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VERBS tell, say heLu, heLi I/me - naanu You - neevu He/She/It - avanu, avalu, adhu We - naavu You

- neevu They nODu Odhu kuDi ODu koDi niddhe, niddhe maaDdhe naDi haaDu

past told heLde

see/look read drink run give sleep walk sing

catch stand sit put talk do understand throw hit

hidi ninthu hAAku mAAthadu mAAdi arthayithu, arthagthey

INTRANSITIVE VERBS (no object) go hoGu come Ba love listen

dance get down write kill buy climb laugh wash want don't want take know fall (hair) work can (modal) may, might (modal) could (modal) should (modal) have (aux) will (aux) shall (aux) is be

ADVERBS now then here there today tomorrow yesterday recently always sometimes usually never rarely very eegale, eega (?) illi alli eevathu naale manney once twice nicely well quickly completely sincerely slowly enough much a lot


NOUNS clothes

batte THING hair (tresses) ladder truth car water profit online floor page job {fruits} {trees} (food} pain PRONOUNS Person 1st 2nd 3rd Person 1st 2nd 3rd

batte-ide, batte-ige koodalu aaeni nija caaru neeru labha nela puta (pl. puta-gala) kelasa

batte-yanna, batte-galu PLACE school house spot/place place (town, city, village)

TIME day morning evening night everyday


Subject I you he/she/it Subject we you they

Object me you him/her/it Object us you them

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS who? yaaru? which? yethu what? yenu? yaavudhu? why? yaake? how? hege? where? yelli? INDEFINITE PRONOUNS some all evaru ... alrugu both ibru ... ibbarige each

RELATIVE PRONOUNS who which what that



ADJECTIVES slow nidhaana fast hot (spicy) hot (heat)

An adjective is often defined as a word which describes or gives more information about a noun or p bega kara bisi good red blue

expensive near/beside wet big small dark handsome old young tall short long lazy brisk beautiful good

dubaari pakka odde

yellow white black


chennagide, chennagilla

PREPOSITIONS TIME at on in for after before

A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relations PLACE at in/ inside on ~-ge (Avanige neeru beku) near aadmele across munche out/ outside between ahead behind around up/above down/under

CONJUNCTION COORDINATING (connecting equal) and or athava but so SUBORDINATING (connecting not equal) after before although unless if until as since when because than while

CORRELATIVE both . . .and

ARTICLES a an the

present I, you, She tell(s) heLutheyne heLuthane, heLuthale

future will tell heLthini

present continuous I am, You are, She is telling heLtha-idhni heLtha-idhane

kiNi, kuNidhe, kuNithini iLi, iLidheyne bari kollu koLLu, konDe, koLLthini hathu, hathide nagu, nakkde Ogi beku beda thogo, thogoli gotthu uduruttide kelasa

ask touch break drive start cry sell lose win available

keLu muTTu oDi ODisu Shuru aLu Maaru, Maride Solu, Sothe sigathey



chennagi (gotthu)

nidhaana vagi saaku thumba jaasti, sikkapatte

shaale maney jaaga (jaaga-nalli) ooru

PERSON father, mother sister, brother (elder) sister, brother (younger) grandma, grandpa people friend anyone someone

thandhey, thaayi akka, anna thangi, thamma hajji, hajja janaa snehitaru yaaradharu



Possessive mine yours his/hers Possessive ours yours theirs

Intensive Reflexive myself yourself himself/herself/itself Intensive Reflexive ourselves yourselves themselves


DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS this idhu, inda, Ee that Aa these ivaga(?) those avaga (?)

which describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun. Adjectives describe nouns in terms of such olleyudu

this much my


ationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner

yelage/ yelagade pakka olage/ olagade

mele/melagade kelagey, kele/ kelagade

present perfect has told heLuvudhu heLutheyna? heLuthiraa? heLuthana?

SPECIAL hogona

let's go