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Primary prevention is that set of interventions that keeps a cancerous process from ever developing and includes health counseling and education, environmental controls. and product safety. Secondary prevention is that set of interventions leading to the discovery and control of cancerous or precancerous processes while localized, i.e., screening, early detection, and effective treatment. Risk is lifelong for all, though it may vary in intensity among different groups. Jointly, primary and secondary prevention must be synthesized into optimum life time strategies that are best understood and evaluated under certain basic concepts of the epidemiology of cancer and operations research.
Primary prevention starts before you're diagnosed with diabetes. It focuses on those who are at high risk to develop diabetes. The International Diabetes Federation says there's no evidence which shows type 1 diabetes to be preventable, but that preventing type 2 diabetes may be possible through a few simple lifestyle changes. If you have any of the risk factors listed above, start primary prevention at home by watching your diet and exercising. Avoid sugary snacks and high-carb foods.
Secondary prevention starts when diabetes is caught early in the disease. The International Diabetes Federation says if you watch your blood sugar levels when you're first diagnosed, you'll reduce the need for more serious treatment down the road. Check your blood sugar after every meal. There are a number of blood sugar monitors, which make it easy to do this at home. Continue avoiding sugary and high-carb foods and watch your portion sizes. Calorie amounts vary from person to person, depending on your size and whether you're trying to lose weight. A dietitian will help you figure out how many calories you should be getting in each meal.
high blood pressure
primary prevention for high blood pressure is educating people who are high risk on how to avoid high blood pressure. secondary prevention is screening for those who may have high blood pressure and intervening early before its too late. ASTHMA
Potential for primary prevention of childhood asthma was suggested by marked geographical and temporal variation in asthma
 Allergen immunotherapy can be administered as either subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) or sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). a short-acting beta agonist used 10 to 15 minutes before exercise may provide protection for up to 3 hours. dietary probiotics. its effectiveness and utility in the treatment of asthma remains limited to allergic asthma and should not be used in severe or labile asthma.  Initial studies of environmental manipulation of house dust mite and food allergen avoidance measures were promising but have not been replicated. .   For patients with exercise-induced asthma.    Exclusive breast feeding for the first 4 months and avoidance of antenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke are effective primary prevention factors for atopy and also advocated for prevention of asthma. and cat.  Avoidance of being overweight. and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants are secondary preventative factors for atopy and asthma. cereal and rice. Desensitisation is available for common aeroallergens such as pollen. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure exacerbates pre-existing asthma. Secondary prevention Patients with known allergic asthma should avoid precipitants. house dust mite.     Present evidence does not support avoidance of allergens in early life to prevent subsequent asthma development. Children of mothers smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day are at highest risk. and modified milk formula have failed to consistently demonstrate benefit in the short or longer term. Studies of potential protective dietary factors including fish-derived omega fatty acids. While effectiveness for insect allergy and allergic rhinitis has been demonstrated.prevalence.
The U.  In particular. There is some evidence that 5-aminosalicylate compounds have chemoprotective effect against colorectal cancer in patients with UC. In the UK a National Chlamydia Screening Programme has been implemented since March 2007.S. most therapies indicated in acute attacks can be used to maintain remission and prevent relapses. pneumococcal and influenza vaccines should be given to all patients. Preventive Service Task Force  and American Academy of Family Physicians 2005 guidelines recommend annual screening of all women aged 24 years and younger when they become sexually active. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also recommends screening of all pregnant .Ulcerative colitis Secondary prevention Almost all patients with UC require active maintenance therapy to prevent relapses. Patients with UC should be immunised according to vaccine recommendations for patients with chronic diseases or altered immunity as result of therapy. chlamydia infection Primary prevention High-risk patients should be counselled on safer sex behaviours such as the use of condoms.   The programme seeks to increase awareness of chlamydial disease to sexually active men and women under 25 years of age. It also provides access to screening and treatment services to prevent onward transmission of infection. NSAIDs should be avoided. depending on disease severity and extent. Except for corticosteroids.
