts net ionic equation: + 3H (aq) + PO4–(aq) + 3Na+(aq) + 3OH–(aq) → 3Na+(aq) + PO43-(aq) + 3H2O(l) 3H+(aq) + 3OH–(aq) → 3H2O(l) or + H (aq) + OH–(aq) → H2O(l) 5 pts 137Complete and balance the following chemical equations. 7 pts. 1 for balancing. 1 for product) 2 NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) net ionic equation: 2H+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) → 2H2O(l) or H+(aq) + OH-(aq) → H2O(l) 7 pts 5 pts . then write the net ionic equation for each. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + K2SO4(aq) → PbSO4(s) + 2KNO3(aq) 7 pts. Include the state (aq. 1 for aq. s. 2 pts for balancing correctly.

(You may find it helpful to first write the ionic equation. l. K2SO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2KNO3(aq) Ba SO4 (s) 2 K NO3 6 pts net ionic equation: Ba2+(aq) + SO42–(aq) → BaSO4(s) 1 pt for the (aq)’s.) Include the state (aq. then write the net ionic equation for each. 1 pt for (s). 1 pt for balancing correctly. or g) and charges in the net ionic equation.139(26 pts) Complete and balance the following chemical equations. or g) in your reactions. 2 pts for balancing correctly. 1 pt for balancing correctly. 2 pts for separating ions. s. s. 2 pts for showing charges. 2 pts for separating ions. l. Include the states (aq. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI(aq) → PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) 2 Pb I 2 (s) 2 K NO3 8 pts net ionic equation: 2+ Pb (aq) + 2I–(aq) → PbI2(s) 1 pt for the (aq)’s.) Include the states (aq. or g). Include the state (aq. s. 2 pts for showing charges. then write a net ionic equation for it. or g) and charges in the net ionic equation. 7 pts ____________ K2CO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → K2SO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) K 2 SO4 CO2 H2O 5 pts net ionic equation: 2K+(aq) + CO32-(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2SO42-(aq) → 2K+(aq) + 2SO42-(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) CO32-(aq) + 2H+(aq) → CO2(g) + H2O(l) 7 pts 142(16 pts) Complete and balance the following chemical reactions. 2 pts for separating ions. s. l. 2Na3PO4(aq) + 3FeCl2(aq) → 6NaCl(aq) + Fe3(PO4)2(s) 2 3 6 Na Cl (aq) Fe 3 (PO4 )2 10 pts _______________ K2CO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → K2SO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) ( or H2CO3(aq) ) . 6 pts 141(25 pts) Complete and balance the following chemical equations. ____________ HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) 4 pts net ionic equation: H+(aq) + OH–(aq) → H2O(l) 5 pts 140(14 pts) Complete and balance the following chemical equation. 2 pts for showing charges. (You may find it helpful to first write the complete ionic equation. then write the net ionic equation for each. 2K3PO4(aq) + 3Ca(OH)2(aq) → Ca3(PO4)2(s) + 6KOH(aq) 10 pts 2 3 Ca 3 PO4 2 (s) 6 KOH (aq) net ionic equation: 2+ 3Ca (aq) + 2PO43–(aq) → Ca3(PO4)2(s) 7 pts 1 pt for the (aq)’s. l.

93 g  mol   mL  M= =    = 0. Include the states (aq. figs 148(6 pts) An aqueous solution was prepared by dissolving 1.K 2 SO4 CO2 (g) H2O 6 pts 143(6 pts) Write the net ionic equation for the following reaction.44 g/mol) 1 1 1 1 1. 2 pts for showing charges. What is the molarity of silver nitrate in the solution? (molar mass of AgNO3: 169.0 mL of solution.) Include the state (aq.93 g of KBr in enough water to make 750.001L  250. 6 pts 144(12 pts) Complete and balance the following chemical reaction.00 g   0. (You may find it helpful to first write the ionic equation.567 g   n  169. or g) and charges of ions.11 g of NaCl in enough water to make 1500.93 g  mol   mL  M= =    = 0. + 1 for sig. mL of solution.   1mL  . mL of solution. 2 NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) net ionic equation: 2H+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) → 2H2O(l) or H+(aq) + OH-(aq) → H2O(l) 5 pts 7 pts Molarity 145(6 pts) An aqueous solution was prepared by dissolving 2.0241M V 1500. l. s.00mL  166. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI(aq) → PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) Pb2+(aq) + 2I–(aq) → PbI2(s) 1 pt for the (aq)’s. or g) and charges in the net ionic equation. + 1 for sig.001L  M= =    = 0. then write the net ionic equation. figs 147(6 pts) An aqueous solution was prepared by dissolving 4. s.0594 M V 500.00 g/mol) n 4.87 g  = 0.mL  119. 2 pts for separating ions.001L  1 1 1 1 1.00 g   0. + 1 for sig.mL  58. What is the molarity of NaCl in the solution? (molar mass of NaCl: 58.0mL  .0 mL of solution.001L  1 1 1 1 1.0552M V 750.87 g/mol)  mol  1.567 g of AgNO3 in enough water to make 250. l. What is the molarity of KBr in the solution? (molar mass of KBr: 119.11g  mol   0.00 g/mol) n 4.44 g   1mL  146(6 pts) An aqueous solution was prepared by dissolving 4.03690M M= = V  0. What is the molarity of KI in the solution? (molar mass of KI: 166. figs n 2.93 g of KI in enough water to make 500.

