Glossary of Philosophical Terms This is a glossary of philosophical terms as they are generally used in the commonsense philosophical realism

of Aristotle, Aquinas, and those in this tradition. NOTE: In the case of qualified words, always look for the word or noun qualified. For example, in seeking for "Absolute Accident," look for "Accident, Absolute," etc.

Absolute. The unconditioned, the ultimate ground of all reality. Absolute Statement, Fallacy of. A fallacy in which one argues from a statement which is generally true (absolute statement) to a specific case. Absolute Supposition. The use of a term to designate merely the nature as such, without any reference to the individuals who are the bearers of this nature. Absolutism, Epistemological. See Idealism, Absolute. Abstract Idea. An idea which expresses a nature or determining attribute considered (by the mind) as separated from the subject in which it inheres. Abstraction. A process in which the mind fixes its attention upon one or the other characteristic of a thing or upon one element common to many things, excluding others which are joined to it in the real order. Abstractive Idea. An idea which is formed of objects by some means other than their immediate perception. Synonym: Mediate. Accent, Fallacy of. A fallacy which arises from a false accent or false emphasis in speech. Synonym: Fallacy of Prosody. Accident. A being whose nature it is to exist in another as in a subject. Accident, Absolute. An accident which confers a real perfection upon its subject. Accident, Extrinsic. An accident which does not affect the being of its subject, but modifies the subject's immediate surroundings.

Accident, Fallacy of. The fallacy which confuses the accidental and essential characteristics of a thing, so that what is affirmed of something as adventitious to a thing is also applied to the subject itself. Accident, Intrinsic. An accident which affects the being of its subject in some manner. Accident, Modal. The definite disposition or determination of an indifferent and determinable accidental entity in such a manner that it does not confer any positive and new entity upon the substance. Accident, Relative. An accident that has its being in a subject only because of the bearing which one thing has to another. Accident, Strictly Absolute. An accident which confers upon its subject some positive and new entity. Accidental Definition. An explanation of a thing based on characteristics which are neither essential nor necessarily connected with the essence. Acosmism. The doctrine which denies or doubts the validity of our experiential knowledge concerning the existence and reality of a material world; immaterialism. Act. Any entity of whatever kind and nature which perfects and determines a thing in its being. Act, Mixed. An act that in some form or other has an admixture of potentiality. Act, Non-Pure. See Act, Mixed. Act, Primary. An act that is the first in a series of acts. Act, Pure. An act that is without the least admixture of potentiality. Act, Secondary. An act that presupposes another act in a definite series, so that it proceeds from a primary act. Action. The exercise or operation of an operative potency. The production of an effect. Activity, Immanent. The activity through which a living being perfects itself and makes itself the goal for the acquired actuality or perfection. Activity, Transient (Transeunt, Transitive). The activity which tends to change another object. Activity, Vital. See Activity, Immanent.

Adversative. A proposition which consists of two propositions united in opposition to each other by conjunctions like "but," "although," "yet." Synonym: Discretive. Affection. A relatively transient quality which produces, or results from, some accidental sensible alteration. Agnosticism. The doctrine which denies the constitutional ability of the mind to know reality and concludes with the recognition of an intrinsically Unknowable. Alteration. The change of a being from one qualitative state to another. Amphiboly, Fallacy of. The ambiguous use of a phrase or of a complete sentence. Analogous Term. A term which applies to unlike, but related, things. Analogy. That reasoning process whereby the mind concludes from the known characteristics of one thing or group of things to the unknown characteristics of another thing or group of things because of a recognized resemblance existing between them. Analysis. The scientific method which passes from the concrete to the abstract, from the complex to the simple, from the particular to the universal, from the application of a principle to the principle itself, from the phenomena to the underlying general law, from the effects to the cause. Synonym: A posteriori method. Analytic Proposition. A proposition in which either the predicate is contained in the comprehension of the subject, or the subject is contained in the comprehension of the predicate. Synonyms: Necessary, essential, a priori. Annihilation. The reduction of an existing being to nonexistence. A Posteriori. Argument drawn from effects, consequents, or fact. Appetency. The tendency of one thing toward another. Appetency, Concupiscible. The propensity to enjoy a good. Appetency, Irascible. The propensity to fight an evil. Appetency, Rational. The will. Appetency, Sensuous. The power in virtue of which a sentient being tends toward a consciously apprehended sensuous good and away from a consciously apprehended sensuous evil. A Priori. Argument drawn from definitions formed or principles assumed, or which infers effects from causes previously known.

Argumentation. The verbal expression of a mediate inference. Aristotelianism. The system of thought which in general follows the principles and teachings of Aristotle. Peripateticism. Associationism. In the problem of necessary judgments, the doctrine which holds that the necessity of first principles is due to the law of associations as a form of mental compulsion. Attention. The direction of the cognitive process toward an object, an activity, or a thought. Attributes, Transcendental. The supreme modes necessarily connected with every being, which are different phases of the same fundamental being, but are not explicitly contained in its concept as such. Augmentation. The change of a being from one quantitative state to another. Axiological Ethics. Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics.

