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Birds
Flowers • Trees
Insects
Stars
Reptiles and Amphibians
Mammals
Seashores • Fishes
Weather
Rocks and Minerals
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The American Southwest
The American Southeast
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The American Northwest
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21Ý AN1NAl5 1N PUll COlOR
MALS
A GU1DE IO PAN1l1AR ANER1CAN 5?EC1E5
by
H E R B E R T S . Z I M, PH. D .
ODC
DONALD Î. M\ÎÎNL1Ù¯LK¡ PH. D .
Curator, Natural History Museum,
and Associate Professor of Zoology, University of Illinois
1ÌÌu8!IO!eU by
JAMES GORDON I RVI NG
Sponsored by
The Wi l dl i fe Management I nsti tute
Æ ÜLLÜLM MÆ1UKL ÜU1ÜL
ÜLLÜbM FKbbb • MbW TLKK
ÎÁÆ1NÁÆM
MAMMALS is a nat ural and i ntegr al part of the Gol den
Nature Gui de seri es. Among mammal s are ani mal s that
man consi ders t he most i mportant ani mal s al i ve today.
Not onl y do mammal s have great economi c val ue, but
we en j oy many of them as pets . We thr i l l at seei ng deer
al ert at t he forest edge, and s mi l e at the di gni fed pro­
cessi on of a mother skunk and her young. Mammal s
add greatl y t o t he i nterest of forest, fel d, and desert.
Thi s vol ume i s a cooperati ve efort of author , expert,
arti st, an d publ i s her . Many i ndi vi dual s and i nsti tuti ons
have gi ven us thei r u nsti nti ng
h
el p i n provi di n g advi ce
and i nfor mat i on as to text and i l l ustrati ons, an d s peci ­
mens for t he arti st. We wi sh to t hank especi al l y Dani el
B. Beard, James Bee, W. H. Burt, T. Donal d Carter,
Wayne Davi s, Dean Fi sher, Woodrow Goodpaster,
George G. Goodwi n, E. R. Hal l , Davi d H. Johnson,
Remi ngton Kel l ogg, Kei th Kel son, Wi l l i am li di cker,
Robert M. McCl ung, Charl es Mclaughl i n, Karl Masl ow­
ski , Joseph C. Moor e, Russel l Mu mford, Ral ph Pal mer,
Vi ctor Schefer, |. L. Stei ml ey, Tracy Storer, Hobart Van
Deusen, Ri char d Van Gel der, Ral ph M. Wetzel , and
For d Wi l ke.
H. S. Z.
D. F . H.
Copyright 1955 by Golden Press, Inc. All Rights Reserved, Including the RiQht
of Reproduction in Whole or in Port in Any Form. Designed and Produced by Art1sts
and Writers Press, Inc. Printed in the U.S.A. by Western Printing and lithographing
Company. Published by Golden Press, Inc., Rockefeller Center, New York 20, N. Y.
Published Simultaneously in Canada by The Musson Book Company, Ltd., Toronto
US I NG TH I S bÁÁY
Thi s i s a book for ever yone who wants to i denti fy, un­
derstand, and enj oy t he fel d mouse scamper i ng through
t he l eaf- mol d an d t he s qui r rel on the br anch over head.
Techni cal detai l s, s u c h as descri pti ons of s kul l s, ar e
omi tted, and i denti fi cati on i s kept at t he s peci es l evel .
Thi s book cover s 21 8 of t he 350 speci es of ra m mal s
fou n d i n t he Un i t ed States and adj ac ent Can ada. The
col ored pl ates accent features whi c h hel p you t o recog­
ni ze the ani mal i n i ts natural envi ronment.
Fi rst become fami l i ar wi th the mammal s pi ctured and
descr i bed. look t hr ough t he Key t o Mammal s on t he
next pages so t hat you can recogni ze t he maj or mam­
mal groups . Try to see t he mammal wel l enou gh to de­
ci de, for exampl e, whether i t i s a rodent or a s h r ew.
Once you pl ace you r speci men wi thi n a gr oup, thu mb­
i ng t hrough a few pages wi l l show you t he an i mal or
one very muc h l i ke i t . For mor e detai l ed i dent i fcat i on,
use sci enti fc names ( pp. 1 55-1 56) .
Take t hi s book wi t h you on wal ks and tri ps . look up
mammal s whi l e you r i mpressi on i s fresh. Watch for char­
acter i sti cs t hat are i mportant i n i dent i fcati on. lear n to
l ook careful l y. You r frst gl ance may be al l you wi l l get.
lengt hs gi ven i n the text ar e t he over- al l l en gt h of the
mal e ( i nc l udi ng tai l ) , unl ess otherwi se stated. The maps
show r anges. I f a map s hows more t han one r ange, di f­
fer ent col or s or l i ne patter ns are us ed. The capti on
wi thi n, or nearest t o, a certai n col or or l i ne patter n i s
t he capti on t hat appl i es t o i t . I n the
s ampl e here, red s hows the r ange
of Br us h Rabbi t; bl ue l i nes , Desert
Cottontai l ; yel l ow, Eastern Cotton­
tai l . Some maps show present and
past ranges.
3
4
A KEY TO THE NANNAL5
Here ar e t he maj or gr ou ps ( orders an d fami l i es) i nto
whi ch the mammal s you see can be pl aced:
OPOSSUM: pouch for young,
thumb-l i ke bi g t oe, pr ehens i l e
rs; s,
17
vel vety fur, and no exter nal ears 18
SHREWS: mouse- l i ke; l ong snout,
soft fu r, 5 toes on each foot ÛÂ
BATS: the onl y fyi ng, wi nged
mammal s ÛÕ
ORES: fesh-eaters; l ar ge cani ne teeth,
5 toes on front feet ÛÛ-ÔÕ
Bears: flat-footed, "t ai l - l ess";
short, round ears ÛR
Raccoons: r i ng-tai l ed; bl ack
mask (i ncl udes Ri ngtai l , Coati ) ÛÔ
Weasel Fami l y: s hort-l egged,
s hort-eared; havi ng gl ands wi th
strong scent. ÛÛ
  Foxes, Wol ves: dog- l i ke; cl aws
not retracti l e bÛ
Cats: cl aws retracti l e; short face
and rounded ears bÛ
Seal s: l i mbs are fi ppers ÔÛ
RODENTS: Gnawers; onl y 1 pai r of u pper i nci sor
teeth pages 66- 116
Squi rrel s: most are acti ve du r-
i n g day; bus hy tai l s 68
Pocket Gophers: l i ve wel l be-
l ow gr ou n d; str ong, wel l -cl awed
forefeet 88
Kangaroo Rats and Mi ce:
l ong hi nd feet, tufted tai l 89
New Worl d Mi ce pnd Rats:
u nder part s us ual l y whi t i sh 95
Vol es and Lemmi ngs: s hort
tai l s, s mal l ears, l ong fu r 103
Ol d Worl d Rats and Mi c e:
under parts us ual l y gr ayi sh 1 12
J u mpi ng Mi c e: l on g, near l y
bare tai l s ; whi te u nder parts 1 14
HARES and RABBI TS: l ong­
eared, s hort-tai l ed; 2 pai rs of
u pper i nci sor teeth 1 17- 126
HOOFED MAMMALS: feet
wi th hoofs; both
odd-toed
even- and
127- 14 1
WHALES and THEI R KI N:
mar i ne, fs h- l i ke, wi t h hori -
zontal fu kes 144- 153
For Beaver, Porcupi ne, Nutria, Manatee, Ar madi l l o, and a few other
mammal s not i n the above groups, see I ndex.
5
D
Mul e Deer fawn
5111WÆ
WTWWT15
Seei ng mammal s i s n' t
as easy as seei ng bi rds
or fowers . Ma mmal s
keep out of s i ght. Some
have conceal i n g col ors;
some burrow; many are noctur nal . Yet they can be seen
i f you ar e pati ent, al ert, and know where to l ook. Much
about mammal s i s known, but much more remai ns to be
di scovered.
WHAT ARE MAMMALS? The name "mammal " refers
to the femal e' s mammary gl ands, whi ch provi de mi l k for
her you n g. Thi s characteri sti c sets of mammal s among
the war m- bl ooded, back-boned ani mal s. Mammal s are
hai ry; young are born al i ve. Most have vari ed teeth, for
c utti n g, t ear i ng, or gri n di n g. The mammal ' s s ku l l i s
u ni que; t he brai n mor e compl ex than i n other an i mal s .
HOW MANY ARE THERE? There are, t he worl d over,
a bout 1 2, 000 ki nds of mammal s . Some 3, 000 speci es
and s ubs peci es are found i n North Amer i ca. Speci es
n umber about 650 i n North Ameri ca, 350 north of
Mexi co. Some are rare, others so common that scores
may occur on a si ngl e acre.
WHERE ARE THEY FOUND? Mammal s l i ve on every
conti nent-i n mountai ns, deserts, arcti c snows, marshes,
meadows, forests, far ms, ci ti es, an d t he dept hs of the
s ea. Some have become adapted to s peci fc envi ron­
ments; th us tree s qui rrel s l i ve onl y i n forests, ri ce rats
onl y i n s wamps . More adapt abl e mammal s ft i nto a
vari ety of envi ronments; thus some rabbits l i ve i n woods,
some i n swamps, some i n deserts.
RANGE I N SI ZE Mammal s range from the Pi gmy Shrew
t o t he Bl u e Whal e. lar ge speci es, as some car ni vores
and hoofed mammal s, are most fami l i ar . Smal l er ones
are more common and, i n the l ong r un, more i mportant.
The l ar ger t he mammal , the mor e l an d needed to s up­
port i t. Protecti ng mammal s ti l l thei r popul ati on exceeds
the n u mber that a gi ven regi on wi l l s u pport may mean
starvat i on for the sur pl us . Thi s happened wi th deer and
el k unt i l h unters were al l owed t o keep the her ds down .
ADAPT All ONS Mammal s have devel oped efecti ve
ways of l i vi n g. One i s to care for the young i ns i de the
mot her befor e bi rt h. Tooth adaptati ons vary from the
t us ks of the peccary to the gnawi ng teeth of r odent s.
Feet wi t h hoofs or padded toes are adapted for r unni ng,
cl aws f or di ggi ng, gr aspi ng, and cl i mbi ng, and webs for
s wi mmi n g. Mammal s ca n fy, gl i de, r un, j u mp, cr awl ,
swi m, bu r r ow, and di ve. I nter nal or gans s how great
adaptati on, too. Some mammal s can hi ber n ate. Such
adaptati ons have made mammal s domi nant today.
MAMMALS AND MAN Man, most adaptabl e of
mammal s , has domesti cated and devel oped other s he
has needed. Dogs, cats, horses, cattl e, sheep, and a
score more have been domesti cated. Most of these have
been i mproved for
h u man ends . A Hol ­
stei n cow gi ves more
mi l k than her ances
tors. Those whi ch di d
not ft our pattern,
l i ke t he bi s on a nd
t he mou nta i n l i on,
have sufered badl y.
Bi son and Hol stei n Cow
ECONOMI C VALUES Mammal s hel ped make Amer­
ica. Pioneers depended on game for everyday food. The
fu r trade sti mul ated expl orati on and settl ement. Furs are
sti l l val ued today, and fur far mi ng is a new and growi ng
i ndustry. Hu nt i ng i s mor e t han a s port: on t he bus i ness
s i de, mi l l i ons are s pent year l y for equi pment an d s up­
pl i es. But s mal l er mammal s have l ess obvi ou s val ues.
Mol es, vol es, and ground squi r r el s hel p i n maki n g soi l .
Rodents are eaten by more val uabl e mammal s . Wi l dl i fe
i s so i nterrel ated t hat al l speci es have a r ol e i n keepi ng
t he nat ur al machi nery i n s mooth oper ati on.
CONSERVATI ON Our wi l d mammal s ar e a natural re­
s ource, whi ch s houl d be used wi sel y for the l ong- r ange
beneft of al l t he peopl e. Nat i onal Par ks pr ovi de com­
pl ete protecti on for al l wi l dl i fe, and her e fel d tri ps can
be most rewardi ng. State game refuges and t hose of t he
U. S. Fi sh and Wi l dl i fe Servi ce protect threatened speci es
such as bi son, pr onghor n, and el k. Nat i onal forests are
a r eservoi r of game an d s mal l er an i mal s . Even f ar ms
and woodl ots can mai ntai n a mammal popul at i on. When
h u nti n g an d trappi ng are l i mi ted to r emoval of s ur pl us
an i mal s , a f ut ure s uppl y i s as s ur ed. You obey h u nti ng
and cons ervati on l aws becaus e t hey beneft you, your
nei gh bors, and the cou ntry at l ar ge.
S T U D Y I N G MAMMA L S
I denti fcati on i s the key to ex­
ci ti ng hobbi es. Once you have
beg u n to st u dy ma m mal s,
many possi bi l i ti es open up.
OBSERVI NG MAMMALS means mor e t han i denti fca­
ti on. See how they l i ve, feed, protect t hemsel ves, and
r ai se thei r young. Thi s requi res pati ence. Ear l y or l ate,
your ti me schedul e must ft your subj ect. Bi nocul ars are
an essenti al . So are war m, comfortabl e cl ot hes, a note­
book, an d someti mes a bl i n d or camoufaged s hel ter.
Most economi c s peci es have been st udi ed by profes­
si onal zool ogi sts. Many smal l er and l ess i mportant s pe­
ci es sti l l need attention . Exper i enced amateu rs, n oti ng
detai l ed observations, can make a zool ogi cal contri bu­
ti on by recordi n g facts on feedi ng habi ts, burrows, run­
ways, nests, cal l s , and behavi or of l ocal mammal s .
PHOTOGRAPHI NG MAMMALS can au gment your
observati ons. lear n t o know your camera frst and t he
habi ts of your subj ects next . Attempt s i mpl e, easy s ub­
j ects frst. li ght i s often poor, so a good l ens or fas h
equi pment i s i mportant. Ani mal photogr aphy cannot be
r us hed. Food an d water bai t often hel p. lear n to s et u p
your camer a s o that mammal s wi l l take thei r own pi ctures .
COLLECTI NG TRACKS Mammal tracks i n soft earth,
mud, cl ay, or snow tel l what ani mal passed, i ts si ze and
how fast i t was movi ng. Tracks l eft cl ear l y
i n soi l or mu d can be preserved. Si mpl e
materi al s -pl aster of Par i s, some ti n cans
wi th ou t t ops or bot­
toms, and a s mal l brush
1 D
Sel ect cl ear track.
Add pl aster to water.
Stir unti l creamy.
-are al l that i s needed. Cl ean
twi gs and l oose di rt from the
t r acks. Sel ect a c an t hat fts over
the track wi th space to spare. (Or
u se ti n ban d. ) Cover t he i nsi de of
the can wi t h a t hi ck coat of vase­
l i ne. Mi x you r pl ast er an d water
ti l l i t i s l i ke t hi ck cr eam. Pour i t i n
t he can ti l l i t for ms a l ayer about
a n i n ch t h i c k . Pl as t er wi l l dry i n
a n h ou r or so; do n ot di s t ur b ti l l
t hen. Remove cast from can;
cl ean, mou nt, and l abel .
COLLECTI NG MAMMALS i s
somethi ng f or more advanced stu­
dents and i s necessary i f you want
to prepare ski ns or study skul l s and
teeth . Speci al tra ppi ng per mi ts
may be requi red. A vari ety of traps
from mouse-si ze up may be used.
Pl aci ng of traps efecti vel y comes
.,,_  __ onl y wi th exper i ence. Ma mmal s
after pl aster sets.
caught i n l i ve traps may be kept
as pets, or they may be studi ed
bri efy, photographed, and turned
l oose.
MAMMALS AS PETS Ou r best
pets are domesti cated mammal s .
Wi l d ones when c apt ur ed young
make fne pets, too. Be sure t o ob­
serve the l aw i n c aptu r i n g t hem.
Raccoons, s kunks, and tree squi r­
rel s make good pets. Fl yi ng squi r-
r el s , whi te- footed mi ce,
and chi pmunks do wel l i n capti vi ty.
Foxes, coati s, woodch ucks, ar ma­
di l l os, an d even l arger mammal s
ar e kept as pets. Be s ure you can provi de
proper food, cl ean dri n ki ng water, an d a
sati sfactory shel ter. Take ti me to handl e and
pl ay wi t h your pet, i f you want i t tamed. Ex­
perts at zoos can gi ve you practi cal advi ce.
PREPARI NG SKI NS AND SKULLS takes s ki l l . I f you
want to try taxi dermy, start wi th a squi r rel or a rat. Fi nd
someone t o gi ve you a l esson or two. Tr y Vi nson Brown's
hel pf ul THt An»¡tuk N»¡uk»t|s¡`S H»¬brCCk ( li ttl e
Brown ö Co. , Boston, 1 9 5 1 ) or R. M. Anderson's MtTH­
CbsCr CCtttC¡|HG»Hb Pktstkv|HG Vtx¡trk»¡tAH|n»ts
( Nati onal Museum of Canada, Ottawa, 1 948) for some
sound advi ce and f urt her references. I n cl eani ng s kul l s
and other bones, l ear n to us e l arvae of Dermesti d
Beetl es, whi c h eat t he bones cl ean . Abi l i ty to pr epare
s ki ns i s needed i n advanced zool ogi cal study. The
novi ce can often l ear n mor e from observi ng l i ve mam­
mal s i n t he wi l d or at zoos.
MUSEUMS AND ZOOS are fne pl aces to study. Use
them to s u ppl ement your fel d wor k. Experts at t hese
pl aces ar e gl ad to answer questi ons and gi ve advi ce. A
l i st of wel l -known museums and zoos is gi ven on p. 1 54,
as wel l as a l i st of books for further study.
MAMMALS OF TODAY are probabl y descended from
s mal l - to medi um- si zed, acti ve, fesh-eati ng repti l es-the
Cynodonts . These repti l es, wi th mamma l - l i ke s ku l l s,
bones, and teeth, l i ved mi l l i ons of years before the di no­
saur s. The frst true mammal s devel oped about 1 90 mi l ­
l i on year s ago, but for over 1 00 mi l l i on years t hey re­
mai ned an uni mportant group of ani mal s . When the di ­
nosau rs di ed out 7D mi l l i on years ago, mammal s came
i nto thei r own. By 50 mi l l i on years ago, three mai n
groups of mammal s and most of t hei r s ubgroups were
1 2
wel l establ i shed . The egg-l ayi ng mammal s, l i ke the Duck­
bi l l and Echi dna, ar e now a smal l , al most exti nct group.
The pouc hed mars upi al s , whose young are bor n i ncom­
pl etel y devel oped, are represented by onl y one s peci es
i n the Uni ted States -t he Opossum. Al l other mammal s
fit i nto t he great pl acental gr oup of 1 6 l i vi ng or der s.
Gener al r el ati ons hi ps of the pri nci pal order s ar e shown
above. More detai l ed "trees " are appropri atel y pl aced
i n the book. Study them and become fami l i ar wi t h mor e
detai l ed r el ati ons hi ps.
1 3
1 4
1 . Long-horned Bi son 2. Saber-toothed Cat
3. Short-legged Rhi noceros
MAMMALS OF YESTERDAY i ncl ude some whi ch l i ved
i n North Amer i ca and have become exti nct i n the past
50 mi l l i on year s. At i nterval s l and br i dges fr om Asi a
formed, and new mammal s came over to compete wi th
and someti mes repl ace exi sti ng speci es. The Short-l egged
Rhi noceros l i ved about 10 mi l l i on years ago. It became
exti nct s oon after, but other speci es persi sted i n Europe
ti l l t he i ce age. The ear l y camel ( Pr oca mel us ) di ed out
about the same ti me, but others l i ved here ti l l the l ast i ce
age. Mor e i s tol d about these ani mal s on the next page.
1 ô
1 6
THE FI RST MAMMALS appear ed i n Nort h Amer i ca
over 75 mi l l i on years ago. New ki nds devel oped; other s
came from Asi a. About 25 mi l l i on years l ater, mam­
mal s began t o domi nate t he conti nent. Many an ci ent
mammal s di ed of, l eavi ng no descendants. Others were
ancestors of modern horses, camel s, deer, beaver, bi son,
and r hi nos -to ment i on a few. Smal l er mammal s were
abundant too; thei r fos s i l s are rarer. Speci es that have
become exti nct recentl y i ncl ude:
Long- horned Bison was one of a number of speci es
of bi son wi des pread i n North Amer i ca dur i ng t he i ce
age. Spear poi nts fou n d wi t h bones of ext i nct bi s on
s how t hat man hunted them.
Saber-toothed Cats, al so found i n E u rope, were
l arger i n North Ameri ca. Our speci es, wi th dagger- l i ke
teeth 8 i nches l ong, s u rvi ved unt i l l ate i n the i ce age.
Short- l egged Rhinoceros and kin, devel oped i n
Nort h Amer i ca, became exti nct before t he i c e age.
Some mi grated t o Asi a and Afri ca, where descendants
sti l l l i ve.
American Mastodon was one of our many el ephant­
l i ke ani mal s . Some had shovel - tus ks; s ome, c u rved
poi nted tusks. The Wool ly Mammoths, s urvi vi ng i nto the
i ce age, were h u nted by earl y man, perhaps I ndi ans .
Giant Ground Sl oth was an el ephant-si zed member
of a gr oup whi ch today has few member s. Heavy hi nd
l egs and tai l s u ggest i t s quatted when feedi n g or rest­
i ng. I t was contempor ary wi th ear l y man i n North
Amer i ca.
Earl y Camel ( Procamel us ) r epresents t he mi dpoi nt i n
t he devel opment of t he camel i n Nort h Amer i ca. F rom
here, types of camel s moved i nto As i a and South
Amer i ca, wher e they l i ve today. Other, l arger ki nds of
camel s s urvi ved here i nto the i ce age.
OPOSSUM i s our onl y nati ve marsu pi al or pouched
mammal . Baby opossums, whi ch wei gh onl y 1 /1 5 oz. at
bi rth, l i ve i n t he mother's fur-l i ned pouch about 3 mont hs.
Up to 1 4 may be bor n; us ual l y onl y 7 to 9 su rvi ve. Opos­
s u ms hu n t at n i ght for s mal l bi r ds and mammal s. They
eat eggs and f r ui t al so. When threatened by enemi es,
t hey " pl ay possum" and col l apse as i f dead. Opossums
are recogni zed by t hei r whi te faces, coarse fur , and
rat-l i ke tai l s. Mal es and femal es
are al i ke. Length: 33 i n.
1 7
1 8
MOLES are s mal l , pl u mp, underground creatures, wi th
vel vety fur, no vi si bl e ears, and eyes reduced or absent.
They have powerfu l s hou l der s, a s hort neck, mu sc u l ar
front l egs wi th s hovel - l i ke feet, and heavy c l aws -al l
featu res usefu l i n di ggi ng. Sensi ti ve snouts and sensory
hai r on front feet and t ai l keep mol es
from bumpi ng i nto tunnel wal l s . Di s­
ti ngui s h the Hai ry-tai l ed Mol e by i ts
h ai ry tai l an d s hort s nout . Star­
n osed Mol e is i denti fed by an odd,
pi nk, di sc-l i ke fri nge on i ts s nout.
2. Shrew Mol e
Mol es tu nnel i n ri ch woods and l awns, feedi ng on grubs
and wor ms . The Cal i for ni a Mol e, one of several western
s peci es, i s al most bl i nd. I t resembl es the E astern Mol e
( p. 20) , but wi t h a more feshy tai l . The Shrew Mol e has
a l ong s nout and hai ry tai l . The s mal l est mol e ( 5 i n . ) , i t
MOLE SNOUTS
spends more ti me at the
s u rf ace t h an ot her s . I n
many featu res, i t i s i nter­
medi ate bet ween mol es
and s hrews. Other mol es
range f r o m 51h to 8 i n .
l ong.
� Shrew

