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British College San Fernando

History Of London
“Llyn- Dun”, the celtic name for London, means “ fort on a lake” so people probably lived in London before the time of the Romans. The Romans came to England in 43 A.D. and it was a Roman governor who built a town on the River Thames. The name of the town was Londinium. The Romans chose a good place for the town because it was easy to cross the river there. Soon they built a bridge over the river. Londinium got bigger and bigger. Ships came to the town from all over Europe and the Romans built roads from Londinium to other parts of Britain. By the year 400 there were about 50.000 people in the city. Soon after the year 400, the Romans left Britain. Very little is known about Londinium between the years 400 and 1000. In 1066, William the Conqueror came to England from Normandy, France. He became king of England and lived in London which became the Capital City. In 1666, there was a big fire in London, “the great fire of London” and most of the city was burnt. After the fire the city was reconstructed and planned as we know it today. London grew slowly until the 18th century when it began to spread into the open countryside and the village around London became part of the city. Since then, it grew rapidly and it has now become a very large city. All the principal British roads and railways run to London. Ships can sail on the Thames. Some interesting places to visit in London are: The Tower of London Buckingham Palace The River Thames The National Gallery The Tate Gallery Trafalgar Square Hyde Park St. Paul’s Cathedral Westminster Abbey The Houses of Parliament The British Museum Madame Tussaud’s Regent’s Park New Gardens

Since the population of the city has increased during the centuries, London has gradually spread in all directions. Today it is a very widespread city. The Thames flows eastwards to the sea. Nearly the whole of inner London is north of the river. Until 1747, there was only one bridge across the Thames: London Bridge. The old London Bridge looked very strange because there were houses and shops on it. In the 19th century many new bridges were built. Now there are more than twenty. In

Elizabeth II. and its territory of just over one square mile contains several banks.. of historic buildings and fascinating museums. Some parts are very old and some very new. The East End is an extensive industrial area of London. Covent Garden a) a municipal park b) the site of the Opera House c) a famous restaurant London is a city of great variety. famous for its docks and formerly for its poverty. The city is…………… is………………………. The Tower of London a) The Prime Minister’s house b) a prison c) a museum 4. clubs. The city is the historic centre of London as a whole. It is both very English and very cosmopolitan and people from all over the world live there. It‘s a city of tradition. the Stock Exchange and offices of many financial companies. including the Bank of England. It is one of the chief financial and commercial centres of the western world. Big Ben is ……………… is………………. Each year millions of tourists visit London to see such historic sights as Buckingham Palace. a) a bell b) a clock c) a monument 2. high-class hotels. The West End is the area of west central London that contains the main fashionable shopping streets.British College San Fernando London you are never far from the Thames. The nation’s king and queens are crowned in Westminster Abbey. to the east of the city. Answer: 1. It’s an important center for theater and music.. cinemas and theatres. Westminster Abbey and the Tower of London. Buckingham Palace has long been the London home of Britain’s monarchs. London is the capital city of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. and tourists go on boat trips on the river. including the present queen. The . a) all of London b) a place where restaurants and night clubs are c) an important commercial and financial district 3.

On one side of Trafalgar Square stands the National Gallery which houses one of the world’s greatest art collections. It lies at the center of modern London and makes up much of its busy downtown section. The impressive Royal Opera house. the area where Roman London stood is still known as the “City”. serve as the meeting place of Great Britain’s two legislative bodies: The House of Commons and the House of the Lords. Kensington Gardens and Regent’s park which includes the London Zoo. Jame’s parks. The Houses of Parliament. The City remains one of the most important commercial and financial centers of the world. Green park. remains the focal point of Covent Garden. Few others cities have so many fine museums and art galleries or offer such a variety of plays and other entertainment. a fortress and a palace. a district crowded with restaurants and night clubs. Central London has five royal parks: St. Today. lively city as well as a historic one. the largest church in London. London’s main shopping and entertainment districts spread out from two huge West End intersections: Trafalgar Square and Piccadilly Circus. London’s largest parks are the royal parks. Paul’s Cathedral. home of one of the world’s renowned ballet and opera companies. in Westminster.British College San Fernando Tower of London has served as a prison. Big Ben. The tower of London London is a large. the huge bell in the Clock Tower has boomed out the hours since 1859. It is one of the largest cities in the world. Hyde park. Covent Garden is one of the most colorful areas of London where fashionable boutiques unusual shops and restaurants abound. In the heart of the city stands St. Today it is a museum and holds the fabulous crown jewels. Activity . this area extends eastwards to the Strand and northward into Soho. Finally.

