www.netmetric-solutions.

com

2009 
Cisco Certified Network Associate

I am dedicating this papers to my teacher and well wisher Mr Siddiq Ahmed who has give me a chance to teach in Netmetric Solutions Everything what I will get from this teaching is dust of his foot I will thank to Mr Sultan (B.tech) who had helped in completion of this papers And staff of Netmetric Solutions Ameerpet

Mirza Muqeem Baig B.tech (csit)

www.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com

2

CISCO CERTIFIED NETWORK ASSOCIATES(CCNA)
Network Evolution Computer Networking: Computer networking is continuously evolving more than 30years. • Provides companies with the ability to share data between systems. • Allow companies to centralizes and manage applications Email Database Web Types of networks: • Local Area Network – LAN are designed to create within a limited geographical area. Control the network privately under local administration. Provide full time connectivity to local services. Connect physically adjacent services • Metropolitan Area Network • Wide Area Network – A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer. Enterprise: • Extranet or Virtual Private Network – utilizes public medium such as internet to connect external devices to an extranet. VPN – Remote Access employees Extranet – Partners or affiliate companies Storage Area: • Storage Area Network(SAN): High speed special purpose network that interconnects various kinds of data storage devices with associated data servers on behalf of a larger network of users Supports disk mirroring, backup and restore, archival and retrieval of the archived data, data migration and sharing data among different servers in a network. Network Attached Storage (SAN) device: stores data for various systems. • A storage area network (SAN) is an architecture to attach remote computer storage devices such as disk array controllers, tape libraries and
3 www.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com

• TCP/IP research began in Stanford university funded by Department of Defense and developed four-layered networking layer www. uses file-based protocols such as NFS or SMB/CIFS where it is clear that the storage is remote. TCP/IP Connectivity: • In 1969 Department of Defense commissioned Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) network. • They provide internetworking connectivity.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. (By contrast to a SAN. and computers request a portion of an abstract file rather than a disk block. enabling faster delivery. internal protocols.com 4 .CD arrays to servers in such a way that to the operating system the devices appear as locally attached devices.) Content Delivery Networks: • Service of copying pages of a website to geographically dispersed servers. • No one solution is right for everyone. • No company has only one solution. high traffic website owners and internet service providers (ISPs) hire service of companies that provide content delivery. network attached storage (NAS). • The focus is the ability to communicate between dissimilar media types. • Software for internetworking • Security • Management products and so on. Internetworking: • The process of interconnecting two or more individual networks to facilitate communications among their respective parts. • May be of different types. Internetworking must provide: • Reliable communications • Scalability/expandability • Manageability • Security Cisco provides a complete internetworking solution: • They provide internetworking hardware.netmetric-solutions. • Dynamically identifies and serves pages content from the closest server to the user. access methods. and administration. • ARPAnet used Network Connection Protocol (NCP). • Typically. each having its own address.

(IEEE) took on the project 802. western digital and later. Honeywell. • 802. Open system Interconnection (OSI) model was born Created full standard set for all internetworking communications. it was born Defacto Standard – Defacto means the more accepted by everyone.3 – Became the Ethernet standards (pushed by DIX).5 – Token ring (published by IBM).• • • • Research published in Request for Comments (RFCs) Dejure standard – Dejure means by law you have to use this or otherwise we will not buy equipment from the mainframe vendors. Ethernet: • In 1970’s Digital. X: In February 1980. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) began work on 7-layered model. general motors and Boeing). Intel and Xerox (DIX) consortium created the original Ethernet • Ethernet II standard was subsequently defined and released.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. 1979 OSI was completed.1 – Committee was responsible for high level internetworking protocols and management thereof.netmetric-solutions. www. • 802. • 802. • 802. • LAN and WAN definition were born. OSI Model: • In 1970. • 802.com 5 . concord data system. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers inc. Internetworking as we know.2 – Logical Link Control (LLC) focused on end-to-end link connectivity and the interface between the higher layers and the medium access dependent layers. 802. Implemented in 1984. • Ethernet II is known as ARPA Ethernet.4 – Token Bus (Burroughs.. • Creation of the distribution processing networking model.

com 6 . a reference model something to used vendors to develop these products. it is a layered model.netmetric-solutions. • It is not a protocol stack something used to allow communication. • Each layer defines a set of functions which takes part in data communication. • Breaks the complexities of networking into smaller pieces. Benefits of OSI: The layered approach to network communications provides the following benefits: • Improved teaching and learning • Accelerated evolution • Interoperable technology • Standard interfaces • Allows different vendors network to work with each other. • In fact. www. • OSI was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and introduced in 1984. • Modularity enables changes at one layer without affecting other layers. They can develop their products to meet the standards.OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECT REFERENCE MODEL OSI Reference Model: • OSI model is not a protocol. • The OSI model is a 7-layered model which is designed to facilitate standardization of various components that make internetworking function.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.

Email folder • Synchronize communication between systems Make sure that server and client are work together. • Provides network services to application process such as e-mail. • It is responsible for defining a standard format to the data. • Ensures data is readable by receiving system.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. is 67 • Determines resource availability. • Eases the process of troubleshooting. Server ports are 1 – 1023. file transfer. is 53 DHCP port no. Port is a logical communication channel. terminal emulation.com 7 .• Facilitates standardization. Client ports are 1024 – 65535. www. Email client / email server • Protocol Data Unit (PDUs) HTTP port no. is 21 SMTP port no. Application Layer (Layer 7): Network processes to applications • It is responsible for providing an interface for the users to interact with application services or networking services. is 23 TFTP port no. Identification of services is done using port numbers (service port address). • Format data. The total no. is 69 DNS port no. It deals with data representation. Port number is a 16 bit identifier. of ports are 0 – 65535.netmetric-solutions. is 80 FTP port no. • Developers can write programs that allow application that are not network aware to access components of layer 7 • Identifies communication partners. is 25 Telnet port no. Layer 7 services • File and print • Email • Database • Name resolution • Internet access • Terminal emulation • Management services Presentation Layer (Layer 6): Data Representation.

• • • Data structures. Walkie-talkie • Full Duplex – Two way traffic simultaneously eg. o Certificates. maintain and terminate virtual circuits www. Session Layer (Layer 5): Inter host communication. It deals with sessions or interaction between the applications. o Stacker. • Session ID is used to identify the session or interaction.DES o AES (Advanced Encrypt Standard) o SSL / TLS. Transport Layer (Layer 4): End-to-end connections • Identification of services. GIF. • Establish connection Session setup – Dialog • Manage connection Dialog control • Simplex – one way traffic eg. o MPPC (Microsoft Point to Point Compression).com 8 . maintaining and terminating the sessions between applications. DAT. Multiplexing and de-multiplexing • It is responsible for end-to-end transportation of data between the applications. AVI (Video). Radio • Half Duplex – Two way traffic one at a time eg. Negotiates data transfer syntax for application layer. Layer 6 is responsible for: Data encoding / decoding and conversion. o JPEG. • It is responsible for establishing. • Transportation issues between host • Data transport reliability • Establish. o MPEG.. Telephone • Terminate connection • Examples: Remote Procedural Call (RPC) Structural Query Language (SQL) Apple Talk Session Protocol.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail... Encryption / Decryption o DES (Data Encrypt Standard) o 3. o ASCII to EBCDIC (Text). TIFF (Graphics). Compression / Decompression o Predictor.

o Dynamically assigned by the client. • Identify applications • TCP/IP o Port value depends on the following: Type of applications What application is? • Common ports are o TCP 21 – FTP Control o TCP 20 – FTP Data o TCP 23 – Telnet o TCP 25 – SMTP (simple mail transfer protocol) o TCP/UDP 53 – DNS o UDP 69 – TFTP o TCP 80 – HTTP o UDP 161 – SNMP (simple new management protocol) o UDP 162 – SNMP Trap (A Trap is a line of communication that come from SNMP Client). • Private Applications 256 – 1023 o Application specific • Dynamic client (High Order) 256 – 65535. The major functions described at the transport layer are as follows: Identifying services 9 www.com .• • • • Fault detection and recovery Information flow control Data transports: Reliable data transfer • Connection-oriented protocols o Guaranteed reliable o Acknowledged o Higher overload (is a disadvantage) • Connectionless protocol o Best effort delivery o Non-acknowledged o Lower overhead because there is no acknowledgement. Flow control • Designed to ease overhead.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. o HTTP (80) or FTP (21). • Allows data buffering • Sliding windows • Buffering with source quench messages Ports – defined and assigned by the internet assigned numbers authority (IANA) • Public applications (Well Known) 1 – 255.

• Routing: Routed protocols o IP.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Routers are specified at the network layer and provide the routing services within an internetwork. IPX. Between 46 and 1500 is called as good frame. Handles most of the protocol communication and is responsible for identifying the best path to move data from across the network. Apple Talk Routing protocols o RIP www. • Provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems • Domain of routing. tracks the locations of devices on the network and determines the best way to move data which means that the network layer must transport traffic between devices that are not locally attached.netmetric-solutions. HTTP FTP SMTP DNS DNS TFTP Connection oriented TCP UDP Layer 4 Connectionless Oriented Layer 3 IP Internet Your LAN Many LANS Network Layer (Layer 3): The network layer manages devices addressing.com 10 .• Multiplexing and De-Multiplexing Segmentation Sequencing and Re-assembling Error correction with the help of checksum Flow control The size of protocol is 46 to 1500 bytes and beyond this it is called as joint frame and below it is called as Runt frame.

• • o IGRP o OSPF o EIGRP Route selection Addressing and switching Addressing is used to identify source and destination logical or software IP addresses Switching methods o Circuit switching – telephony o Message switching – Store and forward o Packet switching – Frame relay and T1. Data Link Layer (Layer 2): It is responsible for end-to-end delivery of data between the devices on a network segment.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • Layer 2 primary responsibility is access to the media. OSPF. Takes all the data from all the layers of the host and putting them all in a format that are understand by the other side. Apple Talk Routing protocols o Programs that run exclusively on routers o Communicate known networks with other routers o Keep track of all network addresses and routes so as routable protocols can make its way through the networks. • Ethernet II Frame PRE Destination Source Type Address Address Layer 3 – 7 data FCS 11 www.netmetric-solutions. IS-IS. Protocols Routed protocols – carry data through the network o Run at the network layer o Make path determination based on content of route table o Eg. o Populates the route table o RIP. IGRP.. network topology. • Responsibilities of Layer 2 are: Framing (CISCO use the word encapsulation) o MAC sub layer o LLC sub layer Physical addressing o MAC Address (Hardware address) Access to the physical topology. IPX. EIGRP. Its actually provides the reliable transfer of data through media • Its job is to take care of the physical addressing. IP. • The primary responsibility of layer 2 is framing (Encapsulation).com . BGP 4.

etc.netmetric-solutions. Three bytes are assigned to the manufacturer. It also provides error detection using CRC and framing (Encapsulation – control information). Eg: SAP. o CISCO version is proprietary. o Default for all CISCO serial connections. Eg: 00-aa-00-34-e5-f1 Where. etc • Framing is done on data link layer. SNAP. Provide a layer of abstraction between upper layer protocols and underlying interface hardware. 00-aa-00 = 3 com and 34-e5-f1 = node ID Node ID is always unique.3 Frame PRE Destination Source Length Layer 3 – 7 data Address Address FCS • Token ring Frame Start AC FC Destination Source Layer 3 – 7 Address Address data FCS End Stat Note: The source and destination address must use the same frame type for data communications Data link layer comprises of two sub layers: Media Access Control (MAC) and Logical Link Control (LLC). token ring.com 12 . MAC address is globally unique to each network interface.• Ethernet 802. • MAC deals with hardware addresses (MAC Addresses). Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) o Created by IBM to facilitate connections to mainframe hosts. • Switches and NIC are under data link layer. • Layer 3 devices are router / operating system • SAP identify IP is IPX-0x06 IPX-0x0E • Protocols High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) – designed to support point to point or multipoint serial connections. • LLC (Logical Link Control) deals with layer 3 negotiation. It is a 6-byte hexa-decimal address (6 octets). MAC addresses are 12 digit Hexa decimal identifiers used to identify the devices uniquely on the network segment.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. www. Eg: Ethernet. Allow multiple protocols binding to exist. Three bytes used for node ID.

6 – MANs 802.25 o Provides services like sequencing and retransmits for X. o Built in error detection o Predecessor to frame relay o Defined to DTE or DCE devices o CISCO routers are DTE devices Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB) – Designed for use over X.11 – Wireless networking 802.9 – Integrated Voice and data 802. Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) o Digital technology for the transmission of both voice and data over modified analog lines.3 – CSMA/CD (Ethernet) 802.• • • X. IEEE Standards 802.25 Frame Relay o Faster up to 45 Mbps o High quality digital technology.1 – Internetworking 802.10 – Network Security 802.com .com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.2 – LLC 802.netmetric-solutions.25 – Standard for packet switched network. Dial Protocols Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) o Original standard for TCP/IP transmission over low speed serial links o Predecessor to PPP Point-to-Point (PPP) o New standards for TCP/IP transmission over low speed serial links o Adds multiple protocol supports encryption and error detection.12 – 100 VG – any LAN Data Encapsulation Application Layer Data Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Segmen ts Packets Frame 13 www.8 – Fiber optics 802.4 – Token bus 802.7 – Broadband Technology 802.5 – Token ring 802.

• Wireless Media – Radio frequency waves • Electrical and Mechanical specification of media devices – topology • Clocking – Sets the rate at which various data samples are passed across the wire.24/ V..com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Radio • Half Duplex – Two way traffic one at a time eg. Modes of Transmission of signals – signal communication happens in three different modes • Simplex – one way traffic eg. • Fiber Media – Light pulses of different wave length.. mechanical and functional specification of the devices media. • Physical Topology Identifies how devices connect to the network Physical and logical topologies have to match.netmetric-solutions.Data Link Layer Physical Layer Physical Layer (Layer 1): It is responsible for binary transmission. wireless). It deals with physical transmission of binary data on the given media (Copper fiber.com .. • It is also deals with electrical. Media Specification • Copper Media – Electrical signal of different voltages. • The major function describe at this layer are: • Encoding And Decoding – It is the process of converting the binary data into signals based on the type of media.35 ITV – T Standards Similar to RS 232 Topology Types • Bus • Ring • Star • Point-to-Point • Full Mesh (Partial Mesh) 14 www. Telephone Standards • EIA/TIA – 232 (RS232) – supports circuit speeds up to 64 KBps • EIA/TIA – 449 (RS449) – supports circuit speed up to 2 MBps • V. Walkie-talkie • Full Duplex – Two way traffic simultaneously eg.

3z Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mb) o 802.3z – 1000 Base T Defines a bus topology Half / full duplex operation o 1000 Base T – CAT 5 UTP – 100 meters o 1000 Base SX – Multimode fiber – 260 meters o 1000 Base LX – Single mode fiber – 10 Km Maximum raw transmission rates of 1 GB o Aggregate rates doubles when full duplex o 8 bit data path at 125 MHz • Ring Topology IBMs Token Ring was first seen in the late 1970s o Later IEEE 802.Ethernet Topology • LAN Topology • Used in contention – based networks such as.5 became standard o Available in 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps www. Ethernet and fast Ethernet. Intel and Xerox (DIX) and IEEE 802. o Aggregate rates double then full duplex.com 15 .3 Define original Ethernet standards CSMA/CD – designed to detect collisions All versions uses a bus topology Half duplex operation (Full duplex capable) o Both define a max raw transmission rate of 10 MB.3 Standard Ethernet (10 Mb) o 802.netmetric-solutions. digital. o 4 bit data path at 25 MHz o 802.3u Fast Ethernet (100Mb) o 802.3u – 100 Base T Defines a bus topology Half duplex or full duplex o 100 Base TX – CAT 5/FE UTP – 100 meters o 100 Base FX – Multi-mode fiber – 400 meters Maximum raw transmission rate of 100 Mb.5 MHz o Current processor 2 GHz Fast Ethernet Technologies o 802.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • Ethernet. Standards o 10 Base 2 – Thin Ethernet – 185 meters o 10 Base 5 – Thick Ethernet – 500 meters o 10 Base T – Twisted pair Ethernet – 100 meters The original Ethernet only used a 4 bit data path at 2.3ae 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10000 Mb) Fast/Gigabit Ethernet o 802. o Aggregate rates double when full duplex.

com 16 .com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.netmetric-solutions.Uses a token frame for access to the network. o Token is passed around a logical ring of the network devices o System must acquire the token to transmit data o Data always travels around the ring in the same direction. therefore no collision. www.

and providing fragmentation and reassembly of datagrams to support data links with different maximumtransmission unit (MTU) sizes. IP has two primary responsibilities: providing connectionless. best-effort delivery of datagrams through an internetwork. The following discussion describes the IP packet fields illustrated in : • Version—Indicates the version of IP currently used. This field is used to help piece together datagram fragments. IP represents the heart of the Internet protocols. IP is documented in RFC 791 and is the primary network-layer protocol in the Internet protocol suite. Figure 30-2 Fourteen fields comprise an IP packet. • IP Header Length (IHL)—Indicates the datagram header length in 32-bit words.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • Type-of-Service—Specifies how an upper-layer protocol would like a current datagram to be handled.com 17 . • Total Length—Specifies the length. Along with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). • Identification—Contains an integer that identifies the current datagram. and assigns datagram’s various levels of importance. of the entire IP packet.Internet Protocol (IP) The Internet Protocol (IP) is a network-layer (Layer 3) protocol that contains addressing information and some control information that enables packets to be routed. IP Packet Format An IP packet contains several types of information. www. including the data and header. as illustrated in .netmetric-solutions. in bytes.

