This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
- Continuity back to Vedic times (6,000 BC) - Codified in a large number of ancient and medieval music treatises - Developed independently of folk music, albeit occasionally importing folk or regional elements, metamorphosing them suitably - Raga based music, hence almost entirely (99%) improvised - Capable of intense expression in very slow speeds - Vast range of ornaments, particularly during slow passages. Subtle use of microtones in slow passages - Steady, long-held notes, mostly approached and/or quitted by ornaments or little ornamental phrases - Gradual building up of tempo from very slow to very fast - Convention of time and season - Clear enunciation of rhythmic cycle by percussion accompanist (in dominant present day forms like Khayal, Sadra, Thumri, Bhajan etc.) - True to Hindu traditions: so-called “Persian influences” fully integrated within its essential and ancient grammatical format developed by Hindu scholars known as Gandharvas. There was an attempt at Islamisation when Amir Khusrau (12/13 century AC) forcibly imported some Persian rules. However, these Islamic influences were purged and the music firmly brought back to its Hindu roots by the great musician-musicologist Tansen (16 century AC). The one major change brought about by Amir Khusrau that remains today is the fixing of the tonic and the dominant (Sa and Pa) without assigning sharp or flat variations to them, the provision of flattened versions alone for the supertonic, mediant, submediant and leading notes (Re, Ga, Dha and Ni) and the provision of a sharpened version alone to the subdominant (Ma). The great Muslim musicians - from Sultan Hussain Sharki, Wajid Ali Shah, Haddu Khan, Hassu Khan, Bade Gulam Ali Khan, Abdul Karim Khan, Alladia Khan, Amir Khan, Nissar Hussain Khan, etc. down to present day exponents had/have their own unique style of performance known to and recognised by the qualified listener as the Muslim style (as opposed to the Hindu style), but the music in all essential respects strictly adheres to the grammatical tradition codified by the Gandharvas. The "Muslim style" of performance came into being because the early Muslim musicians in India could not learn formally from Hindu scholars and so they (the Muslim musicians) imbibed the music by careful listening and analysing it as best as they could. Also, unlike Hindu musicians for whom the introspective and spiritual element of the music was paramount, Muslims musicians performed primarily to please their patron and receive material rewards: so they concentrated more on the virtuositic and entertaining elements in the music.
ago. Even before the first influence of Islam across land in north India (the Arab invasion of Sindh occurred in 712 AC), there was a steady trade route across the Arabian sea from Arabia to the western coast of south India. The first village in the whole of India to convert to Islam was Kangalore, near Mangalore, in south India. Hyderabad and its sister city Secundrabad, in south India, were great Islamic centres from medieval times. There were many more such centres, all having a strong influence on south Indian culture.
The seven notes of the scale (swaras)
in Indian music are named shadja, rishabh, gandhar, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat and nishad, usually shortened to Sa, Ri (Carnatic) or Re (Hindustani), Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, and Ni and written S, R, G, M, P, D, N. Collectively these notes are known as the sargam (the word is an acronym of the consonants of the first four swaras). Sargam is the Indian equivalent to solfege, a technique for the teaching of sight-singing. Sargam is practiced against a drone. The tone Sa is not associated with any particular pitch. As in Western moveable-Do solfège, Sa refers to the tonic of a piece or scale rather than to any particular pitch. A dot above a letter indicates that the note is sung one octave higher, and a dot below indicates one octave lower. Or, if a note with the same name-Sa, for example-is an octave higher than the note represented by S, an apostrophe is placed to the right: S'. If it is an octave lower, the apostrophe is placed to the left: 'S. Apostrophes can be added as necessary to indicate the octave: for example, ``g would be the note komal Ga in the octave two octaves below that which begins on the note S (that is, two octaves below g). The basic mode of reference is that which is equivalent to the Western Ionian mode or major scale (called Bilawal thaat in Hindustani music). All relationships between pitches follow from this. In any seven-tone mode (starting with S), R, G, D, and N can be natural (shuddha, lit. 'pure') or flat (komal, 'soft') but never sharp, and the M can be natural or sharp (tivra) but never flat, making twelve notes as in the Western chromatic scale. If a swara is not natural (shuddha), a line below a letter indicates that it is flat (komal) and an acute accent above indicates that it is sharp (tivra). Sa and Pa are immovable (once Sa is selected), forming a just perfect fifth. In some notation systems, the distinction is made with capital and lowercase letters. When abbreviating these tones, the form of the note which is relatively lower in pitch always uses a lowercase letter, while the form which is higher in pitch uses an uppercase letter. So komal Re/Ri uses the letter r and shuddha Re/Ri, the letter R, but shuddha Ma uses m because it has a raised form-tivra Ma-which uses the letter M. Sa and Pa are always abbreviated as S and P, respectively, since they cannot be altered.