7 mL of 0. The concentration of NaOH is normally in the range 3 to 6 M. What is the molar concentration of the NaOH solution? .500 M HCl(aq).0155 mol / L × VC = ( 5.00 L ) 3 pt VC = 0.23 × 10-4 M HCl(aq) solution? 0.0 mL -2 for 1000 mL M CVC = M DVD 1 pt 3 pt 1 pt 153(5 pts) What volume of a 0.500 M solution should be diluted to 1000.100 M HCl(aq) solution? M CVC = M DVD 1 pt 0.0234 M Na2CO3(aq)? M 1V1 = M 2V2 0. mL of a 5. The NaOH is analyzed periodically.Dilution 149(5 pts) Suppose you need to prepare 1000.250 mol / L × VC = ( 0.37 mL 152(5 pts) What volume of a 0.500 mol / L × VC = ( 0. mL to give the desired 0.23 ×10 mol / L ) × ( 100. What volume of the 0.100 M HCl(aq) solution? M CVC = M DVD 1 pt 0. mL 1 pt 151(5 pts) What volume of a 0.0155 M HCl(aq) solution should be used to prepare 100. and all you have on hand is 0.0204 mol / L ) × ( 100.51 mL Titration 154(12 pts) One method used commercially to peel potatoes is to soak them in a solution of NaOH for a short time.100 mol / L ) × ( 1000.100 mol / L ) × ( 1. and all you have on hand is 0.00 L to give the desired 0. and spray off the peel. In one such analysis. mL of 0. mL ) VC = 10.400 L = 400. What volume of the 0. 45. mL ) VC = 200.100 M HCl(aq).250 M solution should be diluted to 1.500 M H2SO4 is required to react completely with a 20. remove them from the NaOH.00 L of 0.0 mL with water to reduce its concentration to 0.778 M Na2CO3(aq) solution should be diluted to 150.0204 M HCl(aq) solution? 0.204 M HCl(aq) solution should be used to prepare 100. mL 3 pt 1 pt 150(5 pts) Suppose you need to prepare 1.100 M HCl(aq). mL ) −4 M CVC = M DVD 1 pt 3 pt 1 pt VC = 3.778 mol/L × V1 = ( 0. mL of a 0.0 mL sample of the NaOH solution.0234 mol/L ) × ( 150 mL ) V1 = 4.250 M HCl(aq).204 mol / L × VC = ( 0.

Certain minerals. such as pyrite (FeS2). +1 pt for sig.0457 L 2 pts L = 0.First. 2KOH(aq) + H2SO4 → K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) 0.500 M 20. figure out what is given.438 M (switched volumes) -3 for 1. at a mine in Colorado. figure out what is given. forming solutions of sulfuric acid.00 mL was neutralized with 16. Anyway.34 mL of 0. What is the molar concentration of H2SO4 in the water? First.0457 L M  moles  moles  M 4 pts Molarity to moles: M= nH2SO4 → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) n V = M H2 SO4 VH2 SO4 = 0. killing fish and other animals.28 M H 2SO4 1 pt . a sample of mine water of volume 25.02500 L M  moles  moles  M 4 pts Molarity to moles: .02000 L = 2.0457 mol NaOH  1 H 2SO4  5 pts Moles to molarity: n 1 pt V 0.500 1 pts mol × 0.00 mL 0. decompose when exposed to air.7 mL 0.0229 mol H2 SO4   = 0.14 M (didn’t do mol-to-mol conversion) -2 for 0.01634 L 0.571 M (multiplied by 2 instead of divided by 2 in mol-to-mol conversion) M= 155(12 pts) Many abandoned mines have exposed nearby communities to the problem of acid mine drainage.0229 mol H 2SO 4 1 pts 3 pts Convert from moles KOH to moles phosphoric acid: 2KOH ≏ 1H2SO4  2 NaOH  0.0457 mol = 2 pt 0. 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4 ?M 0.255 M ?M 16. figs -2 for 0.00 mL 45.02000 L 0. The acidic mine water then drains into lakes and creeks.34 mL 25.255 M KOH(aq).

1123 mol NaOH   = 0.2586 M 25.195 M (switched volumes) -3 for 0.02500 L = 0. The stoichiometric end point is reached when 43.00208 mol = 2 pt 0.04342 L nNaOH = M NaOHVNaOH Molarity to moles: mol × 0.00417 mol KOH   = 0. figure out what is given.00417 mol KOH 1 pts 3 pts Convert from moles KOH to moles phosphoric acid: 2KOH ≏ 1H2SO4  1 H 2SO4  0.2586 → Na2C2O4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) Convert from moles NaOH to moles oxalic acid: 2NaOH ≏ 1H2C2O4  1 H 2 C2 O 4  0.255 mol × 0.00208 mol H2 SO4  2 KOH  5 pts Moles to molarity: n M= 1 pt V 0.01634 L 2 pts = 0.1123 mol NaOH = 0.00 mL of a solution of oxalic acid are titrated with 0. What is the molarity of the oxalic acid solution? Oxalic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide as shown below: H2C2O4(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) → Na2C2O4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) First. figs -2 for 0.42 mL 0.02500 L 0.04342 L 3 pts L = 0.0833 M H 2SO4 1 pt . H2C2O4(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) ?M 0.00 mL 43. +1 pt for sig.2586 m NaOH(aq).167 M (didn’t do mol to mol conversion) 156(8 pts) 25.005614 mol H 2 C2 O4  2 NaOH  2 pts .M= nKOH n V = M KOHV KOH 1 pts = 0.42 mL of the solution of base is added.

