BS 5400-8: 1978


Steel, concrete and cornpos itc bridges Part 8: Recommendations for materials and workmanship, concrete, reinforcement and prestressing tendons

· · •

I +."~

.. ..

-· ..

i -.--!'UDC 624.21.01:624.012.45

.. ..




BS 5400-8:1978

Cooperating organizations
The Steel and Concrete Standards Committee, under whose direction this British Standard was prepared, consists of representatives from the following Government departments and scientific, technical and professional organiza tions: Association Association British of Consulting Eng i neers

~ -.~

... ...

of County Councils Steelwork Association Ltd,


British Precast Concrete Federation British Railways Board British Steel Ind ust ry Cement and Concrete Associat.ion Concrete Society Limited Constructional Department Department Department Steel Research

Organization Establishment) Laboratory)

; ;.

and Development (Transport Contractors

of lite Environment
of tho Environment of Transport

(Building Research

and Road Research

Federation of Civil Engineering Greater London Council Institution Institution Institution Institution of Ci vil Engineers

of Hig hway Engineers of Mu n icipal Engineers of Structural Engineers


.. :1

London Transport Executive Ministry of Defence Sand and Gravel Association Scottish Development Walding Institute Ltd.
-. ~ ;.



'This British Standard, having been prepared under the direction of the Steel and Concrete Bridges Standards Committee, was published under the authority of the Executive Board on 30 June 1978
ri;. nSI 1'2-1') '18

i I
Amendments issued since publication
Amd. No.


Date of issue


The followin g BSI references relate to tho work on this 81'1 ndn rd: ( 'ulllllll;:tC0 reference B/16 I 11': I rt H II' I~{ I r nrnent 73/10842 DC 102270



BS 5400-8:1978

NOTE The numbering of the clauses and subclauses of cross-reference. in this Part is similar to that in Part 7 for ease


Cooperating Foreword 1 2 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 & 3.1.5 3.1.G 3.1.7 3.1.8 3.1.9 3.1.10 3.1.11 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3 3.3.1


Page Inside front cover iv 1 1 1 1 1

Scope References Concrete Specification of concrete Classification of concrete mixes Ordinary structural concrete Special structural concrete Designed mix and prescribed mix Form of specification Designed mix for ordinary structural concrete Prescribed mix for ordinary structural concrete Designed mix for special structural concrete Prescribed mix for special structural concrete Requirements [or fresh concrete Constituent materials of ordinary structural concrete Cement Aggregates Water Constituent materials of special structural concrete Cement t\g',;l'ngntes \V ator Ad m ixtu res Miscellaneous aggregates Sands for mortar Aggregate for concrete wearing surface Eequil'ements for hardened concrete Ccncml Minimum cement content Maxi mum cement content Type of cement Type of aggregate Type of admixture Hoqlli!'ol1lcnts [01' designed mixes Tel rgut mea n strength Evidence of suitability of proposed mixproportions Trial mixes Addir.ional trial mixes Heqllircments lor prescribed mixes Pn'~crihed mixes for ord iuary structural concrete P rescribed mixes for special structural concrete Prod uction or concrete Concral




1 1 2 2 2 3

3 3


3.3.3 3.3,4 3,4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.5 3.5.1 3.5,2 3.5,3 3.5,4 3.5.5
3.5.G 3,G

4 4

4 4


4 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8

3.C.1 3.G.2 8.G.3 3.G.4


3.7.1 3.7.2 3.S 3.8.1



BSI 12·1998

~ • - ii e BSI 12-1998 · .2 Materials 3.8 Strength of grout 4 Rein fOl'C8 nient 4.5 Bond classification 4.6 Air content of fresh concrete 3.1 General 3. .11.10.1 Material 4.1l..11.1 Strength 3.12.G Laps and joints 4.6 Ready mixed concrete Compliance with specified requirements 3..11.7 Grouting cluring cold weather 3.5 Water/cement ratio 3. -.3 Workability 3.11.5 Surface condition 4..11 Construction with concrete 3..6.10.3 Release agents 3.1 General requirements 8 8 8 i -...8.9. .1. .12 Grouting of prestressing tendons 3.5 Mixing 3.2 Forrnwork 3.4 Striking of Iormwork 3.7 Hot weather work 3..8 Handli ng .7 Additionn l t.1 Characteristic strength ofreinforcement to 4.11.3 Cutting and bending 4.9 General 3..10.1 Construction joints 3..12. - 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 .8.3 Aggregate 3.11.2 Bar schedule dimensions 4.6 Cold weather work Protection 3.8.4 3..csts on concrete for special purposes 3.10...4 Grouting equipl1lcnt 3.4 Surface finishes for formwork or moulds 3.12.4 Batching 311(1 mixing Control of strc ngth of designed mixes 3.. .2 3.6 injecting gTQlIi.BS f)cJOO-8:1978 Page Cement 3.9.4 Fixing 4.1 nd erection of precast concrete units 3..3 Ducts 3...9..8.2 Control of colour 3. i • .1 General Transporting..8.12.5 Curing of concrete 3.4 4.10.10 Surface finish ot concrete 3._ ..2 Cement content 3. plucing and compacting of concrete 3.

4..Temperature/time 20 23 25 24 .1.8.7 4.l:oquirc mo nts fnl' the durability of concrete exposed to sulphate attuck Table 5 .1 5. curves for concrete Table'1 Straightness 5.7.7..S 5.1 General 5.5 Cutting 5.6.5 Mechanical connections Welding 4.4 Threading 4.4 Other methods Prestressing tendons 5 M a terial 5.2 4.7'::i 5.1 5.7. tendons · · 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 5. i- .. - e BSI 12·1998 III .2 5.1 Wire 5.3 Tensioning apparatus 4.2 Flash butt welding 4.3 Bars 5.7.J __ _..4.3 Protcusioning Post-tensioning Protection and bond of prestressing tendons General Protection a nd bond of internal tendons Protection and bond of external tendons and components and grouting 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 - 19 Appendix A J nspection and testing of structures Appendix B Curing Appendix C Safety precautions for prestressing operations Figure 1 .7.7 Tensioning the tendons 5.7.G Positioning of tendons and sheaths 6. .i\Ii nimurn cement content required in Portland cement concreto to ensure d urabi lity Tn b lo "J .3 Su dace condition 5.G.RH' schedule dimensions: deduction for tolerances Publications referred to 3 4 6 7 15 Inside back cover t .8.Limits on total chloride content Table 2 -Crades of concrete and appropriate uses Table 3 .3 Manual metal-arc welding 4. .1 General 4.3 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 I • .1 Characteristic strength of prestressing 5...8.2 Safety precautions 5.2 Strand 5.2 Handling and storage 5. .4 5. . .6.4.BS 5400-8:1978 Page Lapping of bars SIeeving 4..

materials and workmanship. Users of'British Standards are responsible for their correct application. This standard 11:1S been updated (sec copyright date) and may have had amendments incorporated. an inside back cover a nd a back cover.Part 101). Part 4: Code of practice (or design of concrete bridges. Specification for loads. . of composite bridges. .. and workmanship. Code of practice for design of steel bridges. - 1) In course of preparut. Stnriclm-d docs not of itself confer immunity ·1 * · . Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover. Part 2. an inside front cover.~ - . This will be indicated in the amendment table on the inside front cover. Part 61): Specification for materials and workmanship. . pages 1 to 28. A British Sta nda rd does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. reinforcement and prestressing tendons. steel.. concrete and composite bridges and specifications and recommendations for the loads.Part 1: General statement.· . Part 31).. concrete.Part 8: Recommendations [or materials reinforcement and prestressing tendons. Compliance with a British from legal ohl lgn tlons. concrete.Foreword BS 5400 is a document combining codes of practice to cover the design and construction of steel. Part 51): Code of practice (or design.iou IV e BSI 12·1998 . . (or materials and workmanship. It comprises the following Parts: . · . Code ofpractice lor bearings. .. -Part 91). pages i to iv..Part 7: Specification.· . Code of practice for [atigue. .

3. I * . .1. of Part 7 as appropriate.-1 ..3.ions in accordance with 3. 3.eria!s ueilol' than those specified in 3.2 of Part 7.t of Part 7.2 or 3. the engineer need only structural c: rn de designation Type of cement 1\ Ii nimum cement content Nominal maximum size of aggregate Clause in Part 7 . 3. The engineer should be responsible for ensuring that the mix proportions prescribed provide the strength and durability he requires.7. When a prescribed mix is the workability of the fresh concrete (.BS 5400-8:1978 NOTE The numbering of the clauses and subclauses of this Part is similar to that in Part 7 for ease of cross-reference.2 Un less specified otherwise. .9. For constructional convenience the number of types and grades of concrete used on one site or in one factory should be kept as few as possible.crvt..2.h and wcrka bility.1..4 or 3. tho following terms should be used to describe the class of concrete required.· pi a i 11 concreto construction and that docs uot contai n ndm ixtu res or materials other than those specified ill 3. but they do not in any way constitute a complete specification.. .1. It is therefore the responsibility of the engineer to specify the type of concrete he requires to ensure both the strength and the durability of the finished structure.1. The class of concrete mix required is covered by one of the following descriptions: Designed mix for ordinary structural concrete Prescribed mix for ordinary structural concrete Dcsigned mix for special structural concrete Proscribed mix for special structural concrete Those descriptions may be used to describe in broad tenus the type of concrete required. 3. •. The structural concrete should be considered 803 spocinl when it contains admixtures 01' mm.G to achieve the )·e'lllilc·d strcnvt. . The engineer should decide the class and grade designation of the concrete required for each part of the work and determine suitable limitations on the constituent materials and mix proportions in accordance with the recommendations of 3.1. 1 Scope This Part of this British Standard is in the form of notes for the guidance of engineers using the detailed specification clauses covered by Part 7 and gives a greater understanding of the reasons for their choice.6 Form of specification.3 Special structurril con. but the engi nee r should be responsib le for specifying the minimum cement content and other propcrtios requ ircrl to en-sure durability.«.1 Classification ofcon.ereie mixes. .9. When a designed mix is specified.1.2. together with any other requirements of the work.1 Specification of con cret e. By the definition given in 3. J i 11l i La tions on the constituent materials are already ('swulished and therefore specify the following: Designed concrete mix for ordinary i -. the engineer should specify the concrete in accordance with 3. and 3. Ilccommendationa regarding the assessment of co III p liance with the specified re quirements are giV011in 3."".3. Whcn specifying concrete. 3.2 Ordinary structural concrete.4 of Part 7). ~ . the contractor 01' manufacturer should be responsible [or selecting tho mix prcport.5. In this context "See Part 7" instructs the user to refer to the corresponding clause or subclause in Part 7..2. 2 References The titles of the standards publications referred to in this Part of this British Standard are listed on the inside back cover.-. In this British Standard the conccJl t of' concrete as <l si ngle material has been adopted.1. 3. 3 Concrete 3.5.1. .1. prestressed 01. On the basis of these data. Ordinary structural concrete is connote of any grade that is used in reinforced.1.2 3.4 and 3. . the contractor should deci. 3.1 3.5 Designed mix and prescribed mix.1. the engineer should specify the mix proportions and the contractor or manufacturer should undertake to provide a properly mixed concrete containing the constituents in the specified proportions in accordance with the appropriate provisions of 3.7 Designed mix for ordinary structural concrete.5.

lggregalc : '. . to specify the requirements in detail and.('r! out during the progress 0(' the work in . a concror.! ions on constituent materials and mix jd' .. the weights given in Table ~ of I'm't 7 are a PII'P riate for the la rge majority of cases except wlu-r-: poor control is allied to the use of poor mauriuls. the limitations on const ituent materials are defined in 3. temperature of fresh concrete Ra!o ofsamp ling and testing Minimum 3.1 expert knowledge or previous expC'I'I. Clause in Part 7 Grmle designation cement content Nominal maximum size of aggregate Required workability i\rnxlmum cement content Itl~(nrircd brn ud or type of cement ltc1luil'ed source or special type of agg regatc Hoquil'ed ad III ixture Ail' content 0[' fresh concrete Mill. where possible.hrr requircrnents 3.'.2 3.. 3... Before prescribing sue 11 a 111 ix he " 1·" b" sure that with the materials a nd \\"'1':': nm nship available in the particular local ity a (':1" 'C' of the required standard can bo rondilv r.urce with 3..'i"lls should he fully described in tho S" c.i: .11.5...\special f nish.':) . lightweight aggregates." l . f mix design using particular cements.e. For this purpose he should urruuge f~l' I '.d ag.3.2 or those using cements other than Portland.4 3. therefore.1 and Ot. be specified 01' used.6 -_.lliE' 2 3.d mix for ordinary structural concrete ot.4 1 workab ility An cnzincor may wish to use a prescribed mix to obta i n . and those specially designed to have a special property or to produce a particular surface finish.11.2. ! iua l maximum 3.3 3. or unusual gradings (such as gap grad i !lg) may wish to specify the ingredients for a SPCI.l. _ .2 .' designation 01 ion of cornent I :L5.'L)CI..fnry evidence is avn ilable from previous use of' nix.clude the following: I'.ott maximum size of c1ggl'og-:lte 1 r cemen t that may be used of aggregc to tha t may be used 11:'1"11 :3.BS . In appropriate circumetances any of the following information DIn)' be included.8 or 3.9 3.3.1.i 11 this class should only be specified when the engineer is confident that. or max. the lin. i: 'I' i 1\. "'Illation to be given in the specification ~ ii.:!.1.4 of I'a rt 7..2.i mix proportions are suitable.1 : fine nggL'eg:l to : designed in accordance with the provisions of 3.9. 3.2 .:c.2 3.::~\Vhen the engineer intends to adopt a p !" 'L..2.ll.5. the contractor should .2 3. to state the reasons for any special requirements so that the the contractor can more fully appreciate the object of the work.4 3. 3. 7 Clause in Pn rt? U' "d. It is important.reg. -. Mixes . 'I' .9. : hn n those given in Table 2 of Part 7.1 3.2 to satisfy himself t hut his <. This broad class of concrete mixes includes those using admixtures.1 size of aggrcgnte :3.5.'Ie not specified .9Designed mix for special structural concrete. :! special structural ~ Provnied that the materials used are those df'~(.1.5.e 0[' tile required standard can be readily obtaiucd.2 Unless specified otherwise.3.2. decide tho workability and the mix should be . He maya Iso arrange for stl'ongl h tests to 11" j.[ mix.9..1 3..1 3.I '" "I.2.1 3..'.11 IOn. o speci.9.I "r. :3.2.'.1. An (J1l':inoer with " .. .9 .11'Y strength tests to be carried out unless sn!" CI'. Dusl gucd concrete mix 1'0\' -. ~ Prescribed mix for ordinary structural concrete 3. Arl mixtures I'll d.1 () Preseriluui mix for special structural COli crete.bed rni x fUI' o i-cl in a i-y st ructu rn l in T:d)le 4 of Pn rt.R. Strength may be of secollilury importance.l When the engineer intends to adopt one of tho I!"i"'~rl'ibed mixes given in Table 2 of Part 7 that an' r-lnt ively rich in cement and m:o intr nrlcd for use where the cost of trial mixes or of acceptance cube testing is not justified.... - © BSI 12·1998 .2 of Part 7 and I herefore the engineer need only specify the' follow i ng: I' ""'ribed 'L. but great care should be takon to ensure that the requirements specified do not conflict with each other." .9.")400-8:1978 3.1.l'1hcd.ii. of mix ill uccoccla nco with Par t 7 Part 7 Cln u se ill designation '1":111": of cement <.2. with the materials n nd workmanship available.3. heavyweight aggregates etc.

Where the minimum dimension of concrete to be placed at a single time is greater than GOO mm und especially where the cement content is likely to be 400 k~/lll:\ or more.t ken or their p ropcrties n nd any pnrticulnr condit ions of use.4.Lh.10 :20 . 3.t .e uuule ".11 Requirement.35 for 95 % of test results with no result greater than 0. 3.. The engineer may specify 01' app r -ve on req ucst the use of ~lg'gl'Cg~1 other thn n tcs til')~1 specified ill 3.jlh hetors it. such as some dolerites and whinstones.2.the desigll 10 fine 2 5 15 30 HoI low shells or other shells of unsuitable shape in C] un n t i ties that may adversely affect the quality of. should he considered._ of" orcl i nn. moisture movement.ollllHlnsirip rcquiro me nt. the source as wr'] as t he type of nggregale may need carcfu l se-lection based on the results of trial mixes. ility concrete 5: u 'l take account D Concrete for any use made with cement complying with BS 4027 01' BS '1248 -Reinforced concrete with co m e 11t complying with BSJ:2 0. t l 'I': 1:Il properties. expressed as a percentage relationship between chlorirle ion and weight of cement in the mix.3._..2 Constituent materials st ru dural co ncretc COIllP Aggregates having a high drying shrinkage..0 reduce the temperature or to remove evolved hen t may be necessary.BS 5400-8:1978 When an engineer intends to specify. the concrete should not be permitted. in. should be decided by or in consultation with the contractor.11.4 of Part 7). and gravels containing these rocks produce concrete having a higher drying shrinkage than that normally expected. Suporsulphated cement should not be mixed w itl: any 01 her type of cernc nt. such as the selection 0[' co cement t. 3.3. shriukugc.or concro: o ]11:1I! ' with them.1 Cemen.81:C is likely to have a n unusual effect on the s:.'ing type" or grnilings not covered by tho al'IW'minte B1'il ish St.s or thm.ry 3.3 Marine aggregates.7).. it becomes a specia I structural concrete and should be treated as such (see 3. Whero cements ether than those 'ving with the requirelllents of l~.d -.2. .1. provi. CI.2.2 :\ggl'cgales 3.pertio. For further information see BRS Digest 35.2 Nominal maximum size. It may be necessary when working in cold or hot weather to control the temperu Lure of fresh concrr te (see 3.1 General. i _.50 % chloride ion x 1. .YIlO with a slower release of hon I: of hydration. The shell content of the aggregate included as cn lciuru carbonate should not exceed the following a mounts: No miu al size (uun) % or .2 01' 3.4). .2 of Part 7.648 :: % equivalent sodium chloride. = % equivalent anhydrous calcium chloride. 3.iod t. .565 0. Tnble 1. measures to reduce the temperature. the engineer i.2.~. This can result in deterioration of exposed concrete and excessive deflections of reinforced concrete unless special measures are taken.11. Marine aggregates may be used provided that the total chloride content of the concrete mix arising from the aggregate and any other source does not exceed the following limits. The requirements for the concrete in the fresh or plastic state. .s /01' [resli concrete. J . 3.--. the use of an admixture in what would otherwise he :l n ordinary structural concrete.6 ancl3.9.' .2.uirlard-.-.: .:II'. 3. In exceptional cases other meaSUI'OS 1.2.. Where it is known that any property of any a~'!!l" '2. The preferred nominal maximum sizes of aggregate are 40 mm and 20 mm. G are used. mod u Ius of elasticity or d I". or allow.06 i -.111' P I'.2. particularly its workability (see 3.2. account shou :ll be I:.:!. * i.) 12 and ]J..hat there <I "0-" tisfnctory data Oil 1. density. .'I'CP.Limits on total chloride content 'I'y p e or use of concrete Maximum total chloride content (expressed as percentage of chloride ion by weight of cement) % -. or cause permeability to.' Plain concrete made with cement complying with ns 12 and containing C 1'1 bed ded metal NOTE '--% chloride ion x 1. Whnn niah strength concrete i" requirr«l. but if a smaller size is necessary it should be either 14 mm or 10 mm. 3 .