SA - C re - Db MA - F# PA - G
RE - D ga - Eb DA - A ni - Bb
GA - E NI - H
ma - F SA - C
Tala or Taal
(literally a "clap") is the term used in Indian classical music for the rhythmic pattern of any composition and for the entire subject of rhythm, roughly corresponding to metre in Western music, though closer conceptual equivalents are to be found in other Asian classical systems such as the notion of usul in the theory of Ottoman/Turkish music. Rhythm in Indian music performs the function of a time counter. A taal is a rhythmic cycle of beats with an ebb and flow of various types of intonations resounded on a percussive instrument. Each such pattern has its own name. Indian classical music has complex, all-embracing rules for the elaboration of possible patterns, though in practice a few taals are very common while others are rare. The most common taal in Hindustani classical music is Teental, a cycle of four measures of four beats each. A taal does not have a fixed tempo and can be played at different speeds. In Hindustani classical music a typical recital of a raga falls into two or three parts categorized by the tempo of the music - Vilambit laya (Slow tempo), Madhya laya (Medium tempo) and Drut laya (Fast tempo). In Carnatic Music, there are five categories of tempo namely - Chauka (1 stroke per beat), Vilamba (2 strokes per beat), Madhyama(4 beats per beat), Dhuridha(8 strokes per beat), Adi-Dhuridha(16 strokes per beat). But, although the tempo changes, the fundamental rhythm does not. Each repeated cycle of a taal is called an avartan. A tala is generally divided into sections (vibhaags), not all of which may have the same number of beats. There are two words for rhythm in India. One is "laya", which means basically "tempo". To say a performer has good lay, or is good with lay, is to say that they can keep an extremely steady beat and are good with polyrhythmic divisions of the beat. The other word is "tal", which requires more explanation. "Tal" or "tala", besides referring to the concept of rhythm in general, is also the name given to the rhythmic cycles which are the framewrok of all compositions in Indian music. A tal is a cycle of a fixed number of beats repeated over and over again. Theoretically, a tal of any number of beats is possible, including half-beat cycles like 6-1/2 and 8-1/2 beats. However, in North India only tals of between 3 and 108 beats are traditional. Only a very few of these tals are in common use.
Carnatic (South Indian) Music
- Of more recent origin - Codified in many texts written by musicologists, the influential ones among whom studied in North India and thereafter returned to South India to fashion Carnatic music out of the prevalent regional musical forms to be found in South India. In fact, many south Indian Ragas are rooted in north Indian ragas, such as "Baggisvari" (from Bageshri), "Begada" (from Bihagada) and many more. - Composition based music, hence very little improvisation, which usually occurs only in the Alapana and in the Kalpana Svaras towards the end. The main composition ("Kriti") or Varnam or Pallavi is fixed. - A fairly quick tempo from the start, so lacks the intensity, introspection, microtones and several ornaments found in Hindustani music - Notes are not held for long and are mostly quitted by a characteristic oscillation using indeterminate pitch - Constant and fairly fast tempo throughout - No convention of time or season - Percussion accompanist does not enunciate rhythmic cycle clearly, so a second percussionist and/or a timekeeper showing and/or clapping out beats (in which the audience joins) is necessary. Often, there is a main percussionist (Mridangam), a side percussionist (Ghatam or Jew's Harp) and a timekeeper in addition. - Contrary to advocated argument, has Muslim influences: witness Raga names like "Hejjujji" etc. In fact, the southern part of India, called Deccan (from the Sanskrit word "Dakshina" meaning south), was Islamised many centuries