Regent’s Park 9. Underline the words in the text that modify these nouns and then write them on the lines below 1…………………………………………… buildings6………………………………………… city 2……………………………………………boutiques 7………………………………………….. The Houses of Parliament and palace 4. Trafalgar Square 5. the National Opera House is ………… a former prison.British College San Fernando I. the place where the Zoo is located ………. The Tower of London ………. National Gallery here 3.5 ton bell ………… the place which houses famous art collections 5. London Zoo 10. St.. St. Covent Garden ………… the meeting place of Great Britain’s legislative bodies ………… the largest church in London ……….. Westminster Abbey 3. Paul’s Cathedral 6. Paul Cathedral . Big Ben 10. fortress ………… one of the most important financial and commercial centers of the world ………… the huge 30.. Royal Opera House 7. Locate these places on the map and write in the appropriate number 1. The City 9. a royal residence ……….London 3……………………………………………museums 8…………………………………………. Match columns A and B 1.. Houses of Parliament 2.crown jewels 10…………………………………………. Regent’s Park 2. a district famous for its restaurants and night clubs II. Soho 8..collections 4……………………………………………church 9……………………………………………bell 5……………………………………………. Soho 8. National Gallery 6. Buckingham Palace 4. Buckingham Palace 7.parks III.

churches. pubs and hotels can be all found on the banks of this great river as it silently twists its way through London. On the right are some old warehouses dating from the nineteenth century. pure river to a filthy. Offices. and on several days Parliament was adjourned (stopped) because the smell was so bad. 1858 was remembered as the “Year of the . During the hot summer of 1858. The curtains of the House of the Commons had to be soaked in lime juice to clear the air. fish markets and hundreds of steam boats poured into the river every day. the smell from the Thames was so bad that it was impossible to cross Westminster Bridge without a handkerchief pressed closely over nose and mouth. parks. dangerous one. boats unloading coal. It was possible to take a trip on a river steamer without feeling sick.847. In 1848.British College San Fernando The Thames There are several of different activities associated with the river. docks. Parliament did little to improve the situation. In the river on the left are some barges reminding us that this part of the Thames is still significant waterway and port. The foreground is a small private garden. In the early nineteenth century the effects of the Industrial Revolution changed the Thames from a clear. Sewage (human waste) and waste from gas factories. cholera deaths in London totalled 12. housing estates.

Fuels. The total trade amounts to 48. grain.6 million tones a year worth £6. When did the Thames begin to become polluted? 2. Who controls the pollution of the river nowadays? . Now it is five hundred feet (152 m) away from the river. This carried away much of the sewage. So far it has been very successful. the pollution of the river is controlled by the Thames Water Authority and the Government has passed strict laws to help make it cleaner. Over the eighty two new species of freshwater and sea fish have returned and amount of oxygen in the river is rising every year. Answer the following questions: 1. What are they? 5. and finally the Government began to do something about the awful pollution. Today. Sewers were constructed to the North and South of the river to take the sewage further downstream and work was begun on the Victoria Embankment. wine and wood are the major commodities handled by the Port of London Authority. Four effects of the Great Stink are mentioned. The photograph below shows the York Watergate built in 1626. What is 1858 called? 4. fruit.872 million.British College San Fernando Great Stink” (very bad smell). What disease struck London in 1848? 3. chemicals. The Thames joins 250 riverside wharves and industrial installations plus three large dock systems. One of the reasons for building the Victoria Embankment along the North bank of the Thames was to make the river narrower and so increase its speed. It used to be landing place for the Duke of Buckingham’s house. The river was wider that it is today and therebefore it flowed more slowly. How did the Victoria Embankment improve the river? 6. Today London is Britain’s largest port.

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