C. Only classes A.1. 1. 0 239.netmetric-solutions. The third or high-order bit is not used.0.2) 65534 (216 .0.0.H. The left-most (high-order) bits indicate the network class.255. Source Address—Specifies the sending node.0. Destination Address—Specifies the receiving node.0 to N/A (not N/A groups (RFC 1.1.0 to 126.255.H Relatively 1.0 organizations N/A D Multicast 1. Header Checksum—Helps ensure IP header integrity. Hosts A B C N. 1 254.254. 240.0. Fragment Offset—Indicates the position of the fragment's data relative to the beginning of the data in the original datagram. The low-order bit specifies whether the packet can be fragmented.0 to 191.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.0.0.N. D.H. 1. This keeps packets from looping endlessly.2) 254 (28 2) N.0 to small 0 223. and E.255 for 1112) commercial use) Experimental 1.• • • • • • • • • Flags—Consists of a 3-bit field of which the two low-order (least-significant) bits control fragmentation. at which point the datagram is discarded.0.H Medium-size 1. B.255 N/A E N/A www.0 7/24 14/16 21/8 167772142 (224 . 224.254.com 18 .N. Addressing IP addressing supports five different address classes: A.255. which allows the destination IP process to properly reconstruct the original datagram.0 to N/A 1. and C are available for commercial use. 192. Options—Allows IP to support various options. Protocol—Indicates which upper-layer protocol receives incoming packets after IP processing is complete. IP Address Format Class HighOrder Bit(s) Address Range Purpose No. Data—Contains upper-layer information.0.255. provides reference information about the five IP address classes.255. 1.H Few large 0 organizations N. The middle bit specifies whether the packet is the last fragment in a series of fragmented packets.0 128. B. 0 organizations 1.0. Bits Network/Host Max.N.0. such as security.H. Time-to-Live—Maintains a counter that gradually decrements down to zero.

Will probably not have a sufficient no.31.255.e.0 172. Each IP address www.255 172.1 is only a prominent address which is used for self checking i.255.0 192.0.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 19 . Must have been assigned an address by the internet community or by an ISP • Private Address Scheme Fewer hosts require direct access to the internet. networks that are not connected to internet.0.0. Reserved Addresses (Private IP Addresses): • RFC 1918 • There are certain addresses in each class of IP address that are reserved for LAN.255.0.0 – 127.Address Scheme • Public Address Scheme Many host require direct access to the internet Have a sufficient no. • Link Local Addresses (RFC2026) 169.254. These addresses are called as private IP addresses..0 End address 10.0.255 Other Reserved Ranges: • Loop back Testing 127.0.168. of public addresses.255 192.255.255.255. o Not routed by any router. of public addresses for all hosts. o Submitted by Apple computers corporation to suppress messages on DHCP clients IP Addressing is logical addressing.255.16.netmetric-solutions.254. • They can be used for home and office networks. It works on network layer.0.254 o RFC 2026 – link local address o Automatically assigned to clients if the DHCP server cannot be contacted. As with any other network-layer protocol.168. the IP addressing scheme is integral to the process of routing IP datagram’s through an internetwork.255 127. used to test your own network interface card but complete 127 network is reserved for loop back test.0 – 169.0. Note: Reserved Private IP addresses are not routable oriented Class type A B C Start address 10.0.

com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. The minimum value for 20 www. 1). • Every host requires a unique IP address on a given network.netmetric-solutions. as discussed in more detail later in this chapter. • Always configure an IP host with: Own IP Subnet mask Address of Default Gateway IP Address Format The 32-bit IP address is grouped eight bits at a time. 4. 16. • The valid IP address lies between the network address and broadcast address. and represented in decimal format (known as dotted decimal notation). The network number identifies a network and must be assigned by the Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) if the network is to be part of the Internet. 32. Each bit in the octet has a binary weight (128. • Every router interface has a unique address to the respective network. There are two versions of IP addressing Scheme • IP V 4 – 32 bit addressing • IP V 6 – 128 bit addressing • Bit is a value representing 0’s or 1’s • Priority Bit – To identify the range of each class a bit called priority bit is used Priority bit is the left most bits in the first octet Class A priority bit is 0 Class B priority bit is 10 Class C priority bit is 110 Class D priority bit is 1110 Class E priority bit is 1111 • Network Address is represented with all bits as zero in the host portion of the address • Broadcast address is represented with all bits as one’s in the host portion of the address. Each host on a TCP/IP network is assigned a unique 32-bit logical address that is divided into two main parts: the network number and the host number. 64. An Internet Service Provider (ISP) can obtain blocks of network addresses from the InterNIC and can itself assign address space as necessary.has specific components and follows a basic format. These IP addresses can be subdivided and used to create addresses for subnetworks.com . • This address is used by the host to get off of the network. separated by dots. 2. The host number identifies a host on a network and is assigned by the local network administrator. • Only valid IP addresses are assigned to hosts/clients. 8.

The classful boundary defines the classful network bits and a custom subnet mask defines any additional bits used for the network portion. • Identifies the division of network portion and host portion of an IP address. • Subnet Mask differentiates network portion and host portion.0 Class B – 255.0.255. All hosts in given network scheme will always use the exact subnet mask to provide accurate routing known as classful routing • Same subnet mask is always evaluated against the source and destination IP. Figure: An IP address consists of 32 bits. • Subnet mask is been given for host identification of network ID.0 Class C – 255. broadcast or ARP storing LAN occur. grouped into four octets. o Will not have any more than one subnet capability Custom subnet – Mask can be defined to accommodate many network segments • Represented with all 1’s in the network portion and with all 0’s in the host portion.netmetric-solutions.255.255. Illustrates the basic format of an IP address. • Without an accurate subnet mask.an octet is 0. • Two different types of subnet mask Default subnet mask – It is the no. Have an accurate subnet mask for every host or the network. and the maximum value for an octet is 255. of bits that are reserved by the address class o Using the default mask only accommodates a single segment. Subnet Mask • A subnet address is created by "borrowing" bits from the host field and designating them as the subnet field.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.0.0. The number of borrowed bits varies and is specified by the subnet mask. • Default subnet mask: Class A – 255. Shows how bits are borrowed from the host address field to create the subnet address field. 21 www.0 Note: A subnet mask itself defines the bits used by the network address. Used in conjunction with source and destination address to make routing decisions.com .

Class A addresses are not discussed in this chapter because they generally are subnetted on an 8-bit boundary. as illustrates. Figure: A sample subnet mask consists of all binary 1s and 0s. illustrates a sample subnet mask.netmetric-solutions. The subnet mask.com 22 . Subnet mask bits should come from the high-order (left-most) bits of the host field.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. has binary 1s in all bits specifying the network and subnetwork fields.Figure: Bits are borrowed from the host address field to create the subnet address field. Subnet masks use the same format and representation technique as IP addresses. and binary 0s in all bits specifying the host field. however. Details of Class B and C subnet mask types follow. www. Figure: Subnet mask bits come from the high-order bits of the host field.

0.With five bits available for subnetting.0 255.255.248.255.255. 25 .255.netmetric-solutions. The reason for this is that eight bits of subnetting or 28 . with 23 .255.2 = 30 subnets possible.0 Number of Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 Number of Hosts 16382 8190 4094 2046 1022 23 www.255.0 255.248.0.255.0 that specifies eight bits of subnetting is 255. The default subnet mask for a Class B address that has no subnetting is 255.252.2.255.224.com .0. The reference charts shown in table 30-2 and table 30-3 can be used when planning Class B and C networks to determine the required number of subnets and hosts.0 255.2 = 254 hosts per subnet. with 28 .192.2 = 6 hosts per subnet. Class B Subnetting Reference Chart Number of Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnet Mask 255.0.240.2 (1 for the network address and 1 for the broadcast address) = 254 subnets possible.Various types of subnet masks exist for Class B and C subnets. while the subnet mask for a Class B address 171.255.255.0 255. and the appropriate subnet mask.0 that specifies five bits of subnetting is 255.16.168.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. The subnet mask for a Class C address 192.

1. it forwards the frame to the destination IP address.255. Specifics regarding the logical AND operation are discussed in the following section.255.255.255.240 4094 255.224 6 255.255.255.255.255.255.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. First.255. the router extracts the IP destination address from the incoming packet and retrieves the internal subnet mask.255.255.1.255. IP Address 192.240 14 255.255.1 = 11000000.netmetric-solutions.128 510 255. Finally.168.255.254.com 24 .255.255. How subnet mask works? IP address: 192.255.255. the subnetwork) address.224 2046 255.00000001 www.255. This causes the host portion of the IP destination address to be removed.192 2 255. while the destination network number remains.0 ANDing process – the output of AND table is ‘1’ if both its input is 1 for all other possible inputs the output is ‘0’.255.255.248 30 255.255.248 8190 255.252 16382 Class C Subnetting Reference Chart Number of Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnet Mask Number of Subnets Number of Hosts 62 30 14 6 2 255.7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 255.0 255.255. It then performs a logical AND operation to obtain the network number.252 62 How Subnet Masks are Used to Determine the Network Number The router performs a set process to determine the network (or more specifically.1 Subnet mask: 255.255.00000001.255.0 126 254 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 255. The router then looks up the destination network number and matches it with an outgoing interface.255.168.192 1022 255.10101000.

1..255.11111111.e.11111111.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.255.00000000 Network ID 192. Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) – All the bits vary in subnet portion.netmetric-solutions.168.00000001. Subnetting a subnet is called as VLSM www. • Converting hosts bits to network bits i.0 = 11000000.0 = 11111111. 0’s into 1’s • Subnetting is also called as FLSM • Subnetting can be done in three ways Requirement of networks Requirements of host CISCO/Notation Fixed Length Subnet Mask (FLSM) – All the bits in the subnet mask portion should not be zeros or all one’s.Subnet Mask 255.10101000.00000000 Subnetting: • Dividing a single network into multiple networks.com 25 .

26 . 7600. 3200. • The same network present in different geographical locations can’t communicate through a router because of network ID of both the networks are same then the request will not go out of the router and it will keep on searching with the LAN. They also allow all users in a network to share a single connection to the Internet or a WAN. 7200. 1700. 1600. Router Series: 2600. Core Layer Router – Routers which are used by the global ISPs and are also known as Back bone Routers.com Modular Router Modular routers are just like assembled PC where modifications of interfaces are possible. Router Series: 800. ROUTER Router Classification Fixed Router Fixed Routers are just like a branded PC where modification of interface is not possible www. 7400.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • Broadcasts are not forwarded to other network segments. Router series: 6400. 2500. 3700. 7500. Routers can connect network segments that use different protocols. Components of Router • Router is a device which makes communication possible between two or more different networks present in different geographical locations • To make communication possible between two or more different network present in the same geographical location what are the steps to be taken. 1000.ROUTER A Router is a layer 3 network device that moves data between different network segments and can look into a packet header to determine the best path for the packet to travel. 10000. • • Distribution Layer Router – Routers which are used by the ISPs and are also know as ISP layer routers. CISCO Hierarchical Design Model: CISCO divided router into three layers • Access Layer Router – Routers which are used by the small organizations and are also known as Desktop Routers or Company Layer Routers. • reducing competition for bandwidth. It is used to improve network performance by:• segmenting the network and creating separate collision & broadcast domains. 3600.netmetric-solutions. 12000. • Increases security by using Access Lists. 7300.

• It is RJ 45 port. Internal and External Components of a Router: • Very similar to a PC. Attachment Unit Interfaces: • AUI pin configuration is 15 pin female.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.Access layer router are example of fixed router except 1600 and 1700 series Distribution and core layer routers are example of modular routers. Auxiliary Port: • It is known as remote administrative port. PC works on layer 1 to layer 7 but routers are optimized to work at OSI layer 3. RJ45 to 15 pin converter. password recovery and local administration of the router.com . • It is used for connecting LAN to the router.. • It is generally used for initial configuration. • An IP address need to be assigned to this interface and it should be in the same network as of the LAN Serial Port: • Serial pin configuration is 60 pin configuration female (i.e.e. 27 www. • It is known as Ethernet port or LAN port or Default gateway.35 cable is having 60 pin configuration male at one end and on other end 18 pin configuration male.. • It is the most delicate port on the router so make less use of the console port.netmetric-solutions. Console Port: • It is known as local administrative port. • It is used for remote administration. • It is an RJ 45 port • A console or a roll over cable is to be used. • Transceiver is used for converting 8 wires to 15 wires i. 15 pin and 4 rows) and smart serial pin configuration is 26 pin configuration pin • It is known as WAN port • It is used for connecting to remote locations • V.

10 Base T Port: • It is a RJ 45 port. • RAM also provides caching and packet buffering capabilities.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Read Only Memory (ROM) • On every router board ROM will present. • It is available on 2520 model router. • Routers ship with the amount of RAM required operating at their minimum capacity. • Its function is same as AUI port but there is no need for a transceiver. Buffer memory stores packet on the interfaces before switching it to the out interfaces. • Contains Bootstrap process • Basic boot configuration • May contain an almost complete subset of the IOS • ROM is used to store the router's bootstrap startup program. • IOS software upgrades without having to remove and replace chips. the greater the router capacity.BRI Port (WAN): • Basic Rate Interface (BRI) used to connect ISDN to the router. Processor: • Motorola processor 70 MHz • RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) based processor. • In order to perform ROM upgrades you remove and replace pluggable chips on the motherboard. www. and power-on diagnostic tests programs. router's running configuration file. • The higher the RAM. • Allows basic functionality Password recovery Retrieval of lost devices • Amounts differ depending on the capacity • Used as a working buffer memory.com 28 . operating system software.netmetric-solutions. • Flash memory is erasable. • It is a RJ 45 port. reprogrammable ROM. • It is used for connecting LAN to the router. Random Access Memory (RAM) • RAM is used to store operational information such as routing tables. • Its contents are lost when you switch off or restart the router. • It is available on 2503 and 2520 model router. Flash Memory • It holds operating system image(s).

• DRAM allocates buffer to the router itself. a router does not know how to route.netmetric-solutions. the configuration file is copied to NVRAM. • Router examines every inbound packet then moves it to outbound of another interface. Router Components (External) A router can be configured over any of its network interfaces. • You configure Ethernet or Token Ring interfaces to allow connection to a LAN. You can supply configuration information to a router using:• TFTP servers: Trivial File Transfer Protocol. no IP address Looks for the startup configuration file. The configuration file will be not present in NVRAM we have to save it. A simplified version of FTP that allows files to be transferred from one computer to another over a network. • Generally. size of NVRAM is 32 KB. • The synchronous serial interfaces are configured to allow connection to WANs. • Memory function is based upon dynamic RAM (DRAM). Stores the full IOS image Loaded during the boot process into RAM Similar to a PC operating system being loaded from the hard drive.• • • • Flash content is retained when you switch off or restart the router. • Start up configuration file When first started. Every subsequent boot will load the configuration. When saved. Non-Volatile RAM (NVRAM) • Does not lose power when turned off. • virtual terminals • network management stations Router Process • Every interface is assigned in memory a specific buffer area used for storing packets on inbound and outbound transit paths. • Every incoming packet is stored in the inbound packet buffer. Network Interfaces • The router's network interfaces are located on the motherboard or on separate interface modules.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • You can also configure ISDN BRI interfaces to allow connection to an ISDN WAN. No name.com . 29 www.