ures ~fiscel1ancolls [01' aggregates mortar. "'mlent. Sco Part 7.1 J content. The grading zone and i. The sulphate content . I. 3.5.vdmixt.'0 use l jo liscrimi natcly.0 'IO. by l': I"..)lIli':.. © BSI 12·1998 . but if in addition a special property or a )1:11'1 icular surface finish is required. . 111:\ \ .') 1:).0 . . a suitably low permeability is achieved b: haviru. The trial mix 51.:: Wate.. : he euler l.6) can be ma i ntained within the limits specified (see 3.. illy be 1\ I"i Iicd by trial frorn tho known sulphate .cturcrs (. these minimum requirements may have to be considera bly exceeded.1 .d ith Lite means available.irlequnte workability with a low \\. ~ 'P 1': I.0 :. Therefore for given n'C'!!I'()g:lt(:S cement content should be sufficient the to jlll.nlverizcd-fuol ash ns determined carrrc.4.1 asccrtnin whether it accelerates or n'::1 :~ the . their suitability should !C" I.. 3'::i. .thcl\'pf!nnd/orproprietarybrandmayhe 51 ". II II 'I ail (i r 1 he other constituents of the 'e mix ."Inres should never be regarded as merit COl" '~ood concreting practice and should . icula r th' behaviour of adrnixtures with :dphn!"" ..nd effect 01' by brand and dosage.. . 3.: conta i 1\ I .' . One of the main ch.le and appropriate . a sufficiently low water/cement ratio. The minimum requirements for the strength and durability of the concrete in the hardened state should be decided by the engineer Irom considerations of the limit state requirements of Part 4. shou lei never exceed 4 % -rht of Ll.6) irrespective of extension of mixing time to 30 min. for concrete i ..18 SOli I'.itu o n t materials I1"lete i _ of special structural :J. u. F'd I' 3. ': :->iI~ respective lv.. rr ! -: and H.HI1'!c:C l:~')!lt ratio so that the concrete can be fully C(1lJI11. and by ensuring maximum Ci':npaelir>ll of the concrete._ ell" ra<..2.l"! . The crudc of concrete required depends partly on thc purticular use and the characteristic strength needed to provide the structure with adequate ultimnte strength (Table 2) and partly on the exposure conditions and the cover provided to any rci uforcc mcnt or tendons (see 6.! l-'u. 3.3. nv «oncr« t 0 is its permeability.). 3.1l' .lct(.c.1 ('1'1111'11].5 Rcquiremen ts for hardened concrete 1\1.4.! uired in anyone mix.cinent of the same rna ke a nd from 11:.VilL: .2.2.i .e([ sulphuric anhydride as "f the con-rete III ix..Lel'istic N/IllIll~ Lowest grade for compliance with appropriate use - 11' . The admixture should be of such a type that the air content (see't 1 i ng ti me and loss of workability..iut in accordance with J3S 4550.Zu{'ri:. iV!' .0 } Concrete with I.~ ..:1. :.1 Sands 3.'1 .ggre."'..~) 2(). \' . 3.mst. 3. rtion with mo nt .al.d-(nd ash.idmixrurcs are highly active chemicals and "lpart \I nrlcairable as well as desirable P)"1)1 rtias to I:llf!concrete. «d.1 General. 01' not be used in complying with the requireel :..\[illimrun cement content..:. the I' i If ..!.L. :.t 1).2 and T.s. j)\!lV(. Il'!gl'egates (11'1\(.1I:d: rho admixture «itib) .'"I'I'gnlC's.:1. of th -inent. _.1(:11 should be co nsultcd.entrainingagents.2.!' 1'.5.!'iH. H two or more .3A.·" ~I:ithat intended to be used for the Joe!' ':lent \1'(.!-l'lIel II"h is used.o: " n ud advice should be sought 'Iile. .() Plain concrete or reinforced concrete with lightweight aggregate Reinforced concrete with normal aggregate 2.~.'.8. !..1ble 11 OfPc11t .2 Aggregate See Part 7. J' II "I'izell-f:tel8ch q I'I1OUId . The engineer shOidd 81:. Gradcs of concrete uses stre n g th Tn hlc 2 (.l:ein the contract the minimum cement COllt"ill: required Coreach concrete mix.9.0 60.:~{ .tisfv himself 1.1 \Vater...'" II ffic len t hydration of the cement through jl i'(Jpel' C~llii ug methods.. . The I' r shoul. ·JO~i ill concreto to be II si . I' .l'iI.9. • . 3.ttl mixtures are t' .:.() ·10 :-)I) 30. w ..iximum <ill\plwte content 01' pulverized-fuel \i!~rOl'd:llll'~ with I1S 3S!)2 should be specified.-1 t to be Ie. '0 I co post-tensioned tendons Concrete with pretensioned tendons _..2.t Lo .'1'0 lido) :.r-mcnts mny differ troru that with 'let cen. Admixtures may be specified by tyn." See 3. Cement: :=:(-e 3.u.3Ail'. 'J..1. . Seo Part 7. III'in ~. 1110 total ( :2() '':' .lrd. "" . 8:-::Pl'('". CII 3.I). COl ]» 1.lll'S.uucteristics influencing the durability of .:2 . 1. See Part 7. wearing surface.1 General. "I'nixtUl'p~ [01' which there is no British i-iT8' . 7.D £)0. With strong dense il:'.

! I. Unless adequately cured. It shou 1.1 p. The type of aggregate used in the concrete may affect the creep.vrute mix a ('J(}cL" l.ihlein a ll respects. Iii ordel' to m n l«: the Ii: . the surface of supersulphated cement concrete is liable to become friable or dusty.' dcpcnds on the I vp« of cement usorl.ucndations for rather more severe conditions .5. The rate of strength development of concrete made with suporsulphated cement is considerably reduced at low temperatures. Tnblo . Certain admixtures have :1 considerable effect on the properties of hardened coucrote and great care should be taken when specifying or allowing their use in special concretes. :.. gTaclf's of lightweight .s Ii. • _ ..' '(1.ouded. higher (.t «on t en t . u.'-' in thicker sections.C 10:1 p:1 " .!lC properties of t he Il"d concrete.:: . i.d.: conte-nts in excess of5:)U kg/lll:\ may he used p rovi '"d that the cnginoor is sat isficd that the (:("11") 'i' prolucod is suit. II 3.11el'IlI:" s:'"../11/11/1 i:I' ~ i ""i illl)" .u..'. shrinkage.'. 1.lg':!I'ogalr:: concrul. this is essential during hot weather.iu dill' to dryiu-..% tOI' natural aggregates size: G % for natural aggregates sil:. for natural aggregates size: .li concrete required. in addition it should be noted I:h. to provide acccptnhlc durability under the appropriate conditions of exposure.mcreto to .\'.ihle du rnb i lity u ndo r ('XPOSll).5 Type of aggregate. when using a particular size of aggl'0.I'C'e of su lpha te . The type of cement usnd in . durability and other properties (see 3. . h. This concrete should be kept moist for at least 4 days after placing.gnte in a Portland cement concrete. Ai r-entraining agents used to entrain controlled pc rcentages of air in the concrete generally improve its durability and in particular its resistance to frost damage....c. gives the minimum cement content required usi ng n particular size of uggrcgate and .lI'" . When concrete of grade 40 or lower is required to resistance to the effects of salt used for de-icing. Dill provide i •. 'nn~id( r. risk ofcrack i.1 * .I maximum free WElter/cement ratio not greater than that given for the particular condition can be consistently produced and b) that it is suitable for the conditions of placing and ue It should be noted that special care is needed in the storage of supersulphated cement as it deteriorates rapidly in poor storage n !J as 1)00 II give 11in design to the I~d CI.f)kg/m" should not be used 111l1e. co nicr."('I p.I.I:~c ill t hin sections. how t111' uu:o o:' c.lrLie'llbL' typo ofcement to provide a concrete lwyill'" nccr-pt.1.'ll III 'I'able d should only used when uiu! mixes (see 3..1 \\·1:. : \'" 11in the notes to the tn hle. Cement contents "":'i 01" :)C.~ ~! ··:·":.utack II)' SUlphate '::. .tack.11' de:.1 lie lie:' : I hat this durability is only obtained if' the Cll'pl'{ ..6.:.\I. Tho reduced m ini m u m cement contents gi'\._-- - compaction.1) of the hu rcle ned concrete. 3.I inr!il':lI('c.2." eeme n.5.3) have verified a) that a concreto with ..BS 5400-8:1978 Tab!e 3 gives the minimum cement content rcqu i red. The average air content of tho Ircsh concrete should be specified as follows: i1 .uiate maximum Irco water/cement rntio is not C'\ . 6 Tvpe of admixture. . the table :~i\'('s the absolute m iniruum requirernr nts for the w'[!rage case and that add itionnl J'f'('Iill' .2. '" '\pe vI cement. 5 .. it should contain entrained air and the a P [11'0 I' I 'ia te admixture should be used for the s]Jl'ci.o::') % for n:11 ural aggregates size: 'I % of 10 mm nominal maximum of 14 mm nominal maximum of20 mm nominal maximum of 40 mm nominal maximum . T..

i):1I.d Irom se vere rain and against fr eezing whilst saturated water.aggregate concrete Mnxl mu m free wa te r/ cement ratio I J t \ I.e (ill nun) 10 so 14 10 40 20 kg/rn3 14 kg/rnS 10 kg!rn3 I ' .I f \ts ur . cement content required in Portl Prestressed coucre ce Nominal rnaxrrnu m size aggregate (in mm) 40 ~O ]·1 and cernun t Reinforced concrete to ensure durability Plain concrete Nominal maximum size of aggregate (in nun) ExpOSlIt'e 01'1 Nominal 40 kg/m3 I concrete rnnx imu m size of aggregu t. .JL100-8:1G78 Tu I..~ 1(\11 I.' not 1) I uried cuucrote and !"'L'otc ('('"t'inll()u~ly ~ I w atcrproof 300 300 32() 3 lO i 2GO 290 320 340 220 250 280 300 . in "'J IILact wi: . i iller war. lei t\C: salts or '.. Reinforced free .5 ir.-posed to ill .260 290 320 340 240 280 310 330 I) Ji ~llrj'..ilrernnce II' cu. __ .: krill) and I . 350 370 0._ :)f ~I n ~f) ' (I" 111 H :)l)1) 10 t..-"'I!:-is. -.45 © BSI 12·1998 .' '/ .Jtel'!.) - Mi 11 i mum." h:.'hiU._ :J urfaces w ith sh.B:--. <u l'f:ICC" I.55 :.j .".i o 10 Nominal maximu m size Maximutt of aggregate free (in nun) waterl cement 40 20 14 10 ratio 310 320 360 390 410 320 360 390 410 270 310 330 350 11 .l rlrving te. --- 1) soffits 2) surfaces I':-.: : J 'Ill mari ne ructu I i . . _. le .55 240 280 300 320 0. .I ula nd \' 'I..~d concr-ete - .i size of water! co murrt r-u (in mm) .:)0 ..'.·.ing un.I" i I' 1('" ""I'" - "'nl. l'C~ " I i )I".ion 01. .'. e. II 11\ IJL' .iving ruin..icct to cu ndsnsat. 11)~1l~side L spray ructuro.g.IIceJJlcllt ratio CII'I be stridly controlled. ~_'\i II. ! !! ~~11.I('0~ (_' " . protected by a 1) surface kg/m8 kg/IllJ kg/lll~ kg/m:J kgilll3 kg/rn3 kg/m3 kg!m3 o ".n 1.10 ZO l. __ . \\ hother sll!.g.55 :2·10 2GO 290 2/10 2GO 290 290 330 350 310 0. these ))I(JY be reduced to: Plain concrete I· iI" ""1 " -I ~·.1'·...'}'..) membrane i nternnl -urfaces.. . ..55 310 0.55 370 0. '! jJ IIof 4. wet -ubioct to the 300 300 320 340 . L'eezin~ . 'J _. :li'."posed to the I '\':'I'cr with 'i r .50 30U _ .'o'oTegate (ill mrn) 1\ I" x i mu m Nornl ual mnximu r.60 220 250 280 300 0.. _..00 310 0.45 200 230 250 270 0. .

for the durability of concrete exposed to sulphate attack 803 III ground W:ltPI· exposed Requ i "ements for dense.lel' oxt.2 < 30 Ordinary Portland or Portla nd-blastfurnace 240 290 240 270 290 280 330 380 0..II'C <·~dvis. at to t h .g.s p er 100000) Nonunal maximum of aggregate 40 kg/m3 20 kg/m3 size (in mm) ..45 respectively.l be made to BRS Digest 174:1975. and for.·:1 Where tho tota l SO:] ill e.':n.". Hl'I. mix PI"( ·'01":' ions. < 0.s complying with the requirements ofBS 882 or BS 1047 placed in nn.6 330 330 0.-~ (Purt.lequato protective coati ugs - Roqnlremonts (a) and (b) both apply. strengt.1 inn alld thus minimum permeability. the 111'0]108(.45 0.'I'Clll'" shoul.0 U) < 3.1 and manufucturin r mctho.0 > 5.!l I~eqlli!'cmellts Io r desjgned rnlxu- Mix proportions having the required minimum cemcnt content and recommended by the producer of a particular lightweight aggregate as complying with the strength requirements of grades 15.0 .l' mini ma .1I.c'dioll..ty if necessary. NOTI· () The prescribed mixes given in Tuble 2 III· !'. 1Ii ill scciioll'.6 420 ~.rnct may result in a lower site classification if much of the slIl:..'1" I' rcpnred frorn nrd inary 01' .55 :30 < 120 Ordinary Portland or Portia n d. 20.5 < 1..d to I he en' If'(' I· for each grade.0 < 2. 25 01' 30 may be accepted in lieu of trial mixes where tho engineer is satisfied that the results can be ac h ioved...:.50 0.. 0. This table applies only to concrete made with "~~I'. of class 2~ co mout contou-« nhove t. .: '('nder! workability.2<5. .50 0.abili.. For scvc re cond itions (o.1 nix TI/rgl~t mean p r: "lOllS lliC.. P''''pose the free \\.1 < 5.45 3 U.. of co n. 3. For 80s contents near the liriit. See P81-t .45 ~~--------+---------+---------!~~~~------~~------~~----~~--~~---+~~----------~ 5 > 2. © I~: I I·' ~ ~)'lR 7 . an increase in cement courr nt to ensure the degree of worknhility for rill! 'Ullljl". ('.0.'~atc. For higher grades of concrete.50 and 0..-.n-ucut nll ~roundlViltCl'S of pH G to!J. NO n:.·":". ~~ "Ild 80 shill] he taken as 0.u is present as Iow-solubiliry calcium ~"IJi' It..·~ Ei.} shn-vi !c~· that..0 3..~c"ic.bJ a stfu mace Sulp ha to-resisting Portland Supersulphate d 330 280 310 330 360 380 420 .'1 7 mny be usorl where appropriate to meet the requirements of this table.' n nde r hyd rostatic pressure on one side only and sections partly immersed) consideration should be ~i\'ell to a [\11"11"..1 120 < 250 Sulphate-resisting Portln nd or supersulphated 250 < 500 Sulphate-rosisting Portland or supers u lpha ted > 500 ~'\I1pkILC-1'o"istillgI'orLla nd 01' 330 370 370 4 1.l \\::1 pro concreto of tho required quality.' 3. Concentration of sulphutes I1S BS 5400-8:1978 . .idence of su. 3.tedcCllWl\l riltin" "I' ~rc·"les ~(I. r.. 10 kg/m3 1 ~-1().. DcG%. trial mixes should be made..-.----------~--------~--------~ NOTI~ j Neil" I~2 superaulphated plus :1 .i1":. n ~: .1 "·:.r.oIl1l\111 ~ """"1.' the 'IIi 11iilia I )'ccnlllilwilded by the manufacturers.6.1 i Ilg' I'urt lnnd 1:I'''Wllt should not be recommended in acidic conditions (pH 6 or ~ The cement contonts g ivou i II class 2 .dphate·.-~ Table 4 .\i. fully compacted concrete made with aggregates complying with BS 882 or BS 1047 'l'y pes of cernen t (a) Minimnm cement content (b) Maximum free water/cement ratio In soil Total S03 80~1 2 : 1 in wator extract % gil ....55.._·(L .Requirements ~.55 0. N(J'''I~:j 11\11"'1' . contn in ill~ !liltll"" II)' occurrjng sulphates but not contaminants such as ammonium salts.<1.'. Evidence should he sulnn i: .it.·educ: ion ofthe water/cement r ratio and.

