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feedback control system. varying product design and demand . numerically controlled machine tools and robotics. stress and production traumas. electronics and computer based systems in the operation and control of production. Latest assembly techniques for simpler or more complicated products in engineering. mechanized assembly machines. Definition of Automation: It is a technology dealing with application of ‡ Control system ‡ Information technology for production of goods and services. medium volume ‡ Flexible automation ‡ Designed to manufacture a variety of products or parts ‡ Low production rates.Abstract: Modern production techniques for medium to large series products or mass production usually involve assembly conveyor lines. device manufacturing and electronics involve computer-aided automated assembly means in Flexible Automated Production Lines or other types of automated conveyor lines. The aim is to have monotonous and similar in type operations or such causing fatigue. gradually replaced by automated assembly cycles. Higher productivity. Examples of this technology include transfer lines. Introduction: Automation and robotics are two closelt related technologies in an industrial context. inflexible product design ‡ Programmable automation ‡ Equipment designed to accommodate a specific class of product changes ‡ Batch production. This usually Widely involves industrial robots and handlers. which provide full automation human labor replacement. ‡ High production rate. They still use hand labor more or less automated. Automation is broadly classified into: ‡ Manufacturing automation ‡ Service automation Types of Automation: ‡ ‡ Fixed automation Custom-engineered. we can define automation as a technology that is concerned with the use of mechanical.special-purpose equipment to automate a fixed sequence of operations. means and techniques. lower coat and higher quality of assembled products are usually required.

etc. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Unpredictable development costs: The research and development cost of automating a process may exceed the cost saved by the automation itself. fire. As more and more processes become automated. nuclear facilities. speed. weight. High initial cost: The automation of a new product or plant requires a huge initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product. etc. and is therefore more susceptible to committing an error.) Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size. . The steam engine represented a major advance in the development of powered machines and marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Evolution of automation and robotics Early developments Each new development in the history of powered machines has brought with it an increased requirement for control devices to harness the power of the machine. endurance. As a process becomes increasingly automated. Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments (i. Reduces operation time and work handling time significantly Disadvantages ‡ Security Threats/Vulnerability: An automated system may have a limited level of intelligence.Advantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work. underwater.e. there are fewer remaining non-automated processes. there is less and less labor to be saved or quality improvement to be gained. space. Economy improvement. although the cost of automation is spread among many products. volcanoes.

All these developments have contributed to progress in automation technology. proposed a complex. electrical field techniques. such as part identification. videodisks. is expected to be 2 to 1 in 2000. an English mathematician. and the derivation of a mathematical control theory. improvements in data-storage technology and software to write computer programs. a miniature multicircuited device capable of performing all the logic and arithmetic functions of a large digital computer. and machine vision. Advances in sensor technology have provided a vast array of measuring devices that can be used as components in automatic feedback control systems. Along with the advances in computer technology. mechanical ³analytical engine´ that could perform arithmetic and data processing. A number of significant developments in various fields have occurred during the 20th century: the digital computer. Improvements have been made in the methods of programming computers (and other programmable machines). optical data storage read by lasers.‡ Another important development in the history of automation was the Jacquard loom . and robot guidance. quality inspection. High cost of labor ‡ May not always make sense to establish plants in countries with low labor costs. magnetic bubble memories. Modern programming languages are easier to use and are more powerful in their dataprocessing and logic capabilities. Some of these sensor systems require computer technology for their implementation. history of. See computers. Modern developments ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reasons for Automation ‡ ‡ Shortage of labor ‡ The ratio of the number of workers to the number of retirees in the U. These devices include highly sensitive electromechanical probes. there have been parallel improvements in program storage technology for containing the programming commands. advances in sensor technology. and electron beam-addressable memory systems. Modern storage media include magnetic tapes and disks. ‡ The concept of programming a machine was further developed later in the 19th century when Charles Babbage. . This trend is represented today by the microprocessor.This technology is proving to be a versatile sensory capability for various industrial tasks. Development of the electronic digital computer (the ENIAC [Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer] in 1946 and UNIVAC I [Universal Automatic Computer] in 1951) has permitted the control function in automation to become much more sophisticated and the associated calculations to be executed much faster than previously possible. scanning laser beams. The development of integrated circuits in the 1960s propelled a trend toward miniaturization in computer technology that has led to machines that are much smaller and less expensive than their predecessors yet are capable of performing calculations at much greater speeds. this device was the precursor of the modern digital computer.S. which demonstrated concept of a programmable machine. Although Babbage was never able to complete it.