• Have a TFTP or FTP server available that the router can access. • Have a certain degree of accuracy in the route table.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 30 . the entire router has the capability of process switching. IOS Upgrade • Process • Backup all router configurations first.netmetric-solutions. Yes – runs selection sequence to identify which route to use. Oldest route Switching Process • Packet moves from input packet buffer to destination interface via output buffer. General deployment typically means most bugs have been fixed. • Matches an inbound packet to a destination router • Used by the IP protocol in the router to make decisions. Route Determination • Determine destination of packet. • By default.Route Table • The element that a router uses to make decisions when forwarding data. • File download will have . • Downloading IOS. • Selection order Most specific route o Route which most closely matches the destination. • Access the CISCO website using CISCO account. • Make sure that the appropriate license has been purchased for the software. • Determine if there is a match in the table. Looks at caveats and security warning with the download. • Contains a list of routes learned • Table displays: www. Router with lowest cost or lowest metric. o Router picks the route with longest prefix. • Several stages of deployment for software.bin extension In the root directory for TFTP In the FTP root directory on the FTP servers Routing Table • Understand the contents of the route table. No – router returns an ICMP host unreachable message. More information in the route table results in the better decisions by IP. • Every packet has to be re-written into DRAM than switched to the outbound interface.

Route origin Destination network Administrative distance Metric First step in the path to the destination Age of route Destination port Cisco CLI Command Modes The Cisco® IOS software provides you with access to several different command modes. EXEC has two modes:User mode Privileged mode For security purposes the two EXEC modes serve as two levels of access to Cisco IOS commands. The commands available in Privileged mode also include all those available in User mode. Each command mode provides a different group of related commands. and to other configuration modes. Setup Mode: If the router does not have a configuration file it will automatically enter Setup mode when you switch it on. You can use Privileged EXEC commands to:• set operating parameters • perform a detailed examination of the router's status • test and debug router operation • access global and other included configuration modes From Privileged mode you can enter global configuration mode.netmetric-solutions. Setup mode presents you with a prompted dialog. You can specify the source of the configuration commands as being from :• a terminal • memory • the network You can access many other specific configuration modes from Global Configuration mode that allow complex configurations to be performed. EXEC user commands allow you to • connect to remote devices • make temporary changes to terminal settings • perform basic tests • list system information If you want to access privileged mode you have to enter a password. This gives you access to configuration commands that affect the system as a whole. The Cisco® Command Line Interface (CLI) is called EXEC. in which you establish www. called the system configuration dialog.com 31 .com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.

IOS is acronym for Internetwork Operating System. From ROM monitor mode you can boot the device or perform diagnostic tests. and the configuration register (bit 13) is set to enter ROM monitor mode. This also allows access to the router in the event a password is lost. memory and network interfaces. saved in NVRAM. setting the console baud rate and enabling or disabling the break function.com 32 . If your router does not find a valid system image. and set media characteristics. the system will bypass the NVRAM setting and enters ROM monitor mode. the system may enter ROM monitor mode. how to deal with the NVRAM configuration. The system bootstrap software in ROM (boot image) executes and searches for valid router operating system software (Cisco® IOS image). This special mode is also called the Setup mode. Router's Startup Procedure Each time you switch on the router. The default setting for the configuration register indicates that the router should attempt to load a Cisco® IOS image from flash memory. These configuration commands start routing processes. it searches for a valid configuration file. Configuration Registration: A 16-bit register used to control how the router boots up. or if its configuration file is corrupted at startup. it goes through power-on self-test diagnostics to verify basic operation of the CPU. is loaded into main memory and executed one line at a time.netmetric-solutions. Rom Monitor Mode: If the router does not find a valid operating system image. the operating system executes a question-driven initial configuration routine called the system configuration dialog.an initial configuration. Boot Process • Power on Self Test (POST) – checks memory and power like a PC POST. There are three places to find the Cisco® IOS image to load: • Flash memory • A TFTP server on the network • ROM The source of the Cisco® IOS image is determined from the boot field setting of the router's configuration register. The configuration file. where the IOS image. or if you interrupt the boot sequence. If the router finds a valid IOS image. If no configuration file exists in NVRAM. • Loads Bootstrap from ROM Looks for the IOS image in flash www. supply addresses for interfaces.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.

the system clock is manually set to 1:32 p.netmetric-solutions.• • IOS image is a small file IOS image loaded from flash – IOS looks for a start up configuration file in NVRAM.com 33 . Router(config)# hostname How2Pass The factory-assigned default host name is router. 2001: www. global configuration command HOSTNAME is used. Setting the System Clock The system clock runs from the moment the system starts up and keeps track of the current date and time based on Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Boot sequence POST (Power On Self Test) BOOTSTRAP (ROM) (It tries to locate IOS) FLASH (FLASH relies on TCP) or TFTP (TFTP relies on UDP) NVRAM (NVRAM is a router memory) (Start up configuration) RAM (NVRAM Configuration copied into RAM) Start program accessories communications hyper Terminal click give a connection name connect to COMM1 ok com1 properties restore default ok switch on the router now would u like to enter initial configuration (Y/N) no enter Basic Router Configuration Rename the Router To specify or modify the host name for the router. router enters auto setup mode. and in turn can be used to distribute the current time through various mechanisms to other systems. The host name is used in prompts and default configuration filenames. use one of the formats of the clock set EXEC command. Auto setup mode is used for establishing the initial use of a router.m. clock set hh:mm:ss day month yyyy clock set hh:mm:ss month day yyyy In the following example. The system clock can be set from a number of sources. To manually set the system clock. on May 12. If no configuration file is found. Hostname is case sensitive. also known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Start up configuration is loaded from NVRAM.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.

the MOTD banner appears before the login prompt. The following example shows how to add a description for a T1 interface: Router(config)# interface serial 0 Router(config-if)# description T1 line to How2Pass . up to 80 characters. The first character cannot be a number. Use the no form of this command to remove the password. The no form of this command deletes the MOTD banner.netmetric-solutions. Use the no form of this command to remove the description. When someone connects to the router.128 Kb/s" appears in the output of the following EXEC commands: show startup-config. show interfaces. including spaces. The description command is meant solely as a comment to be put in the configuration to help you remember what certain interfaces are used for.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Router(config)# line console 0 Router(config-line)# password How2pass2004 34 www. Router(config)# banner motd # message # Here (#) sign is used as delaminating character. The string can contain any alphanumeric characters. You can use any character. use the password line configuration command.128 Kb/s The description "T1 line to How2Pass . and show running-config Setting the Line Password To specify a password on a line. use the show clock EXEC command. If time has not been set by the clock set command then this command will show the time lapsed since router is up. Setting the Description for an Interface To add a description to an interface configuration. use the banner motd global configuration command.Router# clock set 13:32:00 12 May 2001 Show System Time To display the system clock. Router# show clock Setting the Banner To specify a message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner.com . Console Password Console password is needed when logging into router at user EXEC mode from console. use the description interface configuration command.

vty lines password Virtual terminal lines (vty) are used to allow remote access to the router (by telneting through its interfaces). Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# password How2Pass2004 Setting Privileged Access Password To set a local password to control access to various privilege levels.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. The router has five virtual terminal lines by default. Router(config)# enable secret How2pass2004 Router > enable * this is called as user mode. Must not have a number as the first character. Can have leading spaces. intermediate and trailing spaces are recognized.netmetric-solutions. use the enable secret global configuration command. Router # Show running config * this is called as Privileged mode. Hyd(config-if)# IP address <ip address> <subnet mask> Hyd(config-if)# no shutdown (because all the interfaces are shutdown before configuration) Hyd(config-if)# exit Hyd(config)# lineconsole 0 * console configuration. use the enable password global configuration command. An enable password is defined as follows: Must contain from 1 to 25 uppercase and lowercase alphanumeric characters. Router # configure terminal Router (config)# * this mode is called as global configuration mode. Hyd(config-line)# login Hyd(config-line)# password zoom Hyd(config-line)# exit Hyd(config)# line Vty 0 4 * Telnet configuration. www. but they are ignored.com 35 . Use the no form of this command to remove the password requirement. However. Use the no form of this command to remove the password requirement. Router (config)# hostname hyd Hyd(config)# Interface Ethernet 0 Hyd(config-if)# * this mode is called as interface configuration mode. Router(config)# enable password How2Pass2004 Setting Secret (Encrypted) Password To set an encrypted local password to control access to various privilege levels.

Use this mode to: • • • Change terminal settings Perform basic tests Display system information www.netmetric-solutions. Or Hyd# write * this is the shortcut command to save configuration • In global configuration mode. Hyd# show configuration * to view the configuration Hyd# copy running-config startup–config * to save router configuration. Hyd(config-line)# login Hyd(config-line)# password CISCO Hyd(config-line)#exit Hyd(config)# enable password <password> Hyd(config)# enable secret <password> Hyd(config)# ^z * to go to the user mode directly from any other mode.com 36 . A subset of the commands available in this mode.Hyd(config-line)# login Hyd(config-line)# password CCNA Hyd(config-line)# exit Hyd(config)# line aux 0 * auxiliary configuration. 1600> Enter the logout command.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Hyd (config)# service password – encryption By using this command the password which are stored in clear text will be encrypted into MD-5 (message digest file) • {line Vty 0 4} (o to 4 is used because telnet can run 5 session at a time) Command Modes Access Method Prompt Exit Method About This Mode User EXEC Begin a session with your router.

Global configuration Enter the configure command while in privileged EXEC mode. 1600(config)# To exit to privileged EXEC mode. enter the interface command. 1600# To exit to user EXEC mode. including the: • • Ethernet interface Serial 37 www. To prevent unauthorized changes to your router configuration. Use this mode to configure parameters for the various LAN and WAN interfaces of your router.com . access to this mode should be protected with a password . enter the disable command. To exit to privileged EXEC mode. 1600(config-i f)# To exit to global configuration mode.netmetric-solutions. To enter global configuration mode. Interface configuration Enter the interface command (with a specific interface) while in the global configuration mode. enter the exit or end command.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Perform the verification steps shown in this guide. Use this mode to: • • Configure your router operating parameters. enter the end command. Use this mode to configure parameters that apply to your router as a whole.Privileged EXEC Enter the enable command while in user EXEC mode. or press Ctrl-Z. To enter interface configuration mode. enter the configure command.

enter the exit command. www. or press Ctrl-Z. enter the exit command. specify a subinterface with the interface command. enter the end command. enter the exit command. or press Ctrl-Z. enter the end command. Use this mode to configure an IP routing protocol. To exit to privileged EXEC mode. Router configuration Enter your router command followed by the appropriate keyword while in global configuration mode. or press Ctrl-Z. To enter privileged EXEC mode.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.netmetric-solutions.com 38 . 1600(config-l ine)# To exit to global configuration mode. Use this mode to configure parameters for the terminal. To enter subinterface configuration mode. 1600(config-r outer)# • interface ISDN interface To exit to global configuration mode. Line configuration Specify a line with the line vty command while in the global configuration mode.

e. No support for compression By default on all CISCO routers uses HDLC protocol.e.e. No support authentication. CISCO – CISCO. CISCO – NORTEL.netmetric-solutions... clocking (i.WAN Interfaces • Communication Protocols PPP Point to point protocol Open standard protocol (works with same and different company router) i. Support authentication (user name and password identification) Support compression HDLC High level data link control Vendor Proprietary protocol (works with same company router) i..e.com 39 .. NORTEL – NORTEL. speed) Master Example of DCE devices in leased line setups: V. • Device Classification DCE Data communication equipment Generating. speed) Slave Example of DTE devices in leased setup: router Example of DTE devices in dial up setup: computer Command • This command is used to know which interface is router either DCE or DTE.35 and G703 modem and exchange (MODEM and MUX) (MUX – Multiples) Example of DCE devices in dial-up setup: dialup modem DTE Data terminal equipment Accept clocking (i.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Router# show controller S0 • To list the available clock rate in the router the command is Router# clock rate? Configuration of Serial Interfaces Router(config)# interface serial S0 Router(config-if)# ip address <ip address> <subnet mask> Router(config-if# no shutdown Router(config-if)# clock rate <clock rate> (this command is only for DCE device only) Router(config-if)# encapsulation {PPP/HDLC} www.

0. Implies. encapsulation or clock rate (layer 2 command) have not been given or encapsulation on both the routers are different. If serial 0 is up and line protocol is down.0.2 255. line protocol is down. Implies.0.For the removal of the interfaces Router(config)# default interface Router(config)# default interface S% (for removal of S% interface) • On Hyd router Hyd(config)# interface serial S0 Hyd(config-if)# ip address 10.0. It implies all configurations and the connectivity are fine. line protocol is up.0. no shutdown (layer 1 command) has not been given on the local router interface. Serial 0 is down and line protocol is down.0.netmetric-solutions.0. If serial 0 is administratively down.1 255. • www. no shutdown command has not been given on the remote router interface or some problem with the physical connectivity.0 Adilabad (config-if)# no shutdown Adilabad (config-if)# encapsulation HDLC Adilabad (config-if)# exit Trouble shooting Hyd#show int S0 If serial 0 is up.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Implies.com 40 .0.0 Hyd(config-if)# no shutdown Hyd(config-if)# encapsulation HDLC Hyd(config-if)# exit • On Adilabad router Adilabad (config)# interface S1 Adilabad (config-if)# ip address 10.

Rules of Routing • Head office Ethernet interface should be in the same network as your head office LAN and similarly on branch office side.com . • Network S0 S1 • 10.0 10.0. • Suitable only for small network 41 www.2.0 E0 – 192.0.0.0 • All interfaces of router should be in different networks • Head office E0 – 192.0. Dynamic routing Static Routing • It is configured by administrator manually.168. Enhanced security • Lower utilization of bandwidth • Lower route processing overhead.0.0 • Branch office LAN 192. • Head office LAN – 192.168. • Mandatory need of destination network ID • It is secure and fast. • Administrative distance is 0 and 1 for static routing because if the router is referred twice its distance is 1.150 S1 – 10.150 • Head office S0 and Branch office S1 should be in the same network. Static routing 2.1.168. Administrator has entered in a route table entry.0.0.0. • Head office LAN 192.0. • Administrative distance is a trust worthiness of the routing information.168.2 Types of Routing: 1.1 • Branch office E0 – 192. • Used for small organization with a network of 10 – 15 routers • Administrative distance for static routing is 0 and 1.2.0 E0 – 192.168. Disadvantages • Administrative overhead Time consuming Error prone Not dynamic • No automatic recovery in the event of a failure.2.2 • Head office LAN and Branch office LAN should be in different network.150 S0 – 10. Lesser the administrative distance.netmetric-solutions. higher the preference.168. The which is configured with its next hop address its administrative distance will be 1.1 10.1.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.2. The one which is configured with the exit interface administrative distance is 0.168.150 • Branch office LAN – 192.1.168.0.1.

0 S1 42 www.168.0.0/24 192.Configuring static routing: Router(config)# ip route <destination network ID> <destination subnet mask> <next hop IP address> Or Router(config)# ip route <destination network ID> <destination subnet mask> <exit interface type> <interface number> • Hyd Router Hyd(config)# ip routing Hyd(config)# ip route 192.0.2.0 S1 • Multiple Routing Hyd router E0 Chennai router Bang router S0 10.1.netmetric-solutions.0.0 192.0.150 Switch Switch Switch LAN 192.1/8 S0 10.2 11.2.2.3.2 Adilabad Router Adilabad (config)# ip routing Adilabad (config)# ip route 192.168.0 via 10.0 E0 Bang router 11.0 S1 192.0 10.0.0.0.168.0.255.0.168.168.150/24 E0 192.0.2/8 192.0.0.1/8 S1 S0 S0 11.168.0 255.0.1.0 S1 192.0/24 Routing Table Hyd router 192.3.0 S0 10.0 E0 192.168.168.0.0.0.2.0 10.2 LAN 192.3.168.0/24 LAN E0 S0 Chennai router 11.1.0.168.255.168.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.255.1.255.168.0.0.168.2.150 255.2.com .0.150 E0 192.