Beauty. The attribute of a thing in virtue of which the thing pleases when perceived. A blending of the unity, truth, and goodness in a thing, characterized by completeness, proportion, and clarity of presentation in an intellectual-sensuous form, so as to produce a disinterested emotional pleasure in a rational perceiver. Begging the Question. A fallacy in which the very conclusion (question) to be proved is, in some form or other, assumed to be true; or, one in which the conclusion is proved by a principle whose truth depends on the truth of the conclusion itself. Synonym: Petitio principii. Behaviorism. The doctrine that psychology should restrict itself exclusively to observations and concepts relating to behavior. Being. That which exists or can exist, the existible; whatever is not nothing. Being, Absolute. A being which can be thought of or can exist without reference to another.

Causal Definition. Being. The explanation of a thing by means of its efficient or final causes. . Substantial. Actual. Contraction of. Necessary. C Capacity. Relative. Being. toward which (operation) it is specifically directed. See Substance. A being whose nonexistence is possible. a predicament. Being. but is capable of existence. A proposition that makes a direct assertion of agreement or disagreement between subject and predicate. existence independent of man's actual knowledge. Being. Being. Accidental. Possible. Real. Logical. A being which has no limit in its entity or perfection. Being. Contingent. Anything that does not actually exist. Finite. A being whose nonexistence is impossible. Category. Being. Anything that has objective being only in the mind. A being which can be thought of or can exist only in reference to another. The proximate accidental principle of operation. Being. Anything that really exists at the present moment in the physical or spiritual world. An ultimate and supreme mode of real being. A syllogism whose premises are categorical propositions. Being. See Contraction of Being.Being. Infinite. Being. Natural. See Accident. Categorical Syllogism. A being whose reality is limited in perfection. or can have. Being. Anything that has. Categorical Proposition.

A cause which produces an effect toward which it has no natural tendency. The principle which states that whatever passes from a state of nonexistence into a state of existence must have an efficient cause for its existence. Moral. Cause. Cause. Free. A cause which inclines a free agent to act. Cause. A cause whose causality is absolutely independent of any other cause or being. Cause. Final. Cause. That which in any way whatever exerts a positive influence in the production of a thing. that intends freely to produce it. First. Cause Per Accidens. Principle of. A cause whose action produces only a part of the total effect. Cause. Cause Per Se. Partial. Cause. Form. provided the requisite conditions are present. Causality. A cause which is not compelled to act.Causal Proposition. A cause that has the natural tendency to produce a particular effect or. That through which a thing is made to be what it is. Cause. Principal. Efficient. Cause. Formal. even though all the requisite conditions for action are present. Equivocal. Cause. An efficient cause which produces an effect in virtue of the power of another cause. A proposition that combines two statements in such a way that the one is given as the reason or cause of the other. A cause which produces an effect by its own direct action. Cause. That by which something is produced. A cause which produces an effect dissimilar to itself in nature. Material. Physical. if it be a free agent. A cause which is determined by its nature to produce a certain effect. An efficient cause which produces an effect in virtue of its own power. Instrumental. Matter. and on which all other causality depends. Cause. That for the sake of which an efficient cause acts. Cause. or which the free will (if that be the cause in question) does not intend. That out of which something becomes or is made. . Necessary. Cause.

Cause. A cause which produces an effect similar to itself in nature. due to recognized valid reasons. The principle which states that whatever changes is changed by another. Complex term. Total. in virtue of its own action. Coherence. Principle of. The transition from one positive state of being to another.Cause. A cause which produces its effect directly. but not to the single members of the class. Ideas in which the attributes of the comprehension of both can be united into another (third) idea. A proposition that compares the relation between a subject and predicate with the same relation between another subject and predicate. Comparative Proposition. Chance. The mental state in which the mind gives a firm assent to a judgment without fear of the possibility of error. with the whole system of knowledge previously recognized as true. Collective Idea. The causality of agents resulting in effects not intended by the agents under these particular circumstances. Change. and later the second by the first. Certitude. without using the action of some intermediate cause. . A proposition in which a first idea is explained by a second. and expresses the degree of this relationship as being either less or equal or greater. Cause. Change. Complex Proposition. Second. Cause. Proximate. Cause. An idea that applies to all the individuals as a class. A cause whose causality is dependent on some other cause or being. Univocal. A composite sentence in which both the subject and the predicate or either one is a complex term. Circular Definition. Remote. Coherence (in Idealism). A cause which produces an effect through the direct action of some intermediary cause or causes. See Compound term. Compatible Ideas. is considered by idealistic monism to be the criterion of truth. A cause whose action produces the entire effect. or consistency.