3KOH(aq) + H3PO4(aq) → K3PO4(aq) + 3H2O(l) 0.00 → 4NO(g) 30. What is the molarity of the phosphoric acid solution? First.120 M ?M 38.50 g of O2 are mixed.005614 mol = 0.120 mol / L × 0. % Yield 158(20 pts) One of the steps in the commercial process for converting ammonia to nitric acid involves the conversion of NH3 to NO: molar masses. 9 pts for showing the calculation) .01 + 6H2O(s) 18. according to the reaction below.0 mL 0.M= Moles to molarity: n V 0.00154 mol H 3 PO4  3 KOH  5 pts Moles to molarity: n M= 1 pt V 0.03 + 5O2(g) 32.02500 L = 0.0104 M (switched volumes) -3 for 0. Theoretical Yield. figs -2 for 0.00 g of NH3 and 1.2246 M H3C2 O4 3 pts 157(12 pts) 38.462 M (didn’t do mol to mol conversion) -5 for 0.0312 M (didn’t do both of above) Limiting Reactant. +1 pt for sig.00154 mol = 2 pt 0.00462 mol KOH 3 pts Convert from moles KOH to moles H3PO4: 3KOH ≏ 1H3PO4  1 H 3 PO4  0.01000 L = 0.120 M KOH(aq) solution were needed to reach the stoichiometric point in a titration of 10.00462 mol KOH   = 0. figure out what is given.0385 L = 0.0385 L 0. in g/mol: 4NH3(g) 17.5 mL of a 0.02 a) (9 pts) If 1. which is the limiting reactant? (1 pt for right answer.0 mL of a phosphoric acid solution.0100 L molarity  moles  moles  molarity 4 pts Molarity to moles: nKOH = M KOH VKOH = 0.5 mL 10.154 M H 3PO4 1 pt .

900 g NO   mol   5O 2  c) (7 pts) If 1.01 g   4NO  0.98 g   4Al  4 pts for each mol calculation  mol   3Mn  472 g MnO2   = 5. 1 pt b) (4 pts) What is the theoretical yield (in grams) of NO that can be produced when the quantities in part a are mixed? The theoretical yield is determined by the limiting reactant.0563 mol H2O) The 1.00 g NH3   = 0. + 1 for sig.There are several ways to do this. figs. The mass of NO that can be formed from the O2 is:  30. 1 pt b) 4 pts What is the theoretical yield (in grams) of Mn that can be produced when the quantities in (a) are mixed? The theoretical yield is determined by the limiting reactant. 9 pts for showing the calculation) There are several ways to do this.0375 mol NO   32. which is MnO2.76 mol Al2O3 and 3.0375 mol O 2  3 pts.  = 0.43 mol Mn   86. One is to calculate how much Mn could be produced from each of the reactants. so O2 is the limiting reactant. which is O2.50 g of O2 forms the least amount of NO. in g/mol: a) 9 pts If 203 g of Al and 472 g of MnO2 are mixed.0881 mol H2O and 0.00 g  5O 2  (or 0. The mass of Mn that can be formed from the MnO2 is: .94 + 2Al2O3(s) 101.05 g = ×100 2 pts 0.0587 mol NO   17. One is to calculate how much NO could be produced from each of the reactants. which is the limiting reactant? (1 pt for right answer. so MnO2 is the limiting reactant.94 g  3MnO 2  (or 3.  mol   4NO  1.  mol   3Mn  203 g Al    = 5.94 → 3Mn(l) 54. what is the percent yield? Actual yield %= × 100 3 pts Theoretical yield 1.98 + 3MnO2(s) 86.50 g O 2   = 0.05 g of NO are actually obtained from the reaction.64 mol Mn  26.900 g = 117% 2 pts 159(20 pts) Manganese metal can be prepared by the thermite process: 4Al(s) 26.62 mol Al2O3) The 472 g of MnO2 forms the least amount of Mn.03 g   4NH 3  4 pts for each mol calculation  mol   4NO  1.96 molar masses.

05 g  2N 2 H 4  4 pts for each mol calculation  mol   3N 2  200. 54.01 → 3N2(g) 28. c) 7 pts If 254 g of Mn are actually obtained from the reaction. hydrazine (N2H4) and dinitrogen tetraoxide (N2O4). which ignite on contact to form nitrogen gas and water vapor.94 g  5. One is to calculate how much N2 could be produced from each of the reactants. so N2O4 is the limiting reactant. what is the percent yield? Actual yield %= ×100 3 pts (-2 if invert) Theoretical yield 155 g = × 100 2 pts 183g = 84.52 mol N2   92.01 + 6H2O(g) 18.05 + N2O4(l) 92.02 a) (9 pts) If 1.  mol   3N 2  150. which is the limiting reactant? (1 pt for right answer. figs.9% 2 pts 161(18 pts) Lithium metal is the only member of Group 1 that reacts directly with nitrogen to produce a nitride. The mass of N2 that can be formed from the N2O4 is:  28. + 1 for sig.1% 2 pts 160(20 pts) A fuel mixture used in the early days of rocketry is composed of two liquids. 1 pt b) (4 pts) What is the theoretical yield (in grams) of N2 that can be produced when the quantities in part a) are mixed? The theoretical yield is determined by the limiting reactant. Li3N: 6Li(s) + N2(g) → 2Li3N(s) .0 mol H2O) The 150. g of N2O4 forms the least amount of N2.43 mol Mn   = 298 g Mn  mol  3 pts.01 g   1N 2 O4  (or 14. molar masses. g N 2 H 4   = 7.00 × 102 g of N2O4 are mixed.01 g  6.50 × 102 g of N2H4 and 2. in g/mol: 2N2H4(l) 32. which is N2O4. g N 2O4   = 6. figs.52 mol N 2  3 pts.  = 183 g N2  mol  c) (7 pts) If 155 g of N2 are actually obtained from the reaction. 9 pts for showing the calculation) There are several ways to do this. what is the percent yield? Actual yield %= × 100 3 pts Theoretical yield 254 g = × 100 2 pts 298 g = 85.02 mol N2   32. + 1 for sig.0 mol H2O and 13.

