SICE Annual Conference 2011 September 13-18, 2011, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan

Wireless Indoor Surveillance Robot
Hou-Tsan Lee, Wei-Chuan Lin, Ching-Hsiang Huang, Yu-Jhih Huang
Department of Information Technology, TakMing University of Science and Technology houtsan@takming.edu.tw Abstract: Self-propelled patrolling vehicle can patrol periodically in the designed area as a surveillance robot to ensure the safety like men do. The proposed robot based on the self-propelled vehicle not only can save manpower but also ensure the operation of surveillance being well performed. Due to the limitation of manpower and the fixed camera positions, using surveillance is different from the traditional patrolling system. The paper proposes a self-propelled patrolling vehicle which can move automatically to a wider range and record the monitored image within a predefined patrolling route to improve the performance of the traditional patrolling system. Besides, the surveillance robot can be connected to the mobile device or website on Internet at anytime and anywhere. Furthermore, the vehicle can be remote controlled by the instruction sent form the server or Smartphone to move to the position to get the indoor image we want. On the other hand, the position of self-propelled vehicles can be detected by the RFID readers mounted on the wall of the patrolling path as a feedback. The IP-CAM is also mounted on the proposed robot to record the images and transmit them back to the server via WiFi system for face tracking and discriminating analysis. As an alarm report, the proposed surveillance would use the build-in MSN module to notice users of the predefined events when happened. Experimental results are given in the paper to validate its performance. Keywords: Surveillance Robot、Wireless IPCAM、RFID reader、face detection

1. INTRODUCTION
As the incidents of theft grew more frequent, the applications of security systems are more popular than ever to prevent the damages caused by theft whether at home or working places. The traditional security system gives some protection via fixed cameras but still has some dead zone cannot be monitored. Therefore, this paper proposes mobile security monitoring system to improve the security of the traditional system. The comparison diagram between the proposed and traditional security system is shown in Fig. 1. A self-propelled patrolling vehicle acts as a security patroller in the security system, which can monitor not only the fixed area but also those dead zones of the traditional fixed surveillance system. The remote monitoring capabilities can also be enhanced by using the wireless network to control the surveillance robot. Besides, the face detection system is also adopted to record and recognize the intruders. [1][2][3] No matter where the user is, he can monitor the indoor status by using network.
攝影機
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Fig. 1. The traditional and proposed security system

OpenCV is an open source, and it can be used in most of the platforms such as the operating system of Linux and Windows. [4] OpenCV is developed by the Intel Corporation for image processing and it provides interface to create pictures by C programming language, etc.. It can be used to handle object tracking, face recognition, texture analysis, and the dynamic image processing of webcam. [5] In this paper, OpenCV technology is used for face detection. RFID system identifies the object by using the radio frequency technology to read the information stored in the small IC chip attached on the object. [6][7] In this way, RFID system can be used to track object by processing a non-contact, short-range automatic identification technology. The RFID system is adopted in the proposed scheme including tags, reader, and the host computer to record the position of the surveillance robot. Tag is a data storage device; the Reader reads information from the Tag and sends to the host computer for further processing. When sensing the radio waves emitted by the reader, the tag produces a "magnetic induction" to trigger the RF transmitter module to send the built-in EEPROM information back to the reader. The reader then transmits the information to host computer through the RS-232, or USB interface. There are two kinds of RFID tags such as active and passive. The passive type is chosen in the proposed scheme. Adopting the proposed surveillance robot of the paper, the security of indoor surveillance is upgraded. The self-propelled vehicle will give more information than the traditional security system. Experimental results are also provided to validate the performance of the proposed system.

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PR0001/11/0000-2164 ¥400 © 2011 SICE

Users can connect this website for monitoring the place via wireless IPCAM by PC. [11][12] There are two wireless IPCAMs mounted on the self-propelled vehicle to monitor the front and rear of the vehicle for face detection. The microcontroller receives control command through the socket data of the server to control the motion of self-propelled vehicle. 2 pairs of DC motor drives. the server would trigger the MSN agent to send warning message to the user. 8 sets of emulating analog I/O interfaces. There are 14 sets of digital I/O interface (including 6 sets of PWM output). If a human face is detected in the image file. 2 The architecture of the proposed system The self-propelled vehicle uses RFID technology to control the moving direction. users can guide the self-propelled vehicle by remote control through Smartphone as shown in Fig. Fig. If the warning message is detected. The PC server provides the remote monitor website which is installed with Microsoft IIS and the ASP. RFID tag is installed in the right-hand side of the self-propelled vehicle. the microcontroller of the self-propelled vehicle is DFRduino RoMeo 328. or Smartphone.NET web program. the patrolling path of the self-propelled vehicle is predefined. When the self-propelled vehicle moves to a RFID reader on the predefined patrolling path.2. and wireless monitoring and control system. As previous mentioned. Smartphone (Android) can also receive the position of the vehicle or send control commands through the PC server to control the direction of self-propelled vehicle. . Fig. notebook. User can use the PC. Notebook. face detection system. THE HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE OF THE SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLE Fig. the RFID reader detects the RFID tag and sends the signal back to the server to show the detected position on the map to indicate the status of the self-propelled vehicle. a predefined routing path can be trailed. or Smartphone to monitor the situation on line and/or drive the self-propelled vehicle to the spots where the users want it to be. 2. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE The proposed self-propelled monitoring and surveillance vehicle can be divided into following parts: wireless IPCAM video capture system. RFID position detection systems. 3. Fig. remote monitor and alarm transmitter system. the RFID tag is mounted on the right-hand side of the self-propelled vehicle. 5 shows the hardware architecture of the self-propelled vehicle. 3 RFID position detection system The self-propelled vehicle is controlled through the WiFi module by receiving socket data from the server. 4 Smartphone control system 3. Face detection subsystem uses the Intel’s OpenCV library to detect human face in the monitored place. The server can also send guidance control command to the self-propelled vehicle for the next position of the RFID reader. By detecting tags. 6 input buttons in the Atmega168 based microcontroller. 4. The RFID position detection system as shown in Fig. The control center of the self-propelled vehicle is DFRduino RoMeo 328 microcontroller. The detected information is also displayed on the map of the PC monitor or on the display of the Smartphone.2165 - . [8][9][10] The diagram of system architecture is shown in Fig. Generally. The system description is shown in Table 1.