A fallacy in which something is taken conjointly which should be taken separately. An idea which expresses a nature or determining attribute as inherent in a subject.Composite Proposition. Comprehension. Compound Term. connotation. Composition. Conditional Syllogism. Concept. A proposition that expresses a relation in virtue of which one proposition necessarily flows from the other. Connex Ideas. The union of elements that are objectively different in idea. Ideas which necessarily include or exclude each other. The sum total of all the attributes or thought-elements which constitute the idea in its representation of a thing. Fallacy of. Metaphysical. but merely different in the sense that the one ideas contains implicitly and vaguely what the other expresses explicitly and determinately. Synonyms: Implication. A proposition in which a qualification or composition enters into the subject or predicate or copula of a simple sentence. intension. A statement asserting that two alternatives are not or cannot be true simultaneously. A term that consists of more than one word. Physical. The doctrine which holds that we have universal ideas in the mind. Composition. A union of elements which are neither objectively different in idea nor physically different as things. See Idea. Condition. intent. Concrete Idea. Conceptualism. Logical. The union of elements that are objectively different in idea and physically different as things. something which enables a cause to produce its effect. Composition. without actually contributing toward the production itself. Composition. . Conjunctive Proposition. but really identical in their physical being as things. Something required in order that an efficient cause can act. but there is no objective ground or foundation in extra-mental objects which would entitle the mind to group a number of individuals under one (universal) idea. Conditional Proposition. A syllogism which contains a conditional proposition as the major premise.

" thereby including some definite beings and excluding others from this extension. Relation of. Contradiction. A substantial change which makes a substance cease to be. Principle of. It is impossible for a thing to be and not to be at the same time. Ideas which represent the two extremes among objects of a series belonging to the same class. Conversion. A form of logical opposition existing between a universal affirmative and a universal negative. Covertly Multiple Propositions. . Fallacy of. Ideas of which the one simply denies the comprehension of the other. Connotation. Commonsense or ordinary convictions which have not been subjected to a critical investigation. The logical opposition existing between a universal affirmative and a particular negative proposition. Contraposition.Connex Proposition. or from the truth of the consequent to the truth of the antecedent. although they are really multiple. A thing cannot be and not be something at the same time. Convictions. and between a universal negative and a particular affirmative proposition. See Comprehension. A form of eduction in which the inferred judgment takes the subject of the original proposition for its predicate. Contradictory Ideas. and the predicate of the original proposition for its subject. Contrariety. Same as conditional proposition. Contraction of Being. Propositions which have the appearance of single propositions. A form of eduction in which the subject of the inferred proposition is the contradictory of the predicate of the original proposition. Consequent. Consciousness. The reduction or narrowing of the extension of "being" to its inferiors by means of the addition of some element to the comprehension of "being. An argument in which we use a conditional syllogism and argue from the falsity of the antecedent to the falsity of the consequent. Contrary Ideas. Spontaneous. The intuitive awareness by which we recognize something as cognitionally present in the mind. Contradiction. Corruption.

by being performed. Descriptive Definition. D Deduction. Denotation. . elements of its nature. Those primary determinations which constitute the most fundamental distinctions of "being in general" and go beyond all the ordinary classifications of beings. An active. originative condition enabling a cause to act.. i. The longing aroused by the conscious representation of an absent good. A statement which explains what a thing is in itself by enumerating the positive. Deontological Ethics. Determining Cause. Transcendental. Definition by Initial Predication.e. Determinism. Definition. Determinations. Criteriology. holding that an action may be known to be right without a consideration of the goodness of anything. The process of reasoning in which we conclude from the general law or principle to a particular instance falling under the general law or principle. Frequently used synonymously of epistemology. Primary determinations of being are those which are transcendental. those which constitute the most fundamental distinctions of "beings in general" and go beyond all the ordinary classifications of beings. Any ethics which does not make the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value. Desire. The test by which we distinguish true judgments from those which are false. See Predication. Primary. Determinations. The science of the criteria or tests of truth. bring into being as much good as some other action open to the agent. See Extension. Opposed to axiological ethics. Criterion. but nonessential. In the problem of free will.Creation. or known to be so even though it does not flow from the agent's best motive (or even from a good one) and does not. the doctrine that the will is determined by the antecedent psychical and physical conditions and causes to act as it does. The production of a thing from nothing. A statement which explains what a thing is.

