# ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM

In a conservative system, the total energy is constant. For an undamped system
undergoing dynamic motion, there exist Potential Energy (U) and Kinetic Energy (T)
within the system. The kinetic energy T is stored in the mass by virtue of its velocity. The
potential energy U is stored in the form of strain energy in elastic deformation or by a
spring or work done in a force field such as gravity.

Objective : To determine natural frequencies of system based on energy concept.

- Conservation of Energy Concept:

U + T = Constant
d(U + T) / dt = 0

- Rayleigh’s Method

(U)
max
= (T)
max

- Lagrange’s Equation

0 =
c
c
+
c
c
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
i i i
q
u
q
T
q
T
dt
d

Derivation of Lagrange’s Equation

For a conservative system,
U + T = E = Constant
dE = d (U + T) = d U + d T = 0 (A)

Kinetic energy T is a function of generalized coordinates q
i
and the generalized velocity
i
q .
T= T ( q
1
, q
2
, …………, q
n
;
n
q q q q     , ,......... , ,
3 2 1
)

Potential energy U is a function of generalized coordinate q
i
.

U = U (q
1
, q
2
, …………, q
n
)

The differential of T,

¿ ¿
= =
c
c
+
c
c
=
N
i
N
i
i
i
i
i
q d
q
T
dq
q
T
dT
1 1

(1)
To eliminate the second term with
i
q d , start from the kinetic energy,

¿¿
= =
=
N
i
N
j
j i ij
q q m T
1 1
2 / 1   (2)
Differentiating with respect to
i
q d , multiply by
i
q d and summing over i from 1 to N,
then

¿¿ ¿
= = =
=
c
c
N
i
N
j
j i ij i
N
i i
q q m q
q
T
1 1 1
  

or
i
N
i i
q
q
T
T 

¿
=
c
c
=
1
2
By using product rule from calculus, form the differential of 2T,

¿
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
N
i
i
i
i
i
q d
q
T
q
q
T
d dT
1
) ( 2 

(3)
Eqn.(3) – (1) to eliminate
i
q d ,

i
N
i
N
i i
i
i
dq
q
T
q
q
T
d dT
¿ ¿
= =
c
c
÷
c
c
=
1 1
) ( 

i
N
i i
N
i
i
i
dq
q
T
dq
q
T
dt
d
dT
¿ ¿
= =
c
c
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
1 1

i
N
i i i
dq
q
T
q
T
dt
d
dT
¿
=
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
÷
c
c
=
1
) (

(4)

Potential Energy,
U = U ( q
1
, q
2
, ……………….., q
n
)
The differential of U is,

¿
=
c
c
=
N
i
i
i
dq
q
U
dU
1
(5)

From (A), the invariance of the total energy becomes,

d(T+U) = dT +dU

i
N
i i
i
N
i i i
dq
q
U
dq
q
T
q
T
dt
d
¿ ¿
= =
c
c
+
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
÷
c
c
=
1 1
) (

0 ) (
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
+
c
c
÷
c
c
=
¿
=
i
N
i i i i
dq
q
U
q
T
q
T
dt
d

Because the N generalized coordinates are independent of one another, the dq
i
can
assume arbitrary values. Therefore the above equation is satisfied only if

(
¸
(

¸

c
c
+
c
c
÷
c
c
i i i
q
U
q
T
q
T
dt
d
) (

= 0 i = 1, 2, ,……….., N
This is called Lagrange’s Equation.
( Note : Lagrange’s equation exclude damping )
Example : Determine the Kinetic and Potential Energy of the following systems :

1.
P.E. = mg (R-r) (1-cosu)

K.E. = ¾ m (R – r

)
2
(du/dt)
2

= ¾ m r
2
e
2

2.
P.E. = 0

K.E. = ¾ m e
2
r
2

3.

P.E. = ½ K x
2

K.E. = ¾ m e
2
r
2

4.

P.E. = ½ K (a+r)
2
u
2

K.E. = ¾ m e
2
r
2

r
m
e
R
u
r
m
r
m
e
x
K
r
m
e
x
K
a
Question : What is the natural frequency of the following system.

1.

Pulley : Radius = 600 mm
Mass = 20 kg
Radius of gyration = 300 mm

Load : M = 25 kg

Spring : K = 500 N/m

2.

Cable
M
K
Pulley
r
m
K2
K1
L
M

Tutorial 1 : Energy Method

Determine the equation of motion and the natural frequency of the following system by
using :
a). Energy Method
b). Rayleigh Method
c) Lagrange’s Equation

1. 2.

3. 4.

5.

Compound Pulley

Io = moment of inertia of pulley

a
a
D
a a
K
K
K
a
r
e
mass, m
m1
m2
r
x
r
2r
Io
K
K

q2. ... d(T+U) = dT +dU N N  d T T  U   ( ) dqi   dqi   qi  i 1  dt qi i 1 qi N  d T T U    ( )  dqi  0  qi qi  i 1  dt qi (5) Because the N generalized coordinates are independent of one another. then N N N T    qi   mij qi q j  q i i 1 i 1 j 1 T  q  i i 1 q i By using product rule from calculus. qn ) The differential of U is. the dqi can assume arbitrary values. ( Note : Lagrange’s equation exclude damping ) i = 1. N . N  T  T    2dT    d ( )qi  dqi   q i  qi i 1   or 2T   N (3)  Eqn.………. ………………..  Differentiating with respect to dqi . form the differential of 2T. U = U ( q1. 2. the invariance of the total energy becomes. dT   d ( i 1 N N N T T  ) qi   dqi  qi i 1 qi N  T dqi   dqi  i 1 i 1 qi  N  d T T  dT    ( ) dqi  qi  i 1  dt qi dT   d  T  dt  qi   (4) Potential Energy.(3) – (1) to eliminate dqi . multiply by dqi and summing over i from 1 to N. N U dU   dqi i 1 q i From (A). Therefore the above equation is satisfied only if  d T T U    (  ) = 0  dt qi qi qi  This is called Lagrange’s Equation..

x P.  m r x K P.E.E. = ½ K x2 K. = mg (R-r) (1-cos) K. = ¾ m 2 r2 . = ¾ m 2 r2 3. m  r P. Determine the Kinetic and Potential Energy of the following systems :  R r m P.E. = ½ K (a+r)2 2  m a r K K.E. = 0 K.E. = ¾ m (R – r )2 (d/dt)2 = ¾ m r2 2 2.E.Example : 1. = ¾ m 2 r2 4.E.E.

1. Cable Pulley : Radius = 600 mm Mass = 20 kg Radius of gyration = 300 mm Load : M = 25 kg Pulley K Spring : K = 500 N/m M 2.Question : What is the natural frequency of the following system. M L K2 r m K1 .

Tutorial 1 : Energy Method Determine the equation of motion and the natural frequency of the following system by using : a). 2r r Compound Pulley Io = moment of inertia of pulley K Io . m r 5. K x 4. Rayleigh Method c) Lagrange’s Equation 1. a a a a 3. D 2. Energy Method b). K a  r K K m2 m1 mass.