5. The new Raag comes under the real one’s shadow. Importance of Komal ‘Dha’ (sixth) is not as high as Komal ‘Re’. knowing the other related Raags is very important. A Raag’s notes must sound pleasant to the ear. In essence a Raag is a set of predefined rules to build a melodic composition.S R g m P d n S' Bhairavi (=Phrygian mode): ---. In general. Verjit Suwar: These notes are not used in the Raag. it is better to .ram Thaat is a mode in Hindustani music. Vivadi swara-s A note. the same ascending.S r G M P d N S' Todi: ----------------------------. Although this rule may sound very vague. 2. but there is only one Vivadi Note. A Raag’s Vikrat notes and the Vivadi note must be defined. generally speaking the Raag will be broken. But never mistake a Vivadi note as a Verjit (forbidden or omitted) note. In this connection.m. The ‘Sumvadi’ note is his Minister and ‘Anuvadi’ notes are the servants to serve the king and the minister. do have). the ‘a. otherwise they will go under the next category. A Raag’s flow must be defined and it should be unique. 4. For example. the Raag will still come under this category. or. Ga in Kedar. Term ‘Chhyalug’ is also used when while performing one Raag. komal Ni in Bhairava. that is not one of the notes that comprise a raga. but it is not a Sampooran/Sampooran raag. 2. Two Raags may have the same notes. So their time slot is around 7-10 a. It is used again and again in phrases which make the Raag’s personality statement. . 5. 10. these Raags must have Raag is the most illusive and the most important concept of Northern Indian Music.m. As the name suggests. komal Ni: Salamat Ali Khan's dhamAr in the raga hameer -. if they have different Vadi and Samvadi notes.S r g M P d N S' Raag categories 1. comprising 7 notes. The same rule applies here. Piloo etc. Again these Raags must have a Shudh ‘Ga’ (third natural). If you use it. Importance of notes 1. then the Pakad and flow of notes will change. A Raag must belong to one of the 10 Thaats of Northern Indian Music. and is created purely from unique notes. In these Raags. is vivadi.’ Raags have Tivar ‘Ma’ (fourth sharp). . The old music scriptures state that the ‘Vadi Suwar’ is like a king. Asharya Raag: (Primary Raag) This a special category of elite Raags. 4. These kinds of Raags are very difficult to keep unbroken. So Jhinjhoti take the crown. Thaats always have seven different pitches (called swara) and are a basis for the organization and classification of ragas in North Indian classical music. 7.m.S r g m P d n S' Bhairav: ------------------------. it can become (sound like) one of its parent Raags. 6. The concept of vivaditaa (exclusion) is more elaborate than is generally recognized. Once all the above rules are defined the following rules automatically come into effect: 9. The reason being that theoretically there are so many Raags possible in a Thaat. unlike a raga. Raags with Komal ‘R’ and ‘D’ (second and sixth flat) These Raags are called ‘Sandhi-prakash’ (dawn/dusk or twilight) Raags. A ‘Vivadi’ note is said to be an enemy and the ‘Verjit’ notes are the foreigners. where a Raag is hardly considered when composing or performing.see http://www. Those notes which are conventionally included. comprising 5 notes. Pahadi. Those notes which the masters include.’ Raags have natural ‘Ma’ and the ‘p. then it will go to the second category. Vivadi Suwar: This is a Raag breaker note. ‘Ma’ (fourth) plays a big role in these Raags too. Ma in Bhupali. but all those set of notes do not sound great together.S R G m P D N S' Khamaj (=Mixolydian mode): -. Vadi Suwar: The most dominant note in a Raag is called Vadi Suwar. though known to be technically excluded. 3. is called the ‘Asharya Raag’. is a Shudh Raag. to learn the note structure of a composition.A thaat has no emotional quality (which ragas. which cannot be mistaken for any other Raag. Chhyalug (shadowed): When a Raag is created by mixing two Raags.The notes must be in sequence: Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni . But if it is the other way around. does not have separate ascending and descending lines. So the excluded notes. Those notes which are dissonant with the aesthetics of a raga. For example. 'm' and 'N'.ram. Some really expert singers and player do use the Vivadi note in their performance. and p. comprising 6 notes. Sometimes there are more than one Verjit notes in a Raag. 