192.168.3.0 via 10.0.0.2 11.0.0.0 via 10.0.0.2

192.168.1.0 via 10.0.0.1 192.168.3.0 via 11.0.0.2

192.168.1.0 10.0.0.0

S1 S1

On Hyd Router Hyd(config)# ip routing Hyd(config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.2 Hyd(config)# ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.2 Hyd(config)# ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.2 On Adilabad router Adilabad (config)# ip routing Adilabad (config)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1 or S1 Adilabad i(config)# ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 11.0.0.2 or S1 On Nag Router Nag (config)# ip routing Nag (config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 11.0.0.2 or S1 Nag (config)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 11.0.0.2 or S1 Nag (config)# ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 11.0.0.2 or S1 To view the IP routes which are configured the command is: Router# show ip route What is Routing Protocol? A Routing Protocol is the language a router speaks with other router in order to share information about the reach-ability and status of network. Eg: RIP, EIGRP etc. Dynamic Routing • Information entered into the IP route table dynamically. • This is a function of routing protocol. • Protocols share information about all known network with neighbors. • Automatic recovery from network failure. • Suitable for layer network. • Router converges automatically. • Dynamic routing protocol advantages far outweigh the disadvantages. Disadvantages • Router processing overhead. • Network bandwidth utilization.
www.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 43

Administrative Distance • Integral part of how CISCO works. Not all routers use the same terminology or technology. • Predefined sets of precedence no. known as Administrative Distance. Administrative distance qualifies how believable the learned router is. • The lower the no. the most believable the router. • EIGRP is much more sensitive to live conditions and has a lower no. Metric: A Metric is a variable assigned to routers as a mean of ranking them from best to worst or from preferred to least preferred. Protocol Static RIP IGRP OSPF EIGRP Administrative Distance (AD) 0 or 1 120 100 110 90

Advantages of Dynamic Routing over Static Routing: • There is no need to know the destination network ID. • Need to advertise the directly connected networks • Update topology change dynamically. • Administrative work reduced. • Used for larger organizations. Types of Dynamic Routing: • Distance Vector Protocol • Link State Protocol • Hybrid Protocol Distance vector Protocol • Two primary characteristic Uses measurement of distance or direction as the metric. Hop count is one example. Broadcast the entire routing table on specific time interval. • Work with Bellman Ford Algorithm. • Periodic updates. • Class full routing protocol (class full means doesn’t understand subnetting) • Full routing tables are exchanged. • Updates are through broadcast • Also known as “Routing by Rumors”. • Examples: RIP, EIGRP
www.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 44

Link State Protocol • Three primary characteristics: Compound metrics – calculation of cost, bandwidth, delay, etc. More sensitive to line conditions and considered more believable. Can typically make better decisions. Make a map of the network from every router’s perspective. Exchange triggered updates. o Small updates everywhere. o Only shared with neighbor when network status change. o Lower bandwidth consumption. • Works with Dijkstra Algorithm. • Utilizes the network in more optimal fashion than distance vector • Link state updates • Classless routing protocol (classless means understand subnetting) • Missing routes are exchanged. • Updates are through multicast. • Also known as “Routing by Intelligence”. • Examples are OSPF, IS-IS Hybrid Protocol • Works with Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) • Link state updates • Classless routing protocol. • Missing routes are exchanged. • Updates are through multicast. • Also know as “Routing by Intelligence” • Examples: EIGRP Note: EIGRP is classified in both distance-vector and link state protocol because its metric measures distance but its function is more compatible to a link state routing protocol. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) • Open standard protocol. • RIP uses non-reliable transmission i.e., UDP • Classful routing protocol. • Updates are broadcasted via 255.255.255.255 • Administrative distance is 120 • Metric : hop count • Maximum hop count is 15 and maximum routers are 16. • Load balancing of 4 equal paths. • Used for small organization.
www.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 45

2 11. Extremely simple to configure. Syntax Router(config)# router RIP Router(config-router)# network <network ID> Hyd router E0 Chennai router Bang router S0 10.150 E0 192.0.150/24 E0 192.1/8 S0 10.0.168.com Switch Switch 46 .3.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • Hold down Timer: 180 sec Specifies the amount of time for which the information about poorer router is ignored.150 Switch www. Least believable of all protocols.168.netmetric-solutions.0. Uses split horizon and poison reverse.0. • Invalid Timer: 180 sec It is a time a router waits to hear updates The route is marked unreachable if there is no update during this interval • Flush Timer: 240 sec Time before the invalid route is purged from the routing table.0.1/8 S1 S0 S0 11.Characteristics • RIP Version 1 Uses hop count as the only metric.0. o Entire route table from every interface Invalid flush and hold down timer • RIP Version 2 Add capability for multiple masks (Supports VLSM) Type “version 2” at the router rip prompt. Route selection is not believable. RIP Timers • Update Timer: 30 sec.0.0. o Administrative distance of 120 o Every other routing protocols take precedence over router learned from RIP Sends updates every 30 sec. o Not sensitive at all to line conditions.1. Time between consecutive updates. Uses triggered updates.168.2/8 192.2.

netmetric-solutions.e. Hyd router sends updates to the neighbor router.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.0.168.1.0.0 R 192.0.0 E0 0 C 192. Similarly Chennai and Bangalore router will send updates after every 30 sec.168.0 R 192.0 At Nag Router Nag (config)# router RIP Nag (config-router)# network 192.168.0 At Adilabad Router Adilabad i(config)# router RIP Adilabad (config-router)# network 192.0.168.3.0.0 At Hyderabad router Hyd(config)# router RIP Hyd(config-router)# network 192.com 47 . Flush Timer www. The update will not be received by the neighbor router so after 180 sec it will mark that router as invalid by making the hop count as 16 because 16 is not reachable in RIP.168.1.LAN 192.0 R 192. when the timer gets ‘0’ the router will send the update which contains the whole routing table by incrementing the hop by 1.0.0.0.168.0.Chennai router will accept the IP address which is missing in its tables.0.1.2.3.168.0 1 R 192.0.0/24 LAN 192.0 E0 0 S1 0 1 1 2 C 192.3.0 and 10. Invalid Timer Invalid timer is a timer specified when a link between the router is down while sending an update.0 Adilabad i(config-router)# network 10.0 C 10.168.2.1.0 R 11.0.0 1 C 11.0 Adilabad (config-router)# network 11.168.0.0 S0 0 C 10.3.0.168.0 R 10. updates start in 30 sec.2.0/24 192.0.0.0.2..168.3.0/24 E0 0 S1 0 S0 1 1 1 LAN C 192.0 2 R 192.1.0.168.168.2.0 C 11.0 R 192.168. the IP address 192.0 Nag (config-router)# network 11.168.1. Chennai router receives the updates i.0.0.0.168.0 Update Timer By default.0.0 Hyd(config-router)# network 10.0 by incrementing the hop by 1.

• Slow convergence. works only with hop count. • Formation of routing loops. A router never forwards a broadcast. it will flushed. Updates are never sent back in the direction they were received. It prevents from routing loops.com 48 . • Exchanges data the same way no matter what. Route Poisoning: Incrementing the hop count to 16 is called as Route Poisoning. It’s the best of the solution for preventing routing loops.netmetric-solutions. • Doesn’t consider bandwidth. It sets max hop count to unreachable state. Route remains poisoned until hold down timer expires. Hold down Timer Prevents data from using the path that has the hold down timer set. • Routing by rumor process • Can generate routing loops Split Horizon: It will not send the update from where you have received through the same interface.If again that router couldn’t send any update due to some problems in another 60 sec i.. Commands of RIP: to see the updates of RIP routers Router# debug ip RIP? Router# terminal Monitor To stop the debug process router# u all To stop the terminal monitor Router# terminal no monitor Commands for Holding down the updates router# config t router(config)# router rip router(config-router)# network <network ID> router(config-router)# passive-interface serial 0 Disadvantages of RIP • More bandwidth utilization since it sends updates for every 30 secs. Only one direction of traffic.e.. (180+60 = 240 sec) the router will be remove the IP address from the routing table i.e.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Distance vector loops • Advertises through broadcast the entire routing table a predetermined interval. www.

.com 49 .Note: The biggest disadvantage of RIP is.netmetric-solutions. www. it sends updates every 30 sec i. bandwidth consumption.e.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.

• IGRP uses 24-bit number metric whereas EIGRP displays the metric with 32 number. • Administrative distance is 100 • Metric (24 bit) = composite metric (bandwidth + delay) Bandwidth = {107/ least bandwidth along the path} Delay = {sum of delay along the path/10} Delay metric is based upon calculating of total link delay Bandwidth based on the smallest bandwidth line on the transit path.255. Time between consecutive updates. • Load balancing of 6 equal or unequal paths. • Used for larger organization.com 50 . Bandwidth Delay Reliability Load factor Maximum transmission unit (MTU) • Bandwidth and delay are the primary factors of determining the metric of IGRP and EIGRP.Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) • CISCO proprietary protocol. load and MTU. • Maximum hop count is 255 (100 is by default).netmetric-solutions.255. IGRP Timer • Update Timer: 90 sec. load factor and MTU are taken into consideration only as secondary values.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • Reliability. Delay will dominate longer paths because calculating of 10’s of microsecond timer 256. • Does have the capability of properly calculating the overall network condition. • Class full routing protocol. • Add reliability. • Understand bandwidth of the line and overall delay.255. Bandwidth will dominate shorter paths. • Very good metric for use in the larger network environment. • IGRP utilizes different values. Display this with 24-bit number. Characteristics • IGRP uses a compound or composite metric for route determination. • Invalid Timer: 270 sec It is a time a router waits to hear updates www. • Updates are broadcasted via 255.

• Hierarchical design with multiple areas • Area 0 is called the back bone area.> Router(config-router)# network <network ID> • To check the updates the command is Router# show ip route Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) • Open standard protocol. www. • If logical interface is configured. • Hold down Timer: 280 sec Specifies the amount of time for which the information about poorer router is ignored Configuration of IGRP Syntax Router(config)# router IGRP <AS no. • Successor of RIP • Classless routing protocol (supports subnetting) • Work with link state administrative (LSA). • Highest IP address of the logical interface will be given preference over highest IP address of the active physical interface.0. • Updates are through multicast 224. • OSPF uses reliable transmission i.netmetric-solutions. Exchanges updates only with neighbors.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.e.5. • Supposed to be used inside a company’s environment.The route is marked unreachable if there is no update during this interval Flush Timer: 630 sec Time before the invalid route is purged from the routing table.. • Designed for a single Autonomous system. • Metric (Cost) = 108/ bandwidth in bps (bits per sec) (CISCO) • Hello packets are send every 10sec • Faster convergence. More complex than EIGRP • Design to be an IGRP. • Designed exclusively for large networks. • Administrative distance is 110. TCP Characteristics • Link state routing protocol Neighbor relationship and hello packets. • Router ID is the highest IP address of the active physical interface of the router.com 51 . the highest IP address of the logical interface is router ID.0.

Area types An OSPF network is divided into areas. Net mask capable – supports VLSM Minimizing bandwidth utilization. • Database Table: It contains information about the entire view of the topology with respect to each router. Very management intensive. • Routing Information Table: Routing table contains information about the best path calculated by the shortest path first algorithm in the database table. All other areas are connected to it.netmetric-solutions. Requires careful design and planning before implementation. and inter-area routing happens via a router connected to the backbone area. OSPF focused more on logical design of routing domains. The backbone area is responsible for distributing routing information between nonbackbone areas. Note: All OSPF areas must connect to the backbone area! Stub area www.com 52 . Several "special" area types are defined: Backbone area The backbone area (also known as area zero) forms the core of an OSPF network. It is the logical and physical structure for the 'autonomous system' (AS) and is attached to multiple areas. These are logical groupings of routers whose information may be summarized towards the rest of the network. • Neighbor Table: It contains information about directly connected OSPF neighbor forming adjacency. Terminology Area Location where all routers share information about every router Always one area that exist is known as Area 0. every router supports OSPF. The backbone must be contiguous. Optimal route selection OSPF is industry standard. Area 0 is designated as backbone. backbone connectivity can be established and maintained through the configuration of virtual links. but it does not need to be physically contiguous.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Designed for: Fast convergence Enhanced coverage for all networks.• • • • • • Does allow authentication. OSPF Tables: It maintains three tables. Uses protocol 89 for IP.

Provides all transition and routing from one area to another. of devices that falls under same administrative control. that is.netmetric-solutions. Totally stubby area A totally stubby area (TSA) is similar to a stub area. This implies that AS-external routes (Type 5 LSAs) are not fed into Stub Areas. Two autonomous systems are connected by exterior gateway protocol but they do not share the routing table irrespective of their physical connection. Area Border Routers (ABRs) The routers which interconnect the areas are known as ABRs. Not-so-stubby area A not-so-stubby area (NSSA) is a type of stub area that can import autonomous system (AS) external routes and send them to the backbone. It takes on the attributes of a TSA. A unique number identifying the routing domain of the routers Ranges from 1 – 65535 Public 1 – 64512 Private 64519 . The only way for traffic to get routed outside of the area is a default route which is the only Type-3 LSA advertised into the area. Cisco also implements a proprietary version of a NSSA called a NSSA totally stubby area. fewer routing decisions have to be made by the route processor.A stub area is an area which does not receive external routes. which lowers system resource utilization.65535 53 www. Connect all areas together. inter-area (IA) routes are not summarized into totally stubby areas.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Multiple OSPF Area All areas are connected to Area 0. When there is only one route out of the area. Autonomous System It is defined as a no. meaning that type 3 and type 4 summary routes are not flooded into this type of area.com . however this area does not allow summary routes in addition to the external routes. but cannot receive AS external routes from the backbone or other areas. stub areas typically need to rely on a default route to send traffic to routes outside the present domain. All areas are communicated through Area 0. Therefore. External routes are defined as routes which were distributed in OSPF from another routing protocol.

OSPF router types OSPF defines various router types.• • An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain. All share information about their perspective of the network Link state routing protocol builds a tree which defines all possible paths. Backbone Routers: These are routers that are part of the OSPF backbone. Afri NIC) Autonomous System Border Routers (ASBRs) o Have an interface into the local AS and also have interfaces that plug into other system Every router inside an area has a link state database and route table. The router sending the Hello packets with the highest priority. However. To summarize: an area border router is always also a backbone router. www. but a backbone router is not necessarily an area border router. and is therefore not part of any area (other than Area 0). By definition.netmetric-solutions. These are logical definitions. The DR is elected based on the following default criteria: If the priority setting on a OSPF router is set to 0. They also participate in the backbone. since those routers pass routing information between areas. The Autonomous number is given by the registrar (APNIC. is both an ABR and an ASBR. a backbone router may also be a router that connects only to other backbone (or area border) routers. this includes all area border routers. there is another election to see who becomes the replacement BDR.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. and a router that uses OSPF may be classified as more than one of the following types. that means it can NEVER become a DR or BDR (Backup Designated Router). They maintain an LSDB for each area of which they are a part. and which receives routes from a BGP process connected to another AS.com 54 . Internal router A router is called an internal router (IR) if it has only OSPF adjacencies with routers in the same area. Area Border Routers: These are routers that connect to routers or networks in more than one area. a router that is connected to more than one area. Designated router A designated router (DR) is the router elected among all routers on a particular multi-access network segment. When a DR fails and the BDR takes over. For example.

NOTE: a RID is the highest logical (loopback) IP address configured on a router.netmetric-solutions. the router sending the Hello with the highest RID (Router ID) wins. IF a HIGHER priority OSPF router comes online AFTER the election has taken place. o When OSPF converges. The BDR is the OSPF router with second highest priority at the time of the last election. Usually the router with the second highest priority number becomes the BDR. This way all the routers do not have to constantly update each other. Routers exchange information about their own LSDB Run the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm or Dijkstra’s algorithm.255. with a higher value increasing its chances of becoming DR or BDR. the entire tree must be changed inside the LSDB before generating routes Convergence is not quite as fast as EIGRP www.If two or more routers tie with the highest priority setting. DRs or BDRs are not elected on point-topoint links (such as a point-to-point WAN connection) because the two routers on either sides of the link must become fully adjacent and the bandwidth between them cannot be further optimized.1. the DR maintains a complete topology table of the network and sends the updates to the other routers via multicast.1 would be higher than 10. DR's exist for the purpose of reducing network traffic by providing a source for routing updates.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Backup designated router A backup designated router (BDR) is a router that becomes the designated router if the current designated router has a problem or fails. (e. The use of multicasting further reduces the network load. and can rather get all their updates from a single source. The priority values range between 1 . DRs and BDRs are always setup/elected on Broadcast networks (Ethernet). if no logical/loopback IP address is set then the Router uses the highest IP address configured on its active interfaces. Link State Database (LSDB) Builds based upon neighbor relationship.2). Takes the contents of the LSDB and generates the route table.com 55 . it will not become DR or BDR until (at least) the DR and BDR fail. 192.168.g. DR's can also be elected on NBMA (Non-Broadcast Multi-Access) networks such as Frame Relay or ATM.0. Dijkstra’s or SPF algorithm is much higher overhead than DUAL o Must take the entire picture of the network at once and create the router.1.

o Anything faster than 100 Mbps fast Ethernet would have cost of 1. Every target network identified will have a cost associated with it. it uses the OSPF Hello protocol to acquire neighbors. Calculation based on the bandwidth of the line divided into 100. utilizes a reference no. the designated router is responsible for generating LSAs for the entire multi-access network. it initializes its routing-protocol data structures and then waits for indications from lower-layer protocols that its interfaces are functional. is changed. When an SPF router is powered up. ABR have more than one database – One for every area they connect to.Note: ABRs are designed to connect area together and share information because LSDB is specific to an area . o Dijkstra tree is built. By default. Among other things. In addition to helping acquire neighbors. The router sends hello packets to its neighbors and receives their hello packets. the Hello protocol elects a designated router and a backup designated router. of 100 for divisor. 56 www. unless the no. Designated routers allow a reduction in network traffic and in the size of the topological database. hello packets also act as keep alive to let routers know that other routers are still functional. On multi-access networks (networks supporting more than two routers).com . OSPF Metric OSPF uses only bandwidth as its metric. which are routers with interfaces to a common network. OSPF has no capability of measuring another statistics.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. o This calculation must be modified for OSPF to properly produce the metrics required. Every router connected to R1 will produce a relative cost of the line in between. Dijkstra tree is built automatically through the convergence of the OSPF protocol o Routers exchange LSDB until they are identical. SPF Algorithm The Shortest Path First (SPF) routing algorithm is the basis for OSPF operations. o Dijkstra or SPF algorithm is run to allow the route table to be built. Critical that the bandwidth is set appropriately for every line on every router. Dijkstra Tree Built to identify what the LAN looks like inside the local area. After a router is assured that its interfaces are functioning.