Fig. The WiFi module receives the control command from the server or Smartphone. it would detect the position of charger and go to it automatically for charging. When the self-propelled vehicle is patrolling. PCB and two D-LINK wireless IPCAM as shown in Fig.2A) and the DFRduino RoMeo 328 microcontroller (12V). The electricity detection PCB is used to detect the battery status and shows the result by displaying the LED in red/green light. 9. Fig. The power supply module uses the 12V battery to provide the power for two D-LINK wireless IPCAM (5V 1. the regulator on PCB can prevent the power from the charger to damage components in the self-propelled vehicle. The regulator mounted on PCB should guarantee the steady output power of 12V. When the self-propelled is going to run out of power. 6. the image files of pictures would be captured and stored in the temporary memory of the IPCAM. 9 The implementation of the self-propelled vehicle 4. The realized implementation of self-propelled vehicle is shown as Fig. The server then get the image files via WiFi system and show them on the display as below. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The wireless IPCAM mounted on the self-propelled vehicle should be specified IP by login the account and password given by the manufacturer.Fig. The third layer of the self-propelled vehicle is simply the solar panel. Fig. Fig. 7 The sketch of first layer The second layer of the self-propelled vehicle is the battery. The RFID tag in the self-propelled vehicle is used to detect its own position in the routing path and display the position of the self-propelled vehicle on the server. 8. 10 Display result of local wireless IPCAM (left: .5 The hardware architecture of the self-propelled vehicle The bottom layer of the self-propelled vehicle including four 3V DC motors.2166 - . DFRduino RoMeo 328 microcontroller. 8 The sketch of second layer Fig. RFID tag and charger interface is shown in Fig. 7. WiFi module. Therefore.6 The sketch of bottom layer The first layer of the self-propelled vehicle is the electricity detection PCB and power supply module as shown in Fig.

14.2 meter. . 11 shows the face detection application program implements by JNI provided by OpenCV. And. 2 with the testing process shown in Fig. the position of the vehicle will be marked on the map and shown on the monitor of PC server or the display of the Smartphone as shown in Fig. the face detection method is useless. 13. And. The resolution of the picture is also an important factor of the face detection. If the resolution is increased to 640*480. 12 The limit angle of face detection When a human face is detected. if the left/right detection angle between face and IPCAM is greater than 30 degrees. Fig. Then. 2) As the self-propelled vehicle being detected by the RFID reader. the MSN system will notify the user by sending messages by MSN as shown in Fig.25 meter is not available. bigger size of the search window would increase the failure rate of face detection. In the indoor environment. 11 Face detection application program (b) Warning message on Smartphone Fig.2167 - . the distance between image and IPCAM would also influence the resolution of face detection. Fig. The test result of the limitations is shown in Tab. 14 shows the warning message appeared on the (a) MSN or (b) Smartphone. the maximal distance between image and IPCAM can be extended to 4. 13 The warning message of face detection via MSN (a) Warning message on MSN Fig. (There are 6 RFID readers in Fig. On the other hand. The tag of Self-propelled patrolling vehicle would be detected by a series of RFID readers mounted on the patrolling path to guide the vehicle. 12. [11] There are 100 pictures used for face detection. The higher resolution would increase successful rate of face detection. right: rear) Fig. input file of image resolution is chosen as 320*200 for each picture. the message will be shown on the MSN and/or on the Smartphone of the user as shown in Fig. 15(a) and/or (b). In face detection process. this information would be sent back to the PC server and record the time and position of the vehicle simultaneously.front. It is also failed if the down angle between face and IPCAM is greater than 15 degrees and the up angle between face and IPCAM is greater than 30 degrees. more than 2.