Logical. An argument in which the major premise consists of a disjunctive proposition and the minor premise consists of conditional propositions. A universal idea or predicable which expresses a part of the essence of its subject. A universal idea which expresses the nature or essence of a thing as it is in itself. Adequate Real. The absence of identity between thing and thing to such an extent that they are distinct from each other as entities. A real distinction in which things are distinct as part and whole. indicating that the implied judgments cannot be true together nor false together. though not real. immediate. Distinction. Disjunctive Proposition. Dilemma. Major Real. maintained by Duns Scotus. Inadequate Real. An "either-or" statement. Disparate. Distinction. An axiom underlying the syllogism which states: "What is affirmed of a logical whole may be affirmed of a logical part of that whole. Distinction. See Adversative. Formal (Scotistic). A syllogism whose major or minor premise consists of a disjunctive proposition. as between thing and thing. Disposition. metaphysical. each of which takes one member of the disjunction and from it draws a conclusion detrimental to the adversary. Ideas are disparate when they neither necessarily include nor necessarily exclude each other. The absence of sameness between concepts or things. but one must be true and the others (or other) false. Discretive Proposition. and what is denied of a logical whole may be denied of a logical part of that whole. A distinction. Distinction. Synonyms: Real. as between formality and formality. Disjunctive Syllogism. actual on the part of the thing. A real distinction between things so that they are distinct in their total being. A relatively transient quality which disposes a being temporarily well. without relation to other things or ideas.Dictum de Omni et Nullo. Distinction." Differentia. . Distinction. that part which distinguishes one species from another under the same genus. Direct Universal. of the first intention. The absence of sameness between concepts of the same reality.

Distinction. Purely Mental. namely. so that the latter exist irrespective of whether known or not known by a perceiver. Mitigated. Distinction. See Distinction. Real. The fallacy in which that is taken separately which should be taken conjointly. Distinction. An explanation of a thing by its properties. Virtual. The absence of sameness between things different in their reality. accepts the three primary truths as essentially necessary for every process of thinking and reasoning prior to the investigation of the various classes of spontaneous conviction. Distinctive Definition. Distinction.Distinction. Positive Real. See Distinction. The form of dogmatism which accepts only two facts as prerequisites for the solution of the problem of certitude. after a critical examination. Ideas whose comprehension is different from each other. the use of a term as a universal. with a foundation in the object itself for making the distinction. A real distinction in which the distinct things are real (positive) entities and differ in their entities. that there is an essential distinction between "mental" and "real" objects and events. Division. A distinction between concepts of one and the same reality. The theory that physical objects are independent in their existence and nature from the mental act of perception and knowledge. Distributive Supposition. . That mental operation which resolves a whole into its parts. Distinction. The use of a term so that it applies to all the individuals taken singly and all together as a class. A real distinction in which there is a nonentity either on one or on both sides of the distinction. The absence of identity between a thing and its mode. without a foundation in the object itself for making the distinction. Formal. Diverse Ideas. Critical. Minor Real. Dogmatism. The distinction between different concepts of one and the same reality. the existence of necessary spontaneous assents (convictions) and the power to examine these by reflection. Negative Real. Logical. Dogmatism. Distinction. Fallacy of. Mental. Division. The doctrine which. Dualism. Distinction. Scotistic.

The non-individual. The self or Ego as observed at any present moment in a here-and-now experience. characterized by strong feeling. The self or Ego considered in its constitution and nature. though differing from the first in subject. affective and volitional states. or both. predicate. considered as possessing a body and mind. Emotion. Effect. End for Which (Whom). The agent which actively produces a thing or a new state in a thing. which posits the world. The doctrine which denies or doubts the validity of all intellectual knowledge and admits only the certainty of sense-knowledge. Ego. E Eduction. Emergent Evolution. Historical. Empirical. End (Purpose). Final. such as perception. The self or Ego of an individual as he perceives it through memory of his life's experiences from the present down through the past. thought. Absolute. See Evolution. Ego. Empiricism. The theory that there exists a duality or nonidentity between the content or datum. self. neither subject nor object. and by physiological changes in bodily function. pure Ego. That which is produced. Ego. we derive others implied in it. from any proposition taken as true. which is immediately and indubitably presented in the knowledge act at a given moment. The thing or person that is to benefit by the acquisition or realization of the "end which" is acquired or realized. the subject of all psychical states. Efficient Cause. See Cause. Ego. and the reality or object known through the content or datum. That for the sake of which an agent or efficient cause acts. . following the cognition of an object or situation. An affective mental state of the animal organism. Epistemological. Emergent. The human person. judgment.Dualism. by an impulse to action. A process of immediate inference whereby. Metaphysical. Ego.