� ..

 
�California
- Mole
1 9
Mol e hi l l s and tunnel s
THE EASTERN MOLE or common mol e makes the
mounds that dot your l awn . You are u n l i kel y to see any
mol es, for they stay underground unl ess mol ested. Mol es
d i g two types of tu nnel s : deep tun­
nel s ( to 2 ft. u nder ground ) where
they nest, spend the wi nter , and re­
mai n dur i ng dr ought; and s hal l ow
tunnel s seen on l awns, al ong whi ch
t hey fnd i nsects an d eart hwor ms.
Length: 7 i n.
PI GMY SHREWS are the s mal l est s hrews, and shrews,
i n general , ar e t he s mal l est North Amer i can mammal s .
• ·
The Pi gmy Shrew wei ghs onl y 1 /1 4 ou nce-l ess t han a
,
_ di me. As i t darts t hrou gh dr y woods an d c l eari n gs,
wher e i t l i ves, peopl e mi stake i t for a mouse. Note i ts
vel vety, s oft, mol e- l i ke fur, sl ender body and l egs , and
s hort tai l . Shrews feed on s mal l i nsects, whi ch they hunt
constantl y. Because of t hei r acti vi ty and smal l s i ze, they
consu me sever al ti mes t hei r wei ght
i n food every day. Sh rews s pend
mor e ti me a bove gr ou n d t han
mol es. Thei r eyesi ght i s better, too.
Enemi es: common carni vores, owl s,
hawks, s nakes. Length: about 3 i n.
2 1
(Text on page 24.)
��

� � �
22
(Text on page 24. )
1 o Desert Shrew
3. Water Shrew
24
Pi gmy Shrew
SHREWS, our s mal l est but fercest mammal s, attack
and ki l l prey several ti mes thei r wei ght. Two sh rews may
fght ti l l one ki l l s and consumes the other . The young ( 4
to 5) , born i n a hol l ow stu mp1 l og, or bu rrow, can fend
for themsel ves wi thi n a month . The l i fe span i s short-1 11
years at most.
Masked Shrew i s a common, wi despread, l ong-tai l ed
s hrew, found i n moi st forest l ocal i ti es. Length: 4 i n.
Arcti c Shrew i s s i mi l ar t o Masked Sh rew, but l arger ,
wi th a l onger tai l . I ts coat i s brown above, gray-whi te be­
l ow, c h an gi n g i n wi nter to a dar ker br own or bl ac ki sh
above and al most whi te bel ow. Length: 47i i n.
Least Shrew, s mal l and short-tai l ed, i n h abi ts grassy
a bandoned fel ds. Feeds on i nsects, possi bl y mi ce.
Desert Shrew, pal e, as hy-gray i n col or, l i ves ami d
cacti and sagebr ush i n more ari d pl aces t han any other
of our s hrews. Not often found. Length: 3 i n .
Short-tailed Shrew, wi th stubby tai l , i s on e of the
commonest mammal s of eastern woods . I ts s l i ght l y poi ­
sonous sal i va ai ds i n paral yzi ng prey. Length: 411 i n.
Water Shrews c an r un on water, wi th thei r l arge,
broad, hai ry feet. They al so swi m and di ve, feedi ng un­
der wat er on i nsects, fsh, and fsh eggs . L ength: 6 i n .
Northern Water Shrew i s more bl ack; the Paci fc speci es
i s more brown.
1 . Long-nosed Bat 2. Leaf-nosed Bat 3. Mastif Bat
BATS are the onl y fyi ng mammal s. Fl yi ng squi r rel s gl i de,
but onl y bats fy. Bats' forel i mbs are great l y modi fed
and for m wi ngs very di ferent from those of bi rds. I n bats,
the fngers are greatl y l engthened to support a thi n mem­
brane. Thi s membrane extends to the hi nd l egs. The l egs
and usu al l y the tai l support the membrane.
Bats h ave l i mi ted eyesi ght. I n fi ght t hei r l arge ears
form part of a uni que system for l ocati n g and avoi di ng
obj ects. Bats emi t a s ound, too hi gh-pi tched for us to
hear, whi ch i s echoed back l i ke a radar beam. Pi cked u p
by the bat's sensi ti ve ears, th i s echo i ndi cates the di rec­
ti on and di stance of obstacl es to be avoi ded and of fy­
i ng i nsects that may be sei zed for food.
About 2, 000 ki nds of bats i nhabi t temperat e and
tropi cal r egi ons. The 65 or so ki nds found in t he Uni ted
States are pri mari l y i nsect-eaters. Some l arger , tropi cal
bats feed on fr ui t , and t he Vampi re Bats of Sout h and
Central Amer i ca feed on bl ood. long-nosed Bats feed on
pol l en of n i ght-bl oomi n g fower s. Bats rest du r i n g the
day, hangi ng u psi de down i n caves, i n deserted bui l d­
i ngs, under cl i fs, and i n trees. At dusk they fy out t o feed
on i nsects. Thei r errati c fi ght and t he darkness make
identifcation di fcul t. For positive identi fcation, fnd
some at r est duri ng the day. Catch them i n bar ns, under
cl i fs and i n caves. Rel ease t hem after you have studi ed
them.
25
26
1 . Eastern
Pi pi strel
2. Big Brown
Bat
¡. Si l ver -
(Text on poge 28. )
27
PI PI STRELS a re t he s mal l est Amer i can bats ¸ length: J
i n . ) . Th e er rat i c fi ght, i n ear l y eveni ng, and s mal l si ze
are cl ues to i denti fcati on. Eastern Pi pi strel has reddi sh­
brown fur, bl ack at base, and browni s h ears. Western
Pi pi st r el has gr ayi sh- brown fur, bl acki s h ears . Bot h hi ­
bernate .
BI G BROWN BATS are l arge bats (length: 47ii n . ) often
seen ar ound dwel l i ngs. Bats that fy in through wi ndows
or down c hi mneys are usual l y Bi g Browns, har ml ess l i ke
ot her bat s. You n g ar e bor n i n l ate spri n g. They g row
rapi dl y and i n two months reach adul t s i ze. Rar el y l i ve
in l ar ge col oni es, as do Pi pi strel s and li tt l e Brown Bats.
SI LVER- HAI RED BAT i s a dark bat (length: 4 i n . ) wi th
si l ver-ti pped fur , whi ch i s more pronounced on the back.
They a re c ommon, s l ow- fyi ng bats, often seen al ong
mounta i n stre ams an d l akes. At rest t hey ar e us ual l y
sol i tary, hangi ng from br anches i n deep woods or hi d­
i ng under l oose bar k of trees. Mi grates to t he southern
part of i ts range i n fal l . May be confused wi th the l arger
Hoary Bat s ( p. 31 ) .
BI G-EARED BATS are l arge (length: 4 i n . ) wi t h ear s
l arger t han the head, and two l ar ge l umps on top of t he
nose ( al so cal l ed lump-nosed Bats) . Fur i s reddi sh brown;
mal es and femal es al i ke. They frequent caves, comi ng
ouf at dus k t o feed. Easter n Bi g- eared Bat i s s i l very be­
l ow; Western Bi g-eared, browni sh bel ow.
LI TTLE BROWN BATS an d thei r ki n are a gr oup of
common smal l bats wi th l ong, nar row ears and "si mpl e"
faces . Over a dozen speci es occur i n North Ameri ca,
most about 311 i n . l on g. A s i ngl e young i s bor n i n earl y
s ummer and can fy i n a few weeks. The bats may make
sever al feedi ng f i ghts a n i ght i n s earc h of s mal l fyi ng
i nsects . When col d weather sets i n,
t hese bats h i ber nat e. Thousa nds
h ave been fou n d i n l arger caves­
s omet i mes i n c l usters, s omet i mes
formi ng a l ayer over the cave wal l s.
They al so l i ve i n deserted bui l di ngs.
29
PALLI D and MEXI CAN FREE-TAI LED BATS are l arge
wester n s peci es . The Pal l i d, one of ou r pal est bats, i s
l arger (length: 41h i n . ) and drab gray i n col or . I t has very
l arge ears, r i dged nose wi thout l umps, and broad wi ngs.
Often found near bui l di ngs, these bats fy s l owl y and
feed cl ose to t he ground. Fr ee-tai l ed Bats have nearl y
hal f the tai l proj ecti ng beyond the membrane. Thei r musk
gl ands produce a di sagreeabl e odor. Mi l l i ons of these
Mexi can Free-tai l s l i ve i n the upper parts of Car l sbad
Caverns i n New Mexi co.
RED and HOARY BATS are wi despread speci es, but
the former i s more common . The Red Bat (length: 47i
i n. ) is eas i l y recogni zed by i ts rusty-red fur, ti pped wi th
whi te. Femal es are dul l er -an unus ual condi ti on, si nce
both sexes i n bats general l y l ook al i ke. These bats mi ­
grate south i n fal l and spend t he wi nter i n war mer l ati ­
t udes . The Hoar y Bat i s a l ar ge (length: 5 i n . ) forest
s peci es. I ts brown fur, ti pped wi th whi te, gi ves i t a si l very
appear ance. Mal es us ual l y fy al one, femal es i n s mal l
groups . A pai r of you ng, born i n mi ds u mmer, i s carr i ed
by the mother as she feeds.
3 1
32
CARNI VORES are a wel l -known group. Mos t are pred­
ators -qui ck, i ntel l i gent, and someti mes vi ci ous . Many
a re bu i l t for s peed -among them the cat fami l y, whi ch
i ncl udes t he fastest mammal s . Car ni vores show adapta­
ti ons for h unti ng. The most obvi ous a re i n t he mouth .
The l ower j aw moves freel y, for graspi ng an d gr i ppi ng.
Teet h are s h ar p, for cutti n g and tear i n g. The feet of
car n i vores are padded, some wi th shar p cl aws.
Of seven fami l i es of Amer i can car ni vores, two-the
seal s ( pp. 63-65) and t he wal r us-are aquat i c. Though
Mountai n Li on Raccoon Mi nk
t he rest are l and an i mal s , some speci es ( Ri ver an d Sea
Otter s) a re excel l ent swi mmers, adapted to water l i fe.
Car ni vores r ange in si ze from the ti ny least Weasel to
hal f-ton bear s . Some s u ppl ement thei r fes h di et wi th
fs h. A few eat fru i ts and berri es. As pr edator s, the car­
ni vores h e l p i n keepi ng t he popu l at i on of rodents and
other pl ant-eaters i n check. The group i ncl udes some of
t he best fu r bearers ( otter, mi nk, marten, fox and rac­
coon ) . large n u mbers of mi nk and fox are s uccessful l y
rai sed on f ur far ms .
Fox Otter Bear
34
BLACK BEARS, despi te thei r name, vary from brown
to blac k i n col or , somet i mes wi th whi te on the chest.
Note the bear's u nus ual fat-footed wal k. You ng ( usu­
a l l y two) , born i n l ate wi nter whi l e the mot her i s dor­
mant, remai n wi th her ti l l the fol l owi ng fal l . Then each
seeks a den under a fal l en l og or rocky l edge for wi nter
sl eep. Bears feed on s mal l mammal s, fs h, pl ants, and
especi al l y on wi l d berri es. Length: t o 6 ft. ; height: 3 f. ;
weight: about 300 l b.
#•

GRI ZZLY BEAR, l arg­
est l an d car n i vore, i s
s o na med becaus e the
l i ght er t i ps of i t s h ai rs
gi ve t he coat a s i l very
l ook. Once wi despread
an d freel y h u nt ed, i t i s
today protected i n most
regi ons. Gr i zzl i es occur
i n a f�w pl aces i n the
Roc ki es , feedi n g on
game, berri es, and hon­
ey. They ar e expert at scoopi ng up s al mon at the ri ver's
edge. Thei r l ong, heavy cl aws were once made i nto
pri zed neckl aces by the Pl ai ns I ndi ans . Length: to 8 ft.
35
36
RACCOON, i dent i fed by bl ack mas k and ri nged tai l ,
i s one of the best-known eastern mammal s. I t feeds on
rodents, i nsects, frogs, wi l d frui t, and cor n, and washes
i ts food when near water. The den i s often i n a hol l ow
tree. Th ree to si x you n g, born i n s pr i ng, a re bl i n d for
about three weeks. They re­
mai n i n the den for two months
an d wi t h par ent s ti l l t he fol -
l owi ng s pri n g. They are c uri ­
ous, mi s chi evous, but make
fai r pets . Length: to 30 i n.
RI NGTAI LS and COATI S are both rel ated to raccoons.
The for mer ( upper pi cture) i s al so cal l ed Ri ng-tai l ed Cat.
The Ri ngtai l (length: about 30 i n. ) , wi th whi te aroun d
the eyes and a l onger r i nged tai l t han that of raccoons,
feeds on smal l desert ani mal s. Coati s have l onger noses
an d l ong, part l y r i nged tai l s . They
travel i n bands, feedi n g on i nsects
an d on s ome pl a nts. The mi schi ev­
ous Coati s, frequent l y tamed i n
Mexi co, ma ke good pet s. Length:
40 to 50 i n .
37
Bl ack -footed Ferret
Hog-nosed Skunk
Stri ped Skunk
Spotted Skunk
BADGERS
THE WEASEL FAMI LY i ncl udes s kunks, otters, bad­
gers, and mi nk-al l s mal l - to medi um-si zed ani mal s wi th
smal l heads, l ong tai l s, shar p teeth, and cl aws. They are
pri zed fur bearers whose ski ns bri ng top mar ket pr i ces .
Thi s fami l y occurs i n North and South Amer i ca, Eu rope,
Asi a, and Afri ca. Our speci es are more common i n
cool er, wooded regi ons. True Weasel s and Wol veri nes
[ p. 45} are aggressi ve, bl oodthi rsty predators. The
skunks have a sl ow, qui et di gni ty. Al l members of the
fami l y have scent gl a n ds, but t hose of the s k u n k are
most powerful . The r ange� of these mammal s have
shrunk as man has encr oached on them.
38
MARTENS, cl ose r el at i ves of t he Fi s her ( p. 42) , are
s mal l er ( length: 2 ft. ) and show more preference for
trees . They h u nt s qu i rr el s , rabbi ts , an d bi r ds . I n the
hol l ow-tree nest two to fou r young are bor n i n spr i ng;
by fal l t hey fend for themsel ves. Martens are someti mes
cal l ed Sabl e -the name of a speci es nati ve to northern
E u rope and As i a. Marten fu r, however, i s pr i zed, and
some ani mal s have been rai sed i n capti vi ty. Trappi ng
and cutti ng of northern pi ne forests have greatl y reduced
the wi l d Marten popu l ati on.
4
0
Short-tai l ed Weasel in summer and wi nter
WEASELS, three speci es of them, are browni s h i n sum­
mer . They have l ong, shi ny hai r and soft fur , the under­
s i des and feet bei ng l i ghter. These s l i m, bl oodth i rsty,
vi ci ous hunters often ki l l more than they can eat. They
prey on mi ce, rats, shrews, and mol es, and wi l l attack
l arger an i mal s : squi r rel s, rabbi ts, and poul try. A weasel
i n a henhouse can be a catastrophe. I n tu r n, weasel s are
eat en by owl s, hawks, cats, and l arger member s of the
weasel fami l y. Weasel s are the qui ckest mammal s , thei r
movements bei ng al most too fast to fol l ow, but they are
cur i ous and are easi l y trapped. Weasel s use burrows of
other an i mal s for a nest, l i ni ng it wi th fu r an d feathers.
I n s pr i ng, fou r to ei ght young are born . I n fve to seven
weeks the you ng can care for themsel ves .
Short-tai l ed Weasel , someti mes cal l ed Er mi ne, i s a
c ommon n ort her n s peci es . I n wi nter, i ts pel age t u r ns
whi te, but t he tai l retai n s t he bl ack ti p. I n s u mmer a
whi te l i ne r uns down i nsi de the hi nd l egs. Length: 1 011 i n .
Long-tai l ed Weasel i s the most common and wi del y
di stri buted (l ength: about 1 6 i n . ) . I n t he Southwest
and Fl or i da, i t has a whi ti sh band across the face
( br i dl ed weasel ) .
Least Weasel , even shorter (length: 6
i n . ) , i s the s mal l est of carni vores. less
common than the others, i t l acks the bl ack
ti p to i ts tai l and is al ways compl etel y
whi te i n wi nter . I t feeds on i nsects and, i n
wi nter, on mi ce and s hrews .

