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Benko, Joseph 010326106

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DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS OF WEAK ACIDS Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to determine the dissociation constants of weak monoprotic acids. This was done by measuring the pH of a solution with known quantities of a weak acid and its conjugate base using a pH meter. EXPERIMENTAL The pH of four (4) solutions was measured using a pH meter. This

meter has a sensing device (electrode) that was sensitive to hydrogen ions as well as having a reference electrode. This use of multiple electrodes is called a Combination Electrode. These four (4) solutions were prepared in two different trials. Each trial used a weak monoprotic acid and its conjugate base. They were conducted as follows: 1. 10mL of 0.973M HA was measured for pH. 2. 20mL of 1.0M NaA was added to the solution in step 1. The pH was measured of this new solution.

Joseph 010326106 2 3. the temperature was recorded as well. resulting in a concentration of 0. This is a function of (H3O+).Benko.38 converts to 0.38. 10mL of 1.0041 from the initial molarity of the HA (0. To find the concentration of HA.973). To determine the concentration of H3O. the dissociation of HA was measured. The dissociation constant K(a) in the . The pH was measured of this solution.since they have the same stoichiometric coefficients. The formula for this conversion is pH=-log [H3O+]. 4. The reaction for this is HA(aq) + H2O(l) = H3O+(aq) + A-(aq). This is the concentration of H3O as well as X. 10mL of the final solution from step 2 was diluted with 50mL of distilled water. we take the pH to the negative power of 10. A pH of 2.973. The pH was measured and found to be 2. A new solution was prepared.0M NaOH was added to 25 mL of 0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results were as follows for the HA experiment (with calculations): STEP 1 In step 1. The pH was measured.973 HA. In all steps.0041. The initial molarity of this solution was 0.9689. we subtract 0.

030L).9689) (0.9689.0041M x 0.322. we get (0. The total is 0. First. This is NaX. it is determined that the new molarity of HA is 0. The calculations are as follows: 1. there is moles from the HA which is 0. STEP 2 In this step. Then the moles from the NaX is added which is 1M x 0. This is divided by the volume of the solution to obtain the concentration (0.020= 0. a second ion is introduced into the solution. the calculations must take both into account.0041]/0.to the solution. Joseph 010326106 3 quotient of the concentrations of the products divided by the reactants ([0. This is known as the common ion effect.020041/0.000041.73 x 10^-5.010L= 0.020041 moles. Since both the HX and the NaX contribute X. 2. K(a) is calculated at 1.Benko.010L)=(xM)(0. . NaX will dissociate with the formula NaX(aq) = Na+(aq) and X-(aq).03L) = 0.6675M. Taking the concentration calculated in step 1.020 moles.must take into account both sources of X. The concentration of the HA is calculated using M1V1=M2V2. The concentration of X.0041][0. Solving for x.

36 x 10^-3. The initial concentration was 1.060L). the [H3O] is 1. 4.36 x 10^-5. This means that the concentration of H3O+ decreased by 0.14 x 10^-5)(0.from the NaX).0013). The pH of this solution is 4. the new concentrations must be calculated: 1. the solution is diluted with distilled water (50mL).0041M x 0.36 x 10^-3.01L)=(xM) (0. Again. Solving for x.6675-0. The concentration of H3O+ is calculated using M1V1=M2V2. The K(a) for this reaction is 2.3.323348 (0.decreased by the same factor for a concentration of 0.94. An ICE table is constructed. we get (1. the concentration is 1. Solving for x.836 x .15 x 10^-5. STEP 3 In this step. the reaction will shift to the left.01L=xM x 0.0013485 moles so on the ice table it is actually a minus sign on the change in products.03L.322 + 0.001348). This is consistent with Le Chatelier’s principle since if we add products (X. the concentration of the H3O+ is calculated at 1. The HX increased in concentration to 0. By using the negative log equation.6661 (0. Using M1V1=M2V2 for H+. The resulting equation is 0. The X.

[X-] = 0. 1.0148/0.035L). it is 0.148 x 10^-5. The concentration of the HA is 0.0097/0.64 x 10^-6.2.277 (0. The NaOH will be a limiting reagent so there will be 0. The pH is 4.1109096 and [H3O] = 1.0148 moles of the HA left (0.89 which equated to an H3O concentration of 1. An ICE table is constructed. STEP 4 In this step.983 x 0.0. The concentration of X.035L).422 (0. The change is moles is 9. An ICE table is constructed. 10^-6. For the HA. it is 0. 2.148x10^-5.025L = 0.973 x 0.0097 moles. In this reaction. We add this factor to the X. neutralization is being examined.05386.05385. For the NaOH. a new solution is prepared.02457 moles. The resulting concentrations are: [HA] = 0.0097). The formula for this reaction is HA(aq) + NaOH(aq) = H2O(l) + NaA(aq). 25mL of HA are mixed with 10mL of NaOH.concentration and substract it from the HA concentration. [X-] = 0.364 x 10^-5. Using the same formula. There is zero concentration of H3O+.0245. 3. The initial moles for reactants are calculated. .1109 and [HA] = 0.010L = 0.is 0. The Ka for this is 2.

128x 10^-4 0.3234 0.6616 8.17 x 10^-5.17 x 10^-5 HY 1. [X-] = .70 0.14 x 10^-5 0.148 x 10^-5 0.05386 0.4219.0973 2.0517 0.4202 0. The Ka for this solution is 2.2770417 4.94 0.17 x 10^-5.3.6675 4.05385 0.38. the final concentrations are: [HA] = 0.4220 0.after reaction pH [HX] [X-] [H3O+] HX 0.6673 3.74 x 10^-5.05098 0.3177 0.73 0.2770417 4.38 0.1109 4.2188 1.6661 1.after mixing pH [HX] [X-] [H3O+] Part 3 Concentration HA after dilution Concentration X.0199 0.0041 0.32334 0.4219583 0.0041 0.1109096 1.9531 0. It is 4.after dilution pH [HX] [X-] [H3O+] Part 4 Concentration of unreacted HA Concentration X.1065 8.07 0. Part 1 Concentration HA pH [HX] [X-] [H3O+] Part2 Concentration HA after mixing Concentration X.38 0.89 0.4220 0.0199 0. This amounts to an H3O+ concentration of 4. Changing the factors of the products and reactants by this same factor.86 x 10^-3 .09 0. This is also the amount of change as there was no H3O+ previously.1058 3.322 0.9689 0. The pH of the solution is measured.27704 and [H3O] = 4.2788 2.51 x 10^-4 0.0 1.

it was not. CONCLUSION The dissociation constant of the HA acid was consistent in all the trials with an average of 2. Even though the approximation method could have been used for the HX.182 x 10^-6 which is well within the limits of consistent data.55 x 10^-3 which means the change in x was more significant in relation to the concentrations. It could have not been used for the HY. The standard deviation for this experiment was 2. The first Ka was not used since there had been no reaction in the first step.Calculations for the concentrations of HX are attached.488 x 10^-5 Whenever the exponent of the Ka is -5 or greater. . The Ka of the HX was 2.488. This is because the Ka for HY was 1. we can use the approximation because the change in concentrations is minute compare to original concentrations.