while it is not itself referred to any other end. Primary (Principal). An end which lies beyond the tendencies and powers of the nature of an agent to strive for. of knowledge. End. Supernatural.End. Intermediate. End of the Act. The main end or purpose among two or more which actuates an agent and is sufficient of itself to make the agent act. so that it is but an "epiphenomenon" of matter. The purpose which is present in the act itself and which the act tends to realize because it is this particular kind of act. An end intended together with a primary end. An end which lies within the tendencies and powers of the nature of the agent to strive for. Energy of position. however. An end to which one or more ends are referred. End. Energy of motion. End. matter being the real phenomenon. determined by them but exerting no influence upon them. The end that is referred to some ulterior end. End of the Agent. A syllogism in which the proof is conjoined to one of the premises. Enthymeme. Remote. without. and which is itself referred to some ulterior end. Energy. Kinetic. An end to which one or more other ends are referred. Natural. . An abridged syllogism. Proximate. exerting the same potent influence on the action of the agent. The theory that consciousness is an accompaniment or by-product of neural processes. The purpose which the agent itself (himself) has in performing this particular act. The good itself which is striven for as an end to be realized through the action of a cause. End. or truth-value. Epichireme. Secondary (Accessory). End. Ultimate. Potential. but has no other end referred to itself. Energy. End. An end which has one or more ends referred to itself. End. End Which. in which one of the premises or the conclusion is omitted. Epistemology. Epiphenomenalism. The science of the validity.

See Analytic proposition. . Those relevant circumstances or facts which enable us to draw legitimate inferences to some principal fact. Essence. Circumstantial. Fallacy of. Evidence. which fact then explains the existence and presence of these relevant circumstances or facts. Something that is unsuitable for a natural tendency or appetency. The privation of an absolute good. Moral. Synonym: Quidditative. The act of actuality which perfects and determines a thing in its species. Essence. The privation of an ontological good. Essential. Objective. Evil. Evil. A statement which explains the essence or nature of a thing. Belonging to the essence or nature of a thing. Ontological. Apparent. The privation of the proper relation between an action or its omission and the moral law. The privation of an objective good. Objective. Evil. The privation of a required good. The privation of an apparent good. Absolute. Equivocal Term. That characteristic of reality whereby it becomes objectively manifest to the perceiving faculty. Evidence. Evil. A term that is used in entirely different meanings. Evil. Equivocation. A fallacy which consists in using a word in different meanings. See Obversion. Evil. that which makes a thing to be what it is. Essential Proposition. Error.Equipollence. Physical. The sum of the various grades of being which constitute a thing in the abstract concepts of the mind. Disconformity (disagreement) between intellect and thing. independent of the mind's thinking. Metaphysical. Essence. An essence as it exists concretely in nature. Essential Definition.

if it be a produced being. Exclusive Proposition. Principle of. distinct from its producing cause. Certain forms of mediate inference which follow the general line of thought characteristic of the syllogistic figures. Existential Import. The sum total of all the individuals and groups to which any idea can be applied. The privation of a subjective good. distinct from the mind and. The implication of existence contained in a judgment. An exceptive proposition is one which contains a particle of speech like "except" or "save. Synonyms: Denotation. Existence. it is the doctrine which holds that the necessity of these judgments is due to certain fixed forms of thought which have been engendered in the past history of the human race and have been transmitted by heredity through a process of neural association repeated with countless frequency. Everything must either be or not be. . Excluded Middle. Evil." to indicate that a portion of the extension of the predicate does not apply to the subject. Real. Experiment. Exceptive. Evil.Evil. The observation of phenomena under selective and controlled conditions. but do not seem to conform to the basic idea of these figures. The privation of a relative good. Evolutionism. or vice versa. application. Between "being" and "not-being" there is no middle or third thing possible. Relative. Extension. Emergent. Extra-Syllogistic Inference. Evolution. Subjective. Physical. The doctrine which holds that nature is the product of evolution in such a manner that entirely new and unpredictable properties originate through synthesis and thereby form new and higher levels of reality. The privation of a physical good. That state of a being in virtue of which it is present as an actuality and not merely as a possibility. In the problem of necessary judgments. Evil. A statement which indicates the exclusion of any other predicate from this subject or any other subject from this predicate. A thing either is or is not. The privation of a real good.

Fideism. The doctrine which holds that all concepts are fictions of the mind and have fictional value as mental constructions of reality. Falsity. Figure. The disagreement of a thing with the intellect. An elementary affective state characterized by pleasantness or unpleasantness. Logical. though they need not be true in themselves. A fallacy which assigns a wrong cause to a certain effect. also. Fallacies in Language. Ontological. False Cause. Fallacies which are the result of confusion in the matter or things stated. The quality in an entity which makes it capable of performing certain acts even when these acts are not actually performed. Fallacies in the Matter. Falsity (Error). The disposition or arrangement of the middle term with respect to the major and minor terms in the premises of a syllogism. The geometrical quality resulting in a body from the arrangement of its quantitative parts. Disconformity (disagreement) between intellect and thing. Falsity. Feeling. The disagreement of speech with thought. Syllogistic. The disagreement of the intellect with the thing. the doctrine that such truths can be known only by an affective act of faith. . Fallacy. since human reason is impotent to arrive at any certitude regarding the fundamental truths necessary for man to know. Fallacies which rest upon the lack of preciseness in the words used to express thoughts. Fallacy of. based on the use of words or ideas which have a deceptive resemblance to truth and thereby lead to avoidable false conclusions. Falsity. Moral. Fictionalism. An error or argumentation.F Faculty. Figure. The traditional doctrine which holds that all our knowledge must begin with an act of faith in divine revelation.