. _ __ -.. ..
¡. Least Weasel 2. Long-tai l ed Weasel ( bel ow)

FI SHER is a bi g, agi l e weasel wi th a heavy, bus hy tai l
and a s i l ky pel t . The fu r i s ver y val uabl e, and s o for
years Fi shers were continual l y hunted and trapped. Al ­
thou gh a good swi mmer , the Fi sher does not fs h. I t i s
a ni mbl e tree-cl i mber and l ooks above ground for most
of i ts food: s mal l mammal s , bi rds, frui t, and nut s. I t i s
reputed to be the fastest mammal in trees and i s near l y
as fast on t he gr ound. Fi s hers l i ve
i n moi st forests . They store extra­
food and return to eat i t . Young,
t h ree to a l i tter, are born i n ear l y
s pri ng and begi n to h unt i n about
t hree mont hs. Length: to 3 ft.
MI NK l i ve near water. They
a re aggressi ve hunters wi th a
s peci al t aste for Mus krat,
s omet i mes destroyi ng ent i re
col oni es . They al so eat fsh,
other mammal s, marsh bi rds,
a n d pou l t r y. Mi n k are con­
s ta nt l y on t he go, car r yi ng
t hei r you n g by t he scr uf of
the neck on l and or pi ckaback
i n water. When an gry, Mi nk
di scharge an acri d musk. They
spi t and squeal wi th rage. The
young (fve to s i x) are the si ze
of pea pods at bi rth and are
covered wi th fne whi ti sh hai r s.
Mi nk fur i s val uabl e. Several
vari eti es are r ai sed i n capti v­
i ty. Length: to 20 i n. ; weight:
to 2 l b. Femal e s mal l er .
43
BLACK- FOOTED FERRET is the l argest true weasel ( up
t o 1 8 i n. l ong, wi th 6- i n . tai l ) . The Bl ackfoot i s l i ght­
col ored, except for its feet and for a dar k band across
i ts eyes. A resi dent of open pl ai ns , i t feeds mai nl y on
pr ai r i e dogs and ground squi rrel s. A Ferret wi l l work i ts
way t hrough the burrows of a prai ri e-dog col ony, ki l l ­
i ng many of them. Al l weasel s have musk gl ands at the
 

 
i nally
bas e of t he t ai l , but t he Bl ac kfoot
has a stronger odor than most. The
removal of pr ai r i e dogs, by poi son­
i ng, has near l y el i mi nat ed t hese
F errets i n man y ar eas . Cl os el y re­
l ated to the Asi an pol ecats .
44
WOLVERI NES, powerfu l , brown, and shaggy- hai red,
are the l argest members of the weasel fami l y, reachi ng
3 ft. i n l ength . They feed on rabbi ts, gophers, other smal l
mammal s , and bi r ds , and are known to ki l l game as
l ar ge as deer and el k. Wol ver i nes rob tra ps and de­
stroy caches of trapper s ' food. They a re f ear ed and
detested ani mal s . Thei r range j ust enters the Uni ted
States i n the western mountai ns,
but t he an i mal i s common i n Cana­
di an forests and i n Al aska. I t bui l ds
an u nder gr ound den l i ned wi th
l eaves. Here th r ee to f our young
are bor n each s ummer .
OTTE RS are l arge, aquati c weasel s. Two ki nds l i ve i n
North Ameri ca-the Sea an d the Ri ver Otters.
Sea Otter i s l ar ger, more val uabl e, more i nteresti ng.
Adapted for mari ne l i fe, i t has webbed h i nd feet and
soft, heavy fu r, s ai d t o be the worl d' s best. Sea Otters
l i ve al ong r ocky Paci fc shores, Cal i for ni a to Al as ka,
feedi ng on s ea ur chi ns, cl ams, and fs h. Rarel y goi ng on
l and, t hey r est foati n g on t he back, fr ont paws fol ded
on the chest. Once fai r l y common, t hey wer e h unted ti l l
nearl y exti nct. Now protected, they are ret urni ng to i so­
l ated bays. Length: 5 ft.
River Otter, much more com­
mon and wi des pr ead, has the
r eputati on of bei ng a f un- l ov­
i n g an i mal . Otters chase one
anot her , wr estl e, tu mbl e, and
s l i de down muddy stream
banks . They are excel l ent
swi mmer s. Otters l ive on smal l
fsh, but al so eat mus krats,
s mal l mammal s , s nai l s , cray­
fsh, i nsects, frogs, snakes, and
s ome bi r ds . A den i s made i n
t he stream ban k or i n t he base
of a h ol l ow t r ee. Here the fe­
mal e has two or t hr ee pu ps i n
l ate spri ng. The young grow
sl owl y and stay wi th her for
nearl y a year. Duri ng that ti me,
t he mot her t eaches t hem to
swi m and hunt. The young pl ay
together or wi t h thei r mot her .
Otters tr avel by wat er but wi l l
move over l and i f necessary.
Thei r fur i s war m, remarkabl y
t hi ck, and ver y durabl e, rati ng
much hi gher t han mi nk. The
you ng make fne pets .
I
STRI PED SKUNK, wi th i ts two whi te stri pes down the
back, i s a source of endl ess j okes because i t squ i rts a
s mel l y fui d from scent gl ands under i ts tai l . However,
i t gi ves fai r war ni ng before squi rti ng, by stampi ng fore­
feet, h i ssi n g, and rai s i ng i ts hai r . Thi s common s kunk
l i ves on forest borders, fence rows, and open meadows.
I t h u nts at ni ght for mi ce, rats, chi pmunks, and al l ki nds
Scent gl and
of i nsects . The young, three
,
••
³ª

to ei ght, a re bor n bl i n d i n
a bu r r ow. They g row r ap­
i dl y. I f d e- s c ent ed, t he
young make excel l ent pets .
Length: to 40 i n.
48
SPOTTED S KUNK, pl ayfu l and ni mbl e, has ver y soft
fur . It is the s mal l est North Ameri can s ku n k, but i ts scent
i s as strong as that of l arger speci es. Al s o cal l ed Ci vet
Cat, i t l i ves i n waste pl aces, i n br us h, a n d u n der farm
bui l di ngs . Li ke other sku nks i t hunts at ni ght, feedi ng on
i nsects, smal l rodents, l i zards, snakes, and frui ts . Spotted
Sk u n ks may war n enemi es wi th a uni que handstand­
back er ect and tai l wavi ng. The t i ny
young ( u s u al l y fou r to a l i tter) are
bor n i n ear l y s pri ng. Wi thi n fve
mont hs t hey are as bi g as thei r
parent s. Length: to 22 i n . ; femal es
s l i ghtl y s mal l er .
49

HOG-NOSED SKUNKS have a naked, hog- l i ke snout
and a br oad whi te band from the top of the head over
the enti re back to the wh ite tai l . They grow to about 28
i n . Found onl y i n t he Sout hwest, these unus ual s ku nks
h ave c ome north from Mexi co an d Cent r al a nd South
Ameri ca, where they are more common. They di g u p l .ar­
vae, gr u bs , ot h er i n s ect s, a nd
wor ms; bi r ds , eggs , an d ber r i es
are al so eaten. Hog- nosed Skunks
have s mal l l i tters. They are l ess
common than other s kun ks; fur,
shorter and coarser; cl aws, heavi er
and l onger.
AMERI CAN BADGER i s a ferce, powerfu l fghter wi th
few enemi es, except the l argest carni vores . I t can hol d
i t s own agai nst a pack of dogs. Note the heavy body;
short, bushy tai l ; whi te stri pe and patches on face; and
l ong cl aws on forefeet. Badgers burrow and tunnel after
s mal l rodents . Someti mes they eat s nakes, bi rds , and
bi r ds' eggs. The femal e bui l ds her-
sel f a nest of grass at t he end of a
deep burrow. Here a l i tter of th ree
to fou r young are born duri ng May
or Ju ne. By fal l the you ng are abl e
to care for themsel ves. Length: over
2 ft. , weight: to 20 l b.
Badger burrow
52
THE FOX OR DOG FAMI LY compri ses wi despread,
f ami l i ar car n i vores, found the wor l d over. Mos t ar e
medi u m- si zed, acti ve, gregar i ous ani mal s, best de­
scr i bed as " dog- l i ke. " Di ferent speci es are si mi l ar i n
gener al appear ance and have not c hanged mar kedl y
th rough t he ages . Fossi l s of 30-mi l l i on-year-ol d "dogs"
i ndi cate they were very much l i ke those of today. Dogs
h ave fve toes on t he front feet and us ual l y fou r on the
rear. Cats can retract thei r cl awsi dogs cannot. Some of
these Aesh eater s al so eat f r ui t and berri es. Amer i can
s peci es i ncl ude foxes, coyotes, and wol ves.
Cynodi ctis, dog-l i ke mammal of 40 mi l l i on years ago
KIT FOXES, s mal l , wi t h bi g ears, ar e t he pi g mi es of
the fox gr oup. They rarel y grow as much as a yard l ong,
i ncl udi ng a foot of bushy tai l . When pu r sued, they run
i ncredi bl y fast. Ki t Foxes are found i n ar i d, open coun­
try. The Great Pl ai ns s peci es, known as t he Swi ft, has
been exter mi nat ed . Ki t Foxes feed l ar gel y on desert
rodents , al s o i nsects, l i zar ds, and
bi rds . When possi bl e, thi s Fox car­
r i es pr ey to i t s den . Here fou r or
fve you n g are born i n earl y spr i ng.
Both father and mot her hel p i n
r ai si n g t he fami l y.
53
RED and GRAY FOXES l i ve over most
.
of t he Un i ted
States . The Red Fox s preads north i nto Canada and
Al as ka: Gr ay Foxes prefer warmer regi ons . The Gray
Fox (length: 32 to 40 i n. ) i s sl i ghtl y s mal l er than the Red
(l ength: 36 to 40 i n . ) . Arcti c Foxes devel op whi te f ur i n
wi nter, but t he fu r of Red and Gr ay Foxes re mai ns un­
changed. Both foxes feed on rodents, other s mal l mam­
mal s, car r i on, poul try, and occasi onal l y frui t and berri es.
Both prefer open forest and brus hl and where t here i s
cover for hu nti ng.




1. Red Fox
In the West, Gray Foxes prefer open country. They
occasi onal l y cl i mb trees. Foxes bui l d dens i n sandy banks.
Here about fve young are born i n l ate s pri ng. Bot h par­
ents care for the young and teach them to hunt. By wi n­
ter t he young are ready to care for
themsel ves. The Red Fox has sev­
er al attracti ve col or for ms: Cross,
Si l ver, an d Bl ack. Al l col or phases
may occ u r i n one l i tt er . Foxes are
r ai sed on f ar ms for t hei r fur .


2. Gray Fox


� � �
��



56
COYOTE l ooks l i ke an u nderfed pol i ce dog. Despi te
eforts to exter mi nate them, Coyotes are spreadi ng and
i n s ome pl aces i ncreas i ng i n n u mber s. Thei r howl i ng i s
st i l l a fami l i ar sound on western prai ri es. Coyotes are
i ntel l i gent ani mal s . They eat nearl y everythi ng: carri on,
••
••••

rodents, rabbi ts, some i n­
sects, game, pou l try, and
frui t. The young, born i n
Apri l , i n dens or s hal l ow
burrows, stay wi th parents
ti l l fal l . Length: to 3 ft.
WOLVES were once common i n al l but the
dri est parts of thi s country. They hunted
deer, el k, rabbi ts, and even smal l er mam­
mal s. As far ms were opened, they found
settl er s ' cattl e and sheep an easy
banquet. Gr ay or Ti mber Wol f,
now more abundant i n Canada and
Al as ka, gr ows 5 to 6 ft . l ong, al ­
most 30 i n. h i gh at t he s houl der,
and wei ghs 80 to 1 50 l b. The Red
Wol f of the South i s s mal l er .
Gray Wol f
Saber-toothed Cat Lynx
THE CAT FAMI LY i ncl udes l arge and s mal l s peci es, but
al l have a few common characteri sti cs-short faces,
bl ackened, rough tongue, sharp cutti ng teeth, and pad­
ded feet wi th retracti ng cl aws. Thi s fami l y, l i ke the pre­
cedi ng, was once wi del y di str i buted. Now a l l s peci es,
an d especi al l y the l ar ger cats, are reduced i n n u mber
and i n range. The common domesti c cat, a descendant
of a Li byan cat tamed by Egypti ans
centu r i es ago, now may r u n wi l d
mi l es from habi tati ons . l i ke i ts
wi l der rel ati ves, i t feeds on rodents,
other s mal l mammal s, and bi rds.
MOUNTAI N LI ONS, known al so as cougars , pu mas,
or panthers, are, next to j aguars, the l argest Ameri can
cats . They have smal l heads, l ong bodi es and tai l s. Col or
vari es from l i ght tan to a tawny brown . Now very r are,
these l i the beasts l eap on prey from trees or rocky
l edges. They ki l l deer, smal l er mammal s and someti mes
cattl e, but nor mal l y fear and avoi d
man . li tters of two to fve, born i n
l ate wi nter or earl y spri ng, stay wi th
the mother two year s. Length: to 8


ft. ; weight: 200 l b.
º*
.
o
F-
=
• •

=
59
LYNX is a handsome, stub-tai l ed cat wi th thi ck, soft fur.
I t i s l arger and pal er than the Bobcat, to whi ch i t i s
cl osel y rel ated, wi t h l onger ear tufts and l egs . I ts name
comes from the Greek and refers to i ts shar p eyesi ght or
bri ght eyes . A shy ni ght prowl er of norther n woods and
mountai ns , i t preys on smal l mammal s, parti cu l arl y
S nowshoe Rabbi ts, and on bi r ds,
s nakes, and fowl . I ts l arge feet en­
a bl e i t to wal k on the s n ow when
other ani mal s woul d s i nk. Young
( one t o four ) are born i n l ate spr i ng
i n a r ock den or hol l ow tree. Length:
to 3 ft.
BOBCAT, a pt l y cal l ed Wi l dcat, i s a s mal l , fearl ess
h unter that may attack an i mal s many t i mes i ts s i ze. I t
us ual l y feeds on rabbi ts, gr ound squ i r r el s, mi ce, and
birds . The Bobcat prefers hunt i ng on the ground, al ­
though i t can cl i mb trees. I t usual l y hunts wi thi n t he same
a rea of 4 t o 5 sq . mi . of forest, or semi -ar i d tabl el ands.
I t dens i n hol l ow trees or ot her protected pl aces . Note
the bobbed tai l . Thi s wary ani mal i s rarel y seen. Two to
fou r you n g a re bor n i n l ate spr i ng
a nd st ay wi t h t hei r mot her ti l l fal l .
By t he ti me they are ready t o l eave,
they can h u nt . Length: to 3 ft. ;
weight: to 25 l b.
61
JAGUARS, whi ch l ook l i ke Ol d Worl d l eopards , i n­
cl ude t he l argest and most powerful Amer i can cat s. The
South Ameri can ki nds ar e t he l ar gest. Jagu ars prefer
dens e t hi ckets but can l i ve i n deserts as wel l as i n wet
j u n gl e. Jagu ars attack l arge and s mal l mammal s and
have no enemi es but man. The young ( two to four) , born
i n l ate spri ng, are more spotted than
the adu l t s. They r equ i re two years
to mat u re, stayi ng wi th t he mother
nearl y al l that ti me. Length: to 7 ft . ;
weight: t o 250 l b. Femal es smal l er.
AOUAI1C CAkN1VOkE5
SEALS and SEA LI ONS, together wi th Wal ruses, make
up the three fami l i es of aquati c carni vores. Al l are grace­
ful , powerful swi mmers that feed on fsh and other mar i ne
l i fe. Thei r l egs are modi fed i nto fi ppers; t hei r bodi es are
strea ml i n ed. On l an d, wh er e seal s c ome to rest a nd
r ai se t hei r young, tbey are sl ow and c l umsy. The herds,
depl eted after years of uncontrol l ed seal i ng, are now i n­
creasi ng. But several speci es, l i ke the El ephant Seal , ar e
sti l l rare and may never stage a comeback. The F ur
Seal s of t he Pr i bi l of I s l ands , once near l y exter mi nated,
now n u mber near l y 4 mi l l i on, wi th a potent i al fur val ue
of $ 1 00, 000, 000.
63
64
SEA LI ONS and t hei r rel ati ves, the Fur Seal s, have
ears. Other s eal s ar e ear l ess. The N9r t her n Sea li on i s
a h u ge beast wei gh i n g up to 1 , 700 l b. The Cal i f or ni a
Sea li on i s s mal l er ( wei ght: to 600 l b. , l ength: to 8 ft. )
and l i ves farther sout h. Mal es ar e much l arger t han fe­
mal es, whi ch have onl y a si ngl e pup at a ti me. Someti mes
both speci es are seen together, feedi ng on fs h and
s qu i d. F emal es of t he s mal l er spe-
· - -
-
- - · -
-
-·-- - �

ci es may be capt ur ed
you n g and
� trai ned for ci r cus work, because of
t hei r i ntel l i gence an d fn e sense of
¯ - ..
bal an c e. Al l ci r cus s eal s ar e Cal i -
forni a Sea li ons .
.
HARBOR SEALS are s mal l and remai n cl ose to l and,
near har bors, bays, and mouths of ri ver s. Unl i ke other
seal s, Har bor Seal s frequentl y come ashore t o rest and
s l eep. They hunt al one, feedi ng on fsh and cr ustaceans,
but c ong r egate i n her ds on l an d. Thei r enemi es are
s har ks, ki l l er whal es, and man. Each fal l , t hes e seal s
g row a new coat of coar se, s potted h ai r, var yi ng i n
col or f r om yel l owi s h gray to near­
bl ac k . The s i n gl e you n g or pu p i s
bor n whi t e but s oon s heds and
g rows a s potted coat . I t has t o be
t aught to swi m and to catch fsh .
Length: about 5 ft . ; weight: 1 50 l b.