01 g  2H 2 O  (or 1.0 g of Li and 98. g of H2O according to the following reaction? CaC2(s) + 2H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(aq) + C2H2(g) molar masses.01. in g/mol: Li 6. g CaC 2   = 1.2 g of N2 are mixed. so Li is the limiting reactant. in g/mol: 64.2 g N 2   = 7. an important reagent used in many industrial chemical processes.(molar masses.0 g Li    = 5. which is Li. 8 pts for showing the calculation)9 pts. The theoretical yield is determined by the limiting reactant.10 g  1CaC2  4 pts for each mol calculation  mol   1C 2 H 2  100.4 g Li3 N  mol  c) If 195 g of Li3N are actually obtained from the reaction. One is to calculate how much Li 3N could be produced from each of the reactants.56 and 2. The mass of Li3N that can be formed from the Li is:  34.941 g   6Li   mol   1Li 3 N  98. what is the percent yield? Actual yield %= × 100 Theoretical yield 195 g = ×100 207. which is the limiting reactant? (1 pt for right answer.78 mol Ca(OH)2) The 100.  mol   1C2 H 2  100. g of CaC2 forms the least amount of C2H2.4 g = 94% 5 pts.83) a) If 124. . so CaC2 is the limiting reactant. One is to calculate how much C2H2 could be produced from each of the reactants. g of CaC2 reacts with 100.83 g  5. b) What is the theoretical yield (in grams) of Li3N that can be produced when the quantities in (a) are mixed? 4 pts.941. is made by treating scrap aluminum with chlorine according to the following equation.78 mol C2 H2   18. N2 28.04 There are several ways to do this. 1 pt 163Aluminum chloride. 162(9 pts) Which is the limiting reactant when 100.02 74.955 mol Li3 N  6.01 g  1N 2  The 124. There are several ways to do this.0 g of Li forms the least amount of Li3N.011 mol Li3 N   28.  mol   2Li 3 N  124.955 mol Li3 N   = 207. Li3N 34.09 26.10 18.56 mol C2 H2   64. g H 2O   = 2.

The mass of AlCl3 that can be formed from the Cl2 is:  133.98.34 g  3. b) What is the theoretical yield (in grams) of AlCl3 that can be produced when the quantities in (a) are mixed? The theoretical yield is determined by the limiting reactant. Energy  Wavelength  Frequency 164 (8 pts) Human vision cuts off on the red side of the spectrum at about 675 nm.2Al(s) + 3Cl2(g) → (molar masses. what is the percent yield? %= Actual yield ×100 Theoretical yield 412 g = ×100 432 g = 95.91 g  3Cl 2  The 345 g of Cl2 forms the least amount of AlCl3. in g/mol: Al 26. figs. 8 pts for showing the calculation) There are several ways to do this. which is the limiting reactant? (1 pt for right answer. One is to calculate how much AlCl 3 could be produced from each of the reactants.63 × 10 J g ) ( 3.91.00 × 10 m / s ) E= = λ  10−9 m  675nm   1 pt.0 g of Al and 345 g of Cl2 are mixed. Cl2 70. What is the energy of a photon of this wavelength? E = hν and c = λν.  mol   2AlCl3  98.3% 7 pts. so .94 ×10−19 J 165 (6 pts) One of the visible lines in the spectrum of hydrogen occurs at 486 nm.0 g Al    = 3. sig. c) If 412 g of AlCl3 are actually obtained from the reaction.44 ×10 14 Hz ) = 2. so −34 8 s hc ( 6.24 mol AlCl3   70.98 g   2Al   mol   2AlCl3  345 g Cl 2   = 3. so Cl2 is the limiting reactant.  1nm  ( The frequency of the light is 4. 9 pts.63 mol AlCl 3  26.. What is the energy of a photon of this wavelength? E = hν and c = λν.24 mol AlCl3   = 432 g AlCl3  mol  4 pts. which is Cl2.34) a) If 98. 2AlCl3(s) AlCl3 133.

63 × 10 Jg ) ( 3. so −34 8 s hc ( 6.00 × 10 m / s ) = λ  10−9 m  486nm    1nm  14 Hz ) 1 pt.57 ×10 s or 4. so E 3.37 ×10−19 J 169 (6 pts) Mercury vapor lamps. What is the energy of a photon of this wavelength? E = hν and c = λν.. so −34 8 s hc ( 6.00 ×10 m / s ) E= = λ  10−9 m  517 nm   1 pt. ml = -1. What is the frequency in Hz of a photon of this energy? E = hν.57 ×10 Hz 168(6 pts) Sodium vapor lamps. sig.  1nm  ( The frequency of the light is 5.03 × 10-19 J. so −34 8 s hc ( 6. figs. emit at 589 nm.80 ×10 14 Hz ) = 3.17 ×10 = 4. this light results from emission from magnesium atoms.63 ×10 J g ) ( 3.. ms = -1/2 . What is the energy of a photon of this energy? E = hν and c = λν. sig. used for public lighting. What is the energy of a photon of this energy? E = hν and c = λν. l = 2.84 ×10 −19 J 167 (5 pts) One of the visible lines in the spectrum of hydrogen has an energy of 3.63 ×10−34 J g s 14 −1 14 = 4. figs. 166(8 pts) The solar spectrum contains light having a wavelength of 517 nm.00 × 10 m / s ) E= = λ  10−9 m  254nm    1nm  = 7. figs.82 ×10−19 J Quantum Numbers 170 (2 pt) Which one of the following is an allowable set of quantum numbers for an electron? a) n = 3. sig.09 ×10−19 J −34 8 s hc ( 6.63 × 10 J g ) ( 3. used for public lighting..00 ×10 m / s ) E= = λ  10−9 m  589 nm    1 nm  = 3. emit at 254 nm.E= ( The frequency of the light is 6.63 × 10 J g ) ( 3. h 6.03 ×10−19 J ν= = 1 pt.