A cause whose causal action is impressed upon it by some outside directive force. Freedom of Contrariety. the theory which holds that the necessity of judgments is due to native a priori mental forms. In the widest sense. in the strict sense. Freedom. Fallacy of. Fixed Terms. The use of a term according to its signification. The freedom of the will between acting and not acting. A cause whose action producing a definite effect is the result of a being's natural tendencies. due to their similarity of construction. Freedom of Specification. Final Cause. The physical quality resulting in a body from the arrangement of its quantitative parts. The purpose or aim which induces the efficient cause to act and directs this action throughout its operation. The ability of the will. The freedom of the will to choose between a moral good and a moral evil. Extrinsic. Terms whose signification remains the same. Freedom of Exercise. freedom of contradiction. Universal of the. all conditions for action being present. Final Cause. Intrinsic. Formalism.Figures of Speech. to decide whether to act or not act and whether to act in this manner or in that manner. The inner. freedom of choice. See Direct universal. The freedom of the will in so far s it is subjectively indifferent in the presence of conflicting motives. active part of the produced thing which is the determining element of the new (caused) reality in the produced thing. Free Will. Formal Cause. The freedom of the will to choose between one object and another object and therefore also b . First Intention. Form. In the problem of necessary judgments. the absence of external coercion or restraint which hinders an appetency from expressing itself in external action. the absence of intrinsic necessity or determination in the performance of an act. Final Cause. Formal Supposition. A fallacy in which a conclusion of identity or similarity in meaning is drawn between one diction and another. Freedom of Indifference.

Good. that part which the subject has in common with other species in this same class. Something that is judged to be good for a being. Real. Good. Genetic Definition. A good which has everything demanded of it by the moral law. Subjective. Disinterested. Ontological. Good. A substantial change which brings a new substance into being through the corruption of another or others. Physical. Genus. A good considered merely as giving perfection. Good. Ontological. Metaphysical. irrespective of any pleasure derived from its possession. See Good. Good. Good. . A relative good which gives pleasure and enjoyment to another. Anything which is suitable to a being itself. Delectable. Anything that is good in itself. Good. Any reality which suits the nature of the being which strives for it. Relative. Good. Good. A statement which explains a thing by its process of origin or production. A thing as good in its every entity or reality. Moral. Objective. irrespective of other beings. Absolute. Transcendental. A predicable or universal idea which expresses a part of the essence of its subject. Apparent. Anything which is suitable to another. The actual possession of an objective good. Good. Good. A good which satisfies the demand of the nature of a being. Good. but is actually not good for it. Ontological.G Generation. Something that is judged to be good for a being and actually is good for it. Good. See Good. Good.

Goodness. H Habit.Good. Hypothesis. until verified (or disproved) by subsequent events. See Pragmatism. Habit.e. The suitability of a thing for a natural tendency or appetency. that every objective event has that self-transcending implication of other events which. A stable quality disposing a being ill or well in the operations of its faculties. Sometimes it is applied to the conditional proposition alone. a substance which is self-contained and autonomous (sui juris) in its operations. The provisional explanation of a phenomenon. A relative good which is desired as a means to acquire perfection or pleasure. Objective. . as expressed by the reflexive verb. A hypothesis which is used in an attempt to explain the manner in which the causes of a phenomenon operate. Hylopsychism. we call consciousness. i. Useful. A syllogism in which a hypothetical proposition occurs as the major premise. equipment. Habitus.. based on probable arguments. The doctrine which holds that all matter is instinct with something of the cognitive function. Hypostasis (Suppositum). Hypothetical Proposition. As a quality. or a condition or state. it is a comparatively permanent accident disposing a thing well or ill in its being. Humanism. Hypothesis of Law. A proposition that expresses the dependence of one affirmation or denial on another affirmation or denial. The condition resulting from clothing. when it occurs on the scale that it does in our brain processes. A complete and individual substance which has subsistence. A hypothesis which is used to establish the cause or causes which contribute toward the production of a phenomenon. Hypothesis of Cause. environment. Hypothetical Syllogism. physical adjuncts.