Secondary prevention Treatment for those who were sexual and household contacts within the preceding 1 month is recommended at the same time that the patient is treated to prevent re-infestation. Immediately following any treatment. Counselling and testing for HIV infection should also generally be done. and the risk of re-infection with chlamydia and other STDs. Screening for common coinfections such as gonorrhoea should be routinely performed. Secondary prevention Chlamydia infection re-testing should take place 3 to 4 months after treatment to identify those who have been re-infected.women. re-test at 3 weeks after treatment and again during the third trimester if the risk of re-exposure is high Scabies Primary prevention Scabies epidemics are best contained and prevented by early identification and treatment of affected individuals and their close contacts. In addition. In pregnant women. Clothing or objects that cannot be washed should be placed in a sealed bag for 1 week.  Information should be collected on any person who had sexual contact with the diagnosed patient within the previous 60 days. Testing for a cure is not recommended except during pregnancy. Erythema infectiosum . Counselling should be given about avoiding unprotected sex. all bedding and clothing should be washed in water that is 60°C or higher (≥140°F) and dried the day after the first treatment to decrease the chance of re-infestation. detailed education is necessary to prevent reinfestation of treated individuals from contaminated clothing or bedding or from improperly treated contacts.
patients with papular purpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS) are contagious at the time of their cutaneous eruption. Hepatitis B Primary prevention Primary prevention can be via passive immunisation with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or via active immunisation with hepatitis B vaccine (recombinant inactive HBsAg).[A Evidence] Secondary prevention All people with chronic HBV not immune to hepatitis A should be vaccinated against hepatitis A.  [A Evidence] High-risk people should receive HBV vaccination: those born in hyper-endemic areas.  . and sexual and household contacts of HBV carriers who are negative for HBV serological markers. men who have sex with men. it is difficult to prevent spread. HIV-infected individuals. pregnant women. dialysis patients.[B Evidence] HBIG and HBV vaccine should be given to newborns of HBsAg-positive mothers immediately after birth.  Patients with aplastic crises are contagious from before onset of symptoms and for at least 1 week after symptoms develop. However. Secondary prevention General hand washing and basic hygiene is always encouraged. Patients with chronic HBV should avoid heavy alcohol use (>20 g/day in women and >30 g/day in men). as this may be an additional risk factor for the rapid progression to cirrhosis.Primary prevention As patients with erythema infectiosum are usually no longer contagious at the time of exanthem and arthralgia presentation. intravenous drug users.
should cover open cuts and scratches. and not donate blood. or semen. PEP should not be given to symptomatic patients Secondary prevention Rabies cases should be reported immediately to the local and state health department. organs. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is highly effective and should be given to any asymptomatic patient with a documented or likely exposure. regardless of the time that has elapsed since the exposure. CDC laboratory confirmation is required for . clean blood spills with bleach or detergent. should not share toothbrushes or razors. People who are HBsAg-positive should use barrier protection during sex if their partner is not vaccinated or is naturally immune. direct body contact should be avoided. However. Herpes zoster infection Secondary prevention Patients can transmit the virus through fluids from the lesions to people without a history of chicken pox infection.Sexual partners and all household contacts of HBsAg-positive people should be vaccinated for HBV if they test negative for HBV serological markers. therefore. Rabies Primary prevention Children should be educated to avoid stray and wild animals.
and Uganda. The results of vaccine trials conducted in India. and Venezuela demonstrated a protective effect against leprosy by BCG of around 50%. In some studies the observed protective effect of BCG was significantly greater among individuals vaccinated at <15 years of age. Malawi. health care workers. Leprosy Primary prevention Protection against leprosy by BCG vaccination was demonstrated in 5 large field trials conducted in India. Papua New Guinea. patients should be advised on how to protect themselves from injuries. and others who may have been exposed to direct contact to saliva or body fluids of the patient should be assessed for rabies risk to determine need for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. No cases of person-to-person spread to hospital or autopsy personnel have ever been reported. relatives. although the protective effect varied from 20% to 30% in Myanmar and India to 80% in Uganda. However.antemortem or postmortem suspected cases in the US. Malawi. Myanmar. and second or repeated doses of BCG offered additional protection. .[C Evidence] Secondary prevention If disabilities exist.
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