ms = -1/2 l too small l too large ms can’t be 0 l too large ml too small l too large l too large ms can’t be 0 l too large ml too large l too large l too large ms can’t be 0 l too large ml too large 171 (2 pt) Which one of the following is an allowable set of quantum numbers for an electron? 172 (1 pt) Which one of the following is an allowable set of quantum numbers for an electron? 173 (2 pt) Give a possible set of four quantum numbers {n. ml = -2. 2 pts for each one. ms = +1/2 f) n = 4. l = 3. ms = +1/2 c) n = 2. ml = 3. l. ms = -1/2 a) n = 1. ms = +½ or –½ ↑↓ ↑↓* ↑ Orbitals 174 (4 pts) Draw an s and a p orbital. ms = 0 e) n = 4. ms = 0 e) n = 3. l = 1. l = 2. ms = -1/2 a) n = 1. b) encloses the region where electron density is zero.b) n = 2. l = 2. ml = 1. ms = +1/2 d) n = 3. l = 2. ml = 1. ml. ml = 3. ms = +1/2 b) n = 2. l = 1. l = 4. ms} for the starred electron in the following diagram. l = 3. ms = +1/2 f) n = 4. l = 4. ml = 3. 2p n = ___. l = 1. ml = -1. l = 3. the boundary surface a) encloses a volume of space in which where is a high probability of finding an electron. s orbital p orbital (could be drawn in any orientation) 175(2 pts) In an outline drawing (a “balloon” picture) of an orbital. ml = 1. ms = +1/2 d) n = 3. l = ___. ml = -1. ml = ___. l = 2. ml = 3. ms = ___ n = 2. ms = -1/2 c) n = 2. ml = -2. ms = +1/2 e) n = 2. ml = -2. l = 2. ml = -1. ms = +1/2 b) n = 2. ml = -1. l = 3. l = 2. ml = 0. ml = 3. ms = +1/2 c) n = 3. l = 2. Select the values of ml by numbering from –l to +l from left to right. l = 1. ml = -1. ms = -1/2 f) n = 4. ms = 0 d) n = 4. l = -2. . ml = -3.

e) is the distance from the nucleus where the electron is most likely to be found. -1 for wrong configuration. such as [Xe]. such as [Xe]. Electron Configurations of Elements 176 (8 pts) Astatine. Arrange the orbitals in order of increasing energy.) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p6 179 (5 pts) Give the full electron configuration of lead. (No boxes. noble gas abbreviations are ok. (No boxes. having atomic number 86 on the periodic table. Arrange the orbitals in order of increasing energy.) –2 pts. -1 for wrong configuration. is a radioactive member of the halogens. Give the full electron configuration of Rn.) .c) describes the path in which an electron travels as it revolves around the nucleus. d) encloses a volume of space which an electron never leaves. for wrong # of electrons. Ti2+[Ar]3d2 (some thought this was Tl2+. V2+ F– [Ar]3d3 1s22s23p6 (or [Ne]) Ge2+ [Ar]4s23d10 181 (6 pts) Give the electron configurations of the following ions. (Do not use noble gas abbreviations.) –2 pts. noble gas abbreviations are ok.) –2 pts. for wrong # of electrons. Arrange the orbitals in order of increasing energy. noble gas abbreviations are ok. -1 for wrong configuration. (Do not use noble gas abbreviations. such as [Xe]. (No boxes. such as [Xe].) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p3 178 (8 pts) Radon. for this problem.) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p2 Electron Configurations of Ions 180 (6 pts) Give the electron configurations of the following ions. for this problem. Co2+ [Ar]3d7 Ga+[Ar]4s23d10 S2[Ne]3s23p6 (or [Ar]) 182 (3 pts) Give the electron configurations of the following ion. for this problem. Arrange the orbitals in order of increasing energy.) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p5 177 (8 pts) Give the full electron configuration of bismuth (element 83). (Do not use noble gas abbreviations. (Do not use noble gas abbreviations. for wrong # of electrons. for this problem. having atomic number 85 on the periodic table. is a radioactive noble gas. gave credit for [Xe]6s14f145d10. Give the full electron configuration of At.

not just valence electrons. 2 for 2 unpaired e-. noble gas abbreviations are ok. . noble gas abbreviations are ok. 2 for 2 unpaired e-.) 1 for 6 e-. 2p 2s 1s 2p ↑ ↑ ↑↓ 2s ↑↓ 1s ↑↓ 188 (4 pts) Place electrons in the boxes below to show the lowest energy electron configuration of a carbon atom.) Cu2+ [Ar]3d9 Sn2+ [Kr]5s24d10 Br– [Ar]4s23d34p6 (or just [Kr]) Hund’s Rule 187 (4 pts) Place electrons in the boxes below to show the lowest energy electron configuration of an oxygen atom. (No boxes.183 (3 pts) Give the electron configurations of the following ion.in 2p orbitals. 1 for 2 e. for wrong # of electrons.) –3 pts.) 1 for 8 e-. not just valence electrons. not just valence electrons. (Use all electrons. Ni2+ [Ar]3d8 184(6 pts) Give the electron configuration of the following: (without using noble gas abbreviations) Ni: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d8 4 pts (using noble gas abbreviations) Ni2+: [Ar]3d8 2 pts 185(6 pts) Give the electron configurations of the following ions.in 2p orbitals. (Use all electrons. (noble gas abbreviations are ok.) Fe2+ [Ar]3d6 In+ Cl[Kr]5s24d10 [Ne]3s23p6 (or [Ar]) 186(6 pts) Give the electron configurations of the following ions. 2 for 2 unpaired e-. 1 for 2 e.) 1 for 14 e-.in 2p orbitals. 2p 2s 1s 2p 2s 1s 189 (4 pts) Place electrons in the boxes below to show the lowest energy electron configuration of a silicon atom. (No boxes. (Use all electrons. -2 for wrong configuration. 1 for 4 e.

