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AGM-114 Hellfire

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AGM-114 Hellfire

A model of a Hellfire's components

Type Place of origin Manufacturer Unit cost Weight Length Diameter

Air-to-surface and surface-to-surface missile United States Production history Lockheed Martin $68,000 USD Specifications 100–108lb (45.4–49kg)[1] 64 in (163 cm) 7 in (17.8 cm) High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT); 20 lb (9 kg) tandem anti-armor Metal augmented charge (MAC); 18 lb (8 kg) shaped-charge Blast Fragmentation Solid-fuel rocket 13 in (33 cm) 546 yd – 5 mi (500 m – 8 km) Mach 1.3 (950 mph; 425 m/s) Semi-active laser homing millimeter wave radar seeker Rotary- and fixed-wing platforms, Unmanned combat air vehicles, tripods, ships, and ground vehicles

Warhead

Engine Wingspan Operational range Speed Guidance system Launch platform

Army requirement for a "tank-buster". A possible new JCM successor called the Joint Air to Ground Missile (JAGM) is under consideration.000 meters. some 21. The development of the Hellfire Missile System began in 1974 with the U. The Hellfire missile is the primary 100 lb-class air-to-ground precision weapon for the armed forces of the United States and many other nations.[3][4] Production of the AGM-114A started in 1982. It can be launched from multiple air.S. AGM-114KII with external blast frag sleeve. In the budget for FY2006. or Longbow Hellfire. and land-based systems against a variety of targets.000 each. launched from helicopters to defeat armored fighting vehicles. which can carry up to 16 of the missiles at once. it is likely the Hellfire will continue to remain in service for many years to come. Department of Defense canceled a number of projects that they felt no longer warranted continuation based on their cost effectiveness.and fixed-wing aircraft. The HELLFIRE name comes from its original intention as a helicopter-launched fire-and-forget weapon (HELicopter Launched FIRE-and-forget). The Joint Common Missile (JCM) was to replace Hellfire II (along with the AGM-65 Maverick) by around 2011. and multitarget precision-strike capability. sea. including the JCM. one that can be deployed from rotary. as well as extensive foreign sales. Description The Hellfire today is a comprehensive weapon system. AGM-114L. but the most common platform is the AH-64 Apache helicopter gunship.000 Hellfire IIs have been built since 1990. AGM-114M (blast fragmentation).[2] The AGM-114 Hellfire is a combat-proven tactical missile system. Most variants are laser guided with one. Hellfire II's semi-active laser variants—AGM-114K highexplosive anti-tank (HEAT). The missile has been in combat use since the mid-1980s. The Development Test and Evaluation (DT&E) launch phase of the AGM-114B took place in 1984. The JCM was developed with a tri-mode seeker and a multi-purpose warhead that would combine the capabilities of the several Hellfire variants. naval assets. and AGM-114N metal augmented charge (MAC)—achieve pinpoint accuracy by homing in on a reflected laser beam aimed at the target from the launching platform. and ground platforms.The AGM-114 Hellfire is an air-to-surface missile. being radar guided. Due to the U. developed primarily for anti-armor use. and has a range of 8. The Hellfire II. . at a cost of about $68.S. It has multi-mission. including the 9 kg / 20 pound warhead. is a fire-and-forget weapon: equipped with a millimeter wave (MMW) radar seeker. developed in the early 1990s is a modular missile system with several variants for maximum battlefield flexibility. By late 2007. AGM-114M did not require a DT&E because it is the same as the AGM-114K except for the warhead. Each Hellfire weighs 47 kg / 106 pounds. Predator and Reaper UCAVs carry the Hellfire II. military's continuing need for a proven precision-strike aviation weapon in the interim until a successor to the JCM is fielded. It also provides capability in adverse weather and battlefield obscurants. it requires no further guidance after launch and can hit its target without the launcher being in line of sight of the target.S. The DT&E on the AGM-114K was completed in Fiscal Year (FY)93 and FY94. the U. The AGM-114L.

The only known operational air-to-air kill with a Hellfire took place on May 24. with unknown intentions and refusing to answer or comply with ATC repeated warnings to turn back.[9] On March 22. Operation Allied Force in Yugoslavia. the usage of the AGM-114N variant caused controversy in the United Kingdom when it was found out that these thermobaric munitions were added to the British Army arsenal in secrecy. The UK Ministry of Defence refers to the AGM-114N an "enhanced blast weapon"[12]. Thermobaric weapons have been condemned by human rights groups[12]. which also killed both his bodyguards and 9 bystanders .[10][11] In 2008. 2004.Combat history Since being fielded.000 Hellfires in combat. an Israeli helicopter fired a Hellfire missile to kill Hamas leader Ahmed Yassin. Fearing a terrorist attack.[7][8] During Operation Grapes of Wrath. Launch vehicles and systems Manned Helicopters . Kiowa scout helicopters. The most recent deployment of the weapon has been by NATO during the 2011 Libyan civil war as part of the NATO operation in the country. an Israeli Air Force AH-64A helicopter fired upon the Cessna. the U.S.[5] and the death of Estephan Nicolian. an Israeli Apache helicopter fired two Hellfire missiles at an ambulance. Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. From 2001 to 2007. military fired over 6. in Operation Iraqi Freedom—where they have been fired successfully from Apache and Cobra attack helicopters. a student pilot. killing 6 civilians. It has found the missile effective in urban areas as the relatively small warhead reduces the risk of civilian casualties. at Mansouri. Hellfire missiles have proven their effectiveness in combat in Operation Just Cause in Panama. 1996.[6] The Israeli Defence Forces have used them extensively against Palestinian targets. A civilian Cessna 152 aircraft entered Israeli airspace from Lebanon. 2001. Lebanon. and Predator unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs). on April 13. Operation Desert Storm in Persian Gulf. resulting in its complete disintegration.