65
¡. Beaver, 30 i n.
2. Fi el d Mouse, 6 i n.
Reproducti on potenti al
of a pai r of fel d mi ce
NUM .. I
OF
fllLD
MI CE
ZÜÛ•

RODENTS, the l argest order of
mammal s , are the most s uccessful
and most wi despread group. Ro­
dents are to be found on every con­
ti nent and al l oceani c i s l ands, from
the arcti c to the tropi cs, bel ow sea
l evel to above ti mber l i ne. They
great l y outn u mber h u man bei ngs .
Those s peci es that travel wi t h man
q ui ckl y t ake over new domai ns.
Over 1 , 600 ki nds ( s u bspeci es) of
rodents are found in North Ameri ca.
Rodents are general l y smal l ; mosl
are l es s t han a foot l on g a n d wel l
under a pound i n wei ght. The few
excepti ons i nc l ude beaver s, whi ch
may wei gh 50 to 60 l b. Character­
i sti c of rodents are fou r promi nent,
yel l ow or orange i nci sor teeth .
These conti nue to grow duri ng the
enti re l i feti me of t he an i mal . As
these wear, the har d enamel on
thei r s urface forms a s harp, chi sel ­
l i ke edge. After these teeth comes
a di sti nct gap i n the j aw before the
chewi ng teet h, whi ch never total
mor e t han 1 8. The food of rodents
is mai nl y vegetabl e; s ome speci es
eat i nsects and other ani mal food.
Nort h Amer i can r odents ft i nto
1 3 fami l i es ( 9 in U. S. ) . Our l argest
fami l i es are the s qui r r el s , mai nl y
acti ve by day, and the New Worl d
mous e fa mi l y, whi ch i n cl u des vari -
Paramys ( pri mi ti ve rodent )
ous New Worl d rats ( pp. 95- 1 0 1 } . Some rodents dwel l
underground; some i n trees; some are semi -aquati c. Not
al l rodents are harmful ; most have l i ttl e economi c efect.
Mus krat, n utri a, and beaver have val u abl e furs . Many
rodents provi de f ood f or meat-eati ng mammal s . Onl y
a few nati ve rats, mi ce, and gophers c ause damage.
Thos e t hat do ar e t he more dangerous beca us e they
mature rapi dl y and breed frequentl y. An acre of l and
may have 1 0 t o 300 Meadow Mi ce; t he record i s nearl y
1 0, 000 per acre. Drasti c ri ses and fal l s of rodent popu­
l ati on may occur. I ntroduced Ol d Worl d house mi ce,
Norway Rats, and Roof Rats ar e destructi ve.
67
68
TREE
DWELLERS
THE SQUI RREL FAMI LY is a l arge and di verse gr oup
i ncl udi ng gr ound as wel l as t r ee speci es, and some spe­
ci es-such as woodchucks-whi ch do not l ook l i ke squi r­
r el s at al l . Despi te these di fer ences, al l s qui r r el s have
b us hy or at l east fur r y tai l s an d fai r l y r ounded heads .
Some members of t hi s gr oup are eaten. Squ i rrel stew
was a standard di sh, and woodchucks, too, have graced
tabl es. Near l y al l terrestr i al squi rrel s have a l ong wi nter
s l eep-hi ber nati on. Young s qui rr el s, es peci al l y fyi ng
s qui r r el s, make good pets, easy t o feed and keep.
WOODCHUCKS hi bernate i n deep bur rows from earl y
October to Febr uary. When they emerge, t hei r shadows
do not foretel l the weather, despi te the s upersti ti on. Ti l l
gardens and wi l d pl ants are up, woodch ucks have a
har d ti me getti n g en ou gh food. Two to s i x you n g are
bor n i n Apr i l . Thei r eyes open fou r weeks l at er . By fal l
they are near l y fu l l grown, i f they have escaped hunters,
hawks, foxes, and coyotes. Length:
to 2 ft. ; weight: to 1 2 l b. F emal es
s i mi l ar to mal es, but smal l er .
- - - - -

-
�·
� �

-

•¯ �

· "
� •• � ..
69
70
¡. Hoary Marmot
MARMOTS are western rel ati ves of woodch ucks and
bel ong to t he same genus . Hoary Mar mots ar e fou nd
from the Paci fc Nor t hwest up t hr ou gh Al as ka. Thei r
shri l l , whi stl i ng cal l i s common i n mou ntai ns, where they
l i ve under l oose rocks. Length: 25 to 30 i n . The Yel l ow­
bel l i ed Mar mot is a s mal l er, soci al
an i mal of l ower s l opes of western
mpuntai ns . Yel l owi sh fur on the ab­
domen accounts for i ts name. Mar­
mots are food for coyotes, foxes,
wol ves, and bobcats.
THI RTEEN- LI NED GROUND SQUI RREL, wi del y di s­
tri buted on pr ai r i e and pl ai n, i s 8 to 1 2 i n. l ong. These
" goph er s" d a mage some cr ops but al so eat i ns ects,
mi ce, and s mal l bi r ds . They, i n turn, ar e food for car ni ­
vores, hawks , and s nakes. After a s u mmer of feedi ng,
t hey hi ber nate i n a grass- l i ned chamber at t he end of a
l ong tu n nel . Here t he s i x to ten __
/
you ng are born about a month after · · · ·· · · "-· _
s pri n g mati n g. They l eave t he nest
when si x weeks ol d. Gr ound squi r-
r el s are g radual l y extendi ng t hei r
·
` ~ .
r ange eastward.
2. Townsend Ground Squi rrel
1 . Ri chardson Ground Squi rrel
¯2
GROUND SQUI RRELS ar e stri ped or spotted bu r row­
i ng rodents of several cl osel y rel ated groups. Typi cal ar e:
Ri chardson Ground Squi rrel i s grayi sh br own, me­
di um- si zed, 1 0 i n. l ong, wi th ver y smal l ears and a short
( 2 to 4 i n. ) tai l , whi ch i s bordered by whi te or l i ght gr ay.
They l i ve i n col oni es i n meadows and sagebr us h.
Townsend Gr ound Squi rrel i s a s mal l ( 5 t o 7 i n. ) ,
grayi sh ani mal wi th a short tai l . Li ves i n dry s agebr us h
val l eys. Young: seven t o ten i n a l i tter.
Frankl i n Ground Squi rrel ( toto/ length: 1 4 to 1 6 i n . )
i s l arger and mor e gray t han other pl ai ns " gopher s. " I t
i n h abi ts pr ai r i es , past ur es, pl anted fel ds . Di et: g rass,
soft pl ants, and seeds; some i nsects and s mal l mammal s .
Spotted Ground Squi rrel i s a pal e, s potted s peci es,
about 9 i n . l on g. Li ves i n s andy soi l , near r ocks, never
strayi ng far from i ts bu rrow. Its cal l is a bi rd-l i ke whi stl e.
Antel ope Ground Squi rrel of t he Sout hwest r uns
wi t h i t s tai l cur l ed over i t s back. Common i n desert areas,
they feed mai nl y on seeds.
74
GOLDEN-MANTLED GROUND SQUI RREL, a hand­
some rodent, i s more c hi pmunk- l i ke t han i ts rel ati ves,
but has a heavi er bui l d and l acks the stri pes whi ch chi p­
munks have on the si de of the face. The Gol den- mantl ed
Gr ou n d Squi r rel i s eas i l y seen i n wester n pi ne forests,
among rocks and fal l en ti mber. I ts reddi sh head and the
whi te stri pe wi th bl ack borders on each si de of i ts back
are conspi cuous. li ke other ground
squi rrel s, i t di gs bur rows for shel ter,
for rai si ng i ts three to seven young,
and f or hi bernati ng i n wi nter . Food:
seeds, especi al l y pi ne, and frui t.
Length: 10 to1 1 i n.
ROCK GROUND SQUI RRELS, found i n the Southwest,
a re ou r l ar gest t er r estr i al s qui r r el s . Rock Squ i rr el s re­
s embl e tree s qui r r el s i n appear ance, wi th l ong, bus hy
tai l s . They i n h abi t rocky pl aces, f r om deserts t o moun­
tai n tops, nesti ng and hi bernati ng under stones . Al ­
though they often perch on some boul der or vantage
poi nt, thei r dul l gray col or makes t hem har d t o s ee. Nuts ,
seeds, grasses, and gr ai ns are pre­
fer r ed foods, t hough s ome i nsects
are eaten occasi onal l y. The Cal i ­
for ni a Ground Squi rrel i s s i mi l ar i A
appear ance and habi ts . Length: 1 7
to 2 1 i n.
75
PRAI RI E DOGS are cl osel y rel ated to the ground squi r­
r el s ( pp. 7 1 -75) . They are soci al ani mal s l i vi ng i n l arge
col oni es or "towns" marked by l ow mounds of bare di rt
an d s and whi ch have been excavated fr om t hei r bur­
r ows. Al ert tr avel ers c an see t hes e r odents s i tti n g up­
ri ght on t hei r mounds watc hi ng for danger . If a hawk,
coyote, or even a touri st approaches, they gi ve a qui ck,
s hri l l war ni ng whi stl e and di sappear . Prai ri e Dogs feed
mai n l y on gr ass an d ot her gr een vegetati on . The two
groups ( Whi te-tai l ed and Bl ack-tai l ed) both have heavy-
White-tai l ed Prai ri e Dog
set bodi es, r ounded heads, and coar se f ur . L ength: 1 4
to 1 7 i n . Femal es s l i ghtl y s mal l er t han mal es, but other­
wi se s i mi l ar . They have fou r to s i x you n g i n s pri n g. The
Bl ack-tai l ed Prai r i e Dog, t he mor e common s peci es, i s
seen i n t he l ower pr ai r i es. I t i s rusty yel l ow wi th a bl ack­
t i pped tai l . The Whi te-tai l ed Pr ai r i e
Dog i s s l i ghtl y smal l er, wi th a whi te­
ti pped tai l . It prefers hi gher mesas
and mount ai ns and does not make
cons pi cuous mounds.
Bl ack-tai l ed Prai ri e Dog
EASTERN CHI PMUNKS are abundant i n woodl ands.
They sca mper from l og t o l og, nervous and al ert. They
eat n uts, seeds, fr ui t , and-now an d t hen-an i nsect.
Eastern Chi pmunks are gr ound-l ovi ng, t hough they may
c l i mb i nto shr ubs and l ower br anches of trees. They di g
l ong, shal l ow bur rows, whi ch i ncl ude a nesti ng chamber.
Three to fve young are born about 30 days after mati ng


a n d l eave t he nest a mont h l ater.
Adult length: 9 to 1 0 i n . ; fe mal es
s i mi l ar to mal es . Voi ce i s a l ow­
pi tched "chuck" often heard before
the chi pmunk i s seen. When caught
young, they make good pets.
78
LEAST CHI PMUNK i s a s mal l ( length: 6 to 9
i n . ) , vari abl e western s peci es, the most wi del y
di stri buted of t he chi pmu n ks . Al l t he dozen or
more s u bspeci es have stri pes extendi ng t o the
bas e of t he t ai l . Col or vari es from du l l yel l ow
to gray brown. The eastern forms have ri cher­
col ored stri pes. least Chi p­
mu n ks r u n wi t h t ai l u p­
ri g ht, prefer more open
country than Eastern Chi p­
mu n ks; l i ke t hem, tame
and make good pets .
CHI PMUNKS al l have stri ped
backs and cheeks. Most are cur i ­
ous and fri endl y, and can be en­
ti c ed to t ake a n ut or gr ai n of
corn fr o m the h a n d . Thei r eco­
nomi c val ue i s l i mi ted, but forests
wou l d n ot be t he s ame wi t hout
t hem. Of about 65 f or ms, those
bel ow and on pp. 78 - 79 are
common and representati ve.
Townsend Chi pmunk ( 9 to 1 1
i n . ) , l arge, general l y dark, has
bl ack stri pes i n i t s g ray fur .
Commonest i n northwestern for­
ests and hi gh Si er r as.
Cl i ff Chi pmunk l i ves at l ower al ti tudes, preferri ng
pi ion pi ne mesas. Stri pes are i ndi sti nct except f or a
bl ack one down t he mi ddl e of the back. Col or grayi sh .
Yel l ow- pi ne Chi pmunk, of hi gher al t i t udes i n west­
ern forests, i s brown, wi th di sti nct bl ack-and-whi te stri pes,
i ncl udi ng a bl ack stri pe t hrough the eye. Feeds on pi ne
seeds and s eeds of Mountai n Mahogany.
Col orado Chi pmunk i s a western speci es, preferri ng
h i gher mountai ns . ( Length: 8 to 1 0 i n. ; weight: 2 to 2V2
oz. ) Typi cal c hi pmu n k col or wi t h grayi sh- br own si des,
tai l dar ker and ti pped wi th bl ack. Most common i n the
Yel l ow Pi ne forests. Cl osel y r el at ed to Umbr ous Chi p­
munk.
Col orado
Chi pmunk
8 1
RED SQUI RRELS ( or Spruce or Pi ne Squi rrel s) , ar e our
s mal l est tree s qui rrel s . They i n habi t coni ferous forests ,
fl l i ng them wi th noi sy chatter. Summer col or i s dul l er ,
wi th a bl ack l i ne al ong the si des. Wi nter f ur i s br i ghter,
a nd di sti nct ear tufts devel op; no other eastern s qui rrel
has them. Red Squi rrel s eat seeds, nuts, fr ui t, cones, i n­
s ects , mus hrooms, occasi onal l y eggs . They bui l d a nest
of l eaves i n a tree hol e or an empty woodpecker nest.
Three to si x young, born i n spr i ng, are mature by fal l .
Length: 1 1 to 1 4 i n .

f
CHI CKAREES or DOUGLAS SQUI RRELS are agi l e
tree-dwel l ers, found i n the tal l pi nes and spr uces of the
North west. I n feedi ng they gnaw t he stems of green
cones ti l l the cones drop to the ground. Then they cl i mb
down t o harvest. The seeds ar e dug f r om t he cones or , i f
t he sq u i r r el has f ed, th e cones are h i dden a way. The
Chi ckaree, resembl i ng the eastern Red Squi rr el , has the
same l oud, chatteri ng cal l . The un­
derparts are reddi s h brown; the
u pper parts are r usty i n wi nter,
ol i ve br own i n s u mmer , at whi ch
ti me t her e i s al s o a bl ack l i ne on
t he si des. li tters of about fve are
bor n i n June. You n g can care for
themsel ves by fal l .
� �´

84
1 . Eastern
GRAY SQUI RRELS, so often seen in parks, are found
throu ghout t he Eas t and i n t he far West. The Western
Gray Squi rrel i s l arger but otherwi se s i mi l ar . No other
tree squi r rel s are l arge and gray. Gray and other tree
s qui rr el s do not hi bernate as gr ound squi rrel s do. An
��� �
ona
Eastern
î
al l - bl ack form of the Eastern Gray
Squi r r el may be seen i n par ks . A
bul ky nest i s bui l t i n forks of trees
or i n a h ol l ow t r u n k. F our t o s 1 x
young are born i n each l i tter .
2. Western Gray Squi rrel Bl ack phase of
Eastern Gray Squi rrel
¡ . North of Grand Canyon
TUFT - EARED or ABERT SQUI RRELS, l ar ger than
Gr ay Squi r rel s ( length: 1 9 t o 2 1 i n . ) , ar e confned to
Yel l ow Pi ne forests of the Southwest. Al l have tufts on
ears, wi t h tufts mor e promi nent i n wi nter . These are our
mos t attracti ve s qui r rel s . On t he north s i de of Gr and
Canyon l i ves an i sol ated gr oup of
t hese s qui rrel s . These ar e t he Kai ­
bab Squ i r r el s , wi th the t ai l c om­
pl etel y whi te. South of t he Canyon,
tai l s are bl acki sh or gray above.
2. South of Grand Canyon

��
b
. .. Juft-eored

¯ ¯ ¯ ¨"" "° ª M -.
-.
FOX SQUI RRELS are the l argest of the tree squi r­
rel group ( length: 1 9 to 25 i n. ) . They l i ve on forest
borders, feedi ng on acorns, fru i t, seeds, and corn.
Fox Squi r r el s vary in col or . They are commonl y a
buf col or wi th gray on the si des . Some are al most
enti rel y gray. Occasi onal l y, these squi rrel s are
near l y bl ack except for whi t.e spots on t he head.
The nests , l ar ge and bu l ky, are bui l t i n t r ee forks
or i n tree cavi ti es. Usual l y two l i tters of two to fve
young are born each year .
FLYI NG SQUI RRELS are smal l , drab- brown
a bove, wh i te bel ow, wi th a l oose fol d of s ki n ex­
tendi ng from the front to rear l egs . They do not
fy, but gl i de by extendi ng thei r l i mbs and stretch­
i ng the membrane between . Fl yi ng Squi r r el s, i n
contrast t o others, are al most enti rel y nocturnal .
Thei r di et i nc l udes ani mal matter, n uts, and frui t.
Fur i s soft and s i l ky; eyes are l arge. The l arger
Nor t her n an d s mal l er Sout her n speci es make i n­
teresti ng pets i n spi te of thei r noctur nal habi ts .
8 8
I ncisors wi thout grooves, short cl aws, i n ¡. Western Pocket Gopher
POCKET GOPHERS ar burrowi ng rodents wi th s hort,
naked tai l s and fu r-l i ned cheek pouches for carryi ng
food. Wi th thei r powerfu l , cl awed front l egs they di g
t unnel s, whi ch t hey sel dom or never l eave. I f the burrow
i s extended to t he s urface, s mal l mounds of di rt are
t hrown u p. Food i s roots and stems . Gopher s ( about
260 vari eti es) are of three maj or groups ( genera):
��  Pi al "', a"d Pl ateau . leogth• 7 t o 1 3 ; ,.
´�
Pl at
1 . Pal l i d Kangaroo Mouse
KANGAROO MI CE are found mai nl y i n Nevada. They
are good j u mpers and l ook l i ke mi ni at ur e Kangaroo Rats
( pp. 92-93) . Thei r unus ual tai l i s t hi cker i n t he mi ddl e
t han at ei t her end. Hi nd feet are l ong and hai ry. Both
Pal l i
d
and Dar k speci es are ani mal s of hot ar i d regi ons,
where they feed on seeds of desert pl ants. Noct ur nal
i n habi t, t hey di g burrows under sage, r abbi t br ush, or
other s hr u bs . Thei r s hal l ow bu r r ows ar e cl os ed fr om
wi thi n dur i ng the dayti me. I denti fcati on i s di fcul t,
si nce Kangaroo Mi ce may be easi l y confused wi th
Pocket Mi ce.
2. Dark Kangaroo Mouse
\ . Hispid
Pocket
Mouse
POCKET MI CE are al l s mal l rodents ( length: J '/ to 6
i n . | . The 20 or more speci es have s mal l ears, an d t ai l s
t hat oft en end i n hai ry t ufts . Pocket Mi c e vary i n col or
from whi t i sh to bl ack, t hough most ar e grayi s h br own .
li ke t hei r rel ati ves, the Kangaroo Mi ce and Rats, Pocket
Mi ce have exter nal , fur- l i ned cheek pouches openi ng on
ei ther si de of t hei r s mal l mouths. These western ani mal s
prefer ar i d r egi ons . Bur rows are dug f or s hel t er and
r ai si ng young . The bu rrow openi ng i s often pl ugged u p
, wi th earth dur i ng the day. Si l ky Pocket Mi ce are among
90
our s mal l est mammal s . Some
Pocket Mi ce l i ve i n s and, others
among rocks or br ush. Al l are poor
j u mper s . Poc ket Mi ce get enough
water from t he dry seeds and pl ant
matter t hey eat and so are abl e to
get al ong for months wi thout dr i nk­
i ng. They are doci l e i n capti vi ty,
maki ng i nteresti ng, easy-to-care­
for pets .
3. Rock Pocket Mouse
o·��· �
Bas1 n �
Rock
Ý2