: '~gl'oQ':ltes for gl"llde 1.. III ixcrl for different times.. The watrr content of each batch of concrete should be "r1j\l~:.lici. .lY bo tuko n liS in '.. _.Olll.).'·1'11!'.ipproxi: 'at. \1:1 hill I. ..! approp riute gl'nde of he IHIIde for t.I! .·lul'al concrete are Iikrly to he f' l.. .-tc .: proper control of production. quarry or otho I.6.1' .' if the e ng inco r is satisfied that the materials to I. The engineer should be afforded all reasonable opportunity and facility to inspect the materials and the manufacture of concrete and to tak(.ho wnl .! )11. <:nllid !. : co. . I . j 'i·escr.~ I. ns of"strength of designed mixes .lt8S k nov.ll mix cs for ortl.. !1:" .. 'i [o): l 'I'. . proportions offine :1~gre8nte II:CI'd.IJ(!I.IIIUm'lbt'. 1111.1"': 'l!' i"n~ i-: given.)(: Ii I11nl. (I "pending on the propcrtio« of I: .1' During prod lid ion .ucn '. Separate fine and coarse aggregates should be used except for grade 15. I h'pclld i ng th-: ..2). ')" ': . 1 1'1.peelerl stru et.: I n he typical from past rocords of 1.use . strenzth nnd I.\·(!.). '~TII..c) on th» i"'. m ixe» p~~·." sligl:t .! .h.8 Production of concrete 3.!. tri a] mi xes. . _..·t .I!'t 7 hrr w i: hill" "It:)l weights of dry ag~l'l~gate t. . 111. PJ'('. The mixing time should he not less than that used by the rna u u C. If trial mixes are required to d -onstrate that the maximum free water/cement ]' ) is not exceeded (see 3.l ('" .~ gI'l .. 3.tI. For the grades of concrete other than 15.. :l<:"!l'egall's n!'e used.'. .~. ) r jorccnt. . ~l'" I .5. Fill.11·11. :ll\d it may be advisable to determine a sntisluctory Ill..mgea in cement content may have 10 bo dCi":II'ocl (see 3.. ln LIlt! C:I ~(' of III ixes oflow workability or high camo nt n. See Part 7."' :11111'.1iJl" 1. Ch.c·. . and mixing. I iii.1.* . Ilgth. :.. two batches should l. t--.:1' . ']'118 results of such tests should be reported II) t lie engineer and should be used to check whether tho gradings are similar to those of the samples used in the establishment of the mix proportions..l{equil'cl1wlll.c/l. -. !l 'I' : 'f.ixing time by comparing the strength of sa mp lc .ltellt. checked by casting a trin 1pa nel .'.. the lower p"I'cl'n!":lge lppl"lbl" '" fincrmnterinl such ::v '/llIlC:~ ~.II. For 1 h is purpose existing laboratory tl reports may he accepted instead of trial mixes 0' . a ny s. m ix.l value at the proposed degree of wizability. 11111'...]> . but the specii'i('11 i im its of minimum cement content and muximum \\':1 tor/cement ratio should be maintaiir-d.8.<. Irfrl.8.< I .. 1.' lin the tests. where all-in aggregate may be used.1I·ity or the :lggregat.:.11h.' gTacie 1:') a range olIino ". for prescribed I'li.-r Cr01l1 the values gil'en in ~ .1).' . the grading of each sivo of aggregate from each pit.3 Aggreg o ie.[."! ago chosen to proclucc a cnnvh i nod Ii Ids orns i"'. Till! proposed mix p!lIol'tions should not be accepted unless both b» hes have a fr"I! water/cement ratio below the m ..1.imp ie s or to make any tests.: tJ l. The u» 1\ i 11l1l In cement contents lor these ]1' -vribed rn ixes . ...' 1 month.ii (' 1.u. all hOI' I) small adjustments 111<1)' be rIr.. 1.agc being :11'1.u cd to c:. ::.b ili I.(!dso as to produce a concrete of the workn bi II!y t'l)accord with the trial mixes or Table 2 of P:1I't-.u: to th""" . cr '.in ary st. Table ~ ofI'urt '7 also ~.l(ljustments of mix proportions will be made ill IInle\' to minimize the variability of strength 111Ic! to approach more closely the target mean sl.11' be hie h case 1'118 bul l: d('llsit v of ! . 3.' '. 3.·:il·.il() ['(·qui····I workability.. I -~.:lsl/ll.~.~ (.3~ 01' lOll for 'i:. ..ts to mix proportions..~p' ..~ i II '!I.'5400-8:1978 _ .. I." bag -.ll'e g-ivcn in Table 2 oEP.o 1 I:C8 ap.<.1gg1'cgntcs. ~ e BSI 12-1998 .. "'[In:: I'.111:1)' be tn ko n IlS 1 GUu k~/1I1:}. -i"ppliel'. . .8.2 Cement.u ra. \\..2).11"'0 .'.ent. I:' 'I' ly 1111: of concrete.' .. It is advisa blo to check the accuracy of the batching plant mr-nsuring equipment at intervals not cxcoedili'.5.8.1 General.· :~('d in 11\(· ·dl·l.. Such adjustments are regarded as part of t: . The WOI'k.·ICI! this volu me ofconr-r.:10 of 1110 app rop rin te 8i'/(I." source of supply should be determined at least 011C1!wcck ly..1.SA Balchill.rirJllu . All such inspection. :1:3 n ppropriate . 11' I '.(Tete.:' of I: " material. required c to the qua: II 1i Y 0 r ..' as WIll? 1 snnd.rn.I '('~. 3.0 ry with ce ment and S LLdace dry .'1):11'. .)CI\ll·ol·inassessing the mixer performance.'1)/ 3. sampling and testing should be carried out with the minimum of interference with the process of IIIa nufacturs and delivery.rt ch "'ei~hts should be cnlcul.0 'I' "l""l'i: .ct:congcstedplwtofthpwo!'k .'111. . The results of routine control tests carried out by the aggregate producer should be accop tod for this imum specifio.-) 111.~ 3..n d (' inn 1:1 I)W:1 1.J _. k.~ Trial mixes.I'tl. this may not ensure maximum strcnvt.y of :1 ·d mix Sllll"!rl !.) C"II! . See Part 7. I. . 3. -. _.

9 Compliance with specified requirements 3.1..2 or 3. A change in the "current margin" used for judging compliance with the specified characteristic strength becomes appropriate when the results of a sufficiently large nurn her of tests show that the previously eSi.2..e. - 9 . but although a recalculated margin is almost certain to differ numerically from the previous value.5.~ls on 40 separate batches.'1nne r Silll i lur to b) above. It should not. . Tho e.3. IlI!I'! "..6. however.9. sampling within rate 1 as given in Table 3 of Part 7 would be suitable for highly stressed structural elements. whereas rate 3 would be suitable for mass concrete not subjected to high stresses.\on("s should he judged by Lhe srnndards :1 .2 Change of "current margin".~t icity of concrete). ..ions and l'eqllil'eil workability.1 General.) and :3. 3.» based on tests on 100 separate batches. 3. 3.[.9.'.2 Strength 3.9. however. pre-scribed mix [or ordina I'Y structu rn 1 I ·U:l·cl. test r"' g: \ 11]<.'J:lljllt content in comparison with Lho s c'r:ii'il'd minimum (see 3.2 OJ' 3. satisfy himself that t' ..2 Testing plan A.-.9.lI\cn!!' :1! iun with it I I ~ . Sec Part 7.8) and practices of hand ling raw rna: -ials and mn nufacturod concrete have been use :. rates 1.9. together with ..0 have suTicio nt strength (it " 3. ····od on the basis of the specified mix I port.iou oftii« met II' "I' :(·~t and will! tolerances that take apl' '.":inICer should.. :3.1 :II. .In!l.. It achieves a good balance between the consumer's risk of accepting concrete that does not meet the strength requirements and the producer's risk of having satisfactory concrete rejected. tho· ass l'lqllir. i .c dcterillilled only in del :Iiled dcscript.9.2.2. A minimum rate of sampling should be decided taking into account the nature of the work.9. rates may well be reduced when high quality has been established. the adoption of the recalculated value is not generally justified if the t \VO values differ by less than 18 % when based on t·'. When the average strength of four consecutive test cubes fails to niect the recommendation of 3. 60 m3 and 150 m3 for .1. .:'.~ "i' ('In.g. +~ - H(!u(/y-mixed concrete. in addition when it is npplicnble.1 3.ic strength (see a. be applied to every batch as this would be expensive n nd would provide no better overall assurance to the consumer than plan A. This may range from q uu lified acceptance in less severe cases to rejection n nrl removal in the most severe cases. Provided that the engineer is satisfied that the materials used are in accordance with . .. cnmrctc is likciv 1.. the mix proportions of subsequent batches of concrete should be modified to increase the strength. Wh·· roqllirements not d0i'Cl'.. .1 nufuctu ro.ilJedin detail in this Brit 11 . unless otherwise specified. 1:.2AAction to be taken in the event of non-compliance with the testing plans..8). and for the economic consequences of alternative remedial measures either to replace (he substandard concrete or to ensure the integrity of Cl tty structure in which the concrete has been J' laced. compliance with should I.-.e should. For ordinary structural work.1 General.~. 2 and 3 respectively under anyone decision.rbi lil y due to sampling. Higher rates of sampling and testing may be required at the start of work to establish the level of quality quickly or during periods of production when quality is in doubt..I manner similar to n) above t·· ..<.9. density Of mOI.1.1:1:1(. This should be the normal method oftesting the concrete production..2.aiJ Iishcd margin is significantly too large 01' too small.3 should be determined by the engineer. but this has to be set against the volume of concrete normally put at risk.·Ie <iCCOUltt ofvari. In doto rruining the action to be taken.2. I hut.'oj(> in cotuparison with the specified ( .1designerlillix forordinury structural concrete ~ "Ild be judged by the strength of the 118 rdened .1. c: . ''1. .9. or less than 11 % \V h. Recalculation of the margin should be carried out in accordance with 3.lrd are specified (c.3).9.. i ·~ -- . 30 m3.2). be j.he cornp lin nce of ..6. This should be specified where the engineer requires assurance that the concrete placed in a particular part of the works is of adequate strength.8. I·) .. The cost of implementing a suitable system of sampling and testing is not negligible.9. :1.:id Ilu judged ill . II !'''"cl'ibecl mix [0" 8pecL:11 structura I concrete S ': It: !!e jud gerl in :t III .9. For example.: with any specified special r . ('. _ stOll! (I 'j in :L!).2. The action to be taken in respect of the concrete that is rep resented by the test cubes that fail to meet the rccommendatione of 3.3 Testing plan B.. or less thnn . rate 2 is a lJ p ropriate.~ .3 and that correct methods of mar» fact 111'e (sec 3.!1.9. conversely.% when bused on tests on 500 separate ha lr: hcs.t1('si~n('lllllix [()I' special structural concrete ~ .. r:1C1(' rist. the engineer should have due regard for the technical «ousoquences of the kind and degree of non-compliance. i..BS 5400-8:1978 .2. 3. ~ _. 3.

h of prestressed concrete before tra nsfer 01" 0 [' concrete in a member before striking form work or removing cold weather protection.ose 1Ii'(.0 .!I'(: work commences.10 Surface finish of concrete :).OC\lI'.uds .I'ol of colour. The type of surface finish required d I.s iIlljJUI'I::mt.hat are intended to have the same SIII:'.itio of lrcsh concrete to :) % (. The extra cubes should be identified:lt the time of making and should not be used for tho normal quality control or compliance procedures. .ll h: _ v rkahility.9.·'111('actual value w it. ('1)')lIl' u nd durability are affected by curing (~().. . 1. .'l"l'ver I!():.samples of surfaces of adequate size (preferably incorporating a horizontal and vcrtic. 'idC!lr':e of' '%.. .j'·.I':e f 1\ish snould receive the same treatment. 3.. .. ill th: tri.11oi ."j % 0[" the actual \ . b) the mix proportions actually used in the concrete unde-r investigation. .. .[.-. ineer should 0!" tests on concrete for special purposes.1 1I1:1Xi1l1111ll .i r:Oll'I'r'te in the structure to confirm i integrity 01' other» ise. 3. 2 or 3.all materials should be obtained fl'():II~il1:::le consistent sources. :\lidolil"j or~}:)%.10.' it! .e 'c'rmined fr: : :":II I " of any testing "I}LT'''~ dtw to sa m pl n-c) is ll~('d 1.r] mixes. WIlCfeappearance is important.i I:\:\. but the methods of sampling and the conditions under which the cubes a re stored should be varied according to the purpose for which they are rsquired. t.ihil ity .1<:y 01 '.l"Ollh:Llt. Wh'.. which may v. 1) the possil. . .-ar!y specified." and their interrelationship.Hlll'J1t of individual plywood sheets or sections 0': iIIILei' in large panels should be avoided. All the factors affecting the q un li I.ructure. and t he cubes should be stored as far as po!"'~il)l()u nrlrr the same conditions as the concrete ill the members. These should be made and tested in accordance with BS 1881.:I. For detailed descriptions of l\Jl''conc]"1 " ll'o'ided t hut a suitable testing ime is user! 'II'" -ure the cement conro nt 01" h concrete' ) :1:1 :~'Ttl r:1I'Y of ± . 3.~ rut. and whether or not it is to receive an npp licrl fillish.\ I s. sampling should preferably be at the point of p 1:1c in g.'() Ll1" wntcr/cement I I '''.l'I.ll'll t 311 d Concrete Association Technical j\liI"i~I"I'Y~.iu altcrnat «h of coucr:1110 (i nrlud isu rc tho \\ . Col'\l!!' call L.0 face..ll. For determining the cube strcnt. Where uniformity of ("l·t.'111. ". -nsuring th: .n.' -t..·enH'ni.L. In formwork the H:p'..5 Wate1icl" II/ /. and .1'" Part 7.9.2.'1. i . I i·:li.eel hatch \\l.6 Air content of fresh concrete. at U suitable level of \ tar/cement . £17. The appropriate finish. staircase).iffoctad by curing.\CI'(:' .unl 'blemish free" should be avoided. ..)pe nds 01\ I he nature of the member (column. an alternative th« cement content may he (Ir srmiued Ct'.iply with t l: L t'('Cj!:." 1io. D.] < 5400-8:1078 .1 Cell 1'1'(11. --------:I -------------------------------- © BSI 12·1998 i - .3 Cement ..)t.-. The obsorvntion ofbatching "elation to t ' ir. 111(' biliiy to a (: . slab or unit. nt III ntcriuls I m ix prop') i(]l1~ :!I"e no! su!JSI::1l\( lly different ia It tl.y of Ihe: surface finish from formwork should be C:III' Cu11v studied.2.7 AddU unt.3 are not satisfied.» influence of any reduction in oncrete qual: Iy () 11 the strength and dumb i li ty of his section " !"I\.) (I) 'J 3.)igitLs is one way t. J . i1 io l1!:IY 1)1' judged Irorn work.irv l'rom face 1. PI" '.")11/.I. ~ CUII/.9.1 ::·1 conditions including the time of re r« . C')I!I: "neill.' joint) SiIOUldbe made available and agreed he I'.4Worlmbi. the 01. Additional cubes may be required for various purposes. attention i. .c..h a [H·(1·1.IIlI.sible. CI. .ormwork require careful consideration.. should be carefully chosen nud cl. ~)the actual '0cl i(l!1of Lite structure represented ')y the test c' l)e:-.d I' lelt tho cons I. i: .:lii IC.onfirmation 'lUll specimen sampling and testing have been cnrricd out in accordance with BS 1881.' !":\Ci(!:. If a "I(' Ill:'! xi III 1I m 'ICI·n specified.LIe with a c. curing iuo tl._ ... ( . estimating (he concrete quality and in (1 ermining the' action to be taken when the editions of 3. representative !l rhat 3. It should be noted that the method of measuring air content described in BS 1881 is not applicable to concrete made with lightweight aggregate. \\ 1have been dcterminocl by means of I 1 mixes. 111!'Lesepresentative r or any . its final position in the structure. rios..y.1blish the following wherever l(~ible: 1) the validi: \" of I he test results.I(/il!"/ion 0/ high quality concrete surfaces.0 ric("!!"Il' r. . . These may include 1'1a-destructive methods 0]" the taking' of cored f nples (see a pperu] ix A).io may be 8 snitable I.. The use of terms such as "fair ['. -- engineer I! -v wi-h to carry out aclditionnl tests the harden. hC. 1.111..019_ 'J"l. 11 ill'lrod to tho pamphlet Recommendations for t /11' /) '·(.

~ if __ r: . Pa rticular care should be taken in the placing of the now concrete close to the joint.!I'e mix Ileal' the surface..1Design and construction.ire specified.0 t. in the choice used.:!.mros .. r.1) ~\Ih~c'[ucnt durnuge. including supports."ldd he noted that finishes of type "A" and HB" do Ii':' I 18CC''. The engineer should satisfy himself that all permanent or temporary formwork.111.. II ' n_~\ l .'('I on 01' nppliNl finish and. carr' ~hntlld be taken to ensure the cornpatib ilitv of the ··.. :.1i:0.1 .3. The surfaces will be imprinted with the gl'ain of the sawn boards and their joints.~. w it. . It .:-. '" I undo!'! hi~ heud inz is :Illy finish t1wl "" 1 !.. I 'l" \I.·r·tion. CO! . . The surfaces 1:. 01. .'. .llllillcrillg or other treatment.~[JL:ci.IC1.1" r1(H'""I~ tl) he accepted or m. .1Construction joints..BS 5400-8:1978 _.'o".'y.2Formwork i '.ll l'IlIS h 01' linings.~" n rul should. J L 2A Projecting reinforcement.11. Release agents for formwork should be carefully chosen for the pari icular conditions they [Ire required to fulfil.10. ' appv: "i:!i" hec'. <11. 3. Spccinl care should be taken when demoulding in order not to break off the edge of the concrete adjncc nt to the projecting reinforcement.I I ::( j. Sec 3.:. Concreting should be carried out conti nucusly up to construction joints. \lSC IIi' . will be im printr«! with vrain of the wrou rht boards and till' I' JOI n: c: m..::"d str: lI~'(" r any p~ll'l: of it u nnccep tnhle 1. honeycombi ng or other large hlci: ishos.'. blel':i.2 Form lining. 3. Where possible.~I.l. IIH.h. :1. Alternatively the location of joints should be subject to agreement between the engineer and the contractor before any work commences. the formwork should be designed to Jucilita te the preparation of the joint surface.'\' 511"1:' I he as 1"'(' n' possiL'".[ 111g11 quality concrete. it should be at least 70 mm high and carefully constructed.-ra tion should be given to the type of COl" . These should he fully specified if possible." ..3 Release agents..:..11. In ( III '::I.IH'I' t. san Tnt: req ex}' J. a starter stub) is used.rl.n fin 01' should be ta ksn.. Construction joints should be at right angles to the general direction of the member and should take Ii ue account of shear and other stresses.. din nsioun l tolor. u::iy in theory: 1.peci:\: pre): : i'Jl 'l 1\' il:1Vl' to be provided in vulnernh!e nrr :::'1 ' <lCl r. nor do th. : !". The number of construction joints should be kept as few as possible consistent with reasonable precautions against shrinkage.~ 111:11. fixing devices.3 Cleaning and treatment of forms. In add irion small blemishes caused by entrapped» ir 01."Pf'Ci~llboard-marked finishes.). 2. 'V . but the surface should Ill! free irC'lll voids.·l"ctse agent with the tinish. !\ll~nlll!1. be re lat. 3. Joint lines should be so arranged that they coincide with leutures of the finished work..OI1~( lev ..rrv have in P!'.hout rcndcriuu I h<J I blo III if' hcs CLHI:<ed by entrapped : i I' 01' wat I' may be expected. honeycombing or other large T. is . in«.orl to ]. 3.11. The lise of shutter paint retarding agents should be (! iscouraged because they tend to migrate into the concrete under the action of vibration.11.. . See 3. Concrete should not be allowed to run to a "feather edge" and vertical joints should be formed against a stop board.< ru ct i o u with concro to. of: Care '1'. I rl e q 11 a te for the proper construction of the ]"("!'manent work.i. but the surface should be fre" "rom voi ds.' ~ .id ily available ['I >I' ("ill11) 1)-'II!1. which should be indicated on the drawings.."C of r gn '!lilul"IIL COJlCL'I. as the op tim um time for treatment is usually 2 h to 4 h 8L'Lcl'placing. !'ruf. \V here it is necessary to introduce construction joints..'1 rtvpe» ai/iI/ish.'(' ro. The top surface of a layer of concrete s hould be level and reasonably flat unless design considerations make this undesirable..:I Iie h qun lity suifn co fini~hH m:o sus. to ensu rc that the surface is not permanently ~i ni ncd i . This finish can only be nchir-v-. This concrete should 1)(J j)nrticularly well compacted and if possible a vibrator should be used.\\~h. _---------------------------------- 12·19'!') 11 .cl. careful consideration should be given to their exact location. 3.lll(l .0IC]':11.wluck .2. if I10CI'~Snl.10. 3.~..:i a ri Iy provide a suitable surface 1<) ]'e('" "I' in-vitu concreto or applied finishes.' .o.':)hllf'l1i: s ho u ld J)'~ f'pcciril'd for t. u r.10. Whore the surface is to receive an applied finish. 3. ] f a kicker ( pu:: iso f which it is intended.1004 Surfuce [inlshes [01' formuiork or nioul ds Type ''j\''{inish. . nl. the.'1'01. hy TYJ' "(" [iuish.e. '(y/ "Ti"/il/ish.l tho "~ .:!.11.yp ""I1.." ':OD!':-:'() n~g'rcg[ll:e to be pe rmn nc I)...'~' .' walo r may be expected..") [Ig'cnt 'Cit (1)!'. I!' d/ :.!' ' "/3"' [inisli.

