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Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana.

It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, it is used in some medicines.[1] It is most commonly used as a recreational drug, and is a valuable cash crop for countries such as Cuba, China and United States. In consumption it most commonly appears in the forms of smoking, chewing, snuffing, or dipping tobacco, or snus. Tobacco has long been in use as an entheogen in the Americas. However, upon the arrival of Europeans in North America, it quickly became popularized as a trade item and as a recreational drug. This popularization led to the development of the southern economy of the United States until it gave way to cotton. Following the American Civil War, a change in demand and a change in labor force allowed for the development of the cigarette. This new product quickly led to the growth of tobacco companies, until the scientific controversy of the mid-1900s. There are many species of tobacco in the plant genus Nicotiana. The word nicotiana (as well as nicotine) is in honor of Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, who in 1559 sent it as a medicine to the court of Catherine de Medici.[2] Because of the addictive properties of nicotine, tolerance and dependence develop. Absorption quantity, frequency, and speed of tobacco consumption are believed to be directly related to biological strength of nicotine dependence, addiction, and tolerance.[3][4] The usage of tobacco is an activity that is practiced by some 1.1 billion people, and up to 1/3 of the adult population.[5] The World Health Organization(WHO) reports it to be the leading preventable cause of death worldwide and estimates that it currently causes 5.4 million deaths per year.[6] Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in developed countries, however they continue to rise in developing countries. Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds are sown in cold frames or hotbeds to prevent attacks from insects, and then transplanted into the fields. Tobacco is an annual crop, which is usually harvested mechanically or by hand. After harvest, tobacco is stored for curing, which allows for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids. This allows for the agricultural product to take on properties that are usually attributed to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Following this, tobacco is packed into its various forms of consumption, which include smoking, chewing, sniffing, and so on.

Contents
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1 Etymology 2 History
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2.1 Early developments 2.2 Popularization 2.3 Contemporary 3.1 Nicotiana 3.2 Types

3 Biology
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4 Impact

[7] .3 Health 4.3 Problems in Tobacco Production    • 6 Art ○ ○ 6.2 Cinema • • • 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References ○ ○ 9.4. a kind of Y-shaped pipe for sniffing tobacco smoke (according to Oviedo.2 Brazil 5.4 Global Production   5 Production 5.4 Economic 5.1 Advertising 6.2 Demographic 4. particularly.2 Curing 5.1 Cultivation 5.1 China 5.3 Environment  5.4.1 Child Labor 5. or to the tabago.4.4.1 Notes 9.○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ 4.3 Consumption 5.1 Social 4.2.2 Bibliography • • 10 Further reading 11 External links [edit] Etymology The Spanish word "tabaco" is thought to have its origin in Arawakan language.4.2 Major Producers    5. In Taino. it was said to refer either to a roll of tobacco leaves (according to Bartolome de Las Casas.2.2 Economy 5.4.3. with the leaves themselves being referred to as cohiba).2.3. 1552).4.1 Trends 5.4.3 India 5. in the Taino language of the Caribbean.4.3.

where it became popular.[citation needed] Eastern North American tribes carried large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item. It fostered the economy for the southern United States until it was replaced by cotton. this was done only by experienced shamans or medicine men. Main article: History of tobacco See also: History of commercial tobacco in the United States Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Native Americans never used the drug recreationally. [edit] Popularization Following the arrival of the Europeans.However. either in defined sacred ceremonies. Following the American civil war.[9] and they smoked it at such occasions in all stages of life. it was often consumed as an entheogen. This increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the scientific revelations of the mid-1900s. [edit] Contemporary . among some tribes. (May 2008) [edit] Early developments Tobacco had already long been used in the Americas when European settlers arrived and introduced the practice to Europe.[8] [edit] History This article needs additional citations for verification. tobacco became increasingly popular as a trade item. its History and Association. or to seal a bargain. originating from the Arabic ‫ طبق‬tabbaq. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. and often smoked it in pipes.[10] It was believed that tobacco is a gift from the Creator and that the exhaled tobacco smoke carries one's thoughts and prayers to heaven. At high doses.[11] An Illustration from Frederick William Fairholt's Tobacco. tobacco can become hallucinogenic. similar words in Spanish and Italian were commonly used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs. a change in demand and a change in labor force allowed inventor James Bonsack to create a machine that automated cigarette production. 1859. even in childhood. a word reportedly dating to the 9th century. Instead. as the name of various herbs.[citation needed] accordingly.

Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1. This strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine. [edit] Biology [edit] Nicotiana Nicotine is the compound responsible for the addictive nature of Tobacco use. The Convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco. This led to the development of tobacco cessation products. as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. . In the 1990s. nearly doubling its content from 3. in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries. This led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). and eventually became encompassed as a cause for cancer.2-3. In the 1970s. the World Health Organization (WHO)[12] successfully rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.5% to 6.5%. which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. this prompted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes. In 2003. tobacco became condemned as a health hazard.Following the scientific revelations of the mid-1900s.

[edit] Types Main article: Types of tobacco There are a number of types of tobacco including. but are not limited to: • Aromatic fire-cured. However. tabacum. they do not contain tropane alkaloids. The leaves are cured and smoked over smoldering fires of local hardwoods and aromatic shrubs in Cyprus and Syria. and buds Main article: Nicotiana See also: List of tobacco diseases There are many species of tobacco in the genus of herbs Nicotiana. Another fire-cured tobacco is Latakia.Tobacco flower. and therefore some tobacco plants (chiefly tree tobacco. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) to deter most herbivores. leaves. a powerful neurotoxin. South West Africa and the South Pacific. It is part of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) indigenous to North and South America. that is particularly harmful to insects. moist snuff. tobacco is unpalatable to many species. which are often poisonous to humans and other animals. N. it is cured by smoke from open fires. glauca) have become established as invasive weeds in some places. which is produced from oriental varieties of N. and as a condiment in pipe tobacco blends. australia. central Kentucky and in Virginia. In the United States. Firecured tobacco grown in Kentucky and Tennessee are used in some chewing tobaccos. it is grown in northern middle Tennessee. . Unlike many other Solanaceae. Many plants contain nicotine.[13] a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on Nicotiana species without being harmed. some cigarettes. Nonetheless. tobaccos contain a higher concentration of nicotine than most other plants.

it is also known as "oriental". a farmer called Pierre Chenet is credited with first turning this local tobacco into the Perique in 1824 through the technique of pressure-fermentation. and coolness to the blend. White burley. and herbs for smoking in a midwakh. is native to the southwestern United States. This type of tobacco was planted in fertile lowlands. sickly look. and parts of South America. primarily used in the making of cigars. most tobacco grown in the US was fire-cured dark-leaf. mixed with leaves. bark. Prior to the American Civil War. Perique. It is typically blended with pure Virginia to lend spice. highly aromatic. used a robust variety of leaf. and Macedonia. Ohio planted red burley seeds he had purchased. today. but none is now sold for this purpose.S.[14] Burley tobacco. it is used as a component in many blended pipe tobaccos. Most Canadian cigarettes are made from 100% pure Virginia tobacco. and burley. but is usually one of. small-leafed variety (Nicotiana tabacum) that is grown in Turkey. Originally grown in regions historically part of the Ottoman Empire. Early Connecticut colonists acquired from the Native Americans the habit of smoking tobacco in pipes. Many of the early brands of cigarettes were made mostly or entirely of Turkish tobacco. Criollo tobacco is a type of tobacco. Cavendish is more a process of curing and a method of cutting tobacco than a type. It was. often regardless of the state where they are planted. or a blend of Kentucky. and an epidemic of brown spot fungus in 2000. in 1865. Dokham. Greece. the freshly moist Perique was also chewed. The processing and the cut are used to bring out the natural sweet taste in the tobacco. The industry has weathered some major catastrophes. In the U. George Webb of Brown County. Virginia. Mexico. including a devastating hailstorm in 1929.• Brightleaf tobacco. Its botanical name is Nicotiana rustica. At one time. by most accounts. Brightleaf is commonly known as "Virginia tobacco". one of the original Cuban tobaccos that emerged around the time of Columbus. and was either fire cured or air cured. is an air-cured tobacco used primarily for cigarette production. and began cultivating the plant commercially. and is most commonly used for pipe tobacco and cigars.. burley and Turkish). but is too strong to be smoked pure. burley tobacco plants are started from palletized seeds placed in polystyrene trays floated on a bed of fertilized water in March or April. • • • • • • • • • [ . Shade tobacco. The air-cured leaf was found to be more mild than other types of tobacco. its main use is in blends of pipe and especially cigarette tobacco (a typical American cigarette is a blend of bright Virginia. is cultivated in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Cavendish can be produced from any tobacco type. is a sun-cured. Wild tobacco. and found that a few of the seedlings had a whitish. Bulgaria. is a tobacco originally grown in Iran. Considered the truffle of pipe tobaccos. Turkish tobacco. but is now in danger of disappearing altogether. strength. even though the Puritans referred to it as the "evil weed". given the value of the land to real estate speculators.