Meram

relati ves
i l e
KANGAROO RATS are
uni que rodents wi th l ong,
over-devel oped hi nd l i mbs
a n d s h ort er, l e s s d evel ­
oped forel i mbs. They move
r api dl y wi t h l ong, kan ga­
r oo- l i ke l ea ps , keepi ng
t hei r fr o nt l e g s of f t he
ground. Thei r l arge heads,
l on g t uf t ed t ai l s , whi te
fank stri pes, whi te on the
si des of t he tai l , and whi te
bel l y are di sti ncti ve mark­
i ngs t hat make Kangaroo
Rats eas y to r ecogn i ze.
Most speci es are fou n d i n
2. Banner-tai l ed Kangaroo Rat
¡.

the Southwest; al l i nhabi t ry regi ons, l i vi ng i n burrows
du g i nto the soi l . They are noctur nal , feed mai nl y on
seeds and dry vegetati on, and are preyed upon by car­
ni vores, owl s, and snakes. li ke the Pocket Mi ce, Kanga­
roo Rats can get al ong wi th ver y l i ttl e water. li tters of
t wo t o fou r young ar e born dur i ng spri ng and s u mmer .
Of 1 6 or more s peci es, typi cal are: Merri am, Desert,
and Banner-tai l ed Kangaroo Rats,
wi t h fou r toes on each hi nd foot;
Or d, wi th fve.
94
BEAVERS d a m streams wi t h sti c ks an d mu d to f or m
ponds ar ound t hei r bi g, one-room houses wi t h u nder­
water entrances. At ni ght they gnaw down trees and
foat branches through canal s to the ponds. Beavers eat
the fresh i nner bar k and al so water pl ants, and store
branches underwater for wi nter food. They mate for l i fe.
The young ( two to si x) are born i n spri ng. Beaver pel ts
are val uabl e; thei r dams are i mportant i n food control .
GRASSHOPPER MI CE, as thei r name i ndi cates, feed
mai nl y on grasshoppers and other i nsects-an unus ual
di et f or rodents. They are fat-bodi ed, wi t h thi ck, taper-
i n g, whi te-ti pped t ai l s, whi ch are � �
s hort i n t he nort her n s peci es and
����
over h al f t he body l e n gt h i n t he

s out her n s peci es . These mi ce re-
portedl y make doci l e pets, whi ch
 
cl ear the house of i nsect pests.
Harvest Mouse
��
stern
. . -
E
HARVEST MI CE, br owni s h wi t h gr ayi sh­
brown undersi des and gray l egs, are smal l
( length: 4 t o 6 i n . ) , House-Mouse si ze, but
wi t h gr ooved u pper i n ci s or s . They i n ha bi t
t he Sout h and war mer parts of the West.
They bui l d a bal l -l i ke nest of grass in mead­
ows, on the gr ound, or sl i g htl y above i t,
a n d r ai s e sever al l i tters a year . Western
Harvest Mouse occurs i n ar i d regi ons. East­
ern Harvest Mouse is found i n damp mead­
ows and t hi ckets. Harvest Mi ce are al l seed
eaters and are l ess common than Deer Mi ce.
2. Eastern Harvest Mouse
CACTUS and GOLDEN MI CE are
c l ose r el ati ves of t he Deer Mouse
( p. 98) . The Cactus Mouse is smal l
( 7 to 8 i n . ) and i s mor e t han hal f
tai l . It prefers the hot deserts, where
cacti abound. The Gol den Mouse of
the Sout he

st di fers in col or. I t is a
r i ch gol den br own wi t h a whi te
bel l y-the onl y mouse of t hi s group
so col ored. I ts habi ts ar e u n us ual
al so. I t i s a tree- and shr ub-dwel l i ng
speci es, feedi ng on seeds and frui t,
bui l di ng i ts r ound, compact nest of
grass an d l eaves as h i gh as 1 5 ft.
a bove t h e grou n d. Sever al mi ce
may i n h abi t one nest.
2. Cactus Mouse
� • • •

• • • •

•• • • �
97
WHI TE- FOOTED and DEER MI CE represent a wi de­
s pread group of s mal l to medi um- si zed, whi te-footed,
whi te-bel l i ed mi ce. Most are browni sh or browni sh gray.
The Whi te-footed Mouse i s a more eastern s peci es of
open woodl ands and scrubby hi l l si des. Deer Mi ce have
a wi der range, l i vi ng i n open areas and i n woods. These
mi ce eat s eeds , pl ants, i n s ects .
Nests ar e ben eat h r ocks a nd
l ogs, i n bur rows, or i n trees .
RI CE RATS are l ar ger edi t i ons of Whi te-footed Mi ce,
but l ook l i ke young rats . They have whi ti s h feet, grayi sh
bel l i es, and l ong tai l s, whi ch ar e l i ghter i n col or under­
neath . They l i ve and nest i n sal t- an d fr esh- water
marshes, feedi ng on a vari ety of pl ants. Thei r l i ki ng of
ri ce pl ants has ear ned t hem t hei r
name. They are excel l ent swi mmers.
Ri ce rats are common but noctur nal .
Two to fve you n g ar e bor n i r a
gr ass nest and can care for them­
sel ves when l ess than two weeks ol d.
99
WOODRATS l ook qui te l i ke Norway Rats ( p. 1 1 2) ,
but these nat i ve s peci es have a more hai ry tai l ; t he feet
an d t hr oat are whi t er . There are al so i mportant di fer­
ences i n t he teeth . The wi despread Sout her n Woodrats
l i ve i n caves an d cl i fs. I n the West, woodrats occ ur
1 DD
Y
_
  toi led

sert
l ati ves

from the deserts to t he mountai ns .
Al l are nocturnal . They bui l d l ar ge
nests, col l ecti ng al l sorts of obj ects
to i ncorporate i n them. Thi s habi t
gi ves t he name Pack Rats to west­
ern speci Oã + 1hO r Oã ul ! l ã most often
2. Whi te-throated Woodrat
a l ar ge mound of sti cks and r ubbi sh l ai d between rocks.
Travel er s hear many stor i es of thi ngs t hese rats have
stol en and hi dden away. Whi te-throated Woodrats often
bui l d nests under cacti . The Bushy-tai l ed Woodrat may
nest i n the atti c of a mountai n cabi n. Occasi onal l y, nests
are made i n trees. Woodrats r ai se
two or t hr ee l i tters of two or t h ree
young each season. Woodrats feed
on frui ts, berri es, and seeds, and
eat t he l eaves and stal ks of many
pl ants.
COTTON RATS are shaggy-furred, s mal l rats of grassy
or weedy pl aces. They are abundant i n t he South, where
t hey damage t r uck gar dens an d far m cr ops. They are
acti ve du ri n g t he day as wel l as at n i ght. The Hi s pi d
Cotton Rat i s most common, preferri ng t he s hel t er of
tal l meadow grass, hedgerows, and roadsi de di tches.
Wel l - marked trai l s l ead from burrows to feedi ng areas.
Yel l ow- nosed Cotton Rats l i ve i n mount ai n meadows.
least Cotton Rats are tan-col ored bel ow. These rats may
1 02
have si x l i tters a year, each of si x or
mor e young, whi ch begi n to l eave
the nest after a bout a week. I f
weeds and other cover are cl eared
away, hawks, owl s, and car ni vores
can better control the rats .
BOG LEMMI NGS are not the tr ue l emmi ngs but ar e
si mi l ar to vol es ( pp. 1 04 - 1 06) . Thei r g rooved i nci s ors
are the best di sti ngui s hi ng characteri sti cs. Bog lemmi ngs
are nor t her n r odents preferri ng moi st s phagnum bogs,
swamps, and forest meadows. They are smal l ( length: 4
to 5'/ i n. , i ncl udi ng a tai l 1 i n. l ong, or l ess) . Thei r fur i s
t h i c k an d f ne, near l y coveri ng t h e s mal l ear s . F ood i s
mai nl y grass, though bul bs and perhaps i nsects ar e
eaten. Bog lemmi ngs l i ve i n col oni es. Runways connect
the nests, whi ch are bui l t i n tussocks
of gr ass. They al s o di g bur rows
t hrough the moi st earth or t hr ough
t he packed s phagn u m. Sever al l i t­
ters ( four to s i x i n each) ar e r ai sed
each seas on.
1 04
3. Mountai n Vol e
�� ��4. CoHfoml o Vol o
·

M
o
��
o
r pi a
.,
  Text on page 1 06. )
1 . Sagebrush Vol e
| Î º^! º0 Þ••• • ••• �  
1 05
VOLES, often cal l ed Fi el d or Meadow Mi ce, ar e the
most common and most prol i fc of the rodents . One fe­
mal e in capti vi ty had 1 7 l i tters a year. li tters r ange from
three to ten young. Young voles can care for themsel ves
when 1 2 days ol d and can breed i n l ess than a month.
Most vol es are gray, s ome ti nged wi th br own. They
average 5 to 7 i n. l ong, wi th short tai l s , s mal l ears, and
bl ack beady eyes. The Meadow Vol e i s wi despread i n
eastern and northern states . The Boreal Red-backed
Vol e, of forests i n both eastern and wester n mountai ns ,
s pr eads far i nto t he north . The Cal i for ni a Vol e, i n t he
ferti l e ri ver val l eys, has someti mes become a seri ou s
pest. When food condi ti ons are favor abl e, t he popul a­
ti on i n t hese meadows has i ncreased t o many hundreds
per acre. Pi ne Vol es l i ve i n the l eaf- mol d of our eastern
forests; Sagebr ush Vol es, i n col oni es among the desert
sage.
Vol es bui l d nests of gr ass on t he ground. Her e they
r ai s e l i tt er after l i tter th roughout a br eedi n g season
whi ch l asts as l ong as the cl i mate per mi t s. A maze of
narrow r unways made by cl i ppi ng the gr ass al ong t he
way extends through t he fel ds. Vol es eat grass, grai n,
and al most every other ki nd of pl ant materi al . I n wi nter
they gi rdl e young trees and damage orchard and nurs­
ery stock.
1 06
LEMMI NGS are found throughout arcti c and sub-arcti c
regi ons . They are t he most common northern rodents.
Brown and Col l ared Lemmi ngs l i ve i n the stunted forests
and t undr as. Nei ther i s found as far south as the Uni ted
States . The Col l ared Lemmi ng i s the onl y r odent that
turns whi te i n wi nter. Lemmi ngs are i mportant food for
Arcti c Foxes. Li ke some r abbi ts and other rodents, the
l emmi n g popul ati on r i ses and fal l s i n cycl es . I n l em­
mi ngs, the popul ati on ri se cul mi nates i n t he famed mi ­
grati on or mar ch . Mi l l i ons of l emmi ngs move t oget her
toward new terri tory ( not t o the sea as often s upposed) .
Predators fol l ow t h e movement, taki ng great tol l .
1 . Col l ared Lemmi ng ( summer ) ·2. Brown Lemmi ng
HEATHER VOLES are northern rodents of Canada,
Al as ka, and some of our northwestern mountai ns . They
l i ve al ong streams, i n mountai n meadows, and one spe­
ci es ( t he red Tree Heat her Vol e) l i ves mostl y i n trees,
bui l di ng a nest hi gh on the branches of s ome coni fers.
Al l have grayi sh-brown, soft fur and short tai l s except for
the Tree Heather Vol e, whi ch i s reddi sh wi th a l ong, dark,
hai ry tai l . Heat her Vol es are consi dered rare, t hough
caref ul observati on i ndi cates t hey are mor e common
t han once bel i eved. The gr oup i s
often cal l ed by the genus name
Phenacomys, becaus e t h er e i s no
wel l -establ i shed common name.
2. Heather Vol e
FLORI DA WATER RAT is a smal l
edi ti on of the mus krat. Found onl y
i n Fl ori da and near by parts of
Georgi a, t hi s i nteresti ng rodent can
be i denti fed by i ts si ze ( length: 1 3
to 1 5 i n . ) an d by i ts l ong ( 5 i n . ) ,
r ound tai l . I t has fne, dar k brown
fur, but the smal l si ze of the water
rat precl udes i ts bei ng trapped for
i ts pel t . Wat er rats ar e fou n d i n
bogs and al ong l a kes hores. They
a re excel l ent s wi mmer s . A rou nd
n est a bo ut a f oot i n di a met er i s
bui l t i n mangrove roots or between
cypr ess knees. Runways s pread
from the nest t hrough the swamp
gr ass and bog sphagnum. Water
r ots f eed on al l ki nds of s wa mp
vegetati on . Beca us e of t he war m
cl i mate t hey may br eed al l year
round.
MUSKRATS are wel l - known rodents, produci ng more
fur pel ts than al l other Ameri can mammal s combi ned.
They are cl osel y rel ated to the vol es ( average length:
23 i n. , wi th t hei r s l i ghtl y fattened 1 0-i n. tai l ) . Musk­
rats bui l d l ar ge houses i n s hal l ow water or bu rrow i nto
stream banks . I n these shel ters sev­
er al l i tt er s ( t wo to n i n e you n g i n
eac h) ar e r ai sed each season. The
pr i nc i pal food i s cattai l r oots and
stal ks . They al s o eat several other
s wamp pl ants, some cl ams, and
fs h.
Muskrat house
APLODONTI A is often cal l ed Mou ntai n Beaver-a mi s­
l eadi ng name, for i t i s no beaver. I t does l i ve i n t he red­
wood and s pruce forests of the northwest molmt ai ns. A
fai r s wi mmer, it prefers damp l ocal i t i es, often near
strea ms , wher e i t di gs s hal l ow bur r ows. A vari ety of
mount ai n pl ants are used as food,
and t he s ur pl us i s often pi l ed near
t he mouth of the burrow. Three or
four you n g are born i n s pr i ng.
Length: 1 2 t o 1 5 i n. Tai l very short.
F u r pr i zed by Chi nook I ndi ans .
1 1 1
Norway Rat
RATS and MI CE that most peopl e know are i ntroduced
Ol d Wor l d r odent s. These s uccessful mammal s have
adapted themsel ves to us and have l i ved and travel ed
wi th men for centuri es . Thousands u pon t hous ands of
1 1 2
deaths can be di rectl y attr i buted to
di s eas e s pr ead by r at s, a n d mi l ­
l i ons upon mi l l i ons of dol l ars dam­
age has been done by t hem. The
Nor way Rat i s 1 2 to 20 i n . l ong,
wi t h a bar e, scal y t ai l s l i g htl y
1 . House Mouse
s hor t er t han i t s body. It l ac ks t he whi t e bel l y of our
nati ve woodrat. The Bl ack Rat i s s l i ght l y s mal l er, more
sl ender, and has a tai l l onger than the body. A l i ghter­
col or ed but l es s common for m of t he Bl ack Rat, wi th
browni sh fu r, is the Roof or Al exandr i an Rat. The House
Mouse, much smal l er than r ats ( 5 to 7 i n. l ong, wi th a 3-
to 4-i n. t ai l ) , i s even mor e common i n homes, thou gh i t
often l i ves i n fel ds al ong wi th nati ve speci es of mi ce. I ts
gray col or, i nc l udi ng u n derparts, and l ong naked tai l
make i denti fic ati on easy, even i f t he an i mal i s s c ur ry­
i n g ac ross the ki tc hen fl oor . Al bi no ( wh i te) mi c e and
Norway rats are used constantl y i n sci enti fc research .
•× '
.
'
J UMPI NG MI CE are s mal l , l ong-tai l ed,
j u mpi ng speci es that prefer moi st, grassy
meadows where, i f di st urbed, they can
l ea p t o safety, us i ng thei r l ong hi nd l egs
and bal anci ng tai l s . Al though resembl i ng
Kangaroo Rats ( pp. 92 -93) , t hey are
,
..
s mal l er ( head and body, 3 to 4 i n. ; tai l , 5
to 6 i n . ) , l ack a bushy tai l , and are not
desert dwel l ers . J umpi ng Mi ce hi bernate
i n wi nter; other mi ce do not. Food i s al ­
most enti rel y seeds of grasses and other
s mal l pl ants . There are three types: West­
ern, Meadow, and Woodl and J u mpi ng
Mi ce. The l ast occurs i n deep forests
an d has a cons pi cuous whi t e ti p on
t he t ai l . Fi ve or s i x you n g are born
i n one l i tter, l ate i n s pri n g.
PORCUPI NES are l arge (length: u p to 30 i n. ;
weight: t o 40 l b. ) , c l u msy r odents, recogni zed at
once. The s pi nes, es peci al l y on t he back and tai l ,
are l oosel y attached. They are bar bed and c an
seri ous l y i nj ure or ki l l an attacki ng ani mal . Spi nes
are not qui l l s, but modi fi ed hai rs, and are not shot
out by t he porc u pi n e. Porc u pi nes feed on wood
and i n ner bar k of many t r ees, and eat addi ti onal
pl ant food i n s ummer .
NUTRI A are l arge, browni sh South Ameri can rodents,
30 to 42 i n. l ong. They were brought i nto thi s country
a bout 1 900 as a promi s i ng fur an i mal an d wer e re­
l eased i n muskrat swamps. Nutri a, aquat i c ani mal s, swi m
wel l an d t hr i ve i n swamps . Thei r fur i s wi del y used. Nu­
tr i a a re now wel l establ i s hed i n parts of loui s i ana and
ar e pr es ent i n s ome ot her states . They ar e steadi l y