11.lucod by !i.r! -. will not bc cxcess 01' Iii ntcly follow the removal of the vertical vork <. pre.' I . "11\\'..l:. -contractor should submit to the (' '.tent ofb:iI'i lpell."'I)i..4 Slrihill. The (ls..ted p rovdr-I \:l:\t t ho concrete cn n still be 1 .'cs ii' . concrete. TI' . It should be d posited as Iw. The .~. scrnco arul will not cause.Lll.I:L'Uct. h\':I':I( inl!. . .'n cOll1!.nc contractor or manufacturer in ( usultation \\ :1 the engineer.!lll in Ihe CDS'! of precast "~:t..I I"). Lk\t will prevent the s-gregation 01' 1')88 of any of the ingredients and m aintain the I" "I uircd worka bi lity.' :llll'olill1itl~ mix propo de"ignillg the mix.'l' w. e. for soffit formwork it would be appropriate til i ncrcase the value for 7 DC by half a: day for each eLi:' !..-...ion .. . especially to arrises and features.11:which [01'111\\'01'1-:: is rck i~ intluo: "ci :'Y Ll~. ) cwing ("f" .2 Striking period for cast in-situ concrete.! di~]li:l(:('ll\entofreil1rorcelll('nt 'HI\'()n1c:!t n "1'11"1'01'1-:.' thr 1:<1sl u:.lng. reference should be millie 1:0 the specialist literature.I. ucrete shov ' : Le t ".. It sr'C"regnte may be allowed to full f ely i hroug h '''ly r' .'e. special care should he I.1\/1'" il: may be necessary to insulate the COli. 1 rbaice .l' ''It the water : he' op 01.' ". \\.:1111 pie.11. hock or OLlLOl' means during detail" of tho method of transporting and I acing concrc: ".LL qu.. 'sec\ ions it is neCCSS:lI'Y to '"id L' the ei':: 0: lift !:"ighL on the temperature : due to (hi' li\. or so that the rates of evaporation of \\'1' i'llllll tho surfaces are kept to appropriate v.: de~lgnorl . appropriate to different members n nd 1'0.11\.'!' " 1.]:S 5400-8:1 !178 3.uthere 'IWI 3. In tho <1 bsence of control cubes.~ inc!ud. liut delays in placing may be rmif. y u-i. clu-ck inj.1 l::(' '''IIC:'''ie nt any st:lge in the nn.Ilel receive unt C()l11P:' r- lly. " C\':lcki ng in the structure... air tcmporntures may be used though these are less ]1L'(. ! normally be p lncod and compacted in after mixr :.lIA.OL'Ollghlycompacted by \ bration. and .nt ":mdl '" tre. Th-: )l(!l'iods given in Table 4 of Part 7 are not _.ioed and d" 'I\'l":cOI::p'lll._ 'I' lIIi\"hnnll: ". ...()Il"irb~l'<Il:ion (>11SUl'C to I tion !la" to be n p p l iod extcrna ..dy practicable in its final position 1 avoid rehandling. lind.'s i n. j III III The' t» t!". . ( .'II which tho concrete temperature was g" II' 'l':I.6).:I rv 1. and the concrete shou 'd !ie protected from low or high temperatures by !.deep lifts to .iOl'i l'i wl. To achieve these olij ..4.rscd according to the reduced maturity.._. .s('ssment of [ornuior]: striking times and FOJIII/IJork stri/~ing times prepared by CIRIA.iud 'i'" 'I) nvoid surface blemishes._ _ 1 placing a nd compacting should be carried out del' Lhe d irr-:: supervision ofa competent me I1l bor ci 'hc cont. '1'111 . + ":lddi"posilionorvil. ..'I ._ .t! without the 1• - nddition of [Ul'. intorded to apply where accelerated curing or slip Iorn. Different curing or drying tre.I t' SI) that il is maintained at a suitable t..-to P' n~' 11.1 . For ('.G). as the sudden removal of wedges is equivalent to a shock load on the partly hardened concrete.laninge to fnccs of j'!l1\Vnrk. oi' curing and protecting the concrete.)) .~lti' ~ C. ". :.] 11:1S.stn nce provided that special ( i' is takcu to .ra i-: 1'1'0111 tile lowo rIovo ls..' :lg to p rorl uco the required rfaco finish' he n 1 he Iormwork is removed..Ja.1. ". [\ ."n ..: are used. in I".0 reduce be . care should be exercised to avoid damage II'" v il.ietion ipuction.01.:.c' 01. j\ of re-entrant angles requiring to be removed as soon as possible after concrete has set to avoid shrinkage cracks." h th.ain the surface temperature of concrete. curi ng and their duration should be such 'he concrete will have satisfactory durability :11](1 '[. \\"1. Tile depth 0[' I: ' to l»: concreted should be (':termined by .Ilowin~ tactors: 1(" .l1.1) 8\1':~("luer:: surface The contractor should it to 1he t' 11 ineer details of the proposed g .i'I). .rter. 3.lIy between 2 DC and 7 DC.1.. 1) requirements of any deflection profile.. 3..}j o] concrete .Cll : . voviaion of suitable curing methods should 1'1'1':1' i .' : :1" LIt' a~ possible under the same conditions.acticable by '. "'. '1'.hel'e necessary. In cold weather the period should be incro.i'. l".1»l'lllwol'k should be removed slowly. ". ! 1.) cns u re that similar components are (:11].IILS of suitnule insulation (see 3.: posicion and '. ')! ...! 1. and a whole day for e:lcll d.ol. S\ I' : me: mel tha I n-ontmcnt require merits: e BSI 12·1998 .1\'." . . _\' ~ DC."II I 'C(' . by its shrinkage.Jl·~i!nI'S c"i .1 Curuu. methods. suchearly lormwork ~) presence Th. .ract i'~ (nr manufacturer's) staff.' . but .3 Trans port. for appropriate guidance. '.] rC! iy I ' '.)d:.1 Gonerot..icrcta shou.. placing and compacting o} eoncrete.(!ll~th and Lhe member will suffer a nun: iu rn ofdistortion.'. be free of excessive e'fl. . Where it is not practicable to asort. Cu I· a nd ()r""I'm/l'()J"/~ erll. a. t i nu .' .IY on which the concrete temperature was lwl. ..g. A cohesive concrete I ix that doo. accurately controlling ions : hrouvhout the work. '. 't. Concrete should be transported I om the mixr r t. . S id. \' 'icncver z- lila II formwork to vertical surfaces such as beam lis and columns is removed in less ::2 h.11 \11'0.d'.d.) IIw formwork as rapidly as 1 .' opornt.

ts should be prevented.. Some -pccial case.11.1[11iti0s 01' i'l'.'.· · .7flot weather work. precautions should be taken to .l 1:1"'1 tl) LI!I '!.' I. b) by increasing the cement content of the mix or by using a more rapid hardening cement."!1 CQIl(T\. Alteruat« wot : iJig and drying should be avoided.» I.lI)'('. _ tho 1'.Ill' a t n lower I PllllJe'I'.11. Accclcra ted curing 1.l Manufacture off the site.:.lpid . Concrete temperature.. In order to minimize the stros-cs induced.I'iJ f'!':~l\vol'L whilo 1 he concrete is still hot.'Lc :re 1']. .: m irli!v .he Iormwork.l water should not be applied to relatively massive merubors immediately altr r striking I._1 1. l'Ci:')IT' ]l1'!'~·I'0.--. See Part 7.: '.. The freezing of trapped.l'ollrd cnvironmen.8 fIandling and erection of precast concrete units :~ .:d liv frost sh.\I!'08 should be measured lio~ii...._L • .' rute 1)1' i.crete..lLCclcement. water can cause severe damage. The contractor submit to the engineer details of the proposed method of manufacture. surface.'j' . 3. Special care should he 1 I ' '\I'\.: . only small settlements are to be preferred. The c ngineer should in all cases specify the points of SUPPOI'!. Cu ri ng usually consists of maintaining the Jorruwork in place and covering the concrete wit h a 1)1.u n ng '..· 1l1:11l <111. :.l"kc('lcratcd curing. should Who. ('(l!ILTeto ."ilyd concrete.'I (1 ..11. it is advisable to Il1 ix the water with the aggregate before adding the cement. In either event care should be taken to prevent excessive evaporation of water from the concrete.In.uld only .' to avoid ~ urfuce crack: ng. I!' . 1Il wi 11 thr·II. Wlwn . completely surrounding the freshly placed concrete or using heated formwork panels. I he re-moved frr!' CO" 'lic" r('LI' .I"I"(. {).. ~ The various factors influencing curing.'05' 1 b. co. i.In '"171.d)o\'o r. 'Ict with ':111"1 'I~ '.11'0 of"tho concrete.ure'isc! .G.ljI' t.·~ moisture from i Ill. S.! I'. location and orie ntn Lion marks should be put on the member end where: necessary. ac.'.·c]._- .'I '. :1.1 Ui. .:(' i"l ':':1" ro ngt h. fresh concrete will be in contact ~hlJ .'.._1.'I. cor.!Illl w 1 '! I ..·)t concreto ::i II rf: lI'es.1 lu..1to of development of strength ill he greator the neod to prevent excessive (~·r· renee..1 unfuvourable 13 .5.:I.'Ild I:he ruto o l: ':Illpen.\. <i'i :11·tiCit"i. .o °C sh. during storage. ~ - .I I . If the water is heated above 60 °C.]lyconl. - TL ' :')I1I.e): ("'1 I' 'I' ioorl: .l"!"ll'lllculceis .h..1101"ial such as polvcthylene 8h00t or a curine compound Ol' with all absorbent nutc rial that ie' kept damp for a period of time.-'il 'in'! I 'un:. cspeciu l'y in t. The lil i 11 i Jill! m age for handling and transp ort should be related to the concrete strength. without permanent damage! all ~i:rrss"~ induced by handling and transport.l('{:umulation of trapped water and rubbish in the un. includinz admixtures.' Be"· 1. pl.I. at I lIe should resist.11.ivoic! J"!lSt stains from projecting reinforcement and . In orde I.ill ~C'lllp01":ltllJ'O ithi n t ho member .""il1!! t.. are given in appendix D. I Ii.It".\ 11' bl'gol' qua ntitic.] JlI' bn!'!v he at a temperature close to that of 111" '''('!:ill!:.dcnce of' . • curinu in low-pressure a mnx im um teruperat ure of 50 "C i. 3.' J'i"~\ ...2 . and these should be chosen to prevent unacceptable permanent distortion and lack or fit of the units. supporting arrangements that po 1"111 i 1. lublc..d:isf"acLoI'Y 1)(. 81(':1111 IIi' I) rot" sU[JI'!'~uli. Where disfigurement would ile detrimental. Indelible identity.\. "'!ltrol!..1 stack is several units high. packings should he vertically above each other to prevent additional bondi 11 ~ stresses in any unit.he form of cold water up plied to ].~11011 '. c) by covering the top face of slabs and beams with adequate insulating material. stool illhl :11\)' surface I'. rl) by providing wind breaks to protect newly placed concrete from cold winds. :-'1)('ci'l1 p rocnutions should h(' 'lll.' o : I'n' I "I'011.' to 111 in i ruize efflorescence. .:l Handling and transport. e) by using a heated 3.e mpe rrtu re oftho COI1I.ll.11. '.ion.r·· !'(' 1'1'.8.] mn i n t. Where structural members are of considerable depth or bulk or have an unusually high proper: ion of cement or are precast units subjected to special 01' accelerated curing methods.BS 5400-8:1978 . 10 ~poeclll!. ~ Storage."i'· wlii. 1 '1'1" higher or enclosure. The . " if cv.11. ('0111:1'('\('.. s1I1Jl11 it to the l'l1gineel' clol:1 Us method for raising ..111. packing pieces should not discolour or otherwise permanently damage the units. lu ri nv tho curly stW'I:' of luudeuiug.\II:('h in"~'I"'"S Slt'Dlll cu ring) con~id8 of cuiinv 1he COi' rete i.' chi' 1110.11'0 ciud as exumplcs in appendix B. :~ .!'" necessary.. 2 The raising of the temperature of the concrete may be achieved in a number of ways including the following: a) by heating the mixing water and aggregate. Precast units .(i Col d ireat... sur I. the type of unit and other rilevant factors. Cu ring .. the method of curi IIg should be -poci licd in detail.l".' "co "ill .! (!" f.j"'.

b) centl'ifU?. 7 ..'.. 11'. de tn i I..'.1 I iC11( if the st.l. .I'I'.ICC ".1. Temporary ports ~h. 1-(e:I'.J]\d water/cement ratio of the in-situ coru. .c. etc. \Vhcn appropriate.) the n ''1uirCll10l1IS l'l_:gl' "ILiOI1.'(11'"'' '~' '.oP(! COI:l..II'Y ks.Il)' I_! mortar or concrete (I":~' rr-si nous adhesives. i llg "f" prestressing tendons 3. ""11'. 1. : practicabl a nd ciu be used safely.litionlho arrn!l~ellleJl1 . the type of equipment. -re shou l. are load-bearing ~1lI(1 an.d(l I)e rllTnnved in u maunrr that 'm. comhinnt i<).C:. (I:' ent :" .\! I \ Ill' 11"('{.II: • crec: . ___ .icd.lli'!': (:."ll!'I1~lh L .[J(.lCont its nrC' o.'ete surfaces. '!'OIllO\'O(lOL"Telc. vcos such as nuts and wedges.. tosts shoi tid be carried out to prove that the material is suitable for the purpose and that the ]l reposed method of filling results in a solid joint. III.5 TCIII.. !) (he possi-ility .cn.iccount of movements. but should not be such as \\ I! ~ : 1I1!:lgc:. bituminous C' 111[lU\lll(l. The: CUllljlo.istruction lo. ..on is part of the design.oi.'. The protection can be provided by I m. 1 (.f'".·. . [ire resistance and durability.ion be Illtl.:.if nit J. Particular care should be given to checking the accurate location of reinforcement and any structura 1 steel sections in the ends of precast moIII ber!'.c'''." .S ~ll't~ :. tClIllw':-. .~ being joined together.u. particularly he tw c r' n s \! cces.l ge of concrete :1 lid any '1 I.icturu l e lc r '1:\.) mny be used provided that they fulfil ... the nimurn age 1"'1' handling.of post-tensioned concrete ~)I'1".1. II bearing in lte " '. . CD!"'! s liou h l 1.uld be .1 1)t'I"C'COS!: a u.." 'I_! n.'cti(l!l. I 'I' )J L"(1I" .'-. J:::) ". bctwcc n \\ nits. .lseduntil the uin I! . pl'lIl'ir. Packing materials .. . When reliance is placed on bond between the precast and in-situ concretes. Th0 '1:\1 e inspected to on-rurc t I.\' itu CUIl(TI'1 11l()' '11' or ~TOUt. likely to be countered dll • 'H! I '10 complr-tion of joints between .i nd importance. 1 Ul b) Other pucking her than grout. ) oscillatior A slim 1111'11\])01. '" ' f'"vernil1i:'. ! . .o dill\! to J1rn~ "~Si1" collapse. lead.ive vertical The precast .ll'.1Ce the present unit should have been of suiutbly P reputed. the 1 -thod of lifting.l in thein-situ position. When joints the horizontal joints lifts.'1.l in-situ concrete ~ ~ units should be free from irregularities of such size a nd shape as to lead to damaging stress concentrations.:".r'c:!: LI !I!prestressing tendons. npOl"U1Y suj uorts .lt.:)t the gil ['("1. Tho 1I1. 'I' .. a.'my supports during construction.\:'.'11\ I L1L:1 II)."":".! its jl\hl: :nll . '1'.:..8. The use of an exp.«: ( I damage due to chafine. 1I.".. 'I' 'i "1'('1 cd '.'i'(!"i. mporn ry supports of <II!. 111:. This is p:I!"1 icul.l'~.1: -ast I . temnorary '[JOl'IS shou: 1 t.~hl'ink.hould be designed for all (" . UII '" .ly St::':ciciltly to cnuse dama. ..11 ibl') i 11 all respects with the concrete 1)"11111'(>:\' :I.ute 01' mortar used in any connection shoul. a nd tra nsport to be used " -uld he as sjv-cified or agreed by the engineer.111(1 !lPPOl'LS should he such : ~1. and i hat no r! mage result" Irom the lifting equipment.t and pro "lim:!.' be' "lade 1. taken to ensure that the in-situ HUll "I'i:ll is 1 horoughly compacted. ign .I 1)(' taken to ensure that lifting details .t :2 1\10]1' (.' may flex vertically . including wind..dueL.sework :It present belli": :1. 'I) supnorts s 'f).0 The British Standard .sed methods for removing 10VI.r horizontn . materials. tnino..]I'C's.ring transport the following additional factors [uire consideration: a) distortion of tho transporting vehicles.1I. :~ : 1.111"11 ...8.nious d.1.-·jlion.-.' lil . e. and © BSI 12·1998 i ..ulv important in the case of permanently ex!" . . . The c(\ni 1':"'1 or should submit to the engineer.Iit'i( -nt 1" prevent: u ny locn l da m. :6" :\c'ent may be considered advantageous. hessian. 'ad in~' tl1n~" due:" . especially arrises and deci 'i:" :\1) k:i1.iv ol!11 erection.8.Tln/.ruct. The degree and extent of the I "I:I i I) II : ' iJ c p rovidsd should be sufficient for the SlIL'I:I(':' I'i i" 'I n nrl profile being protected.l)!pe.: to p nll.iu.J :-) 5400-8:1 r:l78 rJle position or lilt ing and supporting points.: I: he requirements of strength. If frictional resistance is assumed to be developed at a bearing. C1) Concrete or mortar packing.l be '" specified by the engineer.''1lding.] 011I' 0. . \\'here tho 11'('1 hod rssembl.l -utally strikes against u nother i'in!! r I..! 1" p~.J ..:11 ro]"cn duo to cornering. lifting' C(lllipllH-I'.(. 11. the coni act SUl'r.v!s.1 lice./' nctura! connections.thods should be strictly followed.. .1.. (II be p.1 or otherwise disfigure the rk COil.\':~" cci. it ~ .ura l conncct. n nrl to introducing any additional reintorccmont needed to complete the connection .: . the construction should be such that this assumption can bo realized.icked with mortar or concrete.IIICI nu. .it" [](' ]11'1 1 I' r 1ishill:. and :11'0 CO! ~1)!.('11 rict]: The two main objectives when gTO\I( 1112' LlI. or \ .' n nd curing or '.OI"S recommendations as to the app li«.jJ' .' .