com/index.edu. Sensor Nodes. Chou. College of Computer and Information Engineering. ICISE 2010.. of Alabama. master thesis. Oct. p2960. “Intelligent surveillance and security robot systems”.cc. ” Utilization Of Deformable Templates In Real-Time Face Tracking System”. [4] Min Zuo Guangping Zeng Xuyan Tu. 2008.and NSC 100-2221-E-147-001. July.com/bbs/thread-6210-1-1. [3] Viola Paul. 2010.. Seoul. IEEE IECON 2007. The self-propelled vehicle can be navigated by MSN and/or Smartphone if necessary and displayed its position by RFID readers mounted on the wall along the patrolling route. R. 2001. Liao. South Korea. Samsung Techwin in Seongnam.1. Group. “A design of mobile robot based on Network Camera and sound source localization for intelligent surveillance system”. p37. Nat.. (a) The display on monitor (b) The display on Smartphone Fig. [10] Gary Bradski. Intel Technology Journal. REFERENCE [1] Chien-Yu Wang. http://www. AL. “Rapid Object Detection Using a Boosted Cascade of Simple Features”. 19 May 2005. With experimental results. & Electron. Vol.Nat. Sci. of Electr.Issue 2. Dept. China. Univ.2168 - . 15 The position of the self-propelled vehicle 5. Beijing Technology and Business University. Dept.” A Study of Real-Time Face Tracking with an Active Camera”.. p674. J. Eng. Vol 9. . Y. Chiayi. http://www. ”Learning-Based Computer Vision with Intel’s Open Source Computer Vision Library”. The warning message can be sent back to the security center and/or the user by MSN and/or Smartphone. “NCCU Security Warrior: An Intelligent Security Robot System”. Jones. p6~21. 2010 [5] Jung-Hyun Park Kwee Bo Sim .Introduction to the RFID.hiapk. of Electr. http://developer. [2] Yao-Zhang Xie. NO. Michael. p1 . IEEE CVPR. Oct. Min-Hsiung. Tuscaloosa.ntu.htm [6] Yang Xiao Yanping Zhang. 2007. The proposed indoor surveillance system is developed with some proper design described in previous section.C. Nov. National Sun Yat-sen University.T. Eng. USA.T.C. Face detection technique is adopted in the proposed system to identify the intruders.respectively. p70. SICE 2010. Tsai.in Taiwan. Dec. p22~39. C. Lai. To summarize. Aug. [11] Luo. April. p1413.C. CONCLUSION The proposed system is implemented by a PC server. a self-propelled vehicle and some small smart devices via wireless networks to provide the functions of surveillance and remote control.. IEEE ARSO 2010. ICCCN 2009. Dept. 2010Android Socket[1].. National Sun Yat-sen University. ChungAng Univ.html [9] Meng-Shiun Yu Horng Wu Huei-Yung Lin.Robot Bus. “A visual surveillance system for mobile robot using omnidirectional and PTZ cameras”. Aug. 2007.tw/chinese/epaper/0002/2007092 0_2005. “Research and improvement of face detection algorithm based on the OpenCV”.html [8] Kyunghoon Kim Soonil Bae Kwanghak Huh . This paper is sponsored by the projects of NSC 99-2221-E-147-004. Chung Cheng Univ. A. of Comput. ICCAS 2008. “Surveillance and Tracking System with Collaboration of Robots. Vadim Pisarevsky. p119~131. Adrian Kaehler. and RFID Tags”. Taiwan. ACKNOWLEDGE . 2005. Dec. the feasibility of the proposed scheme is validated. Chung Cheng Univ. master thesis. there are some conclusion of the proposed system can be addressed as bellows: The wireless IPCAM being equipped with in a mobile vehicle to obtain wider range of monitoring. p511~518. 2009 [7] Basic Concept of Android System. C.android. 2.

and display the car position by the installed RFID reader.2169 - . ”Remote surveillance by network robot using WLAN and mobile IPv6 techniques”. IEEE TENCON 2007. and the newest detected face Reading the RFID tag of self-propelled vehicle.[12] Ching-Heng Ku Yen-Chieh Cheng.20 m <2. Chinese Culture Univ. 30 2007-Nov. self-propelled vehicle. p1.25 m Limit of face up angle 30o 30o Limit of face Limit of face Limit of face turn left turn right down angle angle angle 15o 15o 30o 30o 30o 30o . Table 1 Sub-system functional description Sub-system Wireless IPCAM video capture system Face detection system Remote monitor and alarm transmitter system Remote monitor website system RFID position detection systems Self-propelled vehicle Smartphone monitoring and control system Function description Accordance to the temporary path provided by the manufacturer to capture the pictures through wireless IPCAM and convert into image files. Face detection for each captured image files Transmit warning message to user through MSN robot Remote monitoring function of watching the indoor status. 2 2007.. These information is recorded in the server database The server controls self-propelled vehicles through the wireless network Remote controls self-propelled vehicles and monitors the images of wireless IPCAM by the Android mobile phone Table 2 The distance and image limit of face detection Image size 640*480 320*240 Distance between face and IPCAM <4. Oct. Taipei.

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