Idealism. Dialectical. Logical. The doctrine which holds that the physical object is essentially idea. Idealism. the real and the the ideal. but that we have no immediate knowledge of it. Logical. self-existent. The doctrine that the relatively of knowledge implies the subjectivity of the objects of knowledge. and the objects are modifications and evolutionary modes of the one. Epistemological. Idealism. Absolute. the doctrine which holds that the being of things is conditioned by their being known. but exists as an object of possible experience. . The doctrine which holds that the external world has no existence independent of consciousness. as something immanent to consciousness. in the sense of being simply a part of consciousness. thought and thing. supposing that all things exist in the absolute reason and that the laws of physics are the same as those of mental representations. consciousness is constitutive of its objects. Objective. Idealism. nature and spirit. Idealism. Cosmothetical. so that the universe and everything in it are merely states of the thinker's mind. the mind cannot transcend its own internal. The doctrine which holds that the real is identical with idea and mind. Idealism. the being of sensible things is simply their being sensed. are ultimately identified in the infinite and absolute Ego. See Idealism. world and mind. so that we have direct knowledge of reality in the ideas of logical thought. In general. Idealism. The doctrine which holds that reality is constituted of logical ideas (logical entities). Psychological. conscious states. Idealism. Idealism. object and subject. absolute consciousness. Synonyms: Concept. The intellectual image or representation of a thing. and their true characters are their sensed characters. notion. or as the content of a knowing mind. as the content of universal experience. The doctrine which holds that the relation between the subject and the object of thought is one of absolute identity. The doctrine which holds that the external world exists. the world we know is the world of our perceptual content.I Idea. a content of conscious life which depends upon consciousness for its existence or at least upon the conscious relation to some subject. Metaphysical.

Identity. The formation or genesis of ideas. Accidental Logical. The real identity of a being. Ideal-Realism. The doctrine that the mind imposes its own a priori forms of synthesis upon the unorganized and unrelated impressions which it receives from an unknown and unknowable thing-in-itself. Whatever is. Physical. The logical identity of things based upon the similarity of their essence. The doctrine which holds that the universal subject or Ego (not the Ego of the individual person) is the source of the object. Any system of thought/beliefs which provides the basis for political or social action. Metaphysical. the external world. The real identity of a being. Everything is its own being. Identity. so that the entire content of perception and thought consists of subjective phenomena. Essential Logical. The unity (oneness) of things in themselves. in virtue of which it does not change in its essential reality. in virtue of which the change which takes place in its essential being is successive and gradual. Identity. Being is being. and whatever is not. Identity. The logical identity of things based upon the similarity of their accidents. or way of thinking characteristic of a political or economic theory or system. Moral. A metaphysical doctrine which combines the principles of idealism and realism. or noumenon. The real identity of a being. Principle of.Idealism. Ideology. Logical. Identity. and not-being is not-being. It is a conceptual scheme with a practical application. Identity. doctrines. Identity. In recent times. Identical Ideas. Transcendental. Subjective. is not. Also. or non-Ego. Everything is what it is. is. Real. Identity. in virtue of which it can absolutely not change in any manner. Ideogeny. the ideas. Those ideas whose comprehension is the same. A sameness between concepts or things. this term is sometimes used to refer to philosophical doctrines or systems as well. Identity. The unity (oneness) of things based upon the same concept of the mind. . Idealism.

An illicit argumentation in which the major term of a syllogism is taken wider in the conclusion than in the premise. An illicit argumentation in which either the major or the minor term is given wider meaning in the conclusion than in the premises. to the intellectual perception of the quiddity of the thing represented in the phantasm. that particular form of skepticism which admits the certitude of intellectual knowledge only. Image. The doctrine which denies or doubts the existence of material reality. Impressed Intelligible. which is the vital determination of the intellect to the act of understanding. An idealistic doctrine which holds that the world-principle resembles the imagining with which we humans are directly acquainted. the "idea" or "concept" of a thing. abstracted from the phantasm by the agent intellect. Fallacy of. Illicit Process. A fallacy in which one either proves what is not in question to be proved. gathered together by the potential intellect into a definition or abstract representation. together with the ability to reproduce these images or phantasms even in the absence of the perceived objects. The essential elements of a thing. Imagination. the rudimentary cognitional image of the sensations. Imaginism. . or disproves what has not been asserted. abstracted from the phantasm by the agent intellect. Expressed Intelligible. formed by the synthetic sense. Image. Illicit Major. The cognitional image of a thing. doubting or denying the validity of experiential knowledge. Image. The method of concluding from the truth or falsity of one statement to the truth or falsity of another statement without the aid of another judgment. Impressed Sensible. phantasm. acosmism. Expressed Sensible. the sensation arousing the synthetic sense into action by its presence. Image. Immediate Inference. The completed sensory cognitional image representing the sensed thing in the sentient subject. Ignoring the Issue. In the genesis of ideas. Same as Ignoratio Elenchi. Illicit Minor. The power to form mental images or phantasms of perceived objects. admitting nothing but the reality of immaterial or spiritual things. or does not prove what is supposed to be proved. An illicit argumentation in which the minor term of a syllogism is taken wider in the conclusion than in the premise. Immaterialism.Ignoratio Elenchi. and this cosmic imagining is a conscious infinite activity and the creative force of all reality.