From the topological database generated from LSAs. The shortest-path tree.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Each router periodically sends an LSA to provide information on a router's adjacencies or to inform others when a router's state changes.When the link-state databases of two neighboring routers are synchronized. and the network's topology can be altered appropriately. each router calculates a shortest-path tree. OSPF States and Packets: OSPF States Down Initial 2 – way Ex-start Exchange Loading Full OSPF Packets Hello Database descriptor (DBD) Link state Request (LSR) Link state update (LSU) Link State Acknowledgement (LS Ack) OSPF Packet Header  0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | version | type | packet length | +---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+ | router ID | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | area ID | +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | checksum | authentication type | +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | authentication | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | authentication | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ OSPF Hello Packet  0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 www.com 57 . the routers are said to be adjacent. failed routers can be detected quickly. in turn. Topological databases are synchronized between pairs of adjacent routers. Adjacencies control the distribution of routing-protocol packets. On multi-access networks. By comparing established adjacencies to link states. the designated router determines which routers should become adjacent. yields a routing table. with itself as root. which are sent and received only on adjacencies.

com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | version | type | packet length | +---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+ | router ID | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | area ID | +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | checksum | authentication type | +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | authentication | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | authentication | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | network mask | +-------------------------------+---------------+---------------+ | hello interval | options |router priority| +-------------------------------+---------------+---------------+ | router dead interval | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | designated router | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | backup designated router | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | neighbor ID | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | neighbor ID | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | .. | Packet Format All OSPF packets begin with a 24-byte header. • Version number—Identifies the OSPF version used. Several LSAs can be included within a single link-state update packet.com 58 . • Link-state update—Responds to a link-state request packet. www. These messages are exchanged after a router discovers (by examining database-description packets) that parts of its topological database are outdated.. • Type—Identifies the OSPF packet type as one of the following: • Hello—Establishes and maintains neighbor relationships.netmetric-solutions. • Link-state request—Requests pieces of the topological database from neighbor routers. Figure: OSPF Packets Consist of Nine Fields The following descriptions summarize the header fields illustrated in Figure 46-2. These messages are exchanged when an adjacency is initialized. • Database description—Describes the contents of the topological database. These messages also are used for the regular dispersal of LSAs.

If OSPF has high-priority links at its disposal. a separate routing table) for each of the eight combinations created by the three IP TOS bits (the delay. maintain separate topological databases for each area.• • • • • • • • Link-state acknowledgment—Acknowledges link-state update packets. For example. TOS-based routing supports those upper-layer protocols that can specify particular types of service. these can be used to transport the urgent datagram. OSPF is an intra-AS (interior gateway) routing protocol. This provides network administrators with extra network-configuration flexibility. IP subnet masks are included with each advertised destination. and TOS is not supported. low throughput. enabling variable-length subnet masks. and high reliability. including the OSPF header. and routing based on upper-layer type-of-service (TOS) requests. throughput.com 59 . Router ID—Identifies the source of the packet. TOS is optionally supported through the use of a separate metric (and.netmetric-solutions. All OSPF packets are associated with a single area. for example. An AS can be divided into a number of areas. Data—Contains encapsulated upper-layer information. which are groups of contiguous networks and attached hosts. an IP network can be broken into many subnets of various sizes. might specify that certain data is urgent. Routing Hierarchy Unlike RIP. OSPF can operate within a hierarchy. www. Additional OSPF Features Additional OSPF features include equal-cost. OSPF supports one or more metrics.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. therefore. The largest entity within the hierarchy is the autonomous system (AS). With variable-length subnet masks. OSPF calculates routes to all destinations based on this TOS designation. multipath routing. Authentication type—Contains the authentication type. Routers with multiple interfaces can participate in multiple areas. and reliability bits). which is a collection of networks under a common administration that share a common routing strategy. These routers. Checksum—Checks the entire packet contents for any damage suffered in transit. which are called Area Border Routers. The authentication type is configurable on per-area basis. If more than one metric is used. Authentication—Contains authentication information. An application. although it is capable of receiving routes from and sending routes to other ASs. If only one metric is used. All OSPF protocol exchanges are authenticated. if the IP TOS bits specify low delay. Area ID—Identifies the area to which the packet belongs. in bytes. Packet length—Specifies the packet length. it is considered to be arbitrary.

The topological database contains the collection of LSAs received from all routers in the same area. OSPF passes less routing traffic than it would if the AS were not partitioned. and 12 make up the backbone. backbone connectivity must be restored through virtual links. In this case. which sends the packet through two intra-area routers (Router 9 and Router 7) to be forwarded to Host H2.A topological database is essentially an overall picture of networks in relationship to routers.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. depending on whether the source and the destination are in the same or different areas. 10. Intraarea routing occurs when the source and destination are in the same area. In the figure. Virtual links are configured between any backbone routers that share a link to a nonbackbone area and function as if they were direct links. An area's topology is invisible to entities outside the area. which forwards the packet to Router 12. By keeping area topologies separate. If Host H1 in Area 3 wants to send a packet to Host H2 in Area 2. It consists of all Area Border Routers. The backbone topology is invisible to all intra-area routers. The backbone itself is an OSPF area. Area partitioning creates two different types of OSPF routing. Figure: An OSPF AS Consists of Multiple Areas Linked by Routers www. 6. inter area routing occurs when they are in different areas. An OSPF backbone is responsible for distributing routing information between areas. as are individual area topologies to the backbone. which sends the packet to Router 11. Because routers within the same area share the same information. Figure 46-1 shows an example of an internetwork with several areas. they have identical topological databases. 11.netmetric-solutions. Domain is frequently used interchangeably with AS. routers 4. networks not wholly contained in any area. 5. Router 11 then forwards the packet along the backbone to Area Border Router 10. The term domain sometimes is used to describe a portion of the network in which all routers have identical topological databases.com 60 . so all backbone routers use the same procedures and algorithms to maintain routing information within the backbone that any area router would. Areas can be defined in such a way that the backbone is not contiguous. the packet is sent to Router 13. and their attached routers.

255 area 0 Adilabad (config-router)# network 11.255 area 0 Adilabad i(config-router)# network 10.255.0.255 area 0 www.1.0 0.168.255.com 61 . For Hyderabad Router Hyd(config)# ip routing Hyd(config)# router OSPF 100 Hyd(config-router)# network 192.255.255 So the wild card mask = 255.168.0.0.255.0 0.255.0.255 Note: we can give any value in process ID (Pid) but have to remember because if we want to reconfigure we have to give the Pid.0 and the GSM is 255.1.0.168.netmetric-solutions.255.0 0.255.0.0.0.255 area 0 For Adilabad Router Adilabad (config)# ip routing Adilabad i(config)# router OSPF 128 Adilabad i(config-router)# network 192.255.0.255.0 0.255.255 area 0 Hyd(config-router)# network 10.2.255 – 255.> Wild card mask = global subnet mask (GSM) – customizing subnet mask (CSM) Example: 192.0.0.0 0.2 its CSM will be 255.255.255.OSPF Configuration: Syntax Router# ip routing Router(config)# router OSPF <pid> *pid – process ID Router(config-router)# network <network ID> <wild card mask> area <area no.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.255.0 = 0.255.0.

168.255 area 0 Nag (config-router)# network 11.0.255 area 0 To check the table enter the command: Router# show ip OSPF database To check the OSPF neighbor the command is: Router# show ip OSPF neighbor Disadvantages of OSPF • Consumes more memory and CPU processing.0.255 area 1 Hyd(config-router)# 10.For Nag Router Nag (config)# ip routing Nag (config)# router OSPF 113 Nag (config-router)# network 192. OSPF in Multiple Areas For Hyderabad Router Hyd(config)# no ip routing Hyd(config)# router ospf 1 Hyd(config-router)# network 192.0.0.3.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.0 0.0 0.1.com 62 .0 0.255.255.255.0.0.netmetric-solutions.255.0.0.168.0 0.255 area 1 For Adilabad Router www.

255 area 0 Adilabad (config-router)# 10.0 0.0 0.0.com 63 .Adilabad(config)# ip routing Adilabad (config)# router ospf 2 Adilabad (config-router)# 192.0 0.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.0.0.0 0.0 0.255.0.255 area 2 For Nag Router Nag(config)# ip routing Nag (config)# router ospf 1 Nag (config-router)# network 192.3. www.255.0.0.255.168.0.netmetric-solutions.255. It distributes data to other areas that’s the reason it is called as backbone area.0.255 area 1 Adilabad (config-router)# 11.255.255. To check the result of the configuration done enter command: Router(config)# show ip route Note: Area 0 is very important area.168.2.0.255 area 2 Nag (config-router)# network 11.0.255 area 2 Note: The network is divided into area for efficiency of the router.

• If the link goes down the EIGRP gives that link is dead in 20 sec (5 * 4 times) • Metric = Bandwidth +delay Bandwidth = [107 / least bandwidth along the path] * 256 Delay = [sum of delay/10] *256 It is been multiplied by 256 because EIGRP is 8 bit more than IGRP • Convergence rate is faster because the router comes to know that the neighbor is dead in 20 sec because hello packets are sent for every 5 sec. • Max hop count is 255 (100 by default) • Supports IP. only changes are sent • Designed for optimal routing in large networks. • Classless routing protocol. Does not use any broadcast. Reliability. IPX.0. • Administrative distance is 90. UDP protocols and specific IP protocols IDs Utilizes TCP acknowledgement where necessary.com 64 . • Reliable transport mechanism Automatically uses TCP. • Utilizes less bandwidth Changes are non-periodic and incremental i.10. Utilizes hello packets. • Metric(32 bit) : composite metric • Compound metric is same as IGRP Bandwidth and delay as its primary. Can set up a MD 5 (Message digest 5) authentication keys. Allows router to authenticate with one another for updates • Deterministic results on convergence timer. Uses IP multicast packet to reduce overall traffic.netmetric-solutions. EIGRP automatically revert to back up routes. • Hello packets are sent every 5 sec. and apple talk protocols.e.. www. load. • Fastest convergence of all routing protocol Never throws away any router. • EIGRP is very optimal.Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol (EIGRP) • CISCO proprietary protocol. only communicate when they have to send a change i. • Establishes neighbor relationship with all router around. Creates adjacencies with neighboring router. and MTU as back up. Calculated same way as IGRP. • Allows authentication.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Guarantees neighboring router receive the right information. • Includes all features of IGRP. EIGRP extends the value to 32 bit no. • Updates are through multicast 224. • Automatic discovery of neighbor..0. Maintains a topology table to maintain all known routes.e.

EIGRP treats IGRP routes as external routes and provides a way for the network administrator to customize them. EIGRP can be configured to summarize on any bit boundary at any interface. One of these protocols is the Diffusing update algorithm (DUAL) developed at SRI International by Dr. EIGRP integrates the capabilities of link-state protocols into distance vector protocols. and support for multiple network layer protocols.netmetric-solutions. Because the metrics for both protocols are directly translatable. EIGRP includes support for AppleTalk. As a result of these two capabilities. If no appropriate route exists. and Novell NetWare. Its support for variable-length subnet masks permits routes to be automatically summarized on a network number boundary. EIGRP does not make periodic updates. Garcia-Luna-Aceves. EIGRP consumes significantly less bandwidth than IGRP. and allows a router running EIGRP to find alternate paths without waiting on updates from other routers. Additionally. This evolution resulted from changes in networking and the demands of diverse. support for partial updates. Makes EIGRP more optimal for routers resources.com 65 . Always select the best possible route by using diffused update. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) represents an evolution from its predecessor IGRP (refer to Chapter 42. IP. The AppleTalk implementation redistributes routes learned from the Routing Table www. These queries propagate until an alternate route is found.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. EIGRP Capabilities and Attributes Key capabilities that distinguish EIGRP from other routing protocols include fast convergence. A router running EIGRP stores all its neighbors' routing tables so that it can quickly adapt to alternate routes. EIGRP provides compatibility and seamless interoperation with IGRP routers. large-scale internetworks. J. Instead. In addition. An automatic-redistribution mechanism allows IGRP routes to be imported into EIGRP.J. so it is possible to add EIGRP gradually into an existing IGRP network. "Interior Gateway Routing Protocol"). Propagation of partial updates is automatically bounded so that only those routers that need the information are updated. they are as easily comparable as if they were routes that originated in their own autonomous systems (ASs). EIGRP works on DUAL (diffusing update algorithm) for route processing. In addition. EIGRP queries its neighbors to discover an alternate route. EIGRP contains several important protocols that greatly increase its operational efficiency relative to other routing protocols. DUAL enables EIGRP routers to determine whether a path advertised by a neighbor is looped or loop-free. support for variable-length subnet mask. it sends partial updates only when the metric for a route changes.• • Configuration is exactly same as IGRP instead just add E before IGRP. and vice versa.

or when a topology change occurs. When no feasible successors exist but neighbors still advertise the destination. such as updates. it assumes that the neighbor is functioning. Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) is responsible for guaranteed. The IP implementation redistributes routes learned from OSPF. which helps ensure that convergence time remains low in the presence of varying speed links. The DUAL finite-state machine embodies the decision process for all route computations by tracking all routes advertised by all neighbors. As long as a router receives hello packets from a neighboring router. ordered delivery of EIGRP packets to all neighbors.Maintenance Protocol (RTMP). loop-free paths and selects routes for insertion in a routing table based on feasible successors. and protocol-dependent modules. When a neighbor changes a metric.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Other types of packets. A feasible successor is a neighboring router used for packet forwarding that is a least-cost path to a destination that is guaranteed not to be part of a routing loop. only certain EIGRP packets are transmitted reliably. DUAL uses distance information to select efficient. On a multi-access network that has multicast capabilities. The neighbor discovery/recovery mechanism enables routers to dynamically learn about other routers on their directly attached networks. It supports intermixed transmission of multicast or unicast packets. indicate in the packet that acknowledgment is required. such as Ethernet. DUAL tests for feasible successors. EIGRP sends a single multicast hello packet containing an indicator that informs the receivers that the packet need not be acknowledged. If one is found. and the two can exchange routing information. Underlying Processes and Technologies To provide superior routing performance. EIGRP employs four key technologies that combine to differentiate it from other routing technologies: neighbor discovery/recovery. it is not necessary to send hello packets reliably to all neighbors individually. Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). DUAL uses it to avoid recomputing the route unnecessarily. DUAL finite-state machine.netmetric-solutions. reliable transport protocol (RTP). For efficiency. Routing Information Protocol (RIP). The Novell implementation redistributes routes learned from Novell RIP or Service Advertisement Protocol (SAP). or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).com 66 . Intermediate System-toIntermediate System (IS-IS). a recomputation (also known as a diffusing computation) must occur to determine a new successor. Although recomputation is not processorwww. Routers also must discover when their neighbors become unreachable or inoperative. For that reason. This process is achieved with low overhead by periodically sending small hello packets. RTP contains a provision for sending multicast packets quickly when unacknowledged packets are pending.