'shadava'. It is the second most important note in any Raag. and 'sampurna'.S r G M P D N S' Poorvi: -------------------------. In popular music.A thaat must have seven notes. you will never be confused over this matter again. In general. A Raag must have an ascending (aroh) and a descending (Avroh). Every Raag from any one Thaat does show a little bit of shadows of its ‘Asharya Raag’. For example Ni in Bhupali. But in rare conditions some Verjit (forbidden) notes can be used as a passing note or a grace note. Ustad Faiyyaz Khan's application of komal Ni in the raga maru Bihag -. Anuvadi Suwars: All the other notes. What that means is that composition is in that Thaat and the improvising can be done in that Raag or around it. these Raags are sung in the early morning and early evening.m. ‘Ma’ is usually natural and in the evening Raags it is usually sharp. If ‘Re’ is Komal and ‘Dha’ is natural. If ‘Ga’ is flat. All Asharya Raags (Total 10. This rule defines how the notes are used according to a Raag’s Aroh/Avroh and Jati. rarely. every Thaat is named after a main Raag from that Thaat. Keep this formula in your mind. the notes S-R-G-P-D comprise the raga Bhupali. org/audio/hameer/salamat. It is also called "varjya" (to be excluded). Jhinjhoti is the Asharya Raag of Khamaj Thaat. The 10 basic thaats: Bilawal (=Ionian mode): -------. Every Raag has a Time slot of at least 3 hours. are vivadi notes. notes in Bhairavi. There are many similar Raags that share some of their properties. . 8. However. The word ‘Salunk’ also means the same thing. Raags with Komal ‘Ga’ and ‘Ni’ (third and seventh flat) These Raags have the next time slot in both day and night. It is mostly on the fourth or fifth place (up or down) from the Vadi Note. ‘Ma’ (the fourth) note plays a very big role to separate the morning Raags from the evening Raags. in a raga. that is a Chhyalug Raag. which are used in a Raag. This rule defines the Jati of a Raag. These rules are described in a logical order: 1. As always there are exceptions. It is the vivadi notes that give rise to the three 'jati-s' (types) of raga-s. 2. The term ‘breaking a Raag’ is used when any or some of the defined rules for a Raag are broken. When performing a particular Raag.sawf. Those notes which are included for embellishment. In the morning Raags.S r G m P d N S' Kalyan (=Lydian mode): -------. 3. Every Raag’s Aroh and Avroh (ascending and Descending) must not contain less than five or more than 7 notes. the same descending and the same jati.see http://www. 3. These kinds of Raags don’t break easily even if some of the defined rules of the Raag are broken. A Raag must have a Vadi and Samvadi note. Another thing to remember about these Raags is that the third note (‘Ga’) is always natural.Basic talas stay away from a Vivadi note. we can distinguish the following types of excluded notes: 1. Raags with ‘Shudh’ ‘Re’ and ‘Dha’ (second and sixth natural) These Raags are sung right after the ‘Sandhi-Prakash (twilight) Raags. Also. Those notes which are instinctively included in a raga. And the Raag. 6. Samvadi Suwar: It is a helper to the Vadi Suwar. but it is always mentioned in the set of rules. as with a little mistake or oversight. For example. one in every Thaat) are the first Raag in every Thaat.org/audio/marubihag/ faiyyazkhan. That doesn’t mean that the given composition is in that particular Raag. For example. Although the Khamaj Raag is the most famous Raag from Khamaj Thaat. In northern Indian music. A Raag must have a main phrase (Pakad). are called Anuvadi Suwars. that is a Sankeeran Raag. For example komal Ni Tilak Kamod. 2. the position ‘Re’ or ‘Dha’ does not matter.A thaat. Sankeeran (Mixed): When mixing more than two Raags creates a new Raag. 4. namely 'audava'. Those notes which are optional to a raga.S R G m P D n S' Kafi (=Dorian mode): ----------. which shares its name with its parent Thaat.sawf. "varjita" (excluded). They do not exist in the Aroh and the Avroh (ascending-descending) of a Raag. the ‘Asharya Raag’ is normally noted on the top of the composition. the following are the basic rules or characteristics of a Raag. Shudh (pure): The Raag. by definition.S R g m P D n S' Asavari (=Aeolian mode): -----. 5. For example.S R G M P D N S' Marwa: -------------------------. 3. According to the Time Theory of Indian Raags. then the Raags will go in the third category. Thus making them two unique Raags. a performer knowingly mixes another Raag’s flow into it.