\ eel 111 -hould normally he ordinary Pori ln nrl (' me: orPort.vuding.t1.~.10 and 10 mm for the four catc. special precautions may be l1('C('~.5Bond classification.. 3.'mions. Crout ell: iics to tl:e (I-:. l'. the engineer's approval. 1. If necessary.".101': . .. (See 6..Bar schedule dimensions: for tolerances Di~!"!ICe between COtI crete Caces m SlOt". 8.10\1 I1lnLiOIl 0 1 .1~.11(\':.1 to 4. C 1'(" :1. Type of bar c) Ad: iixt ures..on to the g ro ur !.b) to provide efficient bond between BS 5400-8:1978 the prestressing tendons and the concrete member [13 to control the spacing of cracks at heavy overload and increase the ultimate moment of rrsist» nee of the member..1 of Part 4. 3. and careful workmanship and supervision on I he site. However. (I!. normally plasticizers 01' expnll.!(ll'ies respectively. UV('l' ~\n): length 20 40 : 0 Ij{l. The volume of the spaces to be filler! by the injected grout should be compared \V ith the quantity of grout injected. i" important that t l. the d iurenaion on the bending schedule may be determined as the nominal dimension of the concrete less the nominal cover on each face and less t.1:2.!! ('(/flr/!1I]('lI. . ".1. Tublo 5 .'i1d Ie fl ..'1' : I( has shown that their use improves the r:' urlir-: . ("I!I1('1.1.': mm o to 1 ~ Ci:O" 2 Links and other bend bars Straight bars 10 15 i • . The grout materials may be warmed within the limits recommended for concrete (see 3. together with efficient equipment [or its injection. 4 Reinforcement 4. _. They cd lUllIII contn i Il no ".:' : !!() grout.i'uv l.hl" agents.12.he .2 Bn r schedule scheduled in accordance B8 iJil GG.:i:y u n. The characteristic strengths of reinforcement are given in the appropriate British S t n nd ard s.·dlI11!1del' cit '~..ody :'111' ~TOuL.12.:00.) 4.1 Mn tcrial . Tho cemrnt Conem lly reinforcement should be detailed so that 1 olel'.' .~ie\'f' i 0 j 11~1 ~ I 'l'hese deductions apply to most reinforced concrete construction.o wholo volu 1118 ofthe d u: should b« filled with grout.1I\':. .6). I • . Doth of these objectives make it desirable tha L I he whole of the void space within the duct should be filled.6 Injecting grout.). the radius of the bend y\10111d he not less than that specified in BS 4466. us vrcut by l11e. .12. . larger deductions should be made or the cover increased. l fsmnll lumps rcmn in 01' tho '. II..lnnd-blastlurnuce cement.l. sulphu tes 01' sulp hidcs. not rccom me nrled to lise i.'11\('11(: i~ 100 old n ud i I:.he deduction for tolerance on member size and on bending given in Table 5. "let :111d to provide protection for the p restrcssing t. hrgf.'.3 Cu t.. The llliX.~. concrete should not be damaged.' '.1. -mmenrled for genci-al u"c.l1g !II1" Ii.6.l effectively. where reinforcement is to fit between two concrete faces. The engineer should state ill the contract the type of deformed bar required.ols :.1~.: is I .3 J) /'/S. diInensions.1I1ces are not critical." nitrates. Where the temperature of tho st:eel is below 5 ac. \I' ill.. for the i njccl ion of ducts in post-tensioned members arc (1) [21'"'' Ilu id ity and low sedimentation or bl» !ing 1:1 L111' plastic stare.: mix ~llU\lh~ not -cd.illii):lltillg onlv a :-. should contain lumps :1 nel preferably should be bagged.7Crouting during cold weather.p:!iJle of being carried out on the site reason.8.1 . b\ 8:11' I".. 3. See Part 7. lu n~I \~ r:>(~'''1 the grout. hiiih locn l uf 'tlv]' " whik. reinforcement may be warmed to a temperature not exceeding 100 ae.~ . Bars should be with the requirements of iti 11:-' ! l~(~C~SS:\\':' rials should be required by the ang inoor if to o nsure that the nbovo objectives :J "" met.. should be used where ('\1'01.5 Mixing.\l1~1!'.e. The methods to be adopted should be' (':..4 Characteristic strength of reinforcement. The success of this operation is dependent 011 the production of a grout mix having the desired properties. See Part 7.0 3.('xp:Il1c."1 OJ.) deduction Total deduction 'is not rocomrncnrlcrl for ceneral uso hIlt it "ppcii'i(''[ for short.. i t): su 1)(' (ll:!1 'Julll IJ() ora typo clp:i1)le ofproduring :'. increasing the radius of b. 15 - . but where the tolerance on member size is greater than 5. L ~1]1('hlil'8g0 should provirlo 11 sccur gl"Ol 1:-11 "I.. and (3) durability a nd dun ity v th low shrinkage in tho hardened st«!« in ord r to hind with the steel concl the sides of tln..t re.I I rrdi: I11gPortln nd cement m8Y be used bUI .1. The i rnportant properties of a satisfactory grou.5.1.1 nd 111(. H".12.:lY I'.11.:. .8 Strength of grout.ioll of tho grout "hOll:d 1101'. :. t . ·1. . \Vlwl'o it is necessary to bend reinforcement projcct i ng from concrete.ting and bending.1Iuler.1 he fresh out not hot.4 ('ql D til (.:ll'Y such as reducing the speed of bending or.

L .l.iot1. w IH'!'e :! i: ernn ting loads predominate. r: .111 I 'I :.I .' .· loads in bars both in tension and Call :)["l. J be on the inside or the . e BSI 12·1998 -I-- • .::. x in z..!·'oyil·'· .1·cenH"\1 hou ll be made with steel wire or (}VJL~I·' by \\·['Idin" (8[:.'. \V hich project from each .£ through ovcrlapp iug <. .... 1 " !"'m'ing stresses inside the "1 :'H· r.i. Couplers should be !.:1".' apply.oso r::'c .1 : '" '.c. :1'1'" :' req I I1 '.!·.' 13-.ul'e. . . provided that the strength and deformation characteristics have been determined by tests: grout· or rosin-filled sleeves capable of tr.) 11:11·. '.of rein r ·'l't.·rovidcd for the sleeve should be not less than Jl thai specified for normal reinforcement.6 of Purt .~:o :1. the second set of bars is fixed I·) I :H. ·("1'11 d ".S. he concrete cover.I u . 1"'01 :01: . "'. .'('II el"fJ '(·"I·cl'll\lnl Where continuity of throuvi: till> COIllW<.:. atto ntion I.~. :1ch 1':1 1''' hould be inspected for signs I":~ct./I: ..dely . .c strength at least as great as the Chil ::ll:1 .iysing the SI..:eis usually suff'icicnt Ior rr I1lOV:I] 0 i .' 1'01' joining til rcaded bars."I!lIwnts. arc lupporl.:1" c:' l ~ '. The following methods may be usc.itc b~·means of nuts.tlel be) I.. p.d iglled into the sleeve. I 'rhrc(/llill.. t he coupler should have a ch. ~l~ t hr 11:' 111 'ad " .xl.u ')1"1\.111181" . lca st as strong as the parent bar. p l.l"UCLUl"1! .vrs I i111 ~ . 2 Lo.' 1 th.'to. . j. ructurnl design of special threaded should be based on tests..·d 111.11·61'". :" . .ic strength of the connected bars and.G.7). S]11 .)vided continuity 0.. WIII"r) there is a risk of ths threaded WOI' ·Ilg 1001se.. Couplers may be usc to :'·. during vibration coni .. and. !OlIlLI:\. durahility I appear: I 11'"·'.:· rn . .'· il "c/I!!Jlir'lI/ connections.. 11:01' b) sleeves that mechanically align the square-sawn ends of two bars to allow the transmission of compressive forces only.. i Il !O i'( . iod 1:" . '·"{jll.uismitting both tensile and compressive forces.'. hi 1':11 i:..' t her» is d ilficulty in producing a clean thread at 1.Ippin" I .' : .1 rouded ... . \\. r. n n .l~e by the appropriate "'1m factor . 'daSLI I . . .. c T The Cal! '1' •.1:. int. . ]< g paul to C 'P(i. 1\) . should have :111 .u.11.· ( scale from Lher".)CY in manufacture in view of the d ITiculLyof ensuring alignment.\·I)eof threaded connection requires a high . d ivi :. .ers should bo of such mnterinls and as wii 0] umab l».: LOen. Tho rletailed design of the sleeve and the method of mu I" I rnctlll'B a nd a ssembly should be such as to ensure L.\: 1. 4. ions. chillcd to receive the threaded -- s.:\ locking device should be into a precast of connection of in.9 ofPrrt ·4.1.1) reinforo :noI1L. ends or Lies (. 1 (. (l[bnl"~.steel normally specified for black boll (~. t 0 r h :.rist. Ii·" l'"" nu-n: : ) !:.)\ The threaded ends of bars may be joined by a CI111p1e1' having left and right hand threads.ince with G.ti.1 '(' lid 01. "1 .hne n: ir: iW ("!':I'·~·. r.ami will not cause spnlling of «oncrete cover.-..url"act' ('''·ldilillt1.ti.. .I LO being CI!llP:\\":. The concrete COVI'I. ~ n-structu 1': I· connect ions [01· the position ing of 11 ..lhll' in stroug th. (:.'.·'~.11\r! "nlpt ~I)J'S I' ·'.lWL tho ends of the two bars can be accu i·.~':mvn the strength of the threaded connection to l» :11. 'Jormnl hanrl ling prior to be.·ilillll of top rcinforccrucnt in : ilevcr sectrns. < r. :")400-R:J nR \' lure it is necessary to reshape steel previously it.e. i ·.~IlS blocks mado l'rorn cement.i. Fi 4. the sLn""~I'\ 0[" the joint may be based on 80 % of the SIl(" i "d ch:U'actr~!'istic strength of the joined bars in lell· I'ln :llld on Ion % for bars in compression.6..-'"111: 12 ~hollld be used. 's..i it to receive the threaded ends ]"I'11l force me nt .·'p.. conti:«: '~ clowo: .1 * -..:1. WI1()1l mf o pock. the strni~ht bars . gl····' key sl: I:y ~. Where tests ha v-: . 'ctill:'.!ci in «nch (. . will not lead to C()ITOsiOI1 i. this should only be done with the engineer's -roval. 1 shou l l he such t:11. i I . ~ree of aCClIl'. Two principal types of sleeve joint ing may be used.I1: 11:0 I.. This 1. \1'·1.' .chors may be cast u.1Sleeuing.! r lrc [11) r».:lle life. :'~ed.lll. r. sand and small rcgate shou I II match the mix proportions of the ~.: '['. Sl'·q. POSitiOl1{ ··cinj'()l"ccment should he checked IU and dw Ig CIII\\'I·r·ting.. :1''Illatc fati..:t 01· t'('(:I·... ':I! I I ovr-v " s npport is achieved by . ill:.:n :. The following met hods .situ used. OIW se-t olh. I cn 'j "('('( Wh..unding concrete as far as is practica blo with a .. Whct'P "\'(': 1 inr I () 4. h ars carrying tensile forces are bci " l ic.. ·1 LUll) having a characteristic ' strength of"i. ··0 wiru-b rushiug or f' rcemr-nr: ioul: .. .rs p:!..u P s u ~ j I 1 may be welded to a steel plate ends of the ~.!' elil'" 'L ancr.I)'e s". "l'if'li.1l'S.\ tons ·-.

supervision ochniqucs al'e employed a nd provided thai: the . Sho:tld labricators wish to use other processes. '1. . skill [or ]J roduc 111':' . I: .'. In addition the flux includes con.! .1·:1<.'t" In ion.. ('pel"alul"s slwIl1. '1'~ "1" I ::t pu:":1 1\\'1"11 'I" f.l i ng process r. or in f:lbri('. ...of steel (including high-yield steels in I:IIWI.7.Y he trn nsrnittnd by bearing of the ends of the bars held i!l . Large automatic m~l<'hines with multiple pairs of electrodes are used for ~.lining . .It. the current is 1 urnod off. <Ill welding Sh(1C]!. c.uul periodically : i')'\:O:. After a predetermined period sufficient to hOM I.1 Other methods. I' a' ty: ar 1"1" C" 0'.~iLe orin 'In :"'. arcing or Ilashiug occurs at those parts of the two faces in closest" Ior muk ing jouu s ofovrry sr ructu ".~·e . e.. metal being forced from the hot Inces during the actual welding stage to form a colin r.ling Or metal-arc \\'I'I-:Ill~. . J"i:i! w.. the flux form ing a protective shield for the molten metal in I.: -mtricnlly and in bearing contact during fixing of .und butt 1 11'" j':Ij." \Vr:lcling' on site shout.... I Ctl\dil. 1>11:.1:1I\ce welding 111. to. welding for r()rnlin~ butt welds is a similar operation to flash I. The ends or bars should be square-sawn cut or .~tricled to ':11 :'·m·..11'('01111: 1"pldi.'''~. I 011. Resistance .7. hr-nting. I' ('I': ~ 1" 11'jv nts J '1. Ad vice on the correct combination of flashing.1 CI ..lk11"(. 'Oil welded -".wit 11 single pairs of electrodes are used for tack wel : i ng bars of smaller diameter. '!ld DI.1 l'i'·1.' BS 5400-8:1978 The stress in compression reinforcement l11J.' '.i01.1.. • 'c till' "i\:ill~ clTeds have bcc n 1:n1-:011 illl [) .uticuln t("'(' r it i~ 1111)(l'"'y [)L'OC('SS a i. eel and placing of concrete.' llWI":'lg joints '.[ 1 II :1.. This is a form of f:ISi(JIl welding in which heat for welding is obtained - r" 0' \' t' c.I:S.:1'.~.<i.iat 0' 'Ill' connected b:II'~.he bar faces into a plastic state. \1'!"H"e it ca n PI''''] "". .. "I'('"n iJ. when in close proximity. IV' JV f.]lOp. 'I.' I'\(.idc rctl [". the bar faces are pressed together under g-l'C:lt pressure and a welded joint made with less 11\81 "rial upset than arrises in flash butt welding.1:. process j~ \1:-'..).unre-Ilame cut and ground.. nrl lit her -tecl mom bel's .rk.'" .:ld lappcd join: .' r s ~"o': Ld 11:1\'I.~... The bar faces are moved slowly towards each other :1 nd.1"11 '111I1'.1Li"ii:l ctory ra v.2ln-twee n bl': ling rcinfcrccmo nt ()1" Id. ·J. ..'o 1'0 squ.11\e! )' 17 i .""elrling.iug.lotI . In such cases the COU]lJ.[)lIpler may be used that transmits the comu'essive stress by means of mechanical bond w i: :." 0I1"i:10.2 Flash butt welding.elntively I'.:e. 1II p. ...'n . . Irom . • . - 4.L : sil(~ '1''.' ."I!.I' C< \V('" Is i nvolvi ng 11':111/"1' or load Icin["nl"c't11entOl" ))eL\\'[:.3Manual metal-arc welding..:)(.1t 1 'sif .111 arc struck between a consumable stick electrode and the joint faces. The G"I)f'/'ul.n . In addition portable g u r . during.1.I[:.1'" .~. It is...7 '\'oldingL1. d.('~ .i IITlI:er I'OU. . The I'll.. . :11111 the coupling Ii 'U should ensure that the b.'1] 11:\1'" and other ". withBS '.. c: tel' bars to form mesh. '11:0ol'tho operators should h" cleruoustra wokliug tell .11'8 lI:"NI L1Ll~kil:"" i-icn after a 1I0l.':' he user! <)!l ita:·ie s'ee:~... ut t welding. This flashing period can be extended to further preheat the joint before completing the weld which is performed by forcing the hot faces together..~h hu': . rhoigh 1I':I:llWI 'c \1 '1'10': ..1g nwy be con.. \: 1'1 ·d·n rc \1'1' idi ng . he weld pool protecting it from atmospheric coni .\!1t wcl. ."1I 1. multaneously welding many wires and smaller r! ia 11". Butt welds 111 y L" . \I" T ..1 1-".I .I:lrl l~ .('0 WI l. The stick electrode cousists ofa metal core and a flux covering."\I·"'..'('~i.g. I.1 . but resistance spot welding 1i ncl s w ide application for joining wires and bars in ("l'OSS weld configurations. in the connection.: I :Tieel 0 lit by a '.\I'CI: 11 '. necessary to have cleaner bar faces Jar resistance butt welding than for flash butt .nncentric contact by a sleeve or other mechanica 1 dr'\.! be ca rricd md-r 11. A (. \10W()V(:r. : .iminntion.ituonts that can slag off some harmful coni elm inants that may be present in the joint prior t o wnldi ng. upsetting and annealing should be obtained from the reinforcement manufacturer.1 is more usuul t o 1].1) 1I:I\'e tile ..'10'" ! .d-n:c wc l .! I· . ."ih' i ha n manual met."1l1)!'ly' 1I1jl('tellt to 'he H'C' \\ ::: '(' I ' 1I011t "1" for ri'I.01"'" supcrvisio." of i he burs ~'l.i.llling properties. I.'. 7. .esisu: nce welding is rarely used for butt welding of forcing steel bars. however.19 andBS <1·11.. by \\'("'ldill'.irs ure held c. f. reference should be made to the reinforcement niauufucturer for guidelines in developing . The arcing or flashing results in intense heating ofthe bars.' h(' :WOi(IUd if blo. 1 :'~\ined and "'s 'LIfT.. contact of the bar faces creating intense heat due to electrical resistance at the interlace.11 . le:18!: cqun 1 t·) ~ ..t chn rnctcrist ie strl'n~1 h .' .~i"'Il.ue cut. mber-.lullS in a [":ll:tOl"Y 01' \\·L." I' '. This is carried out by clamping the reinforcing steel bars in water-cooled copper shoes which introduce a large current to the bars.rken.11.The f' ·~h I)ul' wcld ing prores > ' I'.. lui].· f 11 '" 1\' . it may he umlcrt. whore suitable sar('::u:1J"d.