N C. 192 (3 pts) Arrange in order of increasing atomic radii: As. O.3p 3s 2p 2s 1s 3p 2s 2p 2s 1s 190 (4 pts) Place electrons in the boxes below to show the lowest energy electron configuration of a nitrogen atom. F. F. F. not just valence electrons. 1 for 3 e. 2p 2s 1s Periodic Trends 191 (3 pts) One property of atoms is their ionization energies. Si C. The trend in ionization energy is exactly opposite the trend in what other property? _size_________________________. which vary according to position in the periodic table. Si C. (Use all electrons. Al As. Si.) 1 for 7 e-. F. N F. 2 for 3 unpaired e-. P smallest _F_ _N_ _As_ smallest largest 193 (3 pts) Arrange in order of increasing atomic radii: F _C_ _Si_ largest 194 (3 pt) Arrange in order of increasing electron affinity: smallest _Si_ _C_ F largest smallest _F_ _C_ _Si_ _Al_ smallest As_ _ N_ _ F_ largest 195 (4 pts) Arrange in order of increasing atomic radii: 196 (3 pt) Arrange in order of increasing ionization energy: largest 197 (3 pt) Arrange in order of increasing ionization energy: smallest _P_ _O_ _F_ largest 198 (2 pt) Arrange in order of increasing ionization energy: .in 2p orbitals. F.

4 pts for difference. Si. 0. Ge.7 – 1. I. Br. Ga smallest _ Al _ _ Si_ _C_ _ F_ largest smallest _Ga_ _Ge_ _Si_ _S_ largest -2 if backwards 199 (3 pts) Arrange in order of increasing electronegativity: 200 (3 pt) Arrange in order of increasing electronegativity: N.9 = 2. P smallest ___ ___ ___ largest smallest _N_ _O_ _F_ largest smallest _Cs_ _K_ _Li_ largest smallest _Sb_ _P_ _Cl_ largest O Ar S2Sn 4g S K ClI 5d F Ca Cl Bi 4p P.5. P a) N. Cl. and 2 pts for ionic & covalent. so mainly ionic MgI 2. Show your reasoning. Al S. F 201 (6 pts) Arrange in order of increasing electronegativity: 202(3 pt) Arrange in order of increasing electronegativity: 203(5 pts) Select the best of the three choices: a) highest first ionization energy b) lowest second ionization energy c) largest radius d) smallest atomic radius e) impossible subshell designation 204 (1 pt) Which one of the following elements has the highest first ionization energy? a) lithium b) sodium c) boron d) aluminum e) nitrogen f) phosphorus 205(2 pt) In which of the lists below are the atoms arranged in order of increasing size (increasing atomic radius)? a) Si In Ge N d) In Ge N Si b) N In Ge Si e) N Si Ge In c) In Si Ge N f) N Ge Si In Valence Electrons 206 (2 pts) How many valence electrons does a phosphorus atom have? 5 Ionic or Covalent from Electronegativity 207 (8 pts) Determine whether the bonds in the following compounds are ionic or covalent. F.9. Si. Electronegativity difference: NaBr 3. 2 for giving 1. 1. Cs. K Sb.3 = 1.0 – 0.4 < 1.1 > 2.7. F. 2. 3.C.0. F.0.5 and 2.0. O b) Li.3. N. so mainly covalent . Electronegativities: Mg. Na.

C.208(8 pts) Use electronegativities to determine whether the bonds in the following compounds are ionic or covalent.4 = 0.6.3.3 and 2. 2 for giving 1. Electronegativity difference: NI3 3. Electronegativities: Ca. so mainly covalent MgO 3. so mainly ionic Electronegativity difference: 209 (8 pts) Determine whether the bonds in the following compounds are ionic or covalent.0. 1. Two possible Lewis structures for ClO are shown.3 = 2. O. MgO SO2 Electronegativity difference: 1.4. 3.3 . and 2 pts for ionic & covalent.0.1. Mg. O. Electronegativities: N. Show your reasoning.1 > 2.5 and 1.4.3.8 < 1.0. 3. Calculate the formal charges on each of the eight atoms.4. CO2 3. and 2 pts for ionic & covalent.5 and 2.5.3 = 2.7.0. many chlorine atoms end up in ClO.0 – 2.8 > 2. Cl 0 O 0 Cl +1 O -1 Cl O Cl O (1 pt) Circle the most favorable structure for ClO. so mainly ionic Formal Charges 211 (8 pts) In the atmosphere. O. 2 for giving 0. Electronegativities: Mg. 2. 2. 4.0. Show your reasoning. F. 2. 2 for giving 1. 1.3 < 1. 4 pts for difference. Must be the structure with the lowest formal charges.6 = 0.3. so ionic < 1.6. 1.1 2.5. 4 pts for difference.4 – 1. 212 (5 pts) Two possible structures for BF3 are shown. 3.4 = 2.0. I. 3. so covalent 210 (8 pts) Determine whether the bonds in the following compounds are ionic or covalent.3.4 – 2.1 > 2. and 2 pts for ionic & covalent.6 – 3.4 – 1. so mainly covalent CaO 3. F F B F F F B F . Show your reasoning. S.5. 4 pts for difference. Calculate the formal charges on each of the four atoms.7 = 0.