check the Raag for its ‘Komal’ (flats) and ‘Shudh’ (natural) notes. A few other Raags occupy bigger than a 3-hour time slots and a few are only sung during a special season. The ‘Parmail –Parveshak’ Raags make the gradual change form one time slot to the other. this division is not perfect though. there are differences: 1. But if the supporting tone is lower in pitch than that of the true note. regardless of the time of the day. The supporting tone is higher in pitch than the true note 4. For example. There are a few other things. the ornament comprises alternating between the two. Raag ‘Yaman’ (name) is an evening Raag. 2/3.) 2. The ornament spans two distinct pitches – the note itself (we will call this the “true note”) and another tone (we will call this the “supporting tone”). it is not a tone that qualifies to be a musically acceptable note by being related in frequency to a predetermined tonic note – ½. However. Gamak – Here too there are two tones involved. The time theory divides a day into 8 pehars. you already know which half of the day it goes to. the change is made from the second category to the third. with meanings as above. The distinguishing chatacteristics are: 1. If Raag seems to stay in the upper half regardless of its Vadi note. Parmail-Parveshak Raags: A ‘Parmail-Parveshak’ Raag contains qualities from more than one category discussed in the last post. namely. It is also true that a Raag’s Vadi and Samvadi suwars reside in the opposite halves of an octave. This theory goes parallel with the above categorization. If you keep performing the Raags on their given time. The speed of alternating is slower than in a vibrato. When divided this way. with an average of about 6 per second. As in vibrato. then it is an ‘Utrang’ type (upper half) Raag and will fit into midnight to noon time slot or vice versa. P). (If the keynote is ‘C’): The first group is called ‘Poorvang’ (lower half) The second group is called ‘Utrang’ (upper half) We already know that the ‘Vadi’ note is the king note of any Raag. Nevertheless. The distance between the true note and the supporting tone is large enough to qualify the supporting tone as a distinct musical note. The supporting tone is always higher in pitch than the true note – the distance may be as much as a full whole tone. Raag ‘Jai-Jai Vanti (name) fits right in there. So gradually. ¾. However. 2. So switching a Raag’s Vadi and Samvadi notes will in fact. Here I am only discussing these in their capacity to affect a Raag’s time slot. 5. And the Utrang-Vadi Raags are performed from midnight to noon. Importance of komal ‘Ni’ (the seventh) is not as high as the position of the ‘Ga’ (third). The speed of alternating between the supporting tone and the true note is much slower than in Gamak – a single set of supporting tone and true note in an Andolan may span as long as a good 2 seconds or may be as short as a ½ second. ¾. which have a ‘Ma’ Vadi and are performed in the morning and with ‘Pa’ Vadi performed in the evening. But here. As I stated earlier. In a Gamak the speed ranges between 2 and 8 times a second 5. 8/9 etc. which is held for a longer time 6. if any one of these notes is Vadi. do not rely on ‘Poorvang-Utrang’ theory and check it otherwise. The supporting tone is not in itself a true musical note (i.e. Indian music theory is over 5000 years old. And whenever one of these notes is the Vadi note of the Raag in question. Once you know the Vadi note of a Raag. was just a little bit “out of tune”) 3. Ma or Pa.. 4/5. The ornament comprises sounding of the true note and the supporting tone alternately. The ornament starts with the supporting tone 4. The supporting tone is very close to the true note in pitch – so close that if the performer had sounded the supporting note in place of the true note the qualified listener would have justifiably commented that the performer played the true note but erred very slightly in intonation while doing so (that is. with meanings as above. 4/5. If the Vadi Note is from the upper half of the octave. the Raag is called an ‘Utrang-Vadi’ Raag. when a Raag has ‘Pa’ Vadi and is considered a Poorvang-Vadi Raag. The supporting note is never held for the same time duration as the true note – the supporting note always acts as a grace note (Sparsha or Kan). Kampan (Vibrato in western music) – Here the note is articulated with a quiver so that instead of a steady or unwavering tone the note sounds tremulous or undulating. Andolan – As in Kampan or in Gamak. That is a very widely accepted concept and makes a lot of sense when explaining the advance Thaat system. 