  �


1 1 6
s preadi ng i nto new ar eas. Can be
di sti n g ui s hed f r om mu skr ats ( p.
1 1 0) by t hei r s i ze an d r ou n d t ai l s.
Nutri a eat mor e var i ed food t han
mu skr ats an d i n some pl aces are
r eported as r epl aci ng muskrats .
THE RABBI T FAMI LY consi sts of pi kas, hares, and rab­
bi t s. Al l have four shar p, c urved i nci sor s i n t he u pper
j aw, whi l e r odents have onl y two. Rab bi t s are wi de­
s pread, adapt abl e, and ar e a bl e to s u rvi ve i n every­
t hi ng from hedgerows to s ubur ban yar ds . When i ntro­
duced i nto Austral i a, they al l but took over the conti nent.
Hares an d rabbi ts are confus i ng. I n gener al , the hares
are l ong- l egged, hi gh- j u mpi ng, wi th you n g bor n wel l
Newborn rabbi t
fur r ed and wi t h eyes
open . Rabbi t s, born
naked and bl i nd, ar e
s hort-l egged, r un­
ni ng speci es.
1 1 7
Wi nter pel age
VARYI NG HARE or
SNOWSHOE RABBI T i s an
exa mpl e of name conf usi on.
The ani mal i s a har e-two to
s i x young are bor n wi th eyes
open and f ul l y f ur r ed. How­
ever , its ears ar e r el at i vel y
s hor t . Th e wor d " Var yi n g"
refers t o col or c hanges that
occur from s u mmer to wi nter .
" S nows hoe" r ef er s t o t he
wi de, furry paws, whi ch gi ve
the hare a good foot i ng on i ce
and i n soft snow. These hares
( l ength: 1 3 to 1 8 i n. ) feed on
grass and soft pl ants i n sum­
mer. I n wi nter they may chew
bar k of you n g t r ees, ki l l i ng
many. The har e popul ati on
ri ses and fal l s i n l i tt l e-u nder­
stood cycl es .
E UROPEAN HARES wer e i mported i nto Ont ar i o,
whence t hey have spread south i nto some of our north­
ern states . They have been i ntroduced al s o i nto the Hud­
son val l ey ar ea. Thi s l arge hare, 25 to 30 i n . l ong, has
di sproporti onatel y l arge feet and head. European Hares
prefer open country and have become abundant near
farms and orchards, wher e t hey may
cause seri ous wi nter damage to frui t
trees. The phrase " mad as a March
Hare" refers to the mal es, whi ch i n
earl y spri ng l eap, t umbl e, and fght
as a prel i mi nary to mati ng.
� "
\
1 1 9
Leap of Whi te-tai l ed Jackrabbi t
JACKRABBI TS are nati ve wester n har es. Famed i n
story, these l ong- eared, l ong- l egged creatures l ook l i ke
car i cat ures, but they are wel l adapted to l i fe i n semi ­
ar i d cou ntry. Jackrabbi ts feed on al most every ki nd of
vegetati on, and can get al ong with very l i tt l e water . Oc­
cas i onal l y th ey do damage to al fal fa and gr ai n fel ds.
Ears, someti mes a t hi rd of the hare' s l engt h, keep i t
White-tai l ed Jackrabbi t
aware of i ts many enemi es.
Jackrabbi ts are a mai n i tem
i n the di et of Coyotes.
When fr i ghtened, these
hares may l eap hi gh i n the
ai r, per haps to get a vi ew
of thi ngs. When pursued they r un wi th powerful l eaps of
1 5 to 20 ft. ; at a meas ured speed of over 40 mi l es per
hour. The Whi te-tai l ed Jackrabbi t i s t he l argest nati ve
s peci es ( length: 1 8 to 22 i n. ; weight: 5 to 8 l b. ) . F ur
t ur ns pal er or c hanges compl etel y t o whi te i n wi nter .
Tai l i s wh i te the year r ound. The Bl ack-tai l ed Jackrab­
bi t i s s l i g ht l y s mal l er, pr efers more open g rou n d, and
i s marked by a bl ac k streak on t he tai l and by bl ack­
ti pped ear s. I t prefers a warmer cl i mate t han the Whi te­
t ai l . The Antel ope Jackr abbi t of t he s outh­
west des ert i s r el ated to the Bl acktai l , but
wi th even l arger ears, whi ch have no bl ack
at t he ti p. The whi te on i ts ru mp and si de
fas hes as i t l eaps . Al l Jackr abbi ts browse
on bar k, t wi gs , bu ds, an d any s oft pl ant
food t hat i s avai l abl e.
1 . Antel ope Jackrabbi t
2. Bl ack-tai l ed Jackrabbi t
�ite-tai l ed �

Bl ack-tai l ed
)ntel op
d�{tives
1 2 1
COTTONTAI LS are the true rabbi ts, found nea rl y every­
where in th i s cou ntry. In si ze they are general l y smal l
(length: 1 1 to 1 7 i n. ; weight: 2 t o 4 l b. ) : Eyes are dark,
ears and l egs short. Near l y al l have the wh i te " cotton­
tai l " that gi ves the group i ts name. These ra bbi ts take

. ..

over vacant bu rrows or make shel ters in br ush
heaps. Li tters aver age fou r or fve naked, bl i nd
babi es , whi ch are bi g enough t o l eave t he nes t i n
about two weeks , l eave t hei r mot her i n l es s t han
two mont hs, and are mature i n si x months . Several l i tters
¥
a year are common. Nests of young cottontai l s are bet­
ter l eft al one. You n g may be r ai sed by feedi ng a thi n
1 2
..
¡. Desert Cottontai l
2. Brush Rabbi t
mi xt ure of mi l k and mashed egg yol k wi th an eyedrop­
per. Even when fed by hand they do not tame easi l y.
The Eastern Cottontai l i s t he most common speci es. I t s
r ange i n t he South overl aps t hat of the s l i ghtl y l arger
Marsh and Swamp Rabbi ts ( p. 1 24) . The Br ush Rabbi t of
t he Paci fc Coast (length: 1 1 t o 1 3 i n. ) and t he Desert
Cottontai l of the i nl and West (length: 1 2 to 1 5 i n. ) are
somewhat s mal l er speci es. The Brush Rabbi t i s a brown­
i sh speci es found on br ush-covered hi l l si des. The Desert
Cottont ai l , gr ayer
and pal er , i s most
mmon i n ri ver val -
l eys of the Southwest.
1 23
1 . Swamp Rabbi t
MARSH RABBI T i s a southern speci es about the same
si ze as the Eastern Cottontai l . To i denti fy i t i n t he fel d,
n ote t he t ai l i s s mal l and grayi s h beneat h . I t s col or i s
dar k br own, i nc l udi ng t he s mal l feet, whi ch contrast
wi th the l i ghter-col ored feet of t he Eastern Cottontai l .
These rabbi ts l i ve i n marshes and feed on marsh grasses.
The Swamp Rabbi t l i ves i n s i mi l ar habi tats i n t he l ower
Mi ssi ssi ppi Val l ey and al ong the Gul f. I n col or i t i s i nter­
medi ate between the Eastern Cottontai l and the Marsh
Rabbi t-a browni sh gray wi th reddi sh-brown feet.
2. Marsh Rabbi t
1 24
PI GMY RABBI T i s our s mal l est cottont ai l , f ound i n a
l i mi ted area of t he dry western upl ands . I ts s mal l s i ze
( about 1 1 i n . ) i s a c l ue for fel d i dent i fcati on. It i s a
weak j u mper . I n col or, it resembl es the Eastern Cotton­
tai l -gray, t i nged wi th brown. I t l i ves i n tal l , dense sage­
br us h and r abbi t br ush and di gs s mal l bu r r ows i n the
gr ound. Br us h and bu rrows afor d these r abbi ts pro­
tecti on from owl s, hawks, and coy­
otes. They r ar el y stray far from
s agebr us h, on whi ch t hey feed.
They oft en l i ve i n c ol oni es, breed
i n spri ng ( per haps agai n i n l ate
s ummer ) , wi th l i tters of about si x.
1 25
PI KAS or CONI ES are not rabbi ts but bel ong i n a sep­
a rate fami l y. They are r abbi t-l i ke; s mal l ( length: 7 to 8
i n . ) and seemi ngl y tai l-l ess. Pi kas l i ve hi gh i n the west­
e rn mountai ns . A rel ated speci es l i ves in Al as ka. Pi kas
a re more acti ve than r abbi ts duri ng the day. They feed
on grass and gather the surpl us i nto conspi cuous hay
mou nds . Thei r whi stl i ng cal l i s someth i n g l i ke the Mar­
mot ' s . The col or of Pi kas bl ends so
wi th the rocks i n whi ch they usual l y
l i ve that they are hard to see even
t hough they si t h u nc hed up i n the
s u n . Three or fou r you n g arri ve i n
l ate spri ng or earl y s ummer .
HOOFED MAMMALS ( ungul ates ) , iai nl y l arge pl ant­
eaters, are i mportant. We r i de them, use t hem as beasts
of burden, eat thei r fesh, make l eather from t hei r hi des,
dr i nk thei r mi l k. As our fronti ers pushed west, many s pe­
c i es al most vani s hed. Now h u nti ng i s cont rol l ed and
some are agai n pl enti ful . Si ngl e-toed ungul ates i ncl ude
horses and ki n, tapi rs, and r hi noceros. The two-toed or
s pl i t- hoofed gr oup i ncl udes al l wi l d speci es now l i vi ng
i n Amer i ca: the pr onghor n, cattl e and bi son, deer , and
pi g fami l i es .
1 27
HORNS AND ANTLERS, grown
by some hoofed mammal s, serve
for defense or for mat i ng battl es.
Antl ers are sol i d bony growths
from the s kul l , found on mal e
deer , el k, and moose, and on
both sexes of cari bou. They grow
i n spr i ng under a l ayer of l i vi ng
ski n-the vel vet. later t hi s peel s
of. The antl ers themsel ves are
s hed each year . The f ol l owi ng
spri ng a new, l arger s et grows.
Hor ns have a bony core over
whi ch the hor n ( s i mi l ar to your
fngernai l s ) gr ows. Horns are not
s hed, and i ncr ease i n si ze wi th
each new year ' s growth . Cattl e,
bi son, mou nt ai n s heep, a nd
goats h ave hor ns . The Pr ong­
hor n ' s u n us ual hor ns ar e s hed
each year and a new horny cov­
eri ng grows over the bone. They
ar e the onl y hor ns t hat are
pronged or br anched.
COLLARED PECCARI ES ar e rel ati ves of the pi gs and,
toget her wi th the more southern Whi te- l i pped Peccary,
are the onl y ani mal s of t hei r ki nd i n the New Wor l d.
Smal l ( length: 3 8 i n . ) , tough, someti mes vi ci ous , t hey
l i ve i n her ds of 1 2 or more. Peccar i es are not cud­
chewers, but root out pl ants, feedi ng on frui ts, n uts, i n­
sects, l i zards, and snakes. The sl i ghtl y curved tusks are
used i n defense. Peccar i es emi t a
strong odor from musk gl ands near
t he tai l . Mal e and femal e are much
al ike. One or two young are born at
a ti me. Wi l d boars ( unrel ated) have
been i ntrodu ced i n sever al pl aces.
1 29
MULE DEER, a wester n s peci es, u p to 6 ft. l ong an d 4
f. h i gh at t he s hou l der s, wei ghs up to 350 l b. The doe
{femal e) i s s mal l er . Twi ns, or someti mes one or th ree
fawns, born in l ate spri ng, stay wi th her through the next
wi nter , someti mes l onger . Mul e Deer browse, i . e. feed
on twi gs and l eaves. They someti mes graze on grass
and eat wi l d fru i ts . Bucks ( mal es) summer i n hi gher
mou ntai ns , comi ng down t o mate i n l at e fal l . The herd
remai ns together much of the wi nter. By ear l y s pr i ng,
does l eave to bear you ng. Mul e Deer, often seen i n
western Nati onal Par ks, are of several var i eti es, Bl ack­
tai l ed ( wi th di sti nct bl ack tai l ) bei ng best known. Thi s
somewhat s mal l er deer occurs i n the Nort hwest and up
i nto Al aska.
3. Mul e Deer
1 3 1
Whi te-tai l ed buck
WHI TE-TAI LED or VI RGI NI A DEER i s the most com­
mon deer and one of the best-known and most admi red
game an i mal s . The frst game l aws enacted i n col oni al
days were t o protect i t . Whi te-tai l ed Deer are reddi sh­
brown, becomi ng more gray i n wi nter . The fawns , born
i n l ate s pr i ng ( ear l i er i n the South ) , remai n spotted wi th
whi te for 4 to 5 months . Bucks are about 5 ft. l ong and
3 ft. hi gh at shoul der, wei gh u p to 250 l b. , rarel y more.

Does are smal l er . Antl ers, on mal es
·--._
onl y, spread forward di sti ncti vel y
1 32
( see p. 1 3 1 ) . Both mal e and femal e
have l ong ( 1 2-i n. ) tai l s, whi te under-
1 . Whi te-tai l ed doe and fawns
neath . These are r ai sed l i ke whi te fags when deer ar e
i n fi ght. Whi te-tai l ed Deer are browsers, feedi ng on
l eaves and twi gs , water pl ants, acorns, and other frui ts .
I n wi nter they gather together i n " deer yards . " Under
protect i on, Whi tetai l s have i ncreased and are now pl en­
ti fu l . Among t he s u bspeci es are two dwarf ki nds: t he
Cou es Deer of t he Ar i zona des ert
2. Key Deer
a n d t he Key Deer of Bi g Pi ne Key
i n sout hern F l ori da. The Key Deer,
not much bi gger t han a l arge col l i e,
were h u nt ed ti l l t hey were cl ose to
exti ncti on. Now t he popul ati on i s
recoveri n g.
BI SON, often known as Bufal o, are the l argest wi l d an­
i mal s i n Amer i ca. A bi g bul l , 6 ft. hi gh at t he s houl der
and 1 0 ft . l ong, wei ghs over a ton . The femal e ( cow) i s
s mal l er . Both bul l and cow have hor ns. Great herds to­
tal i ng over 60 mi l l i on ani mal s once roa med the pl ai ns,
s preadi ng i nto eastern and northern forests . Travel ers
reported her ds as vast as the eye coul d see. But Bi son
were ki l l ed for sport, food, hi des, bones -and to hel p
control t he Pl ai ns I ndi ans, who depended on Bi son for
food. By 1 820 the ani mal s had been exter mi nated east
of t he Mi ssi ssi ppi ; by 1 885 al l that r emai ned of the
great Wester n her ds was about 75 ani mal s . These s ur­
vi vors, protected on reservati ons, have now i ncreased to
several t hous a nd. The h u mp-s houl der ed bul l s , al ways
wary, protect t he herd and mate wi th cows d uri ng the
s ummer . Cal ves ( one and occasi on­
al l y twi n s ) a re born the fol l owi ng
s pri n g and st ay wi t h t hei r mot her
t hrough the next wi nter. The Wood­
l and Bi s on is a l a r ger and dar ker­
col ored s ubspeci es, now found onl y
i n western Canada.
ELK or WAPI TI ( an Al gonki n I n­
di an name) are l arge Ameri can deer
wi t h wi despr eadi ng antl ers and a
t hi ck mane. Mal es stand 5 ft. hi gh
at shoul der and wei gh over 600 l b.
F emal es ar e s mal l er, l ac ki n g ant­
l er s. Bul l s fght of ri val s and col l ect
a herd of cows. One or two spotted
young are born to each cow, l ate i n
the spri ng. Herds mi grate mor e than
other deer, movi n g i nto t he moun­
tai ns dur i ng s ummer.
1 36
MOOSE are t he l argest Amer i can deer (length: 9 ft. ;
height: 6 ft . ; weight: a bout 1 , 000 l b. ) . Femal e, much
s mal l er, l acks broad, fattened antl ers of mal e. Moose
are nort her n an i mal s , favori ng moi st l owl an ds , often
feedi ng on water pl ants i n l akes and streams . I n wi nter
t hey stay cl oser to forests . One ( rarel y t wo) you n g i s born
i n l ate s pri ng and stays wi th i ts mother al most a year.
Sh e c has es i t a way j u st before her n ew c al f a r r i ves.
Moose are al so found i n Europe, where they are cal l ed
El k.
CAkI ßOU are l arge northern and arcti c deer w1th
heavy antl ers ( s mal l er on femal e) and shaggy fur on
bel l y and neck. They are short-tai l ed. The youn g are not
s potted, as i n other deer. Mal es are about 6 ft. l ong, 4
ft. hi gh, and wei gh J00 l b. or more. The Woodl and and
Barren-ground Cari bou are the two maj or types l i vi ng i n
Canada an d Al aska. The Rei ndeer, o semi -domesti cated
E u ropean s peci es and cl ose rel ati ve of the Cari bou, i s
n ow wel l establ i s hed i n
Al as ka. Es ki mos tend
the herds, whi c h are
steadi l y i ncreas i ng.
� _¸���
J!n-groun  �� ·
OW (red)

~w
MOUNTAI N GOATS are more l i ke antel opes than true
goats and are rel ated to the Chamoi s of the Al ps. Short­
horned, shaggy-coated ani mal s, they prefer hi gh moun­
t ai n regi ons, where they feed on moss and al pi ne
grasses. These su re-footed beasts seem abl e to cl i mb
i mpossi bl e l edges. Mal es grow to
a bout 5 ft. l ong, over 3 ft. h i gh;
femal es smal l er. Both mal es and fe­
mal es h ave s hort, dar k, cu rved
hor ns . One or two you ng are born
i n l ate s pr i ng. Exceedi ngl y rare.
1 39
BI GHORN SHEEP l i ve in western mountai ns on the
rocky s l opes and crags, where they are safest from
wol ves and coyotes. They cl i mb, sure-footed, on two­
toed, c us hi oned hoofs . Thei r br own i s h- gr ay, deer - l i ke
coats make t hem al most i nvi si bl e agai nst the r ocks. Bi g­
hor ns feed on grass and shr ubs. Dur i ng the mati ng sea­
son, rams fght, and someti mes a gener al rough-and­
t umbl e devel ops . The femal es have one or two young,
1 40