Cannot be predicted .F 0 0 F F 0 +1 F B 0 F 0 B -1 F 0 (1 pt) Circle the most favorable structure for BF3.0 . Equal to 120° m. Greater than 120° h. 214 (7 pts) Here is the Lewis structure for NO3-.6 .1/2(2) = -1 5 .1/2(8) = +1 N O -1 215 (8 pts) Two possible Lewis structures for ClO2– are shown. -1 +1 -1 O Cl O - O -1 0 Cl O 0 - (1 pt) Circle the most favorable structure for ClO2–. Must be the structure with the lowest formal charges. Greater than 90° b. N=C=O C=N=O N=O=C (1 pt)Circle the most favorable structure for cyanate. the O—Cl—O angle would best be described as … a.4 . Calculate the formal charges on each of the six atoms. 213 (6 pts) Three possible structures of the cyanate anion are shown.1/2(4) = 0 5 . O O 6 . Must be the structure with the lowest formal charges. Equal to 90° g. 216 (2 pts) If the shape of the ClO2– molecule shown above were drawn correctly. Calculate the formal charges on each of the four atoms. Calculate the formal charges on each of the nine atoms.

the O—S—O angle would be… a. 220 (4 pts) Draw the resonance structures of SO2. 218 (5 pts) Draw the three resonance structures of carbonate ion. Less than 109½° i. Less than 120° . Less than 180° Resonance Structures 217 (5 pts) Draw the three resonance structures of nitrate ion. Equal to 109½° f.c. CO32-. for others. 2 pts. NO3-. Greater than 120° b. Equal to 180° l. O O O N O O O 1 pt for 1st. 3 pts. (Remember the doubleheaded arrow. Equal to 120° c. Deviations from Idea Geometry (and some mixed questions) 221 (1 pt) In the SO2 molecule shown above.) 222O O O C O O O C O O C O N O O N O - 219 (6 pts) Draw the Lewis structures that contribute to the resonance hybrid of NO2– (N is the central atom).has a charge 3 pt for 1st. Less than 90° d. Greater than 180° k. 18 e-. for other. for other. since NO2. Greater than 109½° e. Less than 120° j. 3 pts. O O S O S O 1 pt for 1st.

f. the indicated angle would be… a. = 6 – 2 – ½(6) = +1 . Greater than 120° Equal to 120° Less than 120° Cannot be predicted O O S 223 (3 pts) Calculate the formal charge on S in the above molecule.5° Cannot be predicted H -1 H N H 227(9 pts) Draw the resonance Lewis structures for NO2 . Greater than 180° k. Cannot be predicted O O S 229 (3 pts) Calculate the formal charge on S in the above molecule. using < and > to indicate any distortion from an idealized geometry. the indicated angle would best be described as… a. Greater than 109½° e. d. 228 (2 pt) In an actual SO2 molecule. Equal to 120° i. Greater than 90° F b. Equal to 109½° f. Less than 180° m.d. 3 for formal charges. Equal to 180° l. 2 for angle with distortion. For one of the structures. Greater than 120° h.c. Less than 90° d. b. Greater than 109. Cannot be predicted 222 (1 pt) In an actual SO2 molecule. 225 (1 pt) In an actual SF4 molecule. Less than 109½° g. the indicated angle would be… a.c. Greater than 90° b.5° Equal to 109. Less than 90° S F F d. the indicated angle would be… a. b. 3 for Lewis structure. c. include formal charges on all atoms and the bond angle. d. Equal to 90° c. O N O O <120° 0 N O 0 1 for resonance structures. = 6 – 2 – ½(6) = +1 224 (2 pts) The hybridization of that sulfur atom is ____ sp2_____. Equal to 90° c. c. Less than 120° j. f. Cannot be predicted F 226 (1 pt) In an actual NH3 molecule.5° Less than 109.

Bases. Resonance structures may be ignored. linear nonpolar PF3 linear nonpolar Cl2CO bent or angular polar IF5 F F P 26 e- O F Cl C Cl F F F I F F . Polarity must agree with shape. Lewis Structures. Lewis base. BrF2– NO2 H C 10 e - C H F Br F 22 e- O N O O N 17 e- O Shape: Polar or non-polar: Shape must agree with Lewis structure. and Polarities 233(7 pts each) Draw the Lewis structures of the following molecules. HCCH 1 pt. for correct number of electrons.Lewis Acids. –2 for each atom without octet. and the complex in the following reaction: NH3(g) + BF3(g) → NH3BF3(s) base acid complex PF5 Lewis acid ______ PF5 Lewis base ______ Fthe complex ______ PF6 232 (5 pt) Identify the Lewis acid. Lewis base. identify the Lewis acid. and Adducts 230 (5 pt) Identify the Lewis acid. name the shape of the molecule (not the electron arrangement) and state whether the molecule is polar or non-polar. and the complex in the following reaction: NH3(g) + BBr3(g) → NH3BBr3(s) base acid complex -3 pts if switch acid and base + F→ PF6 231(3 pts) In the following reaction. Shapes. Lewis base. and the complex.