2/3. we shall discuss Poorvang and Utrang (upper and lower tetrachords) in detail. The confusion has been created by continuous change in the popular style of Raags. There are many Raags. The supporting tone in a Gamak is farther away from the true note than it is in a vibrato or Kampan. the true note and the supporting tone. ‘Poorvang’ and ‘Utrang’ are not overlapped. so in Gamak. The speed of alternating between the true note and the supporting tone is rapid – varying between 5 or 6 times and 9 or 10 times a second. If the supporting tone is higher in pitch than that of the true note. so too in Andolan. Normally. In this theory an octave is divided into two overlapping (only for determining the time of a Raag?) parts. M. when it is time to go from Shudh ‘Re-Dha’ Raags to Komal ‘Ga-Ni’ Raags. The Poorvang-Vadi Raags are performed from noon to midnight. Along the way it has acquired its fair share of exemptions. Similarly. with a glide down to the true note. we run into problems. except that this is not possible because the supporting tone is of indeterminate pitch because it is not related to the tonic in a recognised musical relation – ½. which may or may not overrule the above categorization. the ornament starts with the supporting note and descends to the true note (“Gamak from above”). both parts share three notes (S. It has Shudh ‘Re’ and ‘Dha’ and Komal ‘Ga’ is introduced along with the Shudh ‘Ga’. change a Raag’s time by 12 hours. that Raag is called a ‘PoorvangVadi’ Raag. the supporting tone is always of indeterminate pitch 3. The supporting tone is never approached from the true note in a glide: each set of a single supporting tone followed by the true note is distinct from the next set – it is really sounding the true note repeatedly. ‘Poorvang-Vadi’ and ‘Utrang-Vadi’ Raags: Once we are done with the basic theory. no matter it is day or night. adding an emotional dimension to it. Each supporting tone in the Andolan may be a different indeterminate pitch as compared with every other supporting tone in the same Andolan . There is no other solution but to overlap Poorvang and Utrang. each time starting anew from the supporting tone 7. you will see that there is no sudden change in notes. The distance between the supporting tone and the true note is either the same as that in a Gamak or even greater 2. If a Raag’s Vadi note is from the lower half of the octave. Raag ‘Bhairavi’ (name) is the last Raag performed. 8/9 etc. on occasion. the ornament starts with the true note (“Gamak from below”) 4. So once again ‘Sa. The ornament can be executed with varying force or “weight” – slow Gamak are generally heavier and more guttural with more “body” while fast ones are much lighter and throaty. starting with the true note 5. What is the precise mechanics of the ornament? Let us analyse it in detail: 1.Komal ‘Ga’ (third flat). The above categorization is very useful to memorize a Raag’s appropriate time. check the flow of the Raag. there are two tones alternated – the true note and the supporting tone. The supporting tone may be either higher or lower in pitch as compared to that of the true note 3. it is always the first Raag in a performance. morning and evening Raags overlapping two pehars. which is very important to know if you want to know a Raag.
Sandhi Prakash . Dha.As per the Melakarta table of raga classification. Nada . It does not follow the tala and raga rules of music very rigidly. Rupak Tal .Andolan refers to a slow alternation between the notes and shrutis that are next to each other. used in the Carnatic music of South India.Jhaptal is an Indian rhythmic form with a ten-beat cycle.The concept of Nada Brahma means that the whole universe was created from the energy of sound.Saptak means the set of seven swars or seven notes of the Indian Classical Music.Nyasa is the last note of a specific phrase of notes. which comprises of seven beats. Jhaptal .Dhamar Tal is the fourteen beat Tal that has a '5+2+3+4' vibhag pattern. in a certain tempo Tan .Antara is the second stage of a musical composition that emphasizes the upper half of the octave-range. a musical note that is higher in pitch by a semitone. Dadra Tal . Nyasa . Vivadi . Sangeet . For example. Saptak .Sanchari is the third subsection of a musical composition that comprises of all the regions of the octave.Shastra is the treatise or text that explains the timeless rules and principles behind music. Antar Gandhar . Ati Vilambit Laya means extremely slow tempo.The term 'Ang' refers to the root to which a particular raga belongs.The term Ati refers to an extreme in a raga.Uttarang is the higher tetra-chord of an octave.Mridangam is a drumming instrument. Vadi . which has an eight beat cycle. on the basis of which musical tones are organized.Sampooran ragas are those ragas that comprise of all the seven notes. Lakshan .Thumri is a form of 'light-classical' vocal music. Audava . Madhyama and Gandhar.Gramas are the basic notes employed in musical tradition. especially in the Drupad music.Jati refers to the classification of musical compositions as per the tones.Madhya Laya is the medium tempo or speed of the Tal. Madhyama . Ektal .Drut is the term denoting the fast tempo or speed of the Tal.The ragas that are performed during the hours of twilight or dusk are called Sandhi Prakash Ragas.The octave region of a raga is known as its Asthan. It is usually described as a summary of the main theme of the melody. Rasik .Swaras are the musical notes of a composition.Chautalaa is the musical cycle that consists of fourteen beats. Shastra .Sangeet is the Hindu term used to define music. is used to define the ascending melody in music. Poorvang .Pandit is a term of respect.Shaudava Raga is the raga that comprises of six notes in its ascending or descending movement. from Sa to Ma (Sa Re Ga Ma) is known as the Poorvang. it is usually set to 6. Jhumra Tal . which embodies the movement of a particular raga.Those notes of a raga that are neither highlighted nor downplayed are known as Anuvadi notes.Alaap is the free flow of the Raga.Mela is the basic organization of the notes in aroha and avaroha melody. 