Different types of automation tools exist: ‡ ANN . together with industrial machinery and processes. Computer-aided technologies now serve the basis for mathematical and organizational tools used to create complex systems.Programmable Logic Controller ‡ PAC . and consumer products. and monitoring of control systems. service industries.Artificial neural network ‡ DCS . can assist in the design. Information technology. there have been significant achievements in such areas as communications.‡ ‡ ‡ Increase productivity ‡ Value of output per person per hour increases Lower costs ‡ Reduced scrap rate ‡ Lower in process inventory ‡ Superior quality ‡ Shorter (compact) lines Reducing manufacturing lead time ‡ Respond to the consumers¶ needs ‡ Rapid response to change in design Automation tools Engineers now can have numerical control over automated devices. transportation.Distributed Control System ‡ HMI .Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ‡ PLC . implementation.Human Machine Interface ‡ SCADA .Programmable automation controller ‡ Instrumentation ‡ Motion control ‡ Robotics. Some of the more significant applications are described below: . Automation in daily life In addition to the manufacturing applications of automation technology. example of an industrial control system is a programmable logic controller (PLC). The result has been a rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities. Notable examples include ‡ Computer-aided design (CAD software) ‡ Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM software).

everyday English) from patients requesting service. D. The modern automobile is typically equipped with several microprocessors that operate a variety of functions. -In health care the use of automation in the form of computer systems has increased dramatically to improve services and relieve the burden on medical staffs. Restaurants. for example). Applications include airline reservation systems. including engine control (fuelair ratio.g. retailers. Ga. and urban mass-transit systems -Nearly all commercial aircraft are equipped with instruments called automatic pilots. -Brokerage houses use a computerized record-keeping system to track their customers¶ accounts. and the Metrorail in Washington.Communications : One of the earliest practical applications of automation was in telephone switching. and automated mail-sorting machines Transportation : . These robots would respond to voice commands and would be able to interpret statements in natural language (e. which include health care. including automatic teller machines. -Banking and financial institutions have embraced automation in their operations. banking and other financial services. Consumer products: -Consumer products ranging from automobiles to small appliances have been automated for the benefit of the user. and other organizations are using systems that automatically check the validity of a credit card. -The stock exchanges rely on computer-automated systems to report transactions by ticker tape or closed circuit television. and retail trade. automatic pilots in aircraft and locomotives. and other modern household appliances typically contain a microprocessor that works as the computer controller for the device.Other applications of automation in communications systems include local area networks. the radio. Service industries : -Automation of service industries includes an assortment of applications as diverse as the services themselves. and cruise control.. Microwave ovens. Major banks have established electronic banking systems. invented near the end of the 19th century. Robotics . refrigerators.Automation has been applied in various ways in the transportation industries. washing machines.. dryers. the clock. video recorders.C. Automatic navigation systems and instrument landing systems operate by using radio signals from ground beacons that provide the aircraft with course directions for guidance. government. The first switching machines. communications satellites. MARTA (Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority) in Atlanta. -Many government services are automated by means of computers and computerized databases. -Examples of automated rail transportation include American urban mass-transit systems such as BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) in San Francisco. -The automobile is an example of a highly automated consumer product. -Credit card transactions have also become highly automated. -Robotics is likely to play a role in future health care delivery systems.