–2 for each atom with less than an octet. name the shape of the molecule (not the electron arrangement) and state whether the molecule is polar or non-polar. PCl3O (P is central atom) IF4+ F S C N Cl O P Cl Cl F + F I F 16 e- 36 e- . Polarity must agree with shape. linear polar SiH2Cl2 square pyramidal polar H2O N O bent or angular polar IF3 H H Si Cl Cl H H O F I F F Shape: Tetrahedral bent or angular T-shaped Polar or non-polar: Polar polar polar 235 (7 pts each) Draw the Lewis structures of the following molecules. Resonance structures may be ignored. name the shape of the molecule (not the electron arrangement) and state whether the molecule is polar or non-polar.24 e- 42 e- Shape: trigonal pyramidal trigonal planar square pyramidal Polar or non-polar: polar polar polar 234 (7 pts each) Draw the Lewis structures of the following molecules. for correct number of electrons. for correct number of electrons. HCN 1 pt. SCN– 1 pt. BrF5 NO2 H C N F F F Br F F O N O O Shape: Polar or non-polar: Shape must agree with Lewis structure. Resonance structures may be ignored. – 2 for each atom without octet.

. and bond angles. polarity. Resonance structures may be ignored. name the shape of the molecule (not of the electrons) and state whether the molecule is polar or non-polar.32 eShape: Polar or nonpolar: linear polar tetrahedral polar See-saw polar 236 (7 pts each) Draw the Lewis structures of the following molecules. name the shape of the molecule (not the electron arrangement) and state whether the molecule is polar or non-polar. 1 shape. Shape must agree with Lewis structure. 1 polarity NO (a radical) O S Cl Cl N O Shape: Polar or non-polar: trigonal pyramidal polar H2O linear polar BeCl2 Cl Be Cl O H Shape: Polar or non-polar: H linear non-polar bent or angular polar 238 (7 pts each) Draw the Lewis structures of the following molecules. SOCl2 3 Lewis. Shape: Polar or nonpolar: NH3 NO3– Cl I Cl 22 elinear nonpolar H O H N H O N O - 8 etrigonal pyramidal polar 24 etrigonal planar nonpolar 237(20 pts) For the following molecules. 1 pt for correct connectivity. give the molecular shape. draw the Lewis structure. Polarity must agree with shape. ICl2– 1 pt. for correct number of electrons.

AlCl3 F F XeF4 SO2 O Xe F O S Shape: Polar or non-polar: trigonal planar non-polar CH2Cl2 H H C Cl Cl F square planar non-polar bent or angular polar PF5 F F NH3 H H N H F Shape: Polar or non-polar: tetrahedral polar trigonal pyramidal polar F F trigonal bipyramidal non-polar P 239(7 pts each) Draw the Lewis structures of the following molecules. name the shape of the molecule (not the electron arrangement) and state whether the molecule is polar or non-polar. ClO (a radical) 1 pt. . ClF3 F or Cl F 28 eT-shaped polar F 13 eMolecular shape: Polar or non-polar: linear polar Hybridization. – 2 for each atom without octet. Resonance structures may be ignored. sigma and pi bonds 240 (6 pts) Fill in the boxes below with the requested information for describing the acetic acid molecule in terms of hybridization and σ and π components. for correct number of electrons.

O The component(s) of this bond is(are): H The hydridization of this atom is: C The component(s) of this bond is(are): H 242 (3 pt) The nitrogen atom in NO3. O The component(s) of this bond is(are): σ H The hydridization of this atom is: sp 2 C H The component(s) of this bond is(are): σ + π Molecular Orbitals 243 (4 pts) Draw the Lewis structure of the O2 molecule.is __sp2___ hybridized. σ*. Label the molecular orbitals (σ. . O O (10 pts) Construct a diagram showing the molecular orbitals in O2.). Put electrons in the orbitals.O The component(s) of this bond is(are): σ H The hydridization of this atom is: sp 2 C O H The component(s) of this bond is(are): σ + π The hydridization of this atom 3 is: sp omitted (left the two lone pairs off of the oxygen) 241 (6 pts) Fill in the boxes below with the requested information for describing the formaldehyde molecule in terms of hybridization and σ and π components. etc.

for showing work. MO Energy Levels of N2 2000 N 1000 Energy. (Figure has too many electrons in it. Label the molecular 2000 orbitals (σ. kJ/mol -1000 -3000 2s 2s -4000 σ2s 2 pts for 12 e-.) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -5000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 .o. kJ/mol 2p -1000 2p -2000 -1000 -2000 -3000 2s 2s -3000 2s 2s -4000 -5000 σ2s -4000 2 pts for 10 e-. for 2. 4 pts for labels. etc. according to your MO diagram? Paramagnetic: it has unpaired electrons.MO Energy Levels of N2 2000 σ*2p π*2p 2p π2p σ2p -2000 σ*2s 2p 1000 0 Energy. Put electrons in the molecular orbitals. 4 pts for 8 orbitals. kJ/mol N2 1000 N 0 2p π2p σ2p σ*2s σ*2p π*2p 2p N N 0 Energy. 4 pts for labels. = ½ × (bonding electrons – antibonding electrons = ½ × (8 – 4) = 2 1 pt. MO Energy Levels of N2 (10 pts) Construct a diagram showing the molecular orbitals in N2.).) b. (1 pt) Is the molecule paramagnetic or diagmagnetic. 244 (4 pts) Draw the Lewis structure of the N2 molecule. according to your MO diagram? (Show the 2 3 5 6 calculation. 0 -5000 (5 pts)1 What is the bond4order of O2. 4 pts for 8 orbitals. σ*. 4 pts.

kJ/mol 2s 0 Energy. MO Energy Levels of F2 2000 F 1000 F2 1000 F σ*2p π*2p 2p π2p σ2p σ*2s 2s 2s 2p 0 Energy.MO Energy Levels of N 2 2000 Here are some figures that could be used for F2. kJ/mol 2p -1000 2p -2000 -1000 -2000 -3000 2s -4000 -3000 σ2s -4000 -5000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -5000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 .