'Paanch Swaras'.Shruti is the sound interval between recognized notes or swaras. Ghazal . .Achal Swaras are the fixed swaras of the seven musical notes. the fourth musical note of Indian Classical Music.Antya is the last section of a musical composition. It characterizes the flow of a raga.Kriti is a format of a musical composition that characterizes the Carnatic form of music. Prati . in four equal divisions. is used to define the descending melody in music.The term Arohi. Tamboora . Meend .Shadaja is 'Sa'.Chalan is the makeup of a musical composition. Mela . Deepchandi Tal .Tal is a predisposed arrangement of beats.Rishabha is 'Re'.String instrument used for drone. Sampooran .e. Pakad . Drut .Panchama is 'Pa'. as per specific rules. Antara . Initially there were three gramas .The flat form of a note or swar in the classical music of India.Keharwa Tal is the one of the rhythms of the Indian classical music. There are nine rasas in classical music. Tirobhav . Shadaja . in which there are no words and no fixed rhythm. also known as Avarohana and Avaroh. used to refer to the masters or scholars in the field of Indian Classical Music. is known as the Madhya Saptak.Gayaki is one of the several styles of singing.Geet is the Indian term for a song or composition.Alankaras are those notes and features that differentiate one raga from the other. Jati . Varjit .One of the variable forms of the third note 'Ga' of Indian Classical Music. Alaap . Chakras are the twelve groups according to which the ragas are categorized. Madhya Laya . the second musical note of Indian Classical Music.Avirbhav is that technique of presenting the raga. Chalan .The term 'Bol' refers to the words making up a vocal composition. the first musical note of Indian Classical Music. each of them having two matras. written with dots underneath them.Raga is the basic organization of the thirteen musical notes in a composition. For example. Shudha . Andolan .The last stage of a musical composition.The lower region of an octave.Sargam is the term used to define the scale of notes used in the composition of music. Rishabha .Kan is the grace note of a musical composition. It comprises of a set of rules and principles. Tamboora Tar .Laya can be described as the tempo or speed of the Tal. There are basically two types of Nadas . which leads to its ending. the third musical note of Indian Classical Music.Rasik is name given to the composer of a Rasa. Tabla . Samvadi . Thaat .Tamboora is a musical instrument made from a gourd (Tumba).Audava is a raga that has only five notes i.Pakad is the catch phrase of note combinations. comprising of six or three beats.Rupak Tal is an Indian rhythmic form.Dhaivata is the sixth of the seven swaras or notes of the Indian classical scale.Thaat is Pandit Bhatkande's classification of all the ragas into one of ten parent scales.An introduction to the ragas is known as Lakshan. Komal . Carnatic .Vakra Raga is one of the four Janya Ragas and has swaras in a non-sequential order.Tabla is a North Indian drum set.Ektal is that Tal of the Indian classical music in which the 12 matras are divided into 6 vibhags. Mandra .The term Avarohi.Jhumra Tal is a slow Indian rhythmic form of 14 (3+4+3+4) beats. madhyama and nishad. Arohi . Sanchari . from higher to lower notes.Tirobhav basically means the process of concealing a raga on a temporary basis. Nishadha . Antya . Bhajan .Nataka is the Hindi term used for defining a theater performance.An improvised vocal or instrumental musical phrase Tanpura .The basic saptak. which normally comprises of five notes. Vikrit . Hindustani . 