Joints in adjacent sheaths should be spaced at least 300 mm a p art.: vy or l.~ 01' 'hey . al .~ * .ld be chemically neutral. should be so arranged : - that 1 11.I I. rupture around sharp bends or corners when the tendons are The anchorage system in ral ':"I\1I'11>'CS the anchorage itself and the <11'1'" n(['-I1''':II.. .r 1.ionotl . II'n ": " "J r l. ixi ng the tendons (01' the i r: pos ition should br such '".. gr. ns should be taken during and after tensioning to safeguard persons from injury.lI'i!y " 1'111 rul n l' I :' ' \' i mpr: .:li'. It muy. "01'.. . 5. . the protection of the tendons. l¥h·I'. .. on i.0be taken is given in appendix C.j' I " \\'1'1.. 'ion. anchorage 01' jack.Ilchrl:"1 ':ps (II' elsewhere. 11 i" Ii or tell I!"'. tah· pl:Jc"~I()\Vly to minimize shock that would r". e BSI 12·1998 .]3. l()ss of cross-sectional :1 ! 'd' hy . Tendons.110 lilll(' ofincorporation in tl».'. _. 5. u n d sh c a t. and these govern the method of ten-ioni nil'. and ~ table prou-: .') Posi-tetislonl. ~ S (/1'1'1.senl'i.1 "\nollgunert. Inflatable rubber ducts are not suitable for this purpose. The transfer of stress should 11. release of this energy.'-iLI'nigh': .t of tendons. The . . Joints in sheaths should be securely taped to prevent penetration of the duct by concrete or laitance. 5.v-ver. . Solvent solutions . 5400-f: : '178 fj Prestre~.7.." who ro stl'n ight il s-d ra \\' n wir« is . .iificantly impaired either by (': "\~iol1. the bend.h s. and if tho tendon is to be inserted later.' 1.ins!' I. .! fly 01 her mechanical Sheaths and extractable cores should retain their correct cross section and profile and should be handled carefully to avoid damage.1 lfic.'. '~I ~ " Pari 7.1 may he carried out hy wire I :Ill:' CI!' .I.iing 'hl'('u.:l. '.r. or other h ..7. loose rust.o loud and under the effect of shock.I .gineel' should ensure j.'" dUll. .7. or tendons and reinforcement d('!:"i.. '. and ends of ducts should be sealed and protected after the stressing and grouting operations. 111('1I'!' of the bloch in tho may lie 1I""d..i bu: ..'.:1 systems Uw heating kept 10 U mi n im u m.rmful mil' I . I)l'l1lrl'~1 I. u-sts that : "quality of the prestressing tendons ILl'. 1 . ( uti. . . r '. [0 rce under sustained and nUl:' q:Hili:. 2 /uchol'O. 5. . I ho ('I.7.i.on should be provided for the eaded end. i Mated fl.0 i: I'('HSC the loss due to n. tions. whether i 11~."~_' s l-v':3. i :1 .~lId(:l'l.'. . !\'l prestressing I iuterria i . the eOi'I11 of anchorage and. \ \ len prestro=-i ng tanrlnns have been stored on si I:e il prolon~'" I periou.:. Extractable cores should be coated with release agent only with the approval of the engineer and should not be extracted until the concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent its being damaged.-il' . the duct should be dollied during the concreting process 10 ensure a clear passage for the tendon.7. . S'" 'l"l"l'o~ion.7 Tensioning the tendons 5. tendons exterrnl -urfuces of sheat lis 01' Ls shouh I : ''co ('I'(J: 1 1IJ'..\ f":1\ ' ~':'ust is not w'cess..)S8 mill scale."". Dam age call. _ . I:llt' I."w'tura 1 I' '('. A tendon when contuins a considerable amount of stored enolg-y which.I' '!i'lmeti'l'coils '::0 di..:\ Tel1sionin.7.~ODP ('t· ot her lubricants.:' ill'c1 should be capable of maintaining IIIo I' ro ~! " '. ...I'.'.'.:~in. (': '... 5. in post-tensioning.'!t a Pl'C'SSUI'V box 'dllllg rundu» ]l"II'der. in the event of any failure of tendon.Surfac(' I d lt.'11I'ri III net 1I':I. All poss iblo p rocu n l. Guidance on the pl'CCmlt.. Tendons may be stressed either by pretensioning or by post-tensioning according to the particular needs of the form of construction.": ng tend OnS <11 r"... .Hk"J'sl' lv .7.:! r. . ' ristic strength 0/ prestressing 'cified chnructeristic strengths of fj ~ Handlill':'!ld sh)l'ag'(_~. I P I'C Ie /I s i() ing. : nl rl i 1('nrc' ':1: ":'! without the approval n:. not beel .'oIOJ1:> . The muans of ing tcndcus should not -nse uie trictio» when t hey are i'i. that may be caused by tho .1 ""iI bv hc.hthe anchorage.()lI. gOll. Ch ar« T'. In each systcm dilfcrent procedures and types ofequipment arc used.iffect the transmission 5. .S.~' I) os i L iU Ie! i "r~. co ncretr-. I·t 7.) in .'ll of stress in the concrete at the end of the :'lcI1l1". by :l"trw::111 1 1 ...i r'~ . occur during the concreting opo ratinn. .. .\ f bars. I' t e.I ) not puss 1ikc Iy til " revoke und. puint. sll 5.\' . dis" 1. t> cc·t0:"in'\ill~ 'J] .ng length.[!'cs. The form of ~II1Clll)l':lCc" system should facilitate the even d ist .\1 I) rr!c(II/. and o qu ipment from damage.:"'•.Ii Ire (.!! apparatus. See Part 7.'. Protective wrapp ings 'tendons" !. 1'1. rrt-poml: I' l\\'lag :I l'l I' '·t. may be released violently.ictcrrs I' ".-. I' l11en I:':' 'i' : ':! Jir'~1 i'lnl~' -I{\H I ing a n.

'd in an c lcmcnt because 0[' ! '':'. .~t c fi. .l tho like.u." .'i!l:::"nil '.IY corrosion protection should be used that II' i 1.-. .. This provides a c!H'1 k Oil the accuracy of the assumption made for till' "rictio nal losscs at the design stage. of the 5. if the d i: "el1~" is gro.. .' 1. hould ".). cpoxv '·S.' taken.. after stressing and incorporation in the work but before protection.("'.'·ro/I'd.. p rovidcd i. i · . If the applied protection is (!CllSO concrete or mortar and investigations show tile possibility of undesirable cracking. '. corrcct. for example. this should be achieved by suitable reinforcement of the concrete cncnscment to the structure.' !"~tr.. I ' '\"':'1 a n d bond prc!"tres!"illg-1enrin!ls I' is essential both 1I1.11 ".p 0" ! lockage of a dud.• xtcnsion.l' .1 . ']1.ure in either.1 be unimpaired by differential movement. then a p I'i IlW. 19 .J clement is noL p r. hanical c to !'I'OU'CL d~11IHl~" pl'e.' .).1 I'. ""I'I'ot("1 "11:" ion may also be rpql. . t.i1\sider IV hethor a modifico tion in I'·: 1'1'.pOlll1". it is outside the concrete section..3 Deflected tendons. · ('I 01' tendon .d ons.'('Il! t.cs nn.. full consideration should be given to the differential movement between the structure and the applied protection l hat arises from changes ofload and stress. '11" : '1"1':1.i: ion!"hip in a cn l ibratcd testing machine with an (':\:I':lSOllleter of 1 m gauge length. using the E value f OJ' the tendon 01: 1:1: ned by mcnsu ring the load-extension re'l. It may also be provided by other mater-ials hard enough and stable enough in the P" rticular environment. }\ltrl'll:lj'. tendon is considered Tensioning procedure. s l :"~ l'. t... :l""llt or.cre n I'lege number of tendons . .. / '.ive action s 1 :d h. be:1" required that external prestressing tendons l. The measured tendon "lH'1r1dhe (")Inpareci with that cn lculntcd 1. 5...· .l::':-. . I:ho I."'0/.hat bond is .: levels ":111 still comply with tho re levrnt I.1'1 S hou t:.4 .'nnj·~ .c bonded to the structure..). 1\. creep. :C(.rcl. important desi~n 1'011 uiro nic 1'.u cr than G 'Yo.3 Protection and bond of external tendons. humidity and tumprraf. IT: !1'Cord:l!lce with :\. I)" 'Ir'hicI. • .~. See Pm't 7.tioll .. t. ly be protected by ot h" r m.l' »n to be bonded to th" structure.BS 5400-8:1978 .[ tOIH I) .II.ic.8.12. In determining the type and quality of the material 1:0 be used for the encasement.ivC'ly th« )118 ". ude ot : hu Irl speci fy the order of load ing :1 nd load rot' each component or lhe l'n)(I'I. external when.1'1' by e ithor cement grout 01' sand cement ..en.I"1l1ll·ba8ed CC'!I.(' rials SUI"l as n..inl! and bond a] i n t crna].l'l'ed ] r iLis i' L: ~' t L I'.1.llll[ if the 1.: \\' . to a slab comprising a series of precast beams themselves stressed with external tendons and subsequently concreted or grouted in so that tho prestressing tendons are finally contained in that filling with adequate cover. a 5.I (.O. ··"\[l()ll~ 11l'IY he protected :1T1r1 bonded In 'h!: .rbln. r'·' '. '.we l)('ill~ tensioned and Ihe lul! lorce r .. drying shrinkage. ~ l. It does not apply.~ - Provision should be made for the protection allC:'OL'<I~'egainst corrosion. Protection of external prestressing tendons against mocha nical damage and corrosion from the atmosphere or other aspects of the environment should generally be provided by an encasement of dense concrete or dense mortar of adequate thickness.~.~tre. iola xa t.

: result".iyment . They may be used in rou ti ne inspection and for quality control."S:! I () avoid contamination "y from the (I) •...':""(' ical i v-: : .~ necessary.:11 tho readings and the strength of CIII)"S [\Wdl' Irorn tho same batch of concrete.':1: 111.ll:d.!. I" ./ the g-routing of ducts in prestressed J1!{'ll1!'CI'f': presence and location of embedded IL.6. 'or .· ."Olll'ce.Inufn " 1 I' rtifie .'11 1l!'1'{'.:I')il 'es I"..01.!Cqu.lIl'C'liLly be: assessed by drilling and testing COlT'.uid J11"I.le "I ineer) which show t!nt. '2. Where inspection Or 1 ults of otlH'1' tests (see also A..I. pri-ir to the acceptance 'nam ".9. from ! !l(~concrete._ model t-s: m: when used 8S a basis ofrlesign.2. : ' re a CClIl! I. I this section. or ructural CI"1I. ~ .udes til"" i »f tho «ntiro IlL'OCe'SS0[' -ct to i bese records being .ru-onic tests carried out on adjacent SI IC. lase" (01 . 'on 1"'.::i II: 'i '11'('..:.. . . ...OIII!. t. "ecoll' Ill" " act cr .·!w".dcdlack of compaction or low cube uh.11.kl' .~." ~:. . )'."ng cores.I.raicut linc con-iecting . . :11._- - J II 11~1)(.ibl.' 'J J'o~:-.2 are applicable to harrle ned concrete in the finished parts of a structure or in precast units.icccp ta LIe sections of the structure may I "'I\·i de liS" 'ul com pn rative data..ion 1''-.u._.Ise or loading.]\· described in the test.I' trained .\ing to c I:.: .te . '.) tesl:i I!:."' mnv .i A:!.t.'I '.!uired stall!!.'ppJil"\ to the UllliS.'1' : 'Ie t1dcq U:ICY of a structure.P('(..Ic\.lCI ..Iintai L· .1..l' I'~ '. 11'11"1\0\'1)[" possible. ami being mn.. !I'!ineel'..2. In suitable Ires. .p. ! '1.:t1.6.Is of .._. !fan ultrasonic apparatus is personnel and if (:'.-.' . © BSI 12·1998 .'gan\:ng I .viceability .:1. such (I.2 Check tests on structural concrete A.1 (."1 ing or prototype structures.: ". def'kdion of lI means the maximum load of the component a s. loading "Is should l» !!!:lfl" f'"llowing the procedure set out .s to ensure that they have the . .1 lso be determined. .!lihdv .l General.v. rlevC']n.\\.I .:.' c :I.111 . .: I \ iproy. C CO nc ro te is inadequate or shows other delccts.I':. .. !- - .< "'cm0111" »oim '.i\.libl.iined when assessing the strength ofthe COI1('I'.\' li~("1 to test concrete up to 450 mm thick for he IIH.ns 5400-f'l:1978 I -~ . testing whole .\I! i Ilg .turcs.\. avoid reinforcement.I large number of readings.. Typ e« o] cluicl: tests C'If/.r ' so be cut to investigate the presence of \·ni... 1. . '(:epI0r! ns confirming that the Ii.1203 il!' .rorigth. }\.! testing ]11:01'C'[.'(! t "l1on~.~ IV ith . The tests described in A. They are aIso o[ use when concrete is found defective from visual inspection and when low cube strengths are obt.9.I I.ives) .7. II.rount I "l'~test"il" Jints H' load t(.1' finish.'.ippendix indicates methods for I -pectin.irts uf a structure.'. " the I) roducts meet 1 :lC ":.. )J .:.'].H:yof the structure." " 'lllll' under to used.I1. Core cutting should.tlll': I' -uch t(.'(. tho onginccr may require a loading test to he made that should then be carried out in accorcla nco A2.This in no way 'I'S :. '. ' ". .'.2 GO/1I1!10.1<13..I "" !' manufacturer I" rol n» I hod. Ul!I'OSOIlIC ]..~ may :)e 11~QcL to obtain approximate .I." Ithis standard..lctUJ'el' and LI:! ofa 1\.1. The testing of concrete specimens to establish whether the concrete used in the structure cornplies with the specification as a structural ilia 1 PI'i:~ is described in 3. .d in this section runy not be If th.]c11"d.! rep rcse ntnt.111': . pre S l 11 of 10ca1 voids in the concrete and the p!Ticienc. 1)(' lll'l'[lir\'''lt in accordance with the l'eel 1\\1111'11' . radiography. I.e m.2) lead to doubt I <-:tl'ding till' ..'V!"".1Y 0 f I. nil! .i()'ing such tests as he "I.. : . . circumstances the strength of the concrete in the sll"!(. Gamma radiography 11l:.rt. .\. ud also .' it.. ". A.1 i i011S in BS 4408-3. used iJ. Special precautions . a nd lies a (.' .' compucted concrete. ilioni' »f the strength of the concrete in the .ured cuginecr or colaboratory " ' .1" .I) i} y.'2. The testing should \'. DC these check tests show that the II It. ppendix A Inspection and testing of ~·tructurc:-: and eomponents .uul st. . C A. .'1:! I . The procedure used should corup ly wit h the requirements ofBS 1881·4.~ . dimensional accuracy.1 Gencrnl. in til.2.1 fl!l' ble .I"I!. This .'IHi'\lIOI1"'y 111:1 i uta ined individual charts are kept t..: '''.'IIOffillH!1 !] records I Ired qunli .l'S~i\" .. 10. the rol.d :. and additional cube 1 tests for special purposes are dealt with in 3. Such COl'l'. 2.

5 I.1 .". "'lind t . the checking of testing.2 !.:Ind of SI .n:1ble by test. be 1:'·'·. . ccu " 1'\' 01'..ub !'ly used by trained personnel and if COlli inuou-Iy maintained individual charts are kept thn t show.ipprovod s. -r.4 Electromagnetic couer measuring devices. At no time d u rillg tho test should the unit show any sign of weakness or faulty construction as defined by the (' Ilg i nccr j 11 the light of a reasonable interpretation (.1'1. \i~'!de . ! "I' "'.'d<lI'I':I··jf'''. i ng include the use of dial gauges or measurements from a thin wire stretched across the hea ri ngs and tensioned sufficiently to take out the': iish sl"'ciJiod:l I1d should ":hUte I.Ill! nsion.1 rrowcllcd LIce and (hose taken on :1 '.BS 5400-8:1978 --- A.:':. l"l' S hUllld ho 1:. The Ircqunncy and scope of measurement checks should therefore be strictly related to the production method." "" 'If m. '/iOUII . 'l:il'n6 \ {'.' is h.1 General. bow.:1.1 iv...·I i- •.\\'I'l"ago of at least: nino individual 1'1"":. squareness and flatness may entail removal of the 1111 it from its stacked position to a special measuring frame. D 'i" I' ·"'l"ul'lilol. :::. i..VPI' and C]' Y .: :":[.. .. A.». hammer tests. 21 . o[ I '1:' I't. .d L01'5 min with a load equal to the sum ofthe cluuucteristic dead load plus 1. .uv.impaired. "I . It 111:::.cad invs should not be taken \\.25 times the characteristic imposed load..-. ! IW i:l~ ".il accu . but t..5. _.1.m-o s.nn nen. the and the strength of such cl.J(c-ie~II·'.:! '':1'11 011 . Alternative methods of dlOCI.I i'I'I'. (" ! ..Il:~ .:3 N/Ilim~ could be expected when 11<-': b.".'SS:1I']' 1"0 distinguish between rr-adings l. The . cuhos m.. The deflection should then be recorded.11U -tu ndard 01 . 1:1l11 - A5 Load tests on individual precast units 1\ 'II' :I("~ I' 'I ii. "'0'" '11.. When checking the camber or upward deflection due to prestress.1ill n n app roximute inclication oftho ~IT~t: .1 fly tagc should be assessed as described in 7.1 of I'u rt ~Iof BS 5400.:11: imposed ac ·C".1g'C.'.ibility the makillg of' the i\.' c':."il il~io T ('I. .)b('. .11(.' III I! w..:lking . -ff . :-:hri:lk. for a large number of readings. l.'1 romn g ne tic covet' measuring device in <1('1"'1'(181'('" wit h (. The . ::'i().1 1">I'':. 'l'est loads are to be applied and removed i11Cl'Umentally.6. i. '.'('l"e .. and the function that the unit has to rulfi l.'1" in of rho concrete I.! app rop riate to LlI(! !. and should not be used as a substitute for no r. .!llovni of the applied load and the load then I"·. .0 . 1.~ d.I loading should be not less than that after the f rs L Io:Ieli ng nor Is ss than 90 % of the deflection rocorrlnd during the second loading..'.' lit.'.UI'P. 1l1:1] b. for conlorm ity with I'.1 r". '1' ''11 A n: <. ~!."' l" .1'.or \ .. I toler.. "'s n: :ly bc llSNl in conjunct ion with hn uun cr I"" 'ng' j"..urcd after application of the load should be in .ho ri:li~heil :-II'IC" ['e.~ of I he edge of concrete mcrn hers..unount of upward deflection to be expected at .. if .d CUI" d01'(' ct. .\' '...he rccom mcnrlntions ofBS 4408-1.Iv '" .'ho I1It .' posi: ion of reinforcement or tendons mny be V('!': "ied t I) depths of J bout 70 m m by an 0].. Where members require ~peci. such special testing procedures should be in accordance with the specification..ll'i\l·OPI:i:.lY.'.. .iL' t' l' . Extensive checking of units in this manner may materially affect the cost. '!) 1 II..l(ie from the same butch of concreto. A' . . The load tests described in this clause are intended as checks on the quality of the un il. ".un l design procedures.h.! 1""llgllt and dur.<I'covory should be measured 5 min after the I'. C'il ":)p:::ed sUL"facns great 1':lI.... each result eIL'11 111 i 'I I he ..ollncl in 1.".j'lllce with the requirements that should be clcfi ned by the engineer.t in ~'.1' I'l'~i~\'nnt data.·llOuld he T I.imposed.1.d.:!. The percentage recovery after the cDCOI1. : 'J T' :: .. ce . 1"l\dn:'~ or dllcL~ should be 01' '1'. ."(' c . Upward deflection is preferably measured on the 1I nrlerside.i10secircum-tuncos. . I'.. the standard of quality control at the place of casting.. ken to bed I'll. I': 110 con('L'('('e in n structure or element.I. b·. .:o <1 lid dlll'nbiliLy. .i nu inct ure.5.'.'C j~ i n sr "t illg Ill!' IlIi" propo rt 'lIS to ensure In'l 1.unple [1l1islli~. If a rebound hammer is rec.lswiLh . Sc: C( 'ul. supported Nun-destructive . The maximum deflection mca.. A.. the precast unit should be placed on proper bearings at full span and a central reference poin I.ltc..3. The unit should be at its designed points of support and load.COI"../. 'h:lL'S.[jll:d. should be provided level with the bearings.I.I. \\']WI1111:1king IIIC test onlll'("·c:1~t ~.:!.ct:" : 11·!Y be perm itll'd.."~ nC('!II:acy. T!..1.l luim mer test. II' hoI'(' <.1~('('l't.. Tile surf.11' r . I~ .. o:' t .i relation between the readings In the case of precast units.