Hellfire loaded onto the rails of a United States Marine Corps AH-1W Super Cobra at Balad Air Base in Iraq in 2005.            AH-1W SuperCobra AH-1Z Viper AH-64 Apache Agusta A129 Mangusta Eurocopter Tiger ARH SH-60 / MH-60R / MH-60S Seahawk OH-58D Kiowa Warrior RAH-66 Comanche AH-6 Little Bird UH-60 Blackhawk Westland WAH-64 Apache Fixed-Wing Aircraft   Cessna 208 Lockheed Martin KC-130 Harvest HAWK Unmanned Aircraft Predator launching a Hellfire missile    MQ-1B Predator MQ-9 Reaper MQ-1C Grey Eagle Manned Boat  Combat Boat 90 .

750 yd) Guidance: Semi-active laser homing (SALH). Test shots have also been fired from a C130 Hercules.650 yd) Guidance: Semi-active laser homing.000 m (7.000 m (8. Warhead: 9 kg (20 lb) tandem shaped charge HEAT.5 kg (107 lb) AGM-114G Interim Hellfire  Proposed version of AGM-114F with SAD—not built. . Sweden and Norway use the Hellfire for coastal defense. and Norway has conducted tests with Hellfire launchers on Protector M151 remotely-controlled weapon systems mounted on the Stridsbåt 90 coastal assault boat. Unit cost: $25. Length: 180 cm (71 in) Weight: 48.Experimental Platforms The system has been tested for use on the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) and the Improved TOW Vehicle (ITV). AGM-114B has electronic SAD (Safe/Arming Device) for safe shipboard use. AGM-114H Interim Hellfire  Proposed upgrade of AGM-114F with digital autopilot—not built. Range: 7. Warhead: 8 kg (18 lb) shaped charge HEAT.000 AGM-114D/E Basic Hellfire  Proposed upgrade of AGM-114B/C with digital autopilot—not built.[15] Variants AGM-114A Basic Hellfire       Target: Tanks. AGM-114F Interim Hellfire       Target: Tanks. Length: 163 cm (64 in) Weight: 45 kg (99 lb) AGM-114B/C Basic Hellfire    M120E1 low smoke motor. armored vehicles. armored vehicles. Range: 8.

000 Essentially the proposed AGM-114J w/ SAD AGM-114L Longbow Hellfire       Target: All armored threats Range: 8. shorter airframe.2 kg (106 lb) . AGM-114K Hellfire II A Hellfire II exposed through transparent casing.000 m (8.749 yd) Guidance: o Semi-active laser homing Warhead: Blast fragmentation/incendiary Weight: 48.4 kg (100 lb) Unit cost: $65.749 yd) Guidance: o Fire and forget Millimeter wave radar seeker coupled with Inertial guidance o Homing capability in adverse weather and the presence of battlefield obscurants Warhead: 9 kg (20 lb) tandem shaped charge high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) Length: 176 cm (69.AGM-114J Hellfire II  Proposed version of AGM-114F with lighter components. and increased range—not built. urban (soft) targets and caves Range: 8. light vehicles.000 m (8.749 yd) Guidance: o Semi-active laser homing with Electro-optical countermeasures hardening o Digital autopilot improvements allow target reacquisition after lost laser lock New electronic SAD Warhead: 9 kg (20 lb) tandem shaped charge HEAT Length: 163 cm (64 in) Weight: 45.000 m (8.          Target: All armored threats Range: 8.2 in) Weight: 49 kg (108 lb) AGM-114M Hellfire II      Target: Bunkers.

urban targets.000 m (8. showing the rod and tube grain design.749 yd) Guidance: o Semi-active laser homing Warhead: Metal augmented charge (MAC) (Thermobaric) Weight: 48 kg (105 lb) Length: 163 cm (64 in) AGM-114P Hellfire II  Version of AGM-114K optimized for use from UCAVs flying at high altitude.000 m (8. Weight: 50 kg (110 lb) Speed : Mach 1. ships. Length: 163 cm (64 in) AGM-114N Hellfire II       Target: Enclosures. AGM-114Q Hellfire II  Practice version of AGM-114N with inert warhead. air defense units Range: 8.3 AGM-114S Hellfire II  Practice version of AGM-114K with a spotting charge instead of a warhead. urban (soft) targets and caves Range: 8. AGM-114R Hellfire II        Version optimized for use from UCAVs (increased engagement envelope) Target: Bunkers.749 yd) Guidance: o Semi-active laser homing Warhead: Integrated Blast Frag Sleeve (IBFS) (combine blast fragmentation and fragment dispersion). light vehicles. . Rocket motor Cross section diagram of Hellfire rocket motor.

3 lb) o Length: 59.35 in) o Diameter: 18 cm (7.0 in) o Case: 7075-T73 aluminum o Insulator: R-181 aramid fiber-filled EPDM o Nozzle: Cellulose phenolic o Propellant: Minimum smoke cross linked double based (XLDB) .3 cm (23.     Contractor: Alliant Techsystems Designation: o M120E3 (Army) o M120E4 (Navy) Main features: o Qualified minimum smoke propellant o Rod and tube grain design o Neoprene bondline system Performance: o Operating temperature: −43 °C to 63 °C (−45 °F to 145 °F) o Storage temperature: −43 °C to 71 °C (−45 °F to 160 °F) o Service life: 20+ years (estimated) Technical data: o Weight: 14.2 kg (31.