topology tables. IP-EIGRP asks DUAL to make routing decisions.netmetric-solutions. for example. Topology Tables The topology table contains all destinations advertised by neighboring routers. the hold time expires and DUAL is informed of the topology change.intensive. is responsible for sending and receiving EIGRP packets that are encapsulated in IP. The neighbor-table entry also includes information required by RTP. Likewise. and route tagging. Routing Concepts EIGRP relies on four fundamental concepts: neighbor tables. Each entry in the topology table includes the destination address and a list of neighbors that have advertised the destination. Protocol-dependent modules are responsible for network layer protocol-specific requirements. Each of these is summarized in the discussions that follow. Neighbor Tables When a router discovers a new neighbor.com 67 . and the last sequence number received from the neighbor is recorded so that out-oforder packets can be detected. IP-EIGRP is also responsible for parsing EIGRP packets and informing DUAL of the new information that has been received. and the table is acted on by the DUAL finite-state machine. so it is advantageous to avoid unnecessary recomputations. The IP-EIGRP module. EIGRP also maintains 3 tables namely a) Neighbor Table b) Topology Table (instead database table as in OSPF) – topology table contains the topological information of the network c) Routing Information Table. it does affect convergence time. it advertises a hold time. IP-EIGRP is responsible for redistributing routes learned by other IP routing protocols. www. it records the neighbor's address and interface as an entry in the neighbor table. If a hello packet is not received within the hold time. route states. The protocol-dependent modules populate the table. which is the amount of time that a router treats a neighbor as reachable and operational. A transmission list is used to queue packets for possible retransmission on a per-neighbor basis. One neighbor table exists for each protocol-dependent module.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. the results of which are stored in the IP routing table. Sequence numbers are employed to match acknowledgments with data packets. When a neighbor sends a hello packet. Round-trip timers are kept in the neighbor-table entry to estimate an optimal retransmission interval.

is the sum of the best-advertised metric from all neighbors and the link cost to the best neighbor. While a destination is in the active state. The metric that the router uses to reach the destination is also associated with the destination. After the router has received a reply from each neighboring router. Route Tagging EIGRP supports internal and external routes. indicating that it has a feasible successor for the destination. resulting in a very scalable. Route States A topology-table entry for a destination can exist in one of two states: active or passive. The router initiates the recomputation by sending a query packet to each of its neighboring routers. and to advertise to other routers. indicating that it is participating in the recomputation. External routes are tagged with the following information: • Router ID of the EIGRP router that redistributed the route • AS number of the destination • Configurable administrator tag • ID of the external protocol • Metric from the external protocol • Bit flags for default routing Route tagging allows the network administrator to customize routing and maintain flexible policy controls.com 68 . Internal routes originate within an EIGRP AS. it is in the active state when the router is performing a recomputation. A recomputation occurs when a destination has no feasible successors. policy-based routing. which the neighbor stores in its routing table. and the router can select a successor. These routes are tagged individually with the identity of their origin. If feasible successors are always available. External routes are learned by another routing protocol or reside in the routing table as static routes. where EIGRP typically interacts with an interdomain routing protocol that implements more global policies.netmetric-solutions. A destination is in the passive state when the router is not performing a recomputation. Therefore. a router cannot change the destination's routing-table information. it must use the route to forward packets. thereby avoiding a recomputation. or it can send a query packet. a destination never has to go into the active state. The neighboring router can send a reply packet. the topology-table entry for the destination returns to the passive state. Route tagging is particularly useful in transit ASs. The metric that the router uses in the routing table. a directly attached network that is configured to run EIGRP is considered an internal route and is propagated with this information throughout the EIGRP AS. An important rule that distance vector protocols must follow is that if the neighbor advertises this destination.For each neighbor. the entry records the advertised metric.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. EIGRP Packet Types www.

com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Query and reply packets are sent when a destination has no feasible successors. of collisions.1% of the total no. o Every host on the network has to examine it. Query packets are always multicast. Both query and reply packets are transmitted reliably. • Broadcast/Multicast Traffic patterns are generated at layer3 o Every device below layer3 will have to flood information to every port. Updates always are transmitted reliably. Using IP or IPX with any windows net BIOS technology may generate more unnecessary traffic. Reply packets are sent in response to query packets to instruct the originator not to recompute the route because feasible successors exist. Will have certain no. Hello packets are multicast for neighbor discovery/recovery and do not require acknowledgment. unicast update packets are sent so that the neighbor can build up its topology table.EIGRP uses the following packet types: hello and acknowledgment. Every protocol has different limits. 69 www. Never scale network above 75%. and query and reply. Acknowledgment packets contain a nonzero acknowledgment number and always are sent by using a unicast address. Identify the no. such as a link-cost change. Acceptable amount of collision is less than 0. of output packets.com . of broadcast. Reply packets are unicast to the originator of the query. Update packets are used to convey reachability of destinations. updates are multicast. To check the topology in EIGRP Router# show ip eigrp topology Successor is the best path FD – feasible distance is second best path To check the neighbors Router# show ip eigrp neighbor Disadvantages of EIGRP: Works only on CISCO routers LAN Segmentation Network congestion Causes Of Network congestion • Too many hosts on the network: Will increase the likelihood of congestion. When a new neighbor is discovered. In other cases.netmetric-solutions. An acknowledgment packet is a hello packet that has no data. update.

Layer 2 switch learns the MAC address of the system. etc. Single contiguous network segment. o Allows the host to always sense a clear line. no. Protocol/service updates Routing protocol updates o Every protocol has different types of traffic pattern. Limit Broadcast Domain Too much broadcast or multicast traffic then reduces the broadcast domain. o Distance vector protocols can send updates as often as every 30 sec out of every interface. Reduce collision domain o Reduce the effective collisions by isolating communication time between systems o Utilizes layer 2 switches Creates a collision domain for every port. of hosts on the segment. Provides dedicated bandwidth on a port by port bases o Limits the host per network LAN Optimization Reducing broadcast domain reduces the distance that the broadcast can be propagated. DNS. Limit the no.com 70 .• • • • • • o Anything less than 20% of total segment bandwidth should be the max.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. of broadcast or multicast. o Provides a complete solution to media contention duplexing issues Dedicates bandwidth to an individual port Utilizes MAC address to make forwarding decision. the broadcast domain is limited with either of these solutions.netmetric-solutions. o By default. Layer 2 Switching • Reduces the collision domain. IP Services o Be aware of the deterministic traffic pattern of DHCP. Broadcast domain can be reduce by: o Reduce the size of the domain o Add router to the network o Utilize VLANs o Broadcast will not propagate beyond a routers or the VLAN boundaries unless chosen to do so. Reduce Collision Contention problem with media. Reduces the amount of collision on the network by dedicating bandwidth per host. www. Once both of these have achieved the LAN should operate optimally.

o Derivatives of 255. it must do so by MAC address. The disadvantage for permanent and restricted-static are : have to know what the target MAC address are. Segments the network. Restricted static o Must be configured o Additional restriction to permanent. o Will never time out unless changed.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Broadcast is generated at layer3. the port would shutdown and become disabled. o Learned by sending and receiving frames o Can be cleared by an administrator or will time out.255. Permanent o Must be configured o Assign or dedicate a port to a specific MAC address. Layer 3 Switching 71 www. • Does not provide a complete solution for media contention • To have all systems go through a single router interface may be inefficient.255 MAC Address Table • A layer 2 switch maintains the MAC address table to use for forwarding decisions for every port on that switch.• • Provides full duplex connectivity for every system. Layer 3 Routing • Routers reduce to broadcast domain Do not forward broadcast or multicast by default. Will not pass bad frames. • Types of entries: Dynamic entry (Default) o Default setting on every switch port.com . • Every time an individual system wants to communicate with another. o Switch itself enters information into the MAT via what it has learned on that port. o Data must originate from a particular port o If data violates the restricted policy. Filter broadcast.255.netmetric-solutions. Every switch port will operate in full duplex mode The disadvantage of the switch is “does a still forward broadcast and multicast frame to every port”.

Can implement security control and quality of service Used where high speed LAN connectivity and bandwidth are required.netmetric-solutions. 10 Base 5 – thick coaxial cable. switch many” function.• • • • • Layer 2 and layer 3 elements are performed within a switch. and 4. • Uses hardware ASICs to switch packets at layer 2. • Tighter control over application specific traffic can be added at layer 4 Uses both source and destination ports to optimized the traffic flow. Multilayer Switching • Goes above layer 3. • Forwarding is done at wire speed. Only examines the layer 3 information once for the first packet. Cables: 10 Base 2 – thin coaxial cable. Applications specific traffic flows can be optimized.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 72 . www. It combines the function of layer 2 switch and router. • Adds a route-cache component. • Traffic flow is cached at layer 3 based on IP address. 3. • Once routes are identified on the back plane it never has to be examined again. or flow cache Can perform the “route one. Most of CISCOs switches run on at least a 24 Gbps backplane. maximum length is 500 meters 10 Base T – twisted pair 10 Base Tx – Twisted pair extended 100 Base Tx – twisted pair extended 1000 Base Tx – twisted pair extended 1000 Base F – fiber pair In Tx it uses all 4 pairs of wire is used for transmitting and receiving. Uses application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for switching. Maximum length of 185 meters.

Switch • It is a data link layer device. • A collision domain is a network segment with two or more devices sharing the same bandwidth. MAC address) • It works with fixed bandwidth. • It has on broadcast domain and one collision domain. • It is an intelligent device. www. of ports. • It has one broadcast domain and number of collision domain depends upon the no. bridges and routers do not. • ARP-A is a command to see the MAC address cache. Catalyst LAN Switches • CISCO acquired the company known as catalyst Continued to use the OS on some switch products • IOS covers all current switches product 1900 and 2800 series 2900 XL and 2950 series 3500 XL and 3550 series 4500 XL and 6500 series o Have been migrated from the original catalyst OS to true IOS o Most commands used on the router will be valid on switch • Catalyst OS (CAT OS) 2900 G 4000. the network area within which frames that have collided are propagated is called a collision domain.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • It works with flooding and unicast. 5000 and 6000 series switches. • It is a dumb device. • Repeater and Hub propagates collision domain. • It maintains a MAC address table.Hub • It is a physical layer device. • It works with 0’s and 1’s bits • It works with broadcasting.netmetric-solutions. • Collision domain – In Ethernet. LAN Switches. • Collisions are identified using access method called CSMA/CD • Broadcast domain – set of all devices that receive broadcast frame originating from any device within the set. • It works with physical address (i.com 73 SWITCHING . • It work with shared bandwidth.e.. • A MAC address table is also known as Content Access Memory (CAM).

• Solution for implementation Bring servers and users close together. Creating isolated workgroups.Command will always be based on set or clear command Most newer switches can be upgraded to an integrated or hybrid OS Campus Network Traffic Model • Must full understand Models that are used Traffic generated by applications such as email.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. 80% of traffic is local (Switched) 20% of traffic is remote (Routed) Uses local authentication. Can perform majority of tasks locally. Types of Switches: Manageable Switch: On a manageable switch an IP address can be assigned and configuration can be made. etc. Traffic flows to and from the user communities. It has a console port. • Follow rules to implement a predictable network model Low maintenance High availability Scalable Support the 20/80 rule from a traffic standpoint o Design the network around traffic flows instead of a particular type of traffic.com 74 . o Have enough bandwidth on uplink and backbone lengths. o Limit work group traffic to the local segment. database. Involves more processing resources • VLANs become the major consideration. Move applications and files to their locations Move users logically Add more servers • 80/20 rule is mostly limited to branch offices 20/80 Rule • 20% of traffic is local (Switched) • 80% of traffic crosses the backbone • Consolidate services into one location • Layer3 technologies can become the bottle neck. Two traffic models 80/20 Rule • Designed to limit the majority of traffic to the local segment.netmetric-solutions. www.

com 75 . Router: • Router is a network layer device (layer 3 device) • It is an intelligent device • It works with logical addressing i. of ports Generally used for connecting single topology segment.netmetric-solutions. IPX.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.. Access layer switches • High level of port density for actual people • Provides the original VLAN definition • Switch series: 1900. 4500. 2900. • Switches Series: 3000. 8000 and 10000 Switching Modes • Every switch has a variety of switching modes • Objective is to move data as quickly as possible.Unmanageable Switch: On an unmanageable switch configuration cannot be made. IP. Distribution layer switches • Access list • Packet filtering • Isolates the work group area from the backbone area. Core layer switches • Aggregate all traffic that needs to cross the backbone • Facilitates connectivity to other network locations • Switches series: 7000. Apple Talk • It does not support broadcast. with fewest errors. 1. 2. an IP address cannot be assigned as there is no console port. of ports Generally used for connecting two different topology Switch Switches are hardware based Switches have higher no. and 5000 3.e. www. Bridge Vs Switch: Bridge Bridges are software based Bridges have lesser no. and 2950. CISCO Hierarchical Design Model • Build a network in blocks • Identify different function at different layers • Provides an increased level of Functionality Availability scalability CISCO has divided the switches into three layers.

Whenever a frame is received by the switch.netmetric-solutions. Whenever a frame is received by the switch.• • • Three different modes Either focus on efficiency or reliability Two primary methods are cut-through and store-and-forward.com 76 . A default switching method for access layer switches. Cut Through: A default switching method for the core layer switches. it checks the first 64 bytes of the frame. Switches closest to backbone require efficient switching Identify where most errors will be generated. If there is an entry in the MAT it will uni-cast and if there entry is not available then it will flood. Network devices do not normally generate error condition Core layer can use cut-through for efficiency Store and Forward: A default switching method for distribution layer switches. it will directly check the MAT. If there is an entry in the MAT it will uni-cast and if there entry is not available then it will flood. If there is an error contacts source transport layer. but may still pass damaged packets • Lower latency than store-and-forward. It checks the first 64 bytes of the frame header. ). • Good level of reliability • Entire frame is read into memory • CRC calculation is performed before forwarding www. Latency is medium and error checking is only on 64 bytes of frame. Access layer and distribution layer switches are typically configured for store-and-forward. Latency is high and there is an error checking. Fragment Free: It is also referred to a modified. Latency is low and there is no error checking. If there is an entry in the MAT it will uni-cast and if there entry is not available then it will flood. • Reads the entire header before forwarding. • Eliminates the possibility of passing Runt. If there is no error. it will store the complete frame and runs the CRC (checksum redundancy check) on complete frame. Whenever a frame is received by the switch. cut-through. it will check the MAT (MAC address table). If there is an error contact source transport layer but if there Is no error it will check MAT.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • Only reads 6 bytes into a frame before forwarding • Extremely low latency • May pass error packets • Runt packets – Less than 64 bytes in size • Damage packets – Not checking the frame for consistency.

Latency depends on the switching mode and the hardware capabilities of the switch. Attach the female DB9 adapter to the PC serial port. • Algorithm called the Spanning Tree Algorithm is run by switches www.20.com 77 . Facilitate having redundancy while preventing loops condition. Frame: minimum size of a frame is 64 and maximum size of the frame is 1518. hyper terminal and for Linux • To check the MAC address table the command is : Switch# show MAC-address-table • To check the status of the switch interfaces: Switch# show interfaces status Configuration of Switch: Switch# configure terminal Switch(config)# hostname switch65 Switch65(config)# interface VLAN 1 Switch65(config-if)# ip address <ip address> <subnet mask> Switch65(config-if)# no shutdown Switch65(config-if)# line Vty 0 15 Switch65(config-if)# password zoom Switch65(config-if)# login Switch65(config-if)# exit Switch65(config)# enable password ccna Switch65(config)# enable secret zoom Switch65(config)# exit Switch65(config)# ip default gateway 192. Giant and damaged frames Latency: Latency is the total time taken for a frame to pass through the switch. Any frame less than 64 bytes is called as RUNT frame and any frame greater than 1518 bytes is called as giant frame and between 64 and 1518 is called as good frame.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Initial Configuration of Switch: • Console connectivity Connect a rollover cable to the switch console port (RJ 45 connector) Connect the other end of the roll over cable to the RJ 45 to the DB9 adapter.168. Design to eliminate loops.1 Bridging Loops • STP Need to have redundancy.• Higher latency levels • Not able to pass Runt.netmetric-solutions. • Emulation software – for windows.

com 78 . Do not ever turn off spanning tree. • Every switch by default will run the STA Will identify a reference point on the network to calculate all paths that will be used.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. STP Process • Looping conditions are accomplished with the STP. Block a particular port so it cannot be used to forward data. Set Root Switch • Set priority of a particular switch to become the root bridge Will influence the election process accordingly. now known as HP Compaq) • STP is open standard (IEEE 802. Elects a root bridge Redundant links are blocked while one link is chosen to be the transit toward the root A tree structure is created that identifies the best possible path o Best path is always identified based on link cost o Switches always negotiate and identify the cost link utilizing cost factors on every type of media.10) • If there is a tie then the lowest MAC address will selected as root. • Whoever MAC address is less it will be elected as a root. www. • All the ports of the roots switches connected to non-root switches are called Designated root (DP). This could potentially brings network down. • By default every switch is a root.Identifies the root of a spanning tree and builds the best path to that device.) • STP works when multiple switches are used with redundant links avoiding broadcast storms. multiple frame copies and database availability. • STP was designed to overcome the possibility of bridging loops Utilizes a BPDUs for communication o BPDU discover looping conditions o They shut down redundant links automatically but links that are shut down continue to send and receive BPDUs o Redundant link can be brought up if a failure is detected. By sending BPDUs they will select the root. known as Root Bridge. Can be set on a global basis or VLANs basis.netmetric-solutions. • First developed by DEC (Digital Equipped Controller. Spanning Tree Protocol • STP uses spanning tree algorithm to avoid switching loops in layer 2 devices (Bridges and Switches.