The st ructur. Limits 2!tO ..." 1.~ I) e.1:·il:-.P!l. 'l'ho tf": should be ca rried out as J" possi! ..1 JuL' "". .·T the 11H'1111.\. 'I'S to be . .' is G·IOO. r in'.).Il.6. of I ~leunit.:~' S8] ". II i '1 1:"j m i-: r"· "0 time when the test load ~(". 'e .l!.:1.' iliti!12'1 hoftheremovalofthetestload the uh.': rcsse d concrete structures.(' 01' class 3 prestressed concrete sr ructur.1'lri :."I :\:ngth.• [' kL~:lll"end..5 ASS(~H. Measurerno nts of deflection and crack width should be taken immediately after the application ofload and.i maro l. .' y of . and members rlesigned f01"("Til inuity 01' fixity) the testing ..S .1 .1<: ()1\: lity of the concrete in the (J I "..I. . ''1 large units at' units not i cad. it is not necessary for the recovery to be me:II!I'('ci. :I'·"V.) H! 1e maximum deflection (in millimetres) shown dill" Ig' tlro ~·l h under load is less I.« ' concrete structures.' Llill:.-11'(.. the III aximum wid I: h ()fa ny crack measured im merl iate iv on application of the test load for local damage should not be more than two-thirds of the va Iue 1'01' I]:' lim it state requirement given in 5. .'eed before such units .' . Ai. ( _.l 811.ll'l' 1.l 1"01' reinforced concrete structures and class J pro. I.Igrced before testing cantilevered portions uf structures. .1.111 of the .500 of the effective span. I'Lll'i '~'i( I I I '<J I. . r.. ro s).:ond loading.4 and A.\uulllll'.""ir'ueiurI'S "("\11"08 I (.lw n.' ~"..1.\'(i.recust parts I :. T!» tc'~: ! (j:l rls to he appl ied for the : ni: si'!Lus o: ion » Id local dUl1w':e are th» "0(1 1 'jll'i .. '/11'/' .!. .i nd 1'01110V('d " structures t e~i ~ d cseribcd lJ:~ ! '.I '..t 10 I(r~.5.~ }'O!' members spanning between two supp orl. the ch.t it: 1. In assessing the serviccabi I. a l'!'inforc'" [ 11)(:1"01.ill'l. A. 1·I. .-juel 'I..~ ".IOLi . not show a recovery of at least 75 % u:· the 11::'..11. il. he ulf. The Iollowi-u rocom mendations should be met.. the j. .lIlhl. A.nn"I'ctc 1·..1 of I'art . "r\:~S( I . after removal of the load awl after the 24 h recovery period. the possible effects of varintion iIC tcmporature and humidity during the period of I.G.:d il!t! test. ~ou 1rI b(· considered to have failed to pass tho test i: '0 rocovcry after the second loading is not at len c' '7:J 'X.3.'..1:..· : (L' .lppl:ltiOll the test load for deflection shoulrl Lc I Jt more than 1.: I" 1'1:\:.irraugementshllldd be .i) test should be considered . no visible cracks should OC.) ':" I' I. n nd A.]\1.: 'CI·'. \ (klkl'tiO!1 excccdinv 1.ructurc.s t bl ].'~" \\'h.. '0:1'1 IJl UI' 'IJrf'l: ! . I . A.'itelpstm:wiJ()c:1l'riedout or i" 11 ':i.[ value.i i : ill]" : te {I .\\11.Cl' . is I ': ove rull depth of construction (in III illin: .2 e BSI 12·1998 ..l')pl:('.6. . \'_~ed.1: 'cd' iel I: !":':l{.4 Measu rement s during the tests..: ""I! .de.'('re. _.I'~: .her than . ..hOllicibe :tpilly.5..I n~ necessary.i nn tc li mit state as calculated in A. ')i'ity . \1 1)0 nd do. 1'\1: ing '..(i.. : l..uac: oristic deud .11..6.5.61: 10L111sar i icr.!'[ll'C~tres:-O:1tthe time '1. \Vhen the rost is fora 11 1.lf~111\·{·I'lherj_nol i.uuoutal! : \.nd fagun ac : pc: . \ \ hl'l . ii. .id he .' 1:11(' ionding should be repeated.' npe .Ii "II" Loa d tc~'"' .. leg:J:' : :. A.1 structure or part of a structure following :1 :()~Iding Lest.2G :.n~iJdk':111.:i.I'stjl~: bel i il. FOl"v.5.k ":"~'djl. LII'" Il' .:' . in the case of the 24 h sustained load' strong enough 'iOllld l» piJ"('il in . '1 .1. allowance "I."ment of results.5 do not :n its design points of support and \U' 11 not fnil . ::pj)\:n I'! lion lc!<l\ I I.! oqual to tic dead 1.-1 h...: (: )8:-. For class 1 and class 2 prestrcs. " on the SUu{'IUl"e. \ h i. Temperature and weathor conditions should be recorded during the test. .· undo r the test load for local damage. he -xpi ry of 28 d.' 1 c< ". The unit should be loaded A. \ : ...nrrete. I gl h. or : . \\"ill'J"(' L is the effective span (in metres) :1 nd II.iys from the ofp l.::illity \if': IH' -t.:'\ Destrnt-t SllPP01'1.». . Sufficient measurements should be taken to enable side effects to be taken into account.\ mum deflection shown during the 24 h \:I~dc:1' 10.\. '1. h.ici: 'l'ill(Ti'ie.)d~. Speclu .composite beams. -.\· iistic .- •'.: rh. .of the maximum deflection shown dlllill~ 1. at tho end of! he 2/1 h loaded period. ~ /\ge C " : '1) in t his chi use ot. amen:·' 10 to tests (such as columns.5. I ]l"S 1I1·:. .m it state is lon.1 h. I) :'wre is doubt .~ ultimate design load .! or p arr s of . I ina Ii '.'<:. 1'(' .1 hpl .. . I .J S ·)400-8: 1~1-:...'st. _ .il.." dc lloction measured immediately :ti. ch" II'. ("1<1:. .1 ~ .Lions "h"\llrll"'lnken to .~jt .

I hi ugrlo m and CI! .lLO of development of strength diminishes as (he mllcr-ete dries out.' 'H~ long' I.' 11":lCrrl.. .I' ('()ni't:eh~. see clause 3 of Part 7). I'll.!'nnry Curing by means of damp absorbent materials is l: ko 'y to C~1Use lowering of the temperature a of the corn i.'1'1':1. COI1Ci. si:«: and shape of! '6. .10 "C. ...1SS the test if the recovery after the second loading is not at least 85 % of I he maximum de flection shown elu ri ng the second loa.u ions . ~l' [ . and are h:.3.5 If. ] 1.'xc('pi about " 1.' Iy period ..\:y purticuhu :y tu 1he U nitc. 'ai :1 of I '1:(' III cnt). tho J('.rr« Cr'll.~"ction shown during tho ?e[ h under load. lllg W11 Ii:11 I·~:IUS(~.·UCLlLl"e should be cor. of concrete subjected to accelerated periods up to about 24 h may well be npprncinbly greater than the value estimated in this way Some compensation for this effect may be app] ieel by calculating the maturity for both the nccrkn-ated curing and the curing at normal tom pC! ratures as the difference in average t cmporatures between the concrete and 0 °C instead of . and in some circumstances the effect can ho s i<> n i ficant.l'c:'. sl lIS h.1.ling.: 1'c'l1wnt~.111 he '.011 if tho is r:ll "I .1. The concrete should he cured so that internal stresses within the mer» bee. .-) o( I . 1Il("I'pl:e (and 11('11(:0 of he.Tile rcconuncnd.\I~e~.0 is still hot. :il'l:1 uly whe n hi'il !-i. The si 1. cln-« J or class! prestressed concrete structure does Ap p e n d ix 1'(" n Curing guide to the development of strength at different temperatures can be obtained hy using the concept of "maturity"..lowing cl.gtil is rir tl \'r ry . 1.virhin .itur ... . 1 he moro care s hoi del be tu II i)' I l' sl II'l 11~: I . which may be defined as the area under a curve of the concrete temperature (in degrees Celsius) plotted against I inio (ill hours) calculated from a basis of . nf . J!.'1('1'.it of 11. 7 ()[I': .~'. . Ci'1l10I' i: 1.····cl'ocl un -1. i II!!.ntiics The S t. ..: .i'.we failed to P. c ur in:. I' \'C\"l'.111'" I . hence excessive evaporation or w: II vr from all surfaces may need to be prevented .\c!'rkl'atod '.3. 1 ia tcly after stripping the moulds while the rom Ie. .wer. An example for accelerated curi n::: is given in Figure 1. CG 'II "~"\'U lo~:' of n gth with ~ill1jL!l tempcrar« climates. Si nri' . tl.. . .v n ir tcmporatures 7. ]i." . Knowing the maturity. l! II )1 'if 'IH) 1:.iccclcrutors or retarders.u ion 01 I'III'ing should he 1'. ng CI'" Tho 1':110of'g'nin of .iy 10 ho I to :! '\"r... within 24 h of the removal of the test load for I he ultimar» limit state as calculated in AG. ·ll~'.ttion in temperatures due to applying a cold water spray to a relatively massive member j . should ]J(' l:on!'icil'r(.. ex: . for An approximate . are not sufficient to cause distortion or era!'. c'll'ii'~ Ij('!"i'l(i (.'ssi ng the likely temperature variation within I he " :. .'le d.~cd by the 118i' 01':11110. 'I'h« .siclered to h.JI')l'.. .h» TI C! L 1'1' U s\ :)J or sl rongl '1 is :1103" i : 11. \\ 1'0 I .' of heat evolution (related to rate of cl-:: I'iopment of strength.. J II as.o. (.' .' .croto. the following factors apply: ]":11.. rI.lTllp 10.1 s a result of the evaporation from the naller]. surface cracking may occur as a result of vnri. ~l'... a not cliow a recovery of at least 85 Iv.Iv i : !I} d u r..' con 'l'c'.! '. I'" n 1:11(.~l .ru-cs nrc intended to 11'.3 IJ i stortion and cracking. to I to tho I . tile 10: I :: r: ~ should i·. This adjustment should not be made for .. ' 1\.J1.c.l Gpllcral. .\lllll:aIPd c. '. ('..lel' '. hL. 1 vovidvd 11!:ll: " r. .av« III effect on any distortion and cracking. knpi.'/1· :'..~t II <. ":1' pi '. the 1 ·'her i.11 'II''' .1" l'O!pid .nsulation values of curing media i (. :1 .I<'.· -d on the as -uuip tion that the concreto (I '1'.'.lg-e temperatures below normal. n ud uhllllC1!e !-lr:lgl II is not 1 luw«: .diJl CI. of the maximum d('.e h:JS 1:1Y CI.1".:1:1 I.' i':ll! 0:' i 1 .do <.·1 . the corresponding age of concrete cured at normal temperatures can be estimated and the strength then found from data rela ting the strength of that type of concrete to age a t that temperature.0 o lrise an.11.·I·' . the 1':1"'"l'S 1.teuipor: \II'" (\~'t1".. .I: honce : h(.. Pn r: irular precautions to be taken when Ci .1 " the ulti 11HltO si 1'1'111<1:11 "I' concrete "( curing is 1:"1: lik:. ':'he p rincipnl renscns and 'll'·'iJl1dul: "IS Ior curing concrete are given Ill· .·cte do.•~ .idvc v.I~1d·bb"iJul'll. wooden moulds or water spray)... )·:. rr-aftc: . E.!ted II . and I:.:l'enl. but '11.: h.I('l'ature din-ing the curing period will not fall 1)(" IV ~ °C..~ la 1<1 null :LI.nm.) :18 soon :lS :.11.'' '1:.'. For I: \.' fur IOIV·h"<lt and ~ll!'l'n.10°C.!}. and hence it will l.]l. tr'mp' h(l t':) 0(' of tho concreto does Ilid exceed 23 . rincreto I.he 1':1to ofdevelopment or 81 'l~ II of 1.. r 81'0 given B.I'OI1('I'Sill 1":.) repented. ·1:.BS 5400-8:1978 AG. '':.11:11. • Jl1 (TC' :n~ atl '. The 1'. The disposition of reinforcement will "ffeci tho restraint to the strains.1 nd ilje: factors in clause 3 of Part 7 therefore apply. whether due to differences in temperature «r (_U:'C'rencesin moisture content within the concnro.1111' I' ('[I ~lin'2' tr :".'L'lwl temperature.

If the shrink» 'oi":llits ufr or they ar« built into the structure is].. '. all vulnerable surfaces of concrete should he protected against excessive loss of water by evaporation that would result in a weak. low l'I':'ltivo humidity. .. . hizh cor.1110J.80 6)«(60.icc/volumo ratio..curin: ai mcd at preventing the loss of water Irom the uni: should be continued no longer than i' nr-ccssary I f1 obtn i n the desired durability an' "'I'ngth.l . c) early agp of concrete.i. _...·1 Dlll':1 hi I it.crete snrfnce hotter than the air). ..I 6 12 - --------------- Figure 1. For example."0. 111'11'0 !lLL'~ive section is reinforced . cracks may occur at the ends of precast concrete lintels that have been moist-cured but not n llowed to dry sufficiently before being erected in the building.BS 5400-8: ~~)iS r n assessing the 1 ikely vari ntion in moisture conten t within the COI~Cl'l'1 the 1'. 1344 degree hours -1(' a I J --------_\..1 t 0 of OVapO!'._ Curve B • Maturity / . the rate of mig ration of water COllcrote is ~:Teat8r than the rate of from the surface: of high surf. .'J'ornporatur e/t.lme curves ---------------------~ © BSI 12·1998 fo r concrete ." bo rs wi '1 sudden ("11:lIlgesin section that. n 111lorl'SCI' Whel'cit i .' S.. ~- wind spee.0 occur as a result of the concrete p rovirl i ng inadequate protection for the reinforcement O!' because of frost attacking the surface concrete.1' 'cing mn v O('ClIL" due 10 varying shrinkage in ..: PIe sin ':(('/\'0111111" r. : I t . . ·'1.-----+-------i-------7-"---- J--------lI v I I I I . !1I1ll opporrun ity to dry « tt ccnaistr-r' . e c I I 1350 degr'~i! hour$ 1 A(le of eQuivalent strength cured It I temperature 18°C· 1350/(18 + 10) .I I. 1 'f((curve .'. As deterioration is III os t likely 1.] 11(1 d ryi ng winds.l~ alren ' OUi lined.i:. i.-.540 +10)-480 1350 ---- l'2to18h S . .--+---I I I I 6 to 12 h 6 x (80+ 10..clpllder SlY: Ion is not. Concrete should be protected from the III'() ing and drying cycles produced by rain or COil d(.e..' lli!"! concrete -hould be gi\" " I >(' io appreciably. To 48 h (18 "e)... unprotected C"ll(T(!le will be higher with a) atmospb-v'.1 tic n .. I. especially i: through th« evaporation b) members .ed I eo~- / --I I Example a to 6h 6xCO. :111 'helil "atir)l1ofi!i"\'nrial. porous s u rfaco luyer. especially in cold weather.80 +10)-330 . d) lower gr:"!(' "I' concro+o. the atmosphere adjacent to the surface ofthe concrete shou l-] hr' mn i nru ined at a constant relative hu mid it y approaching' 100 % for the time given in Table ·1 of Par I.'.. is important to prevent the formation of nco.48 h of L/." and appearance. ly LII lead t. ily il . 'E u I I FF :--i I .~ i- : 1·'1-----.undesirable cracking at the ends oftlli 1I11it. I I A· Ultimate strenglh adv""cIV afle~. n. evaporati: conditions encouraging POl' example.:': 1110 '. .onin moisture cor ! I .] tion Irorn 0. 7.