 �
¨ �
:
,
Or i gi nal l y
Now
rea
born in spri ng, whi ch qu i ckl y be­
c ome s el f- r el i ant . Bi g hor ns l i ve i n
bands of si x or mor e. Length : to 6
ft . ; height: over 3 ft . ; weight: to
225 l b. ; femal e s mal l er . Both sexes
have hor ns.
PRONGHORNS are tru l y Ameri can, for these swift,
g racefu l an i mal s have no cl ose rel ati ves el sewhere.
Thou g h oft en cal l ed antel opes, Pr onghor ns do not be­
l ong to that Ol d Worl d g rou p, but a re more cl osel y
rel ated t o sheep. Pronghorns are the onl y hor ned mam­
mal s that s hed the out er coveri ng of thei r hor ns each
year . The u n us ual whi te r ump patch makes them easy to
s pot fr om a di stance. I n fronti er days Pr onghor ns were
easi l y ki l l ed, for thei r curi osi ty l ed them c l ose to h unters.
A few her ds sti l l remai n on the wester n pl ai n s . Two
f awns are born i n l ate spr i ng. Weight: 1 1 0 l b. ; l ength:
5 ft. ; shoulder height: 3 ft.
ARMADI LLOS, our oddest mammal s, are covered, ex­
cept for t hei r ears and l egs, by bony pl ates. Unl i ke some
South Amer i can speci es, our Ni ne-banded Armadi l l o
c annot cur l u p i nto a bal l for protecti on. To avoi d coy­
otes and peccari es, i t di gs a hol e or seeks refuge i n
thorny tangl es. Armadi l l os are most acti ve at ni ght. Thei r
l ong, sti cky tongues catch i nsects . When i nsects ar e
l acki ng, t hey may st ar ve. I n spri ng, l i tters of fou r i den­
ti c al you n g ( al ways of t he s ame
sex) are bor n. Thei r s ki n i s l i ke soft
l eat her at frst. The bony pl ates do
not harden unti l the young are ful l y
grown. Armadi l l o fesh makes good
eat i ng; i t tastes l i ke por k. Length:
to 30 i n. ; weight: 1 5 l b.
MANATEES ( SEA-COWS)
ar e t he s i r en s of fa bl es a nd
sai l or s' yar ns. Real l y they are
l arge, sl ow, bal d- headed, and
ti mi d-hardl y al l uri ng. Man­
atees l i ve sol el y on aquati c
pl ants i n s hal l ow coastal
waters. Thei r forel egs are
modi fi ed i nto Ai ppers. Hi nd
l egs are absent, and the body
ends i n a br oad, Aattened,
not ungraceful tai l . The si ngl e
you ng, bor n i n a s hel tered
l agoon, i s abl e to swi m r i ght
after bi rth. I t often nurses un­
der wat er , c omi ng u p for ai r
every mi n ute or s o. L ength:
1 0 to 1 2 ft. ; weight : up to
about a ton.
  �

1 43
�  <
1 . Bal een
2. Tooth
ld. :d
WHALES AND THEI R KI N form a l arge gr oup, fou nd
i n al l t he open s eas and al ong many shor es. A few even
l i ve i n ri vers and fresh-water l akes. They range from
s mal l , 5-ft. dol phi ns to the great Bl ue Whal es, whi ch
have occas i onal l y r eached 1 00 ft . i n l en gth and 1 1 5
tons i n wei ght . These, the l argest ani mal s that have ever
l i ved, dwarf the g reat di nosau rs and wei gh as muc h as
20 to 30 el ephants .
Whal es and thei r ki n are descendants of l and ani ­
mal s . Thei r skel eton shows t he remai ns of a pel vi c gi rdl e,
but a l l outward traces of hi nd l egs have been l ost . The
f r ont l i mbs are modi fed i nto Ai ppers conceal i ng the
bones, whi ch show that once fve fnger s wer e present.
The tai l devel oped i nto hor i zontal A ukes ( i n contr ast to
the verti cal tai l fns of fs h) .
HCWWHALb5 AkLFkCTbCTbD I NTbkNATI CNALLY
BALEEN WHALES TOOTHED WHALES
li ke al l mammal s , whal es breathe ai r and must come
to the su rface to "bl ow" or breathe. After a l ong bl ow,
l arge whal es can stay under for about an hour . Whal es
a re so ada pted to ocean l i fe that the s kel eton cannot
s upport t he body on l and. Whal es soon di e when
stranded on a beac h. A s i ngl e you n g whal e i s bor n at
one t i me; the mother n u rses i t as do other mammal s .
The whal es ar e di vi ded i nto two di sti nct gr oups : the
Bal een ( Whal ebone) or Toothl ess Whal es, a smal l group
· of our l ar gest whal es ( pp. 1 46 - 1 47) , an d t he Toothed
Whal es ( pp. 1 48 - 1 53) , i ncl udi ng dol phi ns and porpoi ses .
1 45
BALEEN WHALES ( ni ne speci es) are gi ants, wi th pai red
bl ow- hol es . I n stead of teeth, they have rows of whal e­
bone ( bal een) hangi ng from the upper j aw. The whal e­
bone traps mi l l i ons of ti ny sea ani mal s for food.
Bl ue Whal e (Sulphur-boffomed) , l argest whal e known,
prefers col der Atl anti c and Paci fc waters. Throat deepl y
fu rrowed. Length: 80 to 1 00 ft. ; weight: to 1 1 5 tons.
Humpback Whal e i s short, heavy, wi t h rough, i rregu­
l ar fi ppers and s ki n. Pl ayful Humpbacks l i ve i n school s,
l eap and tumbl e i n courtsh . Length: 40 to 50 ft.
1 46
¡. Bl ue Whal e
Sei Whal es, whi ch seem to mi grate more t han others,
have a pl eated th roat l i ke the Bl ue Whal e' s . Length: 50
to 60 ft.
Ri ght Whal e (the r i ght one for whal ers) is found mai n­
l y i n nort her n oceans . I t l acks t he back ( dor sal ) fn of
other l ar ge whal es . Length: 50 t o 60 ft.
Fi nback Whal e i s fl at-headed, l arge, with a smal l dor­
sal fi n . I t spouts wi th a l oud whi stl e. Length: 60 to 70 ft .
Gray Whal e of the Paci fc is frequentl y
seen cl ose to shor e. I ts gray ski n i s often
mottl ed wi th wh i te patches of bar nacl es.
Length: 30 to 40 ft.
TOOTHED WHALES
�PERM WHALE i s the l argest of Toot hed Whal es , al l
of whi ch have a s i n gl e bl ow-hol e. Th e s quare s nout an d
h ead make u p al most a thi rd of t he l engt h. Abou t 30
teeth, i n t he thi n l ower j aw, ft i nto sockets i n t he tooth­
l ess u pper j aw. The enti re head i s of bal ance. The bul ky
forehead contai ns a l arge "tank" of thi n wax whi ch, be­
fore the ti me of petrol eum, was the mai n s ou rce of oi l
for l amps . The Sper m Whal e was wi del y h u nted i n both
Sperm Whal e oi l case
Atl anti c and Paci fc, where i t
di ves over hal f a mi l e deep i n
search of gi ant s qui d. I t grows
40 to 60 ft. l ong, occas i on­
al l y l arger . Fabl ed Moby Di ck
was an al bi no Sper m Whal e.
BEAKED WHALES are s mal l to medi um- si zed Toothed
Whal es. Thei r teeth are actual l y few; somet i mes onl y a
s i ngl e pai r . They prefer col der waters of the open ocean s
and are seen on l y occasi onal l y near shor e.
True Beaked Whal e ( 1 5 to 20 ft. ) , named after Mr .
Tr ue, i s l ess c ommon al ong our s hores than Bottl enos e
Whal es . Mal es have one pai r of teeth i n l ower j aw.
Bottl enose Whal es ( 25 t o 30 ft. l ong) , mos t common
of t hi s grou p, wer e h unted f or thei r fne oi l after Sper m
Whal es became scarce. Found south t o New Engl and .
Goosebeak or Cuvi er' s Whal e ( 1 5 to 20 ft. ) , vari ­
abl e i n col or and patter n, i s found i n al l oceans.
1 o Dal l Porpoise
PORPOI SES are s mal l er rel at i ves of the dol phi ns . Ac­
ti ve ani mal s, they are often seen in school s. These smal l
whal es (length: 4 t o 6 ft. ) feed mai nl y on fsh. The Har­
bor Porpoi se i s most common i n the Atl anti c, especi al l y
al ong s hore, where it swi ms rapi dl y, often l eapi ng cl ear
of the water. I t i s bl ack above, l i ghter beneat h. Harbor
Porpoi ses are al so found i n the Paci fc.
The north Paci fc boasts of the more attracti ve, some­
what l arger (length: 5 to 6 ft. ) Dal l Porpoi se. Thi s speci es
has a l ar ge whi te patch on the abdomen and si des of i ts
otherwi se bl ack body. I t prefers col der water than the
Har bor Por poi se.
2. Harbor Porpoi ses
Stranded Bl ackfsh
BLACKFI SH are not fsh, but a common porpoi se of the
Atl anti c and Paci fc. Three speci es, al l 1 5 to 20 ft. l ong,
l i ve i n school s i n open ocean and al ong coasts. Al l are
si mi l ar, though one has shorter fi ppers than the others.
These whal es are al so cal l ed Ca' i ng Whal es or Pi l ot
Whal es -the l atter from the fact that they travel i n
grou ps, cl osel y fol l owi ng the l eader. I f by mi sfortune the
| eoder HeodsforsHoo| woter,tHeent| re scHoo| fo| | ows,
and al l may become stranded on a beach. Bl ackfsh
have a s i ngl e young, whi ch i s nearl y hal f the si ze of the
mother at bi rth . School s of Bl ackfsh are hunted for thei r
oi l and for thei r fesh.
DOLPHINS are s mal l Toothed Whal es wi th teeth m
both j aws . About two do. zen speci es l i ve i n wat er s of
Nort h Amer i c a. The Tr ue Dol phi ns have s nouts whi ch
proj ect as beaks.
Ki l l er Whal es ( length: 1 5 t o 20 ft. ) are l arge dol phi ns
and the fercest of mar i ne ani mal s . Travel i ng i n school s,
t hey attack oth er dol phi ns, por poi ses, seal s, an d even
Bal een Whal es . Gr ay Whal es ar e sai d to r un agr ound
to es cape the m. The Fal s e Ki l l er Whal e i s s mal l er and
l acks t he bl ack an d wh i te marki ngs of t he t r ue Ki l l er
Whal e.
Ki l l er Whal e
1 52
Common Dol phi n ( length: 6 to 8 ft. ) i s the one us ual l y
s een around the bow of s hi ps . Thi s attracti ve, dar k gr ay
ani mal , pl ayful - l ooki ng but voraci ous, feeds on smal l
fi s h. A cl osel y r el ated s peci es l i ves i n the Paci fc.
Bottl enose Dol phi n ( length: 9 t o 1 2 ft . ) , l ar ger than
others, has a s horter, stu bbi er beak. Commoner than
Common Dol phi n, it was once h unted for hi des an d oi l .
One Atl anti c a n d one Paci fc speci es are known.
Spotted Dol phi n, about t he s i ze of Common Dol phi n,
has many wh i te patches on i t s back. I t occu rs al ong the
Atl ant i c Coast and t he Gul f.
BOOKS FOR FURTHER STUDY Books wi l l hel p i n
furt her study of mammal s. Regi onal studi es and mono­
graphs on speci fc groups wi l l be of val u e to the
advanced student; al so the JOURNAL OF MAMMALOGY,
i ssued by the Amer i can Soci ety of Mammal ogi st s.
Burt and Grossenhei der, A F| tto Gu| ott Ot0t M«~~«ts, Houghton Mif­
Ain Co. , Boston, 1 952. An excel l ent feld guide to 373 North Amer­
i can speci es, wi th ampl e i l l ustrati ons ond mops.
Cohol ane, Vi ctor H. , M«~~«ts Or NOst0 A~ts| c«, The Macmi l l an Co. ,
New Yor k, 1 947. Th i s l eadi ng fi el d natural i st has wri tten an account
os readabl e and os exci ti ng as o good novel . Hi ghl y prai sed.
Hami l ton, W. J. , A~ts| c«~M«~~«ts,McGraw- Hi l l Book Co. , New York,
1 939, and T0tM«~~«ts Or E«stts~ J~| tto 5t«tts, Comstock Pub.
Co. , Ithaca, N. Y. , 1 943. The frst i s o systemat i c i ntr oduct i on to
mammol ogy. The second i s o popul ar yet thorough account of east­
ern l and mammal s.
Pal mer , Ral ph S. , T0tM«~~«tGu| ot, Doubl eday and Co. , Gor den Ci ty,
N. Y. , 1 954. Identi fcati on, range, habi tat, and for many speci es al so
habi ts and economi c status. Forty col ored pl ates.
ZOOS TO VI SI T Zoos gi ve an opportu ni ty to study
at frst hand l arger, more i nteresti ng
_
mammal s .
Chi cago: Chi cago Zool ogi cal Soci ety, Brookfel d Zoo.
Chi cago: Li ncol n Park Zool ogi cal Society.
New York: New York Zool ogi cal Soci ety, Bronx Park.
Phi l adel phi a: Phi l adel phi a Zool ogi cal Pork.
St. Loui s: St. Loui s Zool ogi cal Garden, Forest Pork.
San Di ego: San. Di ego Zool ogi cal Soci ety, Bal boa Park.
Son Franci sco: Fl ei schaker Zoo.
Washi ngton: Nati onal Zoologi cal Gorden, Rock Creek.
MUSEUMS TO VI SI T Here a re s ome fa mous mu­
s eums where t he mammal exhi bi ts ar e better than
aver age. Museums are al so fou n d at many u ni versi ti es
and state capi tol s.
Chi cago: Chi cago Natural Hi story Museum.
Denver: Denver Museum of Natural Hi story.
los Angel es: los Angel es County Museum.
New York: Ameri can Museum of Natural Hi story.
Son Franci sco: Cal i forni a Academy of Sci ences.
Was hi ngt on: U. S. Nati onal Museum.
1 54
SCI ENTI FI C NAMES
Speci al i sts al most u ni vers al l y use the sci enti fi c names for speci es be­
caus e these make possi bl e more preci si on i n des i gnat i ons. Fol l owi ng
i s a l i st of the sci enti fi c names of speci es i l l ustrated i n t hi s book. Num­
ber s i n heavy type ar e n u mbers of pages on whi ch s peci es appear ;
n u mbers i n l i ghter type r efer to the numbered capti ons on those pages.
The genus name appears fi rst; the speci es name fol l ows. An al ternate
gener i c or speci es name i s someti mes gi ven i n brackets; e. g. , 34.
Ur sus [ Euarctos] amer i canus.
1 4. 1 . Bi son sp. 45. Gul o l uscus
2. Smi l odon cal i forni cus 46. Enhydro l utri s
3. Tel oceros fossi ger 47. lutra canadensi s
1 5. 1 . Mastodon ameri conus 48. Mephi ti s mephi ti s [ hudsoni co]
2. Megatheri um ameri canum 49. Spi l ogal e putorius [ graci l i s, phenox]
3. Procamel us 50. Conepotus l euconotus [mesol eucus]
1 7. Di del phi s marsupi al i s (vi rgi ni ana] 5 1 . T ox ideo laxus
1 8. 1 . Condyl ura cristoto 52. Cynodi cti s
2. Porascol ops breweri 53. Vul pes macroti s [vel ox]
1 9. 1 . Scapanus l oti monus 54. 1 . Vulpes fulva
2. Neurotri chus gi bbsi i 55. 1 . Vul pes ful vo
20. Scol opus aquati cus 2. Urocyon ci nereoargenteus
2 1 . Microsorex hoyi 56. Cani s l atrans
22. I . Sorex arcti cus 57. Cani s l upus
2. Sor ex ci nereus 59. Fel i s concol or
3. Cryptotis porvo 60. lynx canadensi s
23. 1 . Notiosorex crawfordi 61 . lynx rufus
2. Bl arina brevi cauda 62. Fel i s onca
3. Sorex pol ustri s 64. Zol ophus cal i forni anus
24. Microsorex hoyi 65. Phoca vitul i na
25. 1 . leptonycteri s ni val i s 66. 1 . Castor canadensi s
2. Mocrotus col i forni cus 2. Mi crotus pennsyl vani cus
3. Eumops perotis 69. Mormoto monax
26. 1 . Pi pi strel l us subfavus 70. 1 . Marmota cal i goto
2. Eptesi cus fuscus 2. Mormoto floviventer
27. 1 . losi onycteri s nocti vogons 7 1 . Citel l us tri deceml i neotus
2. Corynorhi nus rafi nesqui i 72. 1 . Citel l us ri chordsoni i
28. Myoti s l uci fugus 2. Citel l us townsendi i
29. Myotis l ucifugus
3. Ci tel l us fronkl i ni i
30. 1 . T odari da mexi cana 4. Ci tel l us spi l osomo
2. Antrozous pol l i dus 73. Citel l us [Ammospermophi l us) l eucurus
3 1 . I . lai surus boreal i s
74. Citel l us [ Col l ospermophi l us} loteral i s
2. lasi urus ci nereus 75. Citel l us vori egotus
34. Ursus [ Euarctos) omeri conus 76. Cynomys gunni soni
35. Ursus horri bi l i s 77. Cynomys l udovi ci onus
36. Procyon l otor 78. T ami as striotus
37. 1 . Bossori scus astutus
79. Eutomi as mi ni mus; o. operari us
2. Nasua nari co b. scrutator
39. Mertes ameri cana
c. j acksoni
40. Mustel a ermi neo [ci cognoni i ]
80. Tami as stri atus ohi oensi s
41 . 1 . Mustel o ri xosa
8 1 . 1 . Eutami os townsendi i
2. Mustel a frenoto 2. Eutamios dorsal i s
42. Martes pennonti 3. Eutami os amoenus
43. Mustel a vi son 4. Eutomi os quadri vittotus
44. Mustel a ni gri pes 82. Tami asci urus hudsoni cus
1 55
83. Tomi osci urus dougl osi i 3. Nopaeozopus i nsi gni s
84. 1 . Sci urus carol i nensi s 1 1 5. Erethi zon dorsatum
2. Sci urus gri seus 1 1 6. Myocostor coypus
85. 1 . Sci urus koi bobensi s 1 1 8. lepus ameri conus
2. Sci urus aberti 1 1 9. lepus europoeus
86. Sci urus ni ger
1 20. lepus townsendi i
87. 1 . Gl oucomys vol ens
1 2 1 . 1 . lepus al i eni
2. Gl oucomys sobri nus
2. lepus cal i forni cus
88. 1 . Thomomys bottoe
1 22. Syl vi l ogus fori danus
2. Geomys bursori us 1 23. 1 . Syl vi l ogus ouduboni i
3. Cratogeomys castanops 2. Syl vi l ogus bochmoni
89. 1 . Mi crodi podops pal l i dus 3. Syl vi l agus flori donus
2. Mi crodi podops megacephal us 1 24. 1 . Syl vi l ogus aquati cus
90. 1 . Perognothus hi spi dus 2. Syl vi l agus pal ustri s
2. Perognothus apache
1 25. Syl vi l ogus [Brachyl ogus] i dohoensi s
91 . 1 .
Perognathus formosus
1 26. Ochotona pri nceps
2. Perognathus parvus
1 28. 1 . Bi son bi son
3. Perognathus i ntermedi us
2. Ovi s canadensi s
92. I . Di podomys ordi i
3. Anti l ocapra ameri cana
2. Di podomys spectabi l i s
4. Al ces al ces
93. 1 . Di podomys merri ami
5. Rangifer arcti cus
2. Di podomys deserti
1 29. Pecari tajacu [ angul atus]
94. Castor canadensi s
1 30.
Odocoi l eus hemi onus col umbi anus
95.
Onychomys l eucogoster
1 3 1 . 1 . Odocoi l eus hemi onus
96.
1. Rei throdontomys megal oti s
2. Odocoi l eus vi rgi ni anus
2. Rei throdontomys humul i s 3. Odocoi l eus hemi onus hemi onus
97. 1 . Peromyscus nuttal l i 4. Odocoi l eus hemi onus col umbi an us
2. Peromyscus eremi cus 1 32. Odocoi l eus vi rgi ni anus vi rgi ni anus
98. 1 . Peromyscus l eucopus 1 33. 1 . Odocoi l eus vi rgi ni onus vi rgi ni anus
2. Peromyscus mani cul atus 2. Odocoi l eus vi rgi ni anus cl ovi um
99. Oryzomys pal ustri s 1 34. Bi son bi son
1 00. 1 . Neotoma l epi da 1 36. Cervus canadensi s
2. Neotoma al bi gul a 1 37. Al ces al ces [ameri cana]
1 01 . 1 . Neotoma ci nerea
1 38. Rangi fer cari bou
2. Neotoma fori dona 1 39. Oreamnos omeri conus
1 02. Si gmodon hi spi dus 1 40. Ovi s canadensi s
1 03. Synaptomys cooperi 1 41 . Anti l ocopro ameri cana
1 04. 1 . Cl ethri onomys gapperi 1 42. Dasypus novemci nctus
2 . Mi crotus pennsyl vomcu�
1 43. Tri chechus manatus
3. Mi crotus montonus
1 44. 1 . Eubal oena gl aci ol i s
4. Mi crotus cal i forni cus 2. Physeter catodon
1 05. 1 . lagurus curtatus 1 46. 1 . Megaptera novaeangl i ae
2. Mi crotus l ongi coudus 2. Bal aenoptera boreal i s
3. Mi crotus ochrogoster
3. Eubalaena gl aci al i s
4. Pi tymys pi netorum 1 47. 1 . Si bbal dus muscul us
1 06. Mi crotus chrotorrhi nus
2. Bol aenoptera physal us
1 07. I . Di crostonyx groenl andi cus
3. Rhachi anectes gl aucus
2. lemmus tri mucronotus
1 48. Physeter catodon
1 08. 1 . Phenacomys l ongi caudus
1 49. 1 . Mesopl odon mi rum
2. Phenocomys i ntermedi us
2. Hyperoodon ampul l atus ( 2 forms )
1 09. Neofber al i eni
3. Zi phi us cavi rostri s
1 1 0. Ondotra zi bethi cus
1 50. 1 . Phocoenoi des dal l i
1 1 1 . Apl odonti o rufa
2. Phocoena phocoena
1 1 2. Rattus norvegi cus
1 5 1 . Gl obi cephal a scommoni i
1 1 3. 1 . Mus muscul us 1 52. Grampus orca
2. Rattus rattus [ol exandri nus]
1 53. 1 . Del phi nus del phi s
1 1 4. I . Zapus pri nceps
2 . Tursi ops truncatus
2. Zapus hudsoni us
3. Stenel l a pl agi odon
1 56
I NDEX
An asteri sk ( *) desi gnates pages that are i l l ustrated; boIdtypedenotes
pages contai ni ng mor e extensi ve i nformati on.
Abert Squi rrel , *85
Al exandr i an Rat, 1 1 3
Antel ope, 1 4 1
Antel ope Ground Squi rrel , *73
Antel ope Jackrabbi t, * 1 2 1
Antl ers, * 1 28
Apache Pocket Mouse, *90
Apl odonti a, *67, * 1 1 1
Arcti c Fox, 54
Arcti c Shrew, *22, 24
Armadi l l o, Ni ne-banded, * 1 42
Badger , *33, * 38, • 5 1
Bal een Whal es , * 1 44, * 1 45,
* 1 4ó~* 1 47
Banner-tai l ed Kangaroo Rat, *92 -
93
Barren-ground Car i bou, 1 38
Bats, *25 - *3 1
Beaked Whal es, * 1 45, * 1 49
Bears, *33, *34
Beaver, *66, *67, *94~*95
Bi g Br own Bat , *2ó, 2ß
Bi g-eared Bat , *27, 2ß
Bi g-eared Fox, *52
Bi ghor n, * 1 28, * 1 40
Bi son, *7, * 1 28, * 1 34~* 1 35
long- horned, " 1 4, 1 ó
Bl ack Bear, *34
Bl ackfi sh, * 1 45, * 1 5 1
Bl ack-footed Ferret, *38, * 44
Bl ack Fox, *54 - 55
Bl ack Rat, * 1 1 3
Bl ack-tai l ed Deer, * 1 3 1
Bl ack-tai l ed Jackrabbi t, * 1 2 1
Bl ack-tai l ed Prai r i e Dog, 76 -*77
Bl ue Whal e, 1 44, * 1 45, * 1 4ó~
* 1 47
Bobcat, * 61
Bog lemmi ngs , * 1 03
Boreal Red- backed Vol e, * 1 04,
1 0ð
Bottl enose Dol phi n, * 1 53
Bottl enose Whal e, * 1 45, * ¡ 49
Brown lemmi ng, * 1 07
Br ush Rabbi t, * 1 2 3
Bufal o, * 1 34 - * 1 35
Bushy-tai l ed Wood rat, 1 00 -* 1 01
Cactus Mouse, *97
Cal i forni a Gr ound Squi rrel , 75
Cal i f or ni a Mol e, * 1 9
Cal i forni a Sea li on, *64
Cal i forni a Vol e, *1 04, 1 0ð
Came� * 1 27; ear l � * 1 5, ¡ ó
Car i bou, * 1 38
Carni vores, fami l y tree of, * 33
Cats, * 58 - *62
fami l y tree, *58
Chi ckaree, *83
Chi pmunks, *68, * 7ß~ • ß 1
Ci vet Cat, *49
Cl aws, *32 - *33
Cl i f Chi pmunk, 80 - *8 1
Coati , *37
Col l ared l emmi ng, * 1 07
Col l ar ed Peccary, * 1 29
Col orado Chi pmunk, 80 -*8 1
Common Dol phi n, * 1 53
Common Mol e, * 1 8
Conser vati on, 8
Cony, * 1 26
Cotton Rats, * 1 02
Cottontai l s , * 1 2 2 - * 1 25
Coues Deer, 1 33
Cougar, *59
Coyote, *52, * 5ó
Cross Fox, *54 - 55
Cuvi er' s Whal e, * 1 49
Cynodi ct i s, * 52
Del l Porpoi se, * 1 50
Dar k Kangaroo Mouse, *89
Deer, * 1 30 -* 1 38
Deer Mouse, *98
1 57
Desert Cottontai l , * 1 23
Desert Kangaroo Rat, 92 - *93
Desert Shrew, *23, 24
Desert Wood rat, *1 00
Dol phi ns, * 1 45, * 1 52~ * 1 53
Dougl as Squi rrel , *83
Eastern Chi pmunk, *78
Eastern Cottontai l , * 1 2 2 -* 1 23
Easter n Gr ay Squi rrel , *84
Eastern Harvest Mouse, *96
Eastern Mol e, *20
Eastern Pi pi strel , '26, 2ß
El ephant Seal , *63
El k, * 1 36
Er mi ne, *40 - 4 1
European Hare, * 1 1 9
Ferret, Bl ac k-footed, *44
Fi el d Mi ce, 1 06
Fi nback Whal e, * 1 45, * 1 47
Fi sher, *38, *42
Fl ori da Wat er Rat , *1 09
Fl yi ng Squi rrel , *68, • ß7
Foxes, ' 33, * 53~ * 55
fami l y tree, *52
Fox Squi rrel , *86
Frankl i n Ground Squi rrel , *72 - 73
Fur Seal s, *63, 64
Goat, Mountai n, * 1 39
Gol den- mantl ed Ground Squi rrel ,
"74
Gol den Mouse, *97
Goasebeak Whal e, * 1 49
Gopher s, Pocket, *67, * ßß
Grasshopper Mouse, *95
Gray Fox, 54 - *55
Gray Squi rrel s, *84
Gray Whal e, * 1 45, * 1 47
Gray Wol f, *57
Great Basi n Pocket Mouse, *91
Gr i zzl y Bear , *35
Grou nd Sl oth, Gi ant, * 1 5, 1 ó
Ground Squi rrel s, *68, * 71 ~* 75
Hai ry-tai l ed Mol e, * 1 8
Harbor Porpoi se, * 1 50
1 58
Harbor Seal , *63, *ó5
Hares, * 1 1 7 - * 1 2 1
Harvest Mi ce, *96
Heat her Vol e, *1 08
Hi spi d Cotton Rat, *1 02
Hi spi d Pocket Mouse, *90
Hoary Bat, * 3 1
Hoary Marmot, *70
Hog-nosed Skunk, *38, • 50
Hoofed mammal s , fami l y t r ee of,
* 1 27
Hor ns , * 1 28
House Mouse, * 1 1 3
Humpback Whal e, * 1 45, * 1 4ó
Jackrabbi ts, * 1 20 -* 1 2 1
J aguar, *58, * ó2
Jumpi ng Mi ce, *67, * 1 1 4
Kai bab Squi rrel , *85
Kangaroo Mi c e, *89
Kangaroo Rats, *67, * 92~* 93
Key Deer, * 1 33
Ki l l er Whal e, * 1 45, * 1 52
Ki t Fox, *53
Leaf-nosed Bat, *25
Least Chi pmu n k, *79
Least Cotton Rat, 1 02
least Shrew, *22, 24
Least Weasel , *41
L emmi ngs :
Bog, "1 03
others, * 1 07
L i byan Cat, *58
Li ttl e Br own Bat , *28, * 29
Long- nosed Bat, *25
Long-tai l ed Pocket Mouse, *91
Long-tai l ed Vol e, *1 05
Long-tai l ed Weasel , "4 1
L ump- nosed Bat, 28
Lynx, *58, *ó0
Mammal s :
fami l y tree, * 1 2 - * 1 3
general di s cus s i on, 6 - 1 6
key to, *4 - *5
Manatee, * 1 43
Marmots, *70
Marsh Rabbi t, * 1 24
Marten, *38, *39
Masked Shrew, *22, 24
Masti f Bat, *25
Mastodon, * 1 5, ¡ ó
Meadow J umpi ng Mouse, * 1 1 4
Meadow Mi ce, 67, ¡0ó
Meadow Vol e, * 1 04, ¡ 0ó
Merri am Kangaroo Rat, 92 - *93
Mexi can Free-tai l ed Bat, *30
Mi ce:
Cactus, *97
Deer, *98
Fi el d, *66 -67, * ¡ 0ó
Gol den, *97
Grasshopper, *95
Harvest, *96
Hause, * 1 1 3
J umpi ng, * 1 1 4
Kangaroo, *89
Pocket, *90 - *9 1
Whi te-faated, *98
see al so Mal es; Rat s; Vol es
Mi nk, *38, *43
Mol es, * 1 8-* 20
Moose, * 1 28, * 1 37
Mountai n Beaver, * 1 1 1
Mountai n Goat, * 1 39
Mountai n li on, *33, *58, • 59
Mountai n Val e, *1 04
Mul e Deer, *6, * ¡ 30~ * ¡ 3 ¡
Muskrat, * 1 1 0
Narwhal , * 1 45
Ni ne-banded Ar madi l l o, * 1 42
Northern Sea li on, 64
Norway Rat, * 1 1 2 - 1 1 3
Nutri a, * 1 1 6
Opossum, * 1 7
Ord Kangaroo Rat, *92 - 93
Otters, *46 - *47
Pack Rats, 1 00
Pal l i d Bat, *30
Pal l i d Kangaroo Mouse, *89
Panther, *59
Paws, *32 - *33
Peccary, * 1 27, * ¡ 29
Phenacamys, * 1 08
Pi gmy Rabbi t, * 1 25
Pi gmy Shrew, * 2 ¡ , *24
Pi ka, * 1 1 7, * 1 2ó
Pi ne Squi rrel , * 82
P i n e Vol e, * 1 05, ¡ 0ó
Pi pi strel s, *26, 2ß
Pl ai ns Packet Gopher, * 88
Pl ateau Packet Gopher, * 88
Pocket Gopher s, *67, * ßß
Pocket Mi ce, * 90 -*9 1
Porcu pi ne, *67, * ¡ ¡ 5
Porpoi ses, ·> 1 45, * ¡ 50~* ¡ 5 ¡
Prai ri e Dogs, *68, * 7ó~*77
Pr ai ri e Val e, * 1 05
Prehi stori c mammal s, * 1 4 -* 1 5, 1 6
Pr onghor n, * 1 27, * 1 28, * ¡ 4¡
Puma, *59
Rabbi ts, * 1 1 7 - * 1 25
fami l y tree, * 1 1 7
Raccoon, *33, * 3ó
Rats:
Bl ack, * 1 1 3
Cotton, * 1 02
Fl ori da Water, *1 09
Kangaroo, *67, * 92~* 93
Norway, * 1 1 2 - 1 1 3
Ri ce, *99
Roof, 1 1 3
Woodrats, * 1 00 -* 1 01
Red Bat, *3 1
Red Fox, *54 - 55
Red Squi rrel , *82
Red Wai f, 57
Rei ndeer, * 1 28, ¡ 3ß
Rhi noceros, * 1 27
Short- l egged, * 1 4, ¡ ó
Ri ce Rat, *99
Ri chardson Ground Squi rrel , *72 -
73
Ri ght Whal e, * 1 45, * ¡ 4ó~ ¡ 47
Ri ngtai l , *37
Ri ver Otter, *38, 4ó~*47
Rack Grou nd Squi rrel , *75
Rock Pocket Mouse, *9 1
1 59
Rodents, *66 -*67; see o|sounder
æ
i ndividuo|nomes
Roof Rat, 1 1 3
Saber-toothed Cat, * 1 4, ¡ ó, *58
Sabl e, 39
Sagebrush Vol e, *1 05, ¡ 0ó
Sci ent i fc names , 1 55 - 1 56
Sea-cow, * 1 43
Sea li on, *63, * ó4
,  Seal s, *63 -*65
~
m
%
u
!
Æ
«
.
0