• BPDUs contains a lot of information to help the switches determines the topology and any loops that result from that topology. www.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.00. Bridge ID • Each switch has a unique identifier called as Bridge ID or Switch ID. • BPDUs are sent every 2 sec. they place their switch ID in these BPDUs.00 • All switches exchange information through what is called as bridge protocol data units (BPDU). • Goal is to provide a stable spanning tree. • Bridge ID = Priority + MAC address of the switch.netmetric-solutions. Lower no. Do so ever a well known multicast address • 01.00. Use the “show spanning-tree” command to view current bridge settings. STP Terminology Bridge Protocol data Units (BPDU) • Switches use BPDUs to exchange data. is considered better.1d • Root bridge is elected based on the bridge ID (8-byte) Bridge priority (2bytes) • Range of 0 – 65535 (all switches set to 32768 by default) Local switch MAC address (6 bytes) • Comes directly from the supervisor or backplane and cannot be changed.80. Can change the bridge priority • Used to optimize the spanning tree. • Process Every switch sends an initial BPDU with the root bridge equal to its own ID. • When a switch advertises a BPDU. • Two types of BPDUs Configuration – Used for computation of the network Topology Change Notification (TCN) – It is used anytime a failure is detected. Spanning tree is the very first of IEEE 802.C2.• • • Range is 0-65535 (32768 is a default) Syntax Switch(config)#spanning-tree [vlan ‘list’] priority ‘value’ Can designate different switches for different VLANs to have priority. Root Bridge • The key to the spanning tree is the root bridge To elect the root bridge to appropriately root the spanning tree.com 79 . • MAC address will determine which is lower. • Switches do not forward packets until their spanning tree is built.

Lowest path cost to root bridge 3. • A non-designated port will always in a blocked mode. • Only one root port will be in the bridge or switch.com 80 .com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Root Port • The link directly connected to the root bridge or the shortest path to the root bridge. Lowest root bridge ID 2. Lowest sender bridge ID www. Non-Root Bridge • All switches other than the root bridge are non-root bridges. Designated Port • Either a port on Root Bridge or a port that has been determined as having the best (lower) cost.netmetric-solutions.• • • Nomination of the root bridge will occur and convergence will complete The objective is to create the appropriate root switch and compute the spanning tree. • To overcome this switch uses RSTP (Rapid STP). Non Designated Port • All the switch port or ports which are blocked by STP to avoid switching loop. • Priority and alternative if configuration occurred The bridge with the best (lowest) switch ID Lowest physical port no. Out of all the switches in the network one is elected as a root bridge that becomes the focal point in the network. The bridge with the best (lowest ID). • It takes 50 sec to converge network. • A designated port will always in forward mode. RSTP converges in 5 sec Loop Free Decision • Four step process 1. IEEE Revised Cost Switch-Port states: • Blocking – 20 sec or no limits (neither send no receive any BPDU) • Listening – 15 sec (it will not accept frame but only BPDU) • Learning – 15 sec (it will accept frame) • Forwarding – no limit (it can send frames and BPDU as well receive it) • Disable – No limit (until the line is make up it will be in disable state) • Root port – A port through which it is connected to the root with minimum cost is called root port.

com 81 .netmetric-solutions.• 4.) Decision process component is used if all other value are same. Lowest port value (by no. www.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.

• Use VLANs to breakup the broadcast domain effectively and on a per-port basis. This VLAN trunk allows multiple VLAN connections to cross over a single link. Note: a VLAN trunk is defined as a very specific link running a trunking protocol. • Single broadcast domain Every host sees every broadcast packet from any system.com 82 Virtual LAN (VLAN) . Integrated Router • Same as layer 3 switching • Any no.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • Make sure VLANs are assigned to a VLAN trunking protocol domain. Provide a good level of segmentation. which cuts down on the no.netmetric-solutions. Allow all switches to share VLAN database contents VLAN information will be propagated to switches in the VTP domain • Different modes Server mode o Server propagates information to client Transparent mode o Can be transit when moving VTP messages • Placing VLANs Understand traffic patterns Application type in the network Segmenting work group Relationship between VLANs and IP addressing o One-to-one correspondence at the subnet level Use an IP addressing scheme Keep VLANs in class o VLANs are limited to single layer 2 domain www. of switches can be hooked together • As long as one switch has layer 3 capabilities Can stay on the backplane of the switch and perform routing Much closer to wire speed • One of the best solutions for routing between VLANs. of interfaces required and therefore cost however this setup is not ideal as bottle neck can occur on the router devices and the single line being used. • VLAN can be big or small as desired. Assign VLAN on a port-by-port basis to the switch.VLAN Usage • Too many users on the same layer 2 network. Prerequisites • May have many switches that participate in the same VLAN.

Server manages addition.netmetric-solutions. a software is called VMPS (VLAN Membership policy server) is needed. Uses layer 2 trunk frames to communicate. VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP): • VTP is prerequisites to using VLANs on switches. • Also called as port based VLANs • It can be a member of single VLAN and not multiple VLANs. o Switch automatically assigns the port to a VLAN. Dynamic VLAN o It is based on the MAC address of a PC. of switches sharing VLAN information All switches need to have trunk lines connecting them. • Designed to ease administration of a layer no. • Important point: The PC port from which you telnet to the switch must be in a default VLAN. • Divides a single broadcast domain into multiple broadcast domains. • There are two types of VLAN membership Static VLAN • Static VLANs are based on port no.com 83 Unable to span a single VLAN over any layer 3 boundary Has to be a router between VLANs to move data between them . we cannot telnet to the switch so to remove VLANs enter through console port. deletion. This VLAN1 is known as administrative VLAN or management VLAN. • It can be configured on a manageable switch only. If all the ports on a switch are in a different VLANs.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • By default all ports of the switch are in VLAN1. • Used to share the VLAN configuration with multiple switches. o Each port can be a member of multiple VLANs. • One switch is identified as the server switch Propagates all VLAN information to every other switch. • Intercommunication between multiple VLANs can be done through a layer three device. and remaining VLANs from central point. www. • VTP is a CISCO proprietary protocol. • Need to manually assign a port on a switch to a VLAN. • VLAN can be created from 2 to 1001.VLAN • A layer 2 security. o For dynamic VLANs configuration. • Information will be passed only if switches connected with fast Ethernet or higher ports.

netmetric-solutions. Uses advertisements with VTP to determine whether a switch belongs to a set of VLANs o Switches automatically calculate this when pruning is enabled. revision no.. Doesn’t store its VLAN configuration information in the NVRAM instead. A default VTP mode for all switches. Advertises information to other switches. A switch configured in client mode cannot add. Latest version is VTP Version 2 – provides best functionality. it learns from the server every time it boots up. VTP Modes: There are three modes. Switches all inbound messages on a trunk port to be relayed out other trunk ports. A switch configured in server mode can add. modify and delete. VTP Messages: • Advertisement Request • Subset Advertisement • Summary Advertisement VTP Pruning • Prevents needless broadcast flooding of VLAN traffic across trunk lines. • Client Mode Passive listening. A switch configured in a transparent mode can add. • Note: Switches should be configuring with same domain. Older version is VTP Version 1 – switches do not relay. Avoids trunks connected to switches with no VLAN in the advertisement. Will either forward messages or will not. o All switches in the same VTP domain should have the same revision no.com 84 . modify or delete its VLAN configuration. known VLANs and parameters • Revision no. VLAN configuration changes in one transparent switch will not affect any other switch. modify and delete VLANs.• VTP domains Switches can belong to only on domain o Advertise specific attributes • Domain name. is used to identify if the switch is in synch with the servers. • Server Mode Full control of the VLAN environment. Domains are not case sensitive.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Forward messages but is not read/write. • Transparent Mode No participation in advertising or synchronization. www.

com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.VLAN Configuration Switch65# show VLAN Switch65# show interfaces status Creation of VLAN syntax For 2950 series switch Switch(config)# VLAN <no.> / all} Switch(config-if)# switch port trunk encapsulation dot1q Note: dot1q only for 2900 series switch. VTP Configuration For 2950 series switch Switch(config)# vtp domain <name> Switch(config)# vtp password <password> Switch(config)# vtp mode <server/client/transparent> Switch(config)# vtp pruning For 2900 series switch Switch# vlan database Switch(vlan)# vtp domain <name> Switch(vlan)# vtp password <password> Switch(vlan)# vtp mode <server/client/transparent> Switch(vlan)# vtp pruning 85 www.com . 2900 series syntax Switch(config)# interface <interface type> <interface no.> Switch(config-if)# switch port mode access Switch(config-if)# switch port access vlan <no. Dot1q is an open standard so we use dot1q protocol.> Switch(config-vlan)# name <name> Switch(config-vlan)# exit For 2900 series switch Switch# vlan database Switch(vlan)# vlan <no.> name <name> Switch(vlan)# exit VLAN Implementation Syntax Switch(config)# interface <interface type> <interface no.> For trunking Configuration.netmetric-solutions.> Switch(config-if)# switch port trunk allowed vlan {<vlan no.

com 86 .netmetric-solutions. www.Note: there is no need to give encapsulation dot1q in 2950 series because it is taken by default.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.

• Can also be used to define range of addresses. Remove ACL entries with the no commands in IOS. • Cannot insert a line into a list on a fly.com 87 .Access Control List ACL Implementation • Provides traffic control into and out of a router. WAN. Note: There is an implicit deny at the end of every created access list.3 software New entries always go to the bottom of the list Create the list using text editor. Access Control List • It is a layer 3 security which controls the flow of traffic from one router to another. NAT. ACLs can travel in multiple direction ACL Rules • Implicit deny is always at the end of each defined ACL By not permitting everybody else as a second entry everybody is denied • Lists are read from top to bottom. • Increased performance overhead Apply this in strategic locations Do not assign ACLs to core devices o Routers must process packets on a packet-by-packet basis. • IP protocol security Processes the list against inbound or outbound traffic. Unless using 12. • It is also called as packet filtering firewall.netmetric-solutions. Remove the entries list and copy the new list back into the router. By not permitting all other traffic as a second entry in the list.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. route control. Types of Access List: • Standard ACL Numbered ACL Named ACL Filters only on source address Normally used for address definition www. all traffic is effectively denied. List of conditions designed to match against IP addresses. Similar to firewall configuration. Most specific entries at the top. Exists the list on first match.

DNS) Standard Access List: • The access list number lies between 1– 99. • Selected services can be blocked. Extended Access List: • The access list number lies between 100– 199. Terminology: www. • One way communication is stopped. • Can block a network. Provides incremental value for the address. when entered). host and subnet. subnet and service. 8. (Guideline) Wild Card Mask • Used to specify how much of the network portion or host portion should be matched upon. TCP. • Implemented closest to the source (Guideline). Assigning ACL • Standard ACL go closer to the destination Only filters on source address • Extended ACL go closer to the source Filters on both source and destination address Allows user to block traffic from the source Note: Assign standard ACL closest to destination. • Two way communications is stopped.com 88 .com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Web. 16. however. Extended ACLs.netmetric-solutions. • Can block a network. should be assigned closest to source. host. • Allows the router to process IP information correctly 0 – Match exactly 255 – Wild card • Block size allow ranges to be specified to match the subnet mask 4. • Implemented to the closest to the destination. • All services are blocked. 64 (subtract 1 from the no. 32.• Extended ACL Numbered ACL Named ACL Filters on: o Source address o Destination address o Protocols (IP. ICMP) o Port (Telnet. UDP.

Outbound: Traffic going out of the interface.netmetric-solutions. subnet or services.etc. Source Address: The address of the PC from where the request starts. implantation the ACL Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0 Router(config)# ip access-group 10 out Syntax for Creating Extended ACL: Router(Config)# access-list <ACL no..com 89 .> www. host.168.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.> Router(config)# ip access-group <ACL no.> deny/permit <source address> <source wild card mask> Syntax for Implementing Standard ACL: Router(config)# interface <interface-type> <interface no.0 network So. DNS.0. Router(config)# access-list 10 deny 192.1 0. Inbound: Traffic coming into the interface. subnet or services.> in/out Example: If u want to block 1. FTP.> permit/deny <protocol> <source address> <source wild card mask> <destination address> <destination wild card mask> operator <service> Syntax for Implementing Extended ACL: Router(config)# interface <interface type> <interface no. first we have to create ACL. Protocols: IP TCP UDP ICMP Operators: eq (equal to) neq (not equal to) lt (less than) gt (greater than) Services: HTTP.1. Permit: Allowing a network. Destination Address: The address of the PC from where the request ends.1 from accessing 2.• • • • • • • • • Deny: blocking a network. DHCP……. host.0 Router(config)# access-list 10 permit any Then.0. TELNET. Creation of Standard ACL Syntax for Creating standard ACL: Router(config)# access-list <ACL No.

2 0.0.168. No more than one per protocol Example: 1. Does not show interface assignment Show access-list • To display a particular access lists and parameters Does not show interface assignment Show access-list list number • To display only IP access list Show IP access list • Assigning access list to interfaces IP access-group • To identify what list has been applied in which location Show IP interface Show running-config Show run • Able to have one list for each protocol in each direction assigned to an interface.3.0 0.0.netmetric-solutions.0.168.0.0.0.0 0.255 192.0.3.2.0 echo 90 www.0 0.> in/out Monitoring ACL • To display all access lists and parameters configured on the router. Router(config)# access-list 101 permit IP any any Router(config)# interface serial 0/0 Router(config)# IP access-group 101 in • all the deny statement should be given first and later the permit statement in ACL.1.0.1. • If we want to block ping request: Router(config)# access-list 101 deny ICMP 192.0. Solution: Router(config)# access list 101 deny tcp 192.com .0.255 192.1.168.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.2 0.168.1 0.0.0.0 eq 80 Router(config)# access-list 101 permit TCP 192.1.0 should not access HTTP 1.0 should be able to access FTP and should not be able to access others.255 192.0.0 eq 21 Or Router(config)# access-list deny IP 192.1 0.Router(config)# ip access-group <ACL no.168.0.168.2.0.168.168.255 192. • At least one permit statement should be in the ACL statement compulsorily.0 neq 21 If we use the second command then.0.0 0.

www.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 91 .

These devices typically switch such traffic as Frame Relay. CSU/DSUs. and ISDN terminal adapters are discussed in the following sections.com 92 . X. and operate at the data link layer of the OSI reference model. WAN Switch A WAN switch is a multiport internetworking device used in carrier networks.Wide Area Network Wide Area Network A WAN is a data communication network that covers a relatively broad geographical area and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. Figure 3-5 Two Routers at Remote Ends of a WAN Can Be Connected by WAN Switches Access Server An access server acts as a concentration point for dial-in and dial-out connections. modems.netmetric-solutions. Figure 3-6 An Access Server Concentrates Dial-Out Connections into a WAN www. WAN Devices WANs use numerous types of devices that are specific to WAN environments. Figure 3-6 illustrates an access server concentrating dial-out connections into a WAN. and multiplexers. Figure 3-5 illustrates two routers at remote ends of a WAN that are connected by WAN switches.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. such as telephone companies. WAN switches. Other devices found in WAN environments that are used in WAN implementations include routers.25. ATM switches. and SMDS. access servers.