7 or 8 beat cycles.Achal . Avarohi . Keharwa Tal .Vikrit notes are the modified notes used in the raga.Hindustani Classical Music is the form of Indian classical music that developed in northern parts of India.Meend is an unbroken flow of a musical progression. Asthai . Kan . a.Asthai is the first as well as the fundamental part of a composition. Swara . For example. Nataka . Madhya Saptak .The term Vilambit is used to denote the slow speed or tempo of the Tal.Tivra means the highest state (pitch) of the two notes.Madhyama is 'Ma'.Tar is a fast-paced musical and melodic amplification of vocal as well as instrumental classical music.Ghazal is a poetic-cum-musical form of Hindustani light music.Shadaja. Mishra . " Mridangam .Rasa is the term used to define the emotional state or quality of the raga and ragini.A devotional song eulogizing Indian Gods and Goddesses. Shruti . Asthan . Anuvadi . Sung in light classical style. Kriti . Sa and Pa are the achal swaras of the Indian classical music.Ragini is the feminine form of raga. which comprises of the Dagga (bass drum) and the Tabla (Treble drum) Tal . in which the raga is noticeably expanded and exhibited Abhoga .The term Prati is used to define a sharp musical note i. Geet . It is also known as Tanpura. Ragini . Ang . Tanpura means to fill the void behind the music. to complete or assist a tan. Tantrakari Ang (instrumental style of music) Alankar .Ancient classical music of South India is known as Carnatic Music Chakra . Panchama .Gandhar is 'Ga'. Gandhar .A Mishra melody is that melody which has features of more than one raga. Swaroop .Vivadi notes are those notes that are either not included in a raga or are used very rarely.e.Ahata (struck) and Unahata (un-struck). Vakra . which comprises of Pa.Vadi is the note that holds the maximum importance in a raga. the fifth musical note of Indian Classical Music. Tintal (Teental) .The four Varanas are the four basic ways. Tivra . Bol .The pure and natural notes or swaras are known as Shudha Swaras.Tintal is an Indian rhythmic tal with sixteen beats. Grama . Raga . Vilambit .Dadra Tal is the common cycle in the lighter forms of music. Ni and Sa notes. with Persian and Urdu poetic influences. Uttarang .Samvadi is the second most important class into which the notes in the basic musical gamut are divided. Varana .Varjit note is the note that is deleted from the Arohi or Avarohi of its derivative Ragas.Deepchandi Tal is the tabla composition with fourteen beats Dhamar Tal . Laya . after which the recital ends.The term Swaroop refers to the image of a raga. It is the purest from of melody.Mandra refers to the lower scale notes of the raga. Ati . Gayaki . Nada Brahma . Dhaivata . Shaudava .Nishadha is 'Ni'. Chautalaa . a. the seventh musical note of Indian Classical Music.The raga or musical notes in music are known as nada vibrations. k. the lower octave region is known as the Mandar Asthan. Avirbhav . Thumri . also known as Arohana and Aroh. Sargam . with middle octave region. Pandit . which is repeated during the entire alaap. Rasa .
MaGaRe. The audio clips accompanying the instructions have been played with a G-medium bansuri. DhaMa. ReRe. SaSaSaSa. GaReSa. Sa'Sa'. MaDha. GaGaGaGa. do not go to the next one till you are confident of the previous one. Just go at your own pace. it is important to maintain a rhythm while playing. GaMaPa. If you can't keep up pace with the recording you can play at a slower pace. MaMa. SaSa. DhaDha. GaGaGaGa. NiNi.Practicing Scales or Alankaars The literal meaning of the word Alankaar in hindi is 'ornament'. ReReReRe. Now we are ready to begin with our first real alankaar. PaPaPaPa. then start with Re and play Ma and so on. These scales require a lot of patience and practice and can sometimes take many days or even weeks to master. MaMaMaMa. It is absolutely normal for you to take a lot of time on this. These are exercises based on scales and rhythm. MaMa. we will play alternate notes. DhaSa'. DhaDhaDhaDha. In the next palta that we will practice. GaSa. NiPa. This will help us in getting a better hold of our instrument. ReRe. PaPaPaPa. And it generally becomes a lot easier learning more advanced stuff after you overcome this initial hurdle. Your target should be to be able to play this as in the faster pace audio clip. DhaNiSa'. NiDhaPa. It can take many days for one to be able to play this comfortably. Avroh: Sa'Dha. Avroh: Sa'Sa'Sa'Sa'. PaPa. Once you are able to play these paltas you should start feeling confident about the instrument. NiNiNiNi. MaRe. PaPa. DhaPaMa. It is advisable for you to get a bansuri of the same scale if possible. Aaroh: SaReGa. DhaDha. Sa'Sa'Sa'Sa'. Aaroh(ascent): SaSa. Please note that being able to play all the notes in succession is not enough. GaPa. Listen to the audio clips carefully and notice that there is a fixed rhythm on which the pattern is played. If you find you cannot play an alankaar. Then we will play three notes starting from the next note(Re) and so on. Aaroh: SaSaSaSa. MaMaMaMa. We will start by playing the sargam but this time we will play each note twice. Similarly you can play each note four times. Aaroh: SaGa. GaGa. Alankaars are also called paltas. If you find the tempo of the recorded clips to be too fast you can start by playing slower and build up speed gradually. DhaDhaDhaDha. We will start with Sa and then play Ga(instead of Re). In this we will play three notes starting from a particular note (say Sa). Alankaars can have varied levels of difficulty. ReReReRe. In this lesson we will practice some simple alankaars. Most Indian musicians spends many hours practicing alankaars everyday. NiNiNiNi. PaNi. ReMa. ReGaMa. Avroh(descent): Sa'Sa'. MaPaDha. . NiNi. GaGa. Avroh: Sa'NiDha. PaGa. PaDhaNi. PaMaGa.