It was an industrial robot named Unimate which is usedto lift hot pieces of metal from a diecasting machine and stack them.Robotics is one of the main automation tool. Laws of robotics:   ¡ Law Zero: A robot may not injure humanity. In 1927 the Maschinenmensch ("machine-human") gynoid humanoid robot (also called "Parody". Disadvantages: Components of ROBOTS: Structure: The structure of a robot is usuallymostly mechanical and can becalled a kinematic chain. mechanics. It is branch of technology that deals with the design. theUnimate. Robots aredriven by different motors . In 1948 Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics. operation. except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law. was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. or the "Maria impersonator") was the first and perhaps the most memorable depiction of a robot ever to appear on film was played by German actress Brigitte Helm in Fritz Lang's film Metropolis. Advantages: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Robots can work in Hazardous environment without theneed for life support and comfort. through inaction. Fully autonomous robots only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. through inaction. The chain is formed of links (itsbones). The beginning of robots are traceable back to the ancient Greek engineer named Ctesibius. hence they turned out to be ddangerous if not programmed properly. andjoints which can allow one or moredegrees of freedom. construction. and software. manufacture and application of robots. Batteries can also be used to run robots. Hewas the father of pneumatics in which he used the science of compressed air in his automatedinventions. The term "robotics" was coined by Isaac Asimov in his 1941 science fiction short-story "Liar!" History of robot: The history of robotics is one that is highlighted by a fantasy world that has provided the inspiration to convert fantasy into reality. if there is some wrong in programmingthen they behaves absurd. unless this would violate a higher order law. The robot is a warrior. Law Two: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings. engineering. allow a human being to come to harm. Law One: A robot may not injure a human being. Robot replaced human workers creating economicproblems. Robots can work continuously 24 hours in a day. or. 7 days ina week without any boredom. DCÁ 220V AC supply must be modified to suit theneeds of our machine. Power source: Suitable power supply is needed to run themotors and associated circuitry. They have no emotions. There were many developments before the first truly modern robot.The sketch design of humanoid robot (a robot which has limbs alike to human) started withLeonardo da Vinci in year around 1495. allow humanity to come to harm. Robot can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously. published in 1920. Robots are machines which is influenced by programmingtechniques. actuators (its muscles).[1] Robotics is related to the sciences of electronics. the basis of practical robotics. Typical power requirement ranges from 3V to24V. digitally operated andprogrammable was introduced in 1954. "Robotrix". Law Three: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law.[2] The word "robot" was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel apek in his play R. The first digitally operated and programmable robot.R.U. structural disposition. or. clad in German-Italian medievalarmour. "Futura". (Rossum's Universal Robots).

Some manipulators are: ‡ Mechanical Grippers ‡ Vacuum Grippers ‡ General purpose effectors Locomotion: It is concerned with the motion of the robot. None can walk over rocky. uneven terrain.‡ ‡ ‡ DC Motors Stepper Motors Servo Motors Actuators are the "muscles´ of a robot. destroy. Types of rolling robots ‡ Two-wheeled balancing robots ‡ One-wheeled balancing robots ‡ Spherical orb robots ‡ Six-wheeled robots ‡ Tracked robots Walking applied to robots: Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. pick up. Typically. . robots on 2 legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs. These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts. modify. the parts which convert stored energy in to movement. Thus the 'hands' of a robot are often referred to a send effectors. or otherwise have an effect. where they walk on 2 legs and switch to 4 (arms+legs) when going to a sprint. Actuation: Sensing: Manipulation: Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects. The most popular actuators are electric motors. Robot. Some of the methods which have been employed are: ‡ ZMP Technique ‡ Hopping ‡ ‡ Dynamic balancing (controlled falling) Passive dynamics Other methods of locomotion ‡ Flying ‡ Snaking . while the arm is referred to as a manipulator. Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels. Robot contains different types of drives Rolling robots: For simplicity most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks. Hybrids too have been proposed in movies such as I.