II'n sign 1'IWGRI%S-J\J-Tl' work mou..l\vay. .n ': II/('... . Threaded bars for preformed ducts should have suitable protection to the thread to a mid damage by abrasion.3 Precautions to be taken before stressing n) Chock all equipment before use and report any signs of wear or defects.H ( 1('. il·c' :1(li:II'r:Il!. the ha ck ~lt the n.o P:l~:'(.ncl'1111· t "~'t!i' I.1' nnd Lh.'.\·' :118.f·:1 nl:] 'C)1'ngrs 1'('I'1l U·. p.BS 5400-8:1978 i I -- .med and oiled.pillg" ~ITl'""C'd so t. ho :nav rpi'u I" I ~ r )" vi i v \I\\'. 0[' UH' jack and ('lposiU' chi' .!111.. k) Regular examination of hydraulic hoses is essential.i on s 510111.'. "._ h) Keep all equipment thoroughly clean and in workmanlike condition.:·I10Il.'Ul :. 01'(101' anrl h .!h stn n-Iard. CJ Fence all the area between tho safety screens :1'·') J'S C'.)rm safety b.liUl'8gc j.'\vo!'ltd :·.rt .! Ccnr. The purpose of this appendix is to suggest some simple but sensible precautions to ensure that stressing and grouting U1"8 currred out with the maximum of safety.::lgnpl . of the tendons comply \Iith the requirements of clause 5 of Part 7.1I. ·1")' i u-pector.:llldling 1. rn--:j'l"l('t"..Ii.bnt ~:'·in!! 1.2 General :1) p ro ra ut. I.C011:!V <..1 Illd tcnsior.~ i ()the fact. 11) Each jack pressure gauge should be checked at frequent intervals against a master gauge and the site engineer furnished with a calibration C11 alt. '" l' ". etc. of the units h:..sl1~\rl'\"i~('·r.lnd 1 '.118Jl1.II:I1I11('lll: I il':~ ll""d II..~ to wou r l::II·ill·' i\. it is essential that some form of dvnainometer or load cell is introduced behind or as a n integral part of the jack. The maximum safety load should not be more than 90 % of the specified characteristic strength of the tendons. rlo'i~'·n t o L:·.1: \\"1. m) It is preferable . Alternatively.lIH) lI\1' jnck nlld anchoruges i. prestressing tendons should not be used for earthing electrical equipment of any kind. strossing I. c) Be careful when handling coils of high tensile wire as they may "whip back" with force if not sI'clll'oly bound.". CLE.':n· ~II'\·' J\Jake s·':··'('''·~l (_lr. check each individual wire for obvious flaws.. 25 .!l\1 IN on the Side of the safety 1'e1110le Irun.1[. The operations involved in tensioning and de-tensioning prestressing tendons are not dangerous provided that sufficient care is taken and the following assumptions have been made. - Appendix C Safety precautions for prestressing and grouting operations C. l) Use only self-sealing couplings for hydraulic pressure pipes and ensure that no bending stresses are applied to end connections. ~ It should be note-d that the engineer can only advise the contractor l"''!Dl'ding safoty n nrl.1!: no nne cn n Ill(> ~i 1111'111 dUI·!Il.l njnck or: nchornge during opcra t ir>l\K: kr'ejl cJ!'u I· .'j' f'1. . and thread-protecting \\ !<:1p i 11gS should be removed at the last moment (l ln-foro use. fniling sal i ~fDc:jjOIl.Ht 7. -t'hiclds ." npCr'~\~ i\'(':": and . b) The design and construction conccrnod aro of t ho l'e'lllil'cc! ".l Introduction. ~("'I. and oil in the pump reservoir should be regularly drained and filtered.'~ I.:![ have I"(. . • \\'~l . "XI"l'E:-0'J'lc'N-STHI·.."i II '. !. a suitable calibrated proving ring can be used so that a daily test can be made j iref[ 11 ired. L·es~i!". tl\(' unit between :"lllnll:'.. - C.. When large-diameter strand is being used..l. 11!.. iJ(:hinr. fl The threads of bars.. ... nuts and couplers should I)" clr.:' II !:" :3._! I·('~sjn~~· rl s .:r'UU:.\li" si:. . .isirlo the taper.uricrs 1:11''. and consequently is dangerous.. S{"I"('(':1l8 :rl'ct .. storage. [:Il :'.01' 0. i) Do not permit any welding near prestressing tendons. I\'.\ l' l'. .:'.: 1\\· 1)1" r c ~(I"CSSlllg wires. n-jack iug end to should trouble occur. j..·~. :'C ('. d) When assembling tendons. issued a nrl JI ~ Ll'('~I' in:"1 \"1\1"' C:II' 1'·. 1») Check to ensure that the handling. badly maintained equipment always gives rise to trouble. .~ili(l:lli:· till. or - ref-r iel'O" 10 the dnlLlilecl in-trnctions '. .l'''-''V to keep C. :1n .·lly.ri u.l\'s ".!Il') I.mce with clause 5 OfP.\·O\·.\j!·il1111 10:1 1 n[' th» IJed . c) The workmanship is in accord..':(.. a) Stressing 01)('1':1 tions a re ca rricd out by experio nced povson net under a compete nt supervisor. surface conditions.1 1)19pl:1Y.Il"I:i C·II In I'.SSLNG b) Display a screens \\·. e) Sec that the wedges and the inside ofbarrels or (' 111esu re clean so that wedges are free to move i. d) All equip rnnnt is in full working properly mnintn ined. to use only hydraulic equipment supplied with a bypass valve that is p reset to a maximum safety load before stressing.!. j) Do not allow grips to be exposed to the weather and become rusty.

..: ':. fixings and position :' nndare 1') 1). C." i 11"8 j.-n-rou gnuge ut this stage.ikc Jll'OC~llI!lOI1:-. -und the body of the jack. (~~. b) Check all ducts with compressed air to make S111'O that they a ro not blocked before grouting.'' 1'I"·.'-.. .11'1'i(><1 0111. I . .::" IJ ~ ~ I : !rd 0\"'.. just sufficient to free the llal Using (I (".·!·'-'I"'~ '" rvlo n': :lid. front scaffolding. k.1 1 : l 1 : ~ .·l.:N i.I ch s t re ~sing L JI . of the jn. _ ('.]:11.' skewing 01' li Iting of the stressing equipment during stressing OL' release.0 ":1:1 "1":111': ~." OJ' bubbles aftci .2 (') \\' hen gl!)llting above railways or public roads.. mel "llIl'I.J Using a prestressing jack the .BS 5400-8:1!178 g) Ensure thnt arlr-qua tc prccnutions hnvo been taken to rest 1'1 in any possih I. C. of C':\('!wnge of equipment. ..ion.une. c'. b) Before te i: are sacuro..)!.l til(" nns.Iiately i11'.h« !'ree 1'1(01\") III r-nt of the units.-'I.1l1.Hin:..(l 1'.IS J1lc~. :.:.Keep ("]18 wedges clean :lel :i'('e from tli)'l . ~on lJ reak ing. t-.'.". CrlSiUII IIiDy -traiv.c:t1'0·'~ing. barrels. ~ ('. in . "l\lpll :ecl .i.. b) In system.G Prccau t. wedges.:es.~"i!'ll u 'ds: off"::in!!.· \V0'!~e pir-ces n re not worn..11. apply the full load and extension to each of the individual wires and lock off. I. A sudden spu rt of grout under pressure can cause severo in. as detailed i -- . (0 see that escaping grout does not cuuse u hazard to traffic below.:!':~e overlo. . to n~i0 ning re move all obstructions to ofo t. Lli ~1Jl'" t ! rat Llw supervisor keeps a record book 0<1 r:h !i 11('.rre should bo taken not to score the ram of the jnck.ho cross-head to be jacked back a 1 1:1i:1: 11\ 1111 I . L C. make sure tl:..lates.idiu.'''lu!. . . causing serrous injury. into duct bleeders to see ifgrout is Grout may jam temporarily and.werl·:. 11l he taken du ri ng strcss ing e) For single-wire stressing. st . '1'1'1."' into service of all new equipment..'.. g) Check h\·.I) l'onf'll'lIlalil)n that the inspection h. Tho ~) .5..) Place a ]}1 ::.:in~ (Inc! 10 cho. 1. compu-l. i:.··:[H'll' more Lhm one win) j~ . the tc nrlo ns .' the ext.I.Ii for 12.11' end of the duct..cfol'l' re le. for fl:tw. TIw loads and extensions should be carefully noted by the supervisor.D.l .'in the event of a te 11.«I to prevent them [..ions to he taken after stressing C.1 tioris of 4. Only after this inspection should 1 he full load he applied. arting mu c after singk-..2 Using (/ erose-head :I) 13 ro cl ('.I'.1\8 grps 1Ie[01'8 '!~.7 mm for th._!. 26 e BSI 12·1998 . C. a n.Ion8.'k the grips 01' Iixi ngs of tendons to the prestress 't!" jack before .!J"l n.4Precaution" CA. t. suddenly spurt from the lloodcrs or i.-' i I1g tensions.\ ··)mnllll. pinning-up' for all '. :.l Using a /' l'es!I'('. -: 11' : •. h) When ten-: -nin-r is be inu ('. :1 Cf1'!lpetrnt person is n]\\1.hc 1'.: 'X hen i he lund is on..:'ssiJ'·~·. 1) shutter 2) stirr« I 3)heavy: 4) rolls I ..iulY especially to the eyes. I iou nt.'1 tion.·if1.. 1'11' va«! '.' -illl'O :11" . c) Tension tOl' l('lI~ I') a low init in l strr--s (say 60 N!Jnnl~) wid rorhsck IV{'·I '.5. apply small extension initially and check the line to ensure that there are no loose or caught-up wires or end-plates.s first liP a) Pin up till check tha t LJ not tangled .) (ltdy •.."~Ul'0pili'''.'d movomo nt 11) slowly and evenly.sing j a cl: a) Double-ch. gripped at <J :. 11) -. '[1'\1' t.sIlL'r is applied.c. following: ' r ' Jm ' .I\'8 available [It. i) Arrange stressing. dil ::1 ( IlIIIl. . cut off tendons behind .\.l.. wn icl: iu ay lead to I.. been carried out.. I' .::\ .) :1:' :lri:l:! SII·. .of' 1 he other wires.111 '.should be securely lash. A slip of one wire 11' v WI'II (. ofuses to date of wedges..' . ~ a) After stressing.: . e) Ensure tb.unmur Lo adjust the [11 : Ill' :1:. f) Double-cho k <! J! ~'..~j'C '1]1' fi mm di. d) Do not stri 11]1' 0flUipIlH'11' \\·.f4 .1 JIV Ii... In placing the packers c..ulure..1 nchoragcs ill accordance with the recommend . . on 11<1\ becnp\llkt! .. no not 1)\"'1' ('0111 i ng til I'll' Igh.4. Any sudden cause damage to the concrete .. t h jack and ]!UHllJ . ud ir. . no .h a l.. I . L.1 cI) For multi-w ire or multi-strand for stressing to tn ke place as soon as possible after 1he gl'ips have been positioned.!J'l' .'k cn anchorages I :01'1. '1'111' lollowing information should be ]'('(:01'1 kd: l ) lin! I' :~ !'I" ·\o. c) It is prcfr rablo to use only threaded connectors between grout nozzles and grouting points. h~~1'~'01.

. etc. teorh. It is essential to 8('0 that tl\(' insides of the barrels are clean so t!: It the Wl":'.!l118nts [IS n"C()"". cross-heads. 3) any cracked welding on the equipment. "'It' '.lirt 01' rust accumulated in the \'. . - © BSt .llleys (. 1) Return n ll barrels to the stores 1'01' clea ning <1 nd chccki Ilg n long wi th the wedges..1X.\.th of I !Jr' wedges with a wire brush in order to remove .1'11...'.l clen n nll wedges each week. 2) distortion of stressing equipment._WI BS 5400-8:1978 • · =* I -g-) Inspect weekly for the following: 0) l nspoct a n. nufact 1I O"u r's instructions. and - ncord tile bet in t!:» book provided." hacks or Ll:.II..12·1998 27 · . Replace worn se'. 1) distorted anchor-plates.lphito 0I.. according to the griv 111. Clean the h".. ..: \\ed~l'::i with ~:'.1Jl~' . .: the taper.:es :1i'1" !'ree to 1'10\'(( i nsir!..

. --.. _ .- · · . .~ * • 28 blank · . _._· ..

Recommendations [or non-tlestructiuc BS 4408-1. ash for use in concrete. . reinforcement and prestressing tendons. BS 5400. of concrete. screws and nuts. Supersulphaied cement.BS 5400-8:1978 Publications referred to BS 12. life/hods blast furnace slag coarse aggregate for concrete. BS 4449. Code of practice [or design of concrete bridges. Methods of testing cement. of testing concrete. Coli! ioorked steel bars [or the reinforcement o] concrete. ISO metric black hexagon bolts. Bending dimensions and scheduling of bars [or the reinforcement BS 11550. . Portland cenicnt. © BST 12·1998 .. BS 146. Steel. BS 4248. devices. concrete and composite bridges. . Nineteen-wire steel strand for prestressed concrete. BS 44GG... BS 4408-3. BS 5·100-4. Sulphate-resisting BS 4190. Air-cooled BS 1881. BS 4757. . BS 5·100-7. - BS 3892. Aggregates from natural sources for concrete (including BS 1047. -. . Hot rolled steel bars [or the reinforcement . Spccificot i lJiL [or mater! a I sand uiorknuuiship. Portland-blastfurnace cement.. . . 1201. Gamma radiography o[ concrete. concrete. Portland cement (ordinary and rapid-hardening). Electromagnetic cover measuring methods of test for concrete. granolithic). BS 882. BS 4408. Pulverized-fuel BS 4027.. BS 44(H. . of concrete..

* -' . it is BSI policy to supply the BSI uupk : .'I:U!".(: 1!. If' PC!" '.electronic.... We would be grateful if anyone linding an inaccuracy or ambiguity while using this British Standard would inrUI'IH the Secretary of the technical committee responsible.(](I I.\:! ''l8')OG 70·1". 020 8996 7002." . rall.\.' 1'1'(. .. 1: 1\ ~ t I:lld"1 C':nl'l. ']1. . "I'i' . TuJ: U':'O0U% DOO1. Tel: 020 8996 9000. \IP If) n'el'. the identity of which can l)(: Cow id on tile inside front cover. and adv«c C:)l1 he obminod from the Copyright Manager. . If these -: <: in I": I !o"ti lor .lor allI3SI... :·'n'I(. Ord. ..~O8990 7"100.. international and foreign standards publications should be to Customer Se!" ices._ . "" ..'Ol1se to orders 1'01" il!"'I'l1<:11 i. 'l. . It is incorporated by Royal Charter.I. '\. ! "'I'tlll:"siu:l of BSII'. BSI otters members an individual updating service called PLUS which ensures that subscribers automatically receive the latest editions of standards. . 111'''1.ISC price of standards. I-':.11i" Di'sig! .~ Revisi ons British Standards <Ireupdated by amendment or revision. Tel.' l'le~.tiou 01.:UI." '"h(II:" "I' .'!:I'II :1:'. It presents the UK view on standards in Europe and at the international level. .hiJi !\dministration. COp. . I -..I'(I~~'CI date with standards developments and !:. Except as permitted : w Copni:. Users of British Standards should make sure that they possess the latest amendments or editions.:! pllhli(':I! 'he I ~11('.'.1)'. i'l Iii" rourso of implementing the standard. Fax: 0208996 7001.. BSI - British Standards Institution BSI is the independent national body responsible for preparing British Standards. < COlli :Iet the Information Centre. .' :'ig1l1: ('. .riling I" .t "i -- .\ 1"1(11..!lst bl~ olnaiucd. til!' I crms may include royalty payments or a licensing :I':rc' 1'''\1. For details of . . t' '" I!' :l'i: .I oil" .' slli)s1:l1llbl "! L L'\": discour : OIl other lH'lIl~l1ts Cl". k. Thl: 020 89967111. mul sl :1 I idnrds.-. of 'r. type or grade designations.! nS[ also holds the copyright.1: (.111.1 ['('1"1':\ d system "I' transmuted in any form or by any means.!1 1.lW I l'.\cL :)!JVlJi()O 1." "'s not : \n"I'lflc I'ta' vrin- Ilw '. si'"... .1!Vl1!s Act 1088 no extract may be reproduced.S . European and international 'ds tluough irs Lil)l'... '!:: I".j. his the constant aim of .(.'Iii uout prior written permission from BSI. ~{II'I BSI 389 Chlswick High Road London W44AL .~cd In rx-. unless othei .1 her-vis.1.~'in'_'.lishcd as British Standards. ihiug .. D.1(1(11 . ] 11("0 r tn u. suhsists ions. .-r. nSf )\"(\\'idcs a wi. .11 in: I" ( -:' in all m:.e than implementation then the prior .1 standards S.."".i .visc requested.i. hccn I\\lI.('.(' in the UK..~~ion is grallted. of lizution bodies. ~'lb..icntation 01' those IL ' han.e (:I' inlormatlon on national. F:lx: (). .. ~. It'( C':'111. l1Il1-crviccs. Various nSf cl-'c1ronic information services are also available which give details on all its pro...'i :111(1 its Technical Help to Exporters Service. 1IIC111I1('I'S or L" :H'C k('pl.' I'" :)' :.G~:: to improve the quality of our products and services.

..078..~ P..21.· ..'I&i' _ _. _ · ..J • • NO COPYING WITHOUT EXCF. COJ1Crete COl111JOsite and bridges ~ - Part 9: Briel ge bearings Section 9.2 ?p0r::ificatjon for mater-ials.. . _..&~J'~ i .\IISSION " .2: 1983 .-:-:.DAHD BS 5400-9.5 I .BRITISH STAI'·.01:624. - UDe 624. . Steel.PT AS PEHMlTTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW . manufa ctu r c and installation of bridge b e ar i n [!'~' <: . --'._ · ."l PER.

Tel: 020 8996 7070. If permission is granted. unless otherwise requested Infonnation on standards BSI provides a wide range of infonnation on national. Fax: 020 8996 7001. Fax: 02089967001. It is incorporated by Royal Charter. ._ . of necessary details such as symbols. Subscribing members of BSI are kept up to date with standards developments and receive substantial discounts on the purchase price of standards. recording or otherwise .. Various BSI electronic information services are also available which give details on all its products and services. in the UK. and size. BSI offers members an individual updating service called PLUS which ensures that subscribers automatically receive the latest editions of standards. Revisions British Standards are updated by amendment or revision.British Standards Institution BSI is the independent national body responsible for preparing British Standards. in the course of implementing the standard. It presents the UK view on standards in Europe and at the international level. Designs and Patents Act 1988 no extract may be reproduced. If these details are to be used for any other purpose than implementation then the prior written permission of BSI must be obtained.electronic. Fax: 020 8996 7048. It is the constant aim of BSI to improve the quality of our products and services. Fax: 0208996 7400. of the publications of the international standardization bodies. photocopying.. BSI also holds the copyright.. the identity of which can be found on the inside front cover. international and foreign standards publications should be addressed to Customer Services. Users of British Standards should make sure that they possess the latest amendments or editions.._ ~ -. it is BSI policy to supply the BSI implementation of those that have been published as British Standards. BSI 389 Chiswick High Road London W44AL . This does not preclude the free use.+ -- ~ . Buying standards Orders for all BSI. We would be grateful if anyone finding an inaccuracy or ambiguity while using this British Standard would inform the Secretary of the technical committee responsible..+ .. .--.. Tel: 020 8996 7111. the terms may include royalty payments or a licensing agreement Details and advice can be obtained from the Copyright Manager. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any fonn or by any means . For details of these and other benefits contact Membership Administration. Except as permitted under the Copyright. In response to orders for international standards.BSI . European and international standards through its Library and its Technical Help to Exporters Service. Tel: 020 8996 7002.without prior written permission from BSI. Copyright Copyright subsists in all BSI publications. . Tel: 0208996 9001. type or grade designations. Contact the Infonnation Centre. Tel: 020 8996 9000.