000 por año entre el 2020 y el 2030.500. es decir. De estas muertes.Las frías cifras del tabaquismo representan personas. seres humanos que se enferman y sufren.000 serán a una edad prematura.000. 250. y que siguiendo la tendencia actual los fallecimientos llegarán a 10. Cada año el tabaco causa 3.000 muertes diarias. Unas 500.000.000 de personas que viven actualmente en el mundo morirán por causa del tabaco. lo cual es decir 10.000 muertes en el mundo.000. lo que se interpreta como una pandemia. Y muestran una terrible epidemia extendida a todo el mundo. antes de .

tiempo. y ocurrirán en la edad adulta. Así se estima que para el año 2020 el tabaco será la mayor causa de muerte y discapacidad. alcoholismo y drogas ilícitas todos combinados. con una pérdida de unos 20 años de esperanza de vida normal. y matará a más de diez millones de personas por año. Y de estas defunciones cerca de la mitad ocurrirá a una edad media entre 40 y 60 años. homicidios y suicidios. . causando más muertes que el SIDA. accidentes de tránsito. Esto es debido a que los fumadores de largo plazo tienen 50 % de probabilidades de morir como consecuencia de una enfermedad relacionada con el tabaco.

000. 800 millones pertenecen a los países en desarrollo. un . De estos.Un tercio de la población mundial de 15 años y más fuma. En el mundo fuma el 47 % de los hombres y el 12 % de las mujeres.100 millones de fumadores en el mundo. Y en el año 2025 los fumadores llegarán a 1. siendo la cantidad total de 1. Desde 1950 hasta el 2000 el tabaco provocó la muerte de 60.000 de personas sólo en los países desarrollados. En países en desarrollo fuma el 48 % de los hombres y el 7 % de las mujeres. En los países desarrollados fuma el 42 % de los hombres y el 24 % de las mujeres.600 millones.

000 vidas se pierden por año debido al consumo de tabaco. Cada año aproximadamente 3000 personas no fumadoras mueren en Estados Unidos por cáncer de pulmón. como resultado de respirar el humo de los demás. El hábito de fumar es causa de unas 25 enfermedades .campo de muerte mayor que el que produjo la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Los incendios causados por el tabaquismo producen 25.000 vidas se pierden por año debido al consumo de tabaco. En Estados Unidos 400.000 muertes por año en Estados Unidos. En América Latina 150.

El 50 % de cáncer de esófago El 30 .40 % de cáncer de vejiga. Los no fumadores que conviven con fumadores tienen un riesgo 35 veces mayor de contraer . El 90 % de los casos de Cáncer de pulmón El 70 % de cáncer de laringe. El 50 % de cáncer en boca. siendo sobre todo responsable de: El 30 % de todas las cardiopatías coronarias. El 80 .comprobadas.90 % de todos los casos de Enfisema-Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC) El 30 % de todas las muertes por cáncer. El 30 % de cáncer de páncreas.

porque van sustituyendo a los que desaparecen prematuramente.000 niños y jóvenes por día se convierten en fumadores. En el mundo unos 100. . El 42 % de los niños con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas es fumador pasivo.cáncer de pulmón que aquellos que no conviven con fumadores. Son los que la industria tabacalera nombra como sus "fumadores de reemplazo".