Figure 3-7 A Modem Connection Through a WAN Handles Analog and Digital Signals CSU/DSU A channel service unit/digital service unit (CSU/DSU) is a digital-interface device used to connect a router to a digital circuit like a T1. At the source. these analog signals are returned to their digital form.Modem A modem is a device that interprets digital and analog signals. Figure 3-7 illustrates a simple modem-to-modem connection through a WAN. digital signals are converted to a form suitable for transmission over analog communication facilities.netmetric-solutions. A terminal adapter is essentially an ISDN modem.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. enabling data to be transmitted over voice-grade telephone lines. such as EIA/TIA-232 on a router. Figure 3-8 The CSU/DSU Stands Between the Switch and the Terminal ISDN Terminal Adapter An ISDN terminal adapter is a device used to connect ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) connections to other interfaces. Figure 3-8 illustrates the placement of the CSU/DSU in a WAN implementation. The CSU/DSU also provides signal timing for communication between these devices. although it is called a terminal adapter www.com 93 . At the destination.

because it does not actually convert analog to digital signals. Figure 3-9 illustrates the placement of the terminal adapter in an ISDN environment. Figure 3-9 The Terminal Adapter Connects the ISDN Terminal Adapter to Other Interfaces

WAN Dialup Services Dialup services offer cost-effective methods for connectivity across WANs. Two popular dialup implementations are dial-on-demand routing (DDR) and dial backup. DDR is a technique whereby a router can dynamically initiate a call on a switched circuit when it needs to send data. In a DDR setup, the router is configured to initiate the call when certain criteria are met, such as a particular type of network traffic needing to be transmitted. When the connection is made, traffic passes over the line. The router configuration specifies an idle timer that tells the router to drop the connection when the circuit has remained idle for a certain period. Dial backup is another way of configuring DDR. However, in dial backup, the switched circuit is used to provide backup service for another type of circuit, such as point-to-point or packet switching. The router is configured so that when a failure is detected on the primary circuit, the dial backup line is initiated. The dial backup line then supports the WAN connection until the primary circuit is restored. When this occurs, the dial backup connection is terminated. WAN Virtual Circuits A virtual circuit is a logical circuit created within a shared network between two network devices. Two types of virtual circuits exist: switched virtual circuits (SVCs) and permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). SVCs are virtual circuits that are dynamically established on demand and terminated when transmission is complete. Communication over an SVC consists of three phases: circuit establishment, data transfer, and circuit termination. The establishment phase involves creating the virtual circuit between the source and destination devices. Data transfer involves transmitting data between the devices over the virtual circuit, and the circuit termination phase involves tearing down the virtual circuit between the source and destination devices. SVCs are used in situations in which data transmission between devices is
www.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 94

sporadic, largely because SVCs increase bandwidth used due to the circuit establishment and termination phases, but they decrease the cost associated with constant virtual circuit availability. PVC is a permanently established virtual circuit that consists of one mode: data transfer. PVCs are used in situations in which data transfer between devices is constant. PVCs decrease the bandwidth use associated with the establishment and termination of virtual circuits, but they increase costs due to constant virtual circuit availability. PVCs are generally configured by the service provider when an order is placed for service. WAN Connection Type: There are 3 types of WAN connectivity • Dedicated lines (synchronous serial) – Permanent connection (T1,T3, etc) • Circuit switching (Synchronous Serial) – Frame relay, X.25, etc • Packet switching (Asynchronous Serial) – ISDN, etc 1. Dedicated Lines: • Used for shorter to medium distance and for longer connectivity. • Private lines. • Bandwidth is fixed. • Line is 24 hours up. • Whether used or not, billing is done. • Example: leased lines 2. Circuit Switching: • Used for medium to longer distance for shorter connectivity. • Bandwidth is fixed. • Billing depends on usage. • Examples: ISDN, PSTN, (Dial-up connections) 3. Packet Switching: • Used for medium to longer distance and for longer connectivity. • Bandwidth is shared. • Example: frame relay. Point-to-point Serial Two types of framing protocols • Default is CISCO High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) Point-to-point protocol used on leased lines (T1, E1, etc) Does not provide authentication. CISCOs implementation is proprietary. Supports multilayer 3 protocols. PPP Architecture
www.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 95

Point-to-point Protocol Operates across any data communication equipment (DCE) or data terminal equipment (DTE) interface connections. Must be a duplex circuit. Operates both synchronous and asynchronous mode No transmission rate limits Multiple layer 3 protocol support Authentication o Password authentication protocol (PAP) – clear text o Challenge handshake authentication protocol (CHAP) – encrypted RFC Compliant o Provides all layer 2 characteristics required fro PPP communications Three different layer 2 components o Standard HDLC frame o Link Control Protocol (LCP) – Provides initial connection setup o Network Control Protocol (NCP) – Separate NCP for every protocol.

PPP Authentication: Two types of authentication • Password Authentication Protocol (PAP): Two way handshaking protocol. Username and password are in clear text. No security. • Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP): Three way handshaking protocol. Username is sent in clear text and password in encrypted form. It is secured. Access server issues a challenge message. Remote end responds with one way hash function using Message Digest 5. o Prevents the password from being passed across the network. Router(config)# username router password cisco Router(config)# interface serial 0 Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp Router(config-if)#ppp chap hostname router Router(config-if)#ppp authentication chap Enabling PPP Router# config t Router(config)# int s0 Router(config-if)# encapsulation PPP
www.netmetric-solutions.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 96

Delta (D) channel is used for signaling control (16 kbps).netmetric-solutions. Bearer (B) channel is used to carry data. • Supports multiple services at a time. Two channels are allocated at a full 64 kbps Third channel carries all signaling and framing control. • Call establishment is slower (min 1 minute). • PRI – Primary Rate Interface. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) • Digital signals. • Terminated at the PSTN Switch at the exchange. • Terminates the local analog line to a digital line. • Min speed for 128 kbps. Faster call setups than a modem.04 Mbps US Standard (T1) www. Each channel 64kbps. Faster data rates than a modem. Total of 128 kbps of actual data line. • Supports single service at a time. There are two standards in PRI European Standard (E1) o 30B +1D channels o 30 * 64 + 1 * 64 = 2.Router(config-if)# exit Set the authentication type to use Router(config)# int s0 Router(config-if)# ppp authentication chap Or Router(config-if)#ppp authentication pap Router(config-if)# ^z Router# show int s0 Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) • Analog signal • Max speed of 33 to 40 kbps. • Call establishment is faster. • Basic Rate Interface (BRI) (192 kbps) (2B+1D) Channel.com 97 .com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Allows voice. o Always take away 8 kbps overhead for signaling and framing. data and video to be carried simultaneously. (2*64) + (1*16) = 144 kbps Every 64 kbps channel is the same as phone line. • Terminated in ISDN switch at the exchange.

Set the ISDN switch type • Will come from the provider • Normally basic 5ess.o 23B +1D channels.com 98 . • Always uses static routes.150 Isdn(config)# interface bri <no.544 Mbps Dial-on-Demand routing (DDR) • Allows two or more routers to connect using BRI whenever there is interesting traffic. Identify static routes • Used to make sure the link does not stay up due to routing protocol updates. (LDN) • Caller ID Screening BRI Interface Configuration Telnet 192. basic dms100 or basic-ni1 2.> Isdn(config-if)# ip address negotiated Isdn(config-if)# no shut down Isdn(config-if)# encapsulation {ppp/hdlc} Authentication Configuration Isdn(config-if)# ppp authentication pap or chap calling www. + SPID + Local Dial No. Configure protocol addressing • ISDN and DDR can be configured for any routable protocol 6. Specify interesting traffic 3. o Two numbers – one for each bearer channels o Phone no.168.20. o (23 * 64) = (1 * 64) = 1. Implementation Five primary steps 1. Define interface encapsulation and ISDN addressing parameters • Can be PPP or HDLC. Additional Interface Information • Dialer idle time out o Allows the link to be terminated when appropriate • Dialer load threshold o Identifies when to bring up the second B channel based on a load measurement • Service profile identifiers (SPIDs) o Identify the purchase feature set to the phone provider.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. But PPP is most popular 5. 4. • Low volume solution.netmetric-solutions.

• Outside Global Address: The IP address assigned to host on the outside network. NAT Commands Configuration www. India.com 99 . NAT Features: • Static NAT is designed to allow one to one mapping of local and global addresses • Dynamic NAT is designed to map a private IP address to a public address.netmetric-solutions. Europe. • Inside Global Address: A legitimate IP address assigned by the NIC or service provider that represent one or more inside local IP address to the outside world. of ISP> Isdn(config-if)# dialer idle-time out<seconds> Isdn(config-if)# dialer-group<group no. Network Address Translator (NAT): • Translates private IP addresses to public and public addresses to private. The owner of the host assigns their address. This address is likely to be a RFC 1918 private address.Isdn(config-if)# ppp pap sent-username <username> password <password> Isdn(config-if)# ppp chap hostname <user name> Isdn(config-if)# ppp chap password <password> Dialer Commands Configuration Isdn(config-if)# dialer string <telephone no. • Inside Local Addresses: An IP address is assigned to a host inside a network. • Allow communication from private world to the public world and not vice versa. Asia.> Isdn(config-if)# exit ISDN Switch Type Configuration Isdn(config)# isdn switch-type <switch name> Basic – 1 tr 6 – 1 TR 6 switch type for Germany Basic – 5ess – AT & T 5 ESS switch type for US Basic – dms100 – Northern DMS-100 switch type Basic – net 3 – NET3 switch type for UK. on the inside global IP addresses to distinguish between translations. • Used for internet sharing. • Outside Local Address: The IP address of an outside host as it known to the host in inside network.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. PAT (Port Address Translator): PAT uses unique source port no.

com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.> protocol ip permit Routing Command Configuration (Config)# ip routing (config)# ip route <destination network ID> <destination subnet mask> <exit interface type> <interface no.138.> overload Access List Commands Configuration (Config)# access-list <aclno.> (Config-if)# ip nat outside (config-if)# exit (Config)# ip nat inside source list <no.netmetric-solutions.com 100 .0.> Miscellaneous Commands (Default) (config)# ip name-server <i9p address> (config)# ip domain-lookup 61.2 202.138.> (Config-if)# ip nat inside (Config-if)# exit (config)# interface BRI <no. layer 1 problem – Check physical connectivity • #Show ISDN status Layer1 = active Layer2 = not activate Layer3 = 0-Active calls Implies.100 These are the public IP DNS servers in India Trouble Shooting • #Show ISDN status Layer1 = active Layer2 = multiple – frame – established Layer3 = 1-active calls Implies. layer2 problem – Check encapsulation • #Show ISDN active (Command) www. all configurations and the connectivity are fine • #Show ISDN status Layer1 = inactive physical connectivity is down Layer2 = TE1_ Assigned Terminal equipment identifier Layer3 = 0-Active calls Implies.> <permit/deny> <source address> <wildcard mask> (config)# dialer-list <dialer no.5 202.(Config)# interface Ethernet <no.> interface BRI <no.96.103.0.

> (Config-if)# ip address <address> <subnet mask> Logical interfaces created by physical interfaces is called as sub interfaces www.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.>.<no.com 101 .• #show ISDN history History table data is retained of max 15 minutes #show int bri 0 #Show ip route How to create sub-interfaces (Config)# interface serial <no.netmetric-solutions.

• Only one serial interface of a router is needed to handle the VC connection to multiple sites whereas using leased lines multiple serial interfaces are needed to connect to multiple sites.com 102 FRAME RELAY . apple talk. These logical circuits are referred to as virtual circuits(VCs) • Multiple VCs can exist on the same physical connection • VCs are full duplex Characteristics • Facilitates connectivity between data terminal (DTE) devices through carrier network DCE. Frame Relay Terminology • Sub-Interfaces • Users shared bandwidth • Local Management Interface (LMI) Used between the frame relay. • DCEs facilitate all switching within the cloud • Utilizes Virtual Circuits Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) o Identified at each end by a data link connection identifier (DLCI) o DLCIs facilitate connectivity to the remote end via PVC Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) or sometimes called as on demand circuit o Brought up only when there is traffic to be sent • Supports most layer 3 protocols Such as IP.. frame relay switch) www.. • A CISCO router is always DTE in a frame relay environment. DTE (eg.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.netmetric-solutions. • Leased lines also provide longer connectivity but a physical circuit is used to make connection between two sites and the same circuit path is used always.FRAME RELAY • Frame relay is a data link layer packet-switching protocol that uses digital circuits • It is used for medium to large distances and for longer connectivity. • Frame relay connections use logical circuits to make connections between two sites. router) and the frame relay DCE (eg. etc Advantages of Frame Relay • VCs overcome the scalability problems of leased lines by providing multiple logical circuits over the same physical connection. IPX. • VCs provide full connectivity at a much lower price compared to leased lines.

It’s locally significant. q933a The DTE and DCE must have the same LMI signaling type.e. Excess bandwidth. 103 • • • • www. Committed Information Rate (CIR) Average data rate measured over a fixed period of time that the carrier guarantees for a VC.• Defines how the DTE interacts with the DCE Logically significant Provides VCs status information (keep-alive mechanism) LMI standards – CISCO. each VC has a unique local address called a DLCI number. Switched Virtual Circuits o Also called as semi-permanent virtual circuit o Similar to circuit switched connection where the VC is dynamically built and then torn down once the data has been sent. Switched Virtual Circuits SVCs Permanent Virtual Circuits o Similar to dedicated leased lines permanent connection. These numbers are given by the frame relay service providers. Forward/Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN/BECN) When congestion occurs switch marks the FECN and BECN bits in the frame header. Virtual Circuits Virtual circuits are of two types 1. Mapping can also be done manually. Data Link Connection Interface (DLCI) Used to identify each VC on a physical interface i.netmetric-solutions. Switch will map to the destination depending on the DLCI number.com . service providers assign DLCIs in the range of 16 to 1007.. Inverse ARP is used to map DLCIs to next hop addresses. ANSI. Permanent Virtual Circuits PVCs 2. FECN is sent to the destination. o Used when constant data is being generated. o Used when data has to be sent in small amounts and at periodic intervals.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. Committed bandwidth Burst Rate (BR) Average data rate provides guarantees for a VC.

> Router(config-if)# no ip address Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)#clock rate <clock rate> Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)# frame-relay lmi-type <lmi-type> Router(config-if)# frame-relay intf-type dce Router(config-if)# frame-relay route <source dlci no. BECN =0 implies no congestion.> <destination dlci no.> Router(config-if)# ip address <address> <subnet mask> Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)# frame-relay lmi-type <lmi type> Router(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci <dlci no.> interface <int type> <int no.com 104 . FECN = 0.> Configure in the same way another serial interface. configuration or connectivity problem with remote LMI • PVC status = Deleted Implies.netmetric-solutions. configuration or connectivity problem with local LMI #show frame-relay map #show frame-relay route www.BECN is sent to the source. Thereby notifying both source and destination about the congestion.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.> Trouble Shooting Frame-Relay # show frame-relay pvc • PVC status = active Implies all configuration and the connectivity are fine • PVC status = Inactive Implies. Configuring Serial Interface Router(config)# interface serial <no. Converting router to frame-relay switch Router(config)# frame-relay switch Configuring Frame-Relay Switch Router(config)# interface serial <no.

Leased Lines Is a point-to-point link providing a single pre-established WAN communication path from the customer premises to a remote network through a carrier network.35 cables • V. fixed and assured bandwidth between two points. IPLC services in India are available for speeds ranging from 64 kbps to 155 Mbps.com 105 . • Private lines (Dedicated). such as a telephone company. • Line is 24 hrs up. • Bandwidth is fixed. • Whether used or not billing is done.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail. • IPLC can provide connectivity in two ways Using satellite Using physical medium (fiber optic submarine cable) Service Provider for India • BSNL • Raitel • VSNL • Bharti BT • TATA • Reliance Communication Requirements of Leased Lines • Routers • V.netmetric-solutions. Types of Leased Lines Internet Leased Lines • The leased line connected between ISP and subscribers premises then we call it as internet leased line Point-to-point • The leased line connected between corporate office and branch office is called as point-to-point leased lines Point-to-point leased line types • Local leased line • Long distance leased line International Private/Principal Leased Circuit (IPLC) • It is a dedicated point-to-point connection providing a non-switched. • Transmission speed of leased lines varies from 64 kbps up to several megabytes. • Example: one being in India and the second is in a foreign country.35 modem www. Features of Leased Lines • Used for shorter to medium distances and for longer connectivity.

netmetric-solutions.703 modem CSU/DSU Manufacturer of CSU/DSU • Cygnus • Avantel • D-Link • RAD • Motorola • Tie Net • Ascom • Main Street Express • Atrie Router Level Trouble Shooting Router level trouble shooting can be done with the help of command Router# show interface serial <no.com mirza_baig1214@yahoomail.com 106 .• G. there is clocking problem with the multiplexer. Password Recovery When the router starts ROMMONITOR mode: If it is a fixed router > 0/r 0x2142 If it is a modular router ROMMON> config 0x2142 ROMMON> reset Router>enable Router# show startup-config Router# show version Router# copy startup-config running config Router# configure terminal Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0 Router(config)# no shut Router(config)# exit Router(config)# enable secret <password> Router(config)# config-register 0x2102 Router(config)# ctrl z Router# write Router# show version Router# reload www. • Serial 0 is in standby mode Implies.35 cable not functioning properly • S0 is up.> • S0 is down. • Serial 0 is reset Implies. line protocol is up (looped) When local loop or digital loop is pressed on one of the CSU/DSU. line protocol is down Implies. the back up line is up and primary line is standby mode. V.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.