Ï
î
!
W
«
M
o
Æ
ä
J
«
z
fami l y tree, *63
Sea Otter, *38, *4ó
Sei Whal e, * 1 46 - 1 47
Sheep, Bi ghor n, * 1 40
Short-tai l ed Shrew, *23, 24
Short-tai l ed Weasel , *40 - 41
Shr ew Mol e, * 1 9
Shrews, *2 1 - *24
Si l ky Pocket Mouse, 90
Si l ver fox, *55
Si l ver- hai red Bat , *27, 2ß
Skul l s , *32
Skunks, *48 - *50
Snowshoe Rabbi t, * 1 1 8
Southern Bog lemmi ng, * 1 03
Sout her n Woodrat, 1 00 -* 1 01
Sperm Whal e, * 1 45, * ¡ 4ß
Spotted Dol phi n, * 1 53
Spotted Ground Squi rrel , *72 - 73
Spotted Skunk, "38, *49
Spruce Squi rrel , *82
Squi rrel s, *67 - *87
fami l y tree, *68
s eeo|sounderindividuo|nomes
· Star-nosed Mole, * 1 8 - * 1 9
Stri ped Skunk, *38, *4ß
Swamp Rabbi t, * 1 24
Swift Fox, 53
Teeth of carni vores, *32
Thi rteen- l i ned Gr ound Squi rrel ,
*71
Ti mber Wol f, *57
Tooth ed Whal es , * 1 44, * 1 45,
* ¡ 4ß~* ¡ 53
Toothl ess Whol es, 1 45
Townsend Chi pmunk, 80 - *8 1
1 60
Townsend Gr ound Squi rrel , *72-
73
Tracks, col l ecti ng, 9 - * 1 0
Tree Heather Vol e, * 1 08
True Beaked Whal e, * 1 49
Tuft-eared Squi rrel , *85
Varyi ng Hare, * 1 1 8
Vi rgi ni a Deer, * 1 27, * ¡ 32-* ¡ 33
Vol es, *67, * ¡ 04- ¡ 0ó,* 1 08
Wal r us , *63
Wapi ti , * 1 36
Water Rat , fl ori da, * 1 09
Water Shr ew, *23, 24
Weasel s, *33, *3ß * 5 1
fami l y tree, *38
true, *40 - *4 1
Western Gray Squi rr el , *84
Western Harvest Mouse, *96
Western J u mpi ng Mouse, * 1 1 4
Western Pocket Gopher, * 88
Whal ebone Whal es , * 1 45
Whal es, * 1 44 - * 1 53
fami l Y tree, * 1 45
Whi te-fo
'
oted Mouse, *98
Whi te- l i pped Peccary, 1 29
Whi te-tai l ed Deer, * 1 3 1 , * ¡ 32~
* ¡ 33
Whi te-tai l ed J ackra bbi t, * 1 20 -
1 2 1
Whi te-tai l ed Prai r i e Dog, * 76 - 77
Whi te-throated Wood rat, *1 00 -
1 01
Whi te Whal e, * 1 45
Wi l dcat, *6 1
Wol veri ne, *38, *45
Wol ves, *52, • 57
Woodchucks, *68, *ó9
Woodl and Bi s on, 1 35
Woodl and Cari bou, * 1 38
Woodl and J umpi ng Mouse, * 1 1 4
Woodrats, * 1 00 - * 1 01
Yel l ow-bel l i ed Mar mot, *70
Yel l ow- nosed Cotton Rat, 1 02
Yel l ow- nosed Vol e, * 1 06
Yel l ow- pi ne Chi pmunk, 80 - *8 1
Ì
MRMMRÏN
A GOl0 £ N NA1d k £ G d I 0 £
HERBERT S. ZI M, Ph. D. , outstandi ng authori ty
on sci ence educati on and formerl y Professor
of Educati on, University of I l l i nois; is wel l ­
known in professi onal ci rcl es and to a wi de
readi ng publ i c. He is co-author of the Gol den
Nature Gui des: Birds, Flowers, Insects, Stars,
Trees, Re
p
tiles and Am
p
hibians, Mammals,
Seashores, Fishes, Weather, and Rocks and
Minerals.
DONALD F. HOFFMEI STER, Ph. D. , Curator of
the Museum of Natural Hi story at the Univer­
sity of I l l i noi s and associate professor there,
has wri ten many arti cles for scientifc j our­
nal s, and conducted extensive fel d studi es of
mammal s throughout the United States.
JAMES GORDON I RVI NG has exhi bited
pai nti ngs at the Ameri can Museum of Natural
Hi story and the Nati onal Audubon Society. I n
the Gol den Nature Gui de seri es he has i l l us­
trated Mammals, Birds, Insects, Re
p
tiles und
Am
p
hibians, Stars, and Fishes.
1 H b ÜLL ÜbM MT1U K b ÜU 1 Ü bô
are an introduction to the world of nature, presenting
those things which are most common and most easily
seen. Each guide has been written by an outstanding
authority on science education-Dr. Herbert 5. Zim,
University of Il l i nois-in cooperati on with a noted
specialist. Identi fcation is made easy by over 1UU
full-color paintings in each book. These are rendered
mostly from l i fe by an outstandi ng artist and have
been checked, corrected, and rechecked by specialists.
8| k05 • F|OW£z5 • l N5£C15 • 1k££5 • 5£A5HOk£5
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W£A1H£k • MAMMA|5 • F| 5H£5
kOC85 AN0 M| N£kA|5
¬|ONsOkro BY 1i t |Yi toti |rMaNac|m|N1 l N:1|1u1t

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