Can monitor the quality assembly line with adapted enhance sensor technologies.‡ ‡ ‡ Skating Climbing Swimming (like a fish) Applications Automotive industry: One of the most importantpartners in the developmentof robotic technologies ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Welding robots Robustness and precision of the assembly of pieces very heavy loads Found in painting rooms Used for places that are hard to reach. Medicine: As a robot as getting more and more accurate and modern surgery tends to be less invasive. . demodulating and dangerous tasks at constant performance. Execute repetitive sequence of movement. thus eliminating the need for the technician to continuously have to walk. boring. ‡ Handling a large quantity of samples ‡ Execution of analyses ‡ Automatic systems with measurement apparatus. ‡ Small mobile units can also take-charge of moving the samples between different parts of the room or services. Many tools are attached at the extremity of a manipulator Use the optimal sequence of operations. Assembly: Another strong partners is the assembly of manufactured products Medical laboratories: Medical laboratories are another place where repetitive tasks must be made. ‡ ‡ ‡ robotic systems now start to be developed to assist surgeons in high precision manipulation of devices. The development of biomedical applications for robotics is becoming a very important field of research of development A social motivation to improve patient cares.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Used for maintenance of nuclear reactors. Conclusion: Today we find most robots working for people in industries. Telemanipulator used to collect samples of soil The famous Canadian spatial manipulator Canadarm mounted on American spaceships and the new space station remote manipulator system (SSRMS) that is used to assemble the international space station. Used for the replacement of radioactive fuel tubes. it boosts economy because businesses need to be . Arts and entertainment: Playing with sophisticated toys dedicated for funny applications. In Australia a robotic system has been developed for sheep shearing Robots for field sowing Raisin and apple gathering Like the Viking I and II probes sent to explore Mars in 1976. Mars Rover in 1998 explored the neighbor planet while being elegized from the Earth. household works and laboratories. ‡ Rescuing ship-wrecked persons ‡ Retrieving black boxes of crashed planes. Remotely controlled robots used to do fun painting Considered as a very positive and innovative way of evolution in robotics. warehouses. Agriculture: Robots have also found some applications in agriculture ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Spatial exploration: Spatial probes sent for many years to explore and discover our universe Underwater inspection: Submersible robots have been used for many years to explore sea beds. ‡ Exploring deep sea and old wrecks in order to find their secrets. Robots are useful in many ways.Nuclear energy: Nuclear generator installations are places where we can find a large number of robotic applications. Seal off radioactive leakages in contaminated zones. For instance. which has all the nice characteristics of a real dog but without its obvious disadvantages. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Automatic banking Shell Smart Pump Robots that are supposed to do housecleaning AIBO. built by Sony. ‡ Inspection of the flooded side of dams to detect the cracks ‡ Inspect and maintain oil digging platforms Customer service: Various machines have been develop to serve customers in a semi-automatic or fully automatic way. Cleaning and decontaminating radioactive areas without compromising the health of workers was also necessary. factories. Provided an incredible amount of new information about this unknown environment.

As factories increase their use of robots. faster and accurate than humans can. e. Yet robots cannot perform every job. because robots can do jobs better. as machines begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to perform most jobs. argue that robots and other forms of automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment unless the economy is engineered to absorb them without displacing humans. having robots helps business owners to be competitive. Therefore. as the technology improves. and there is actually a positive impact on the number of jobs for highly skilled technicians. Finally. Employment Robotics is an essential component in many modern manufacturing environments. the number of robotics±related jobs grow and have been observed to be steadily rising Effects of unemployment: Automation. robot can built. At present the negative impact is only on menial and repetitive jobs. Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future.g. . and specialists. today robots roles include assisting research and industry. assemble a car. there will be new ways to use robots which will bring new hopes and new potentials. engineers.efficient to keep up with the industry competition.

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