The unity of a being which is one in itself and non-multipliable. we conclude to a truth previously unknown. See Comprehension. The principle which determines the possibility of having a number of individuals of the same species. Principle of. A reasoning process in which. Relative. the inconceivability of the contradictory judgment is considered by some philosophers to be the ultimate criterion of truth. Individuation. The doctrine which holds that ideas are instruments of action and that their usefulness determines their truth. Simple terms. The power or capability which actively modifies itself so as to represent within itself in an abstract manner what is concretely represented in the phantasm. Inconceivability. Intellect. Endless duration of life. Incompatible Ideas. In epistemology. . An existing faculty in a weakened or unfit condition. Immortality. so that its nature or essence is incommunicable to others and is restricted to this one. Individuation. The principle which makes an existing being to be an individual. Absolute. Instrumentalism. Individuation.Immediate Universal. That intrinsic principle which gives the unity of individuality to an existing being. Indisposition. Individuality. Inference. Agent. Principle of. A relatively transient quality which disposes a being temporarily ill. The process of reasoning in which one concludes from the individual cases to the existence of general laws or principles. Ideas in which the comprehension of one idea excludes the attributes of the other. Induction. Incomplex Terms. See Direct universal. Unity of. Individuality. That state of an existing being in virtue of which it is one and nonmultipliable. Incapacity. from truths known. Implication. Principle of.

In the problem of free will. Rational cognition." Intellection. Immanent action. . by means of obversion and conversion. The power or capacity to express the essence of the represented thing in an "idea" or "concept. Synonym: Immediate Ideas. Ideas which are formed as the result of direct perception of things. Potential. Intension. The rational ordering of means to the common good of a community. Inversion. Intuitive Ideas. An act of the mind pronouncing the agreement or disagreement of ideas among themselves. Intent. See Comprehension. See Comprehension. is not determined to act by necessity. L Law. The act by which one being may unite itself with another being from which it is materially or existentially distinct. K Knowledge. no matter what the strength of the conflicting motives or the nature of the antecedent external and internal conditions may be. finally arrives at a judgment in which the subject is the contradictory of the original subject. the doctrine that the will. A method of eduction in which the mind.Intellect. J Judgment. Libertarianism. Life.

Memory. actuated by purely mechanical forces which produce only local movement. Logical Universal. M Manicheism. precisely in so far as it is applicable to many. A naturalistic form of philosophy which finds the ultimate solution of all phenomena.Logic. A universal idea which expresses a nature common to many. Primary (Prime). A theory. The power to recall past objects and states of consciousness and recognize them as having been present in former experiences. The process by which. and methods which the mind of man in its thinking must follow for the accurate and secure attainment of truth. The science of those principles. Logical Opposition. capable of receiving any kind of substantial form. . The relation which exists between propositions having the same subject and the same predicate. originating with Manes. Mediate Ideas. An incomplete corporeal substance. from certain truths already known. Mechanism. universal of second intention. Synonyms: Reflex universal. but differing in quality or quantity or both. Logical Division. undetermined but determinable. The use of a word merely as a word. See Abstractive idea. The resolving of a universal idea into the members which constitute its extension. Materialism. Median. the mind passes to another truth distinct from these but necessarily following from them. without regard to its inherent meaning. which maintained that God is the supreme Principle of Good and matter the supreme Principle of Evil. The middle quantity or item in a series arranged according to magnitude. Mediate Inference. physical and psychical. Material. See Cause. Matter. Matter. The theory which maintains that the ultimate constituent particles of matter are homogeneous in character. laws. Material Supposition. in the nature and activity of universal matter or force.

Epistemological. or matter (materialism). are identical with the entities composing the physical world. there is no dualism of things and ideas. In epistemology. have no means of cognitional intercommunication. Movement.. a successive change in a body. either mind (idealism). Syllogistic. A composite single sentence in which the copula is so modified as to express the manner (mode) in which the predicate belongs to the subject. but only the class of things. Mode. possess innate power of representation.e. Metaphysics. The quantity or item which appears with greatest frequency in a group. Motion. Local. Mind. specifically. The arrangement of the premises according to quantity (universality or particularity) and quality (affirmation or negation). Modal Proposition. . the conscious knowing subject or the conscious knowing part of the subject. The proper arrangement of mental processes in the discovery and proof of truth. The ground or reason which determines us to assent with firmness to a judgment as true without fear of its contradictory being true. Any activity involving the transition from potency to act in a corporeal being through successive stages. opposed to dualism and pluralism. Motus. Monism. Motive of Certitude. except that of being experienced. The doctrine which seeks to deduce all the varied phenomena of both the physical and spiritual worlds from a single principle which is in a continuous state of evolution. See Direct universal. Moods (Modes) . The transition of a thing from one place to another. i. The act of a being in potency while still in potency. or a neutral substance that is neither mind nor matter but is the substantial ground of both. Monadism. Method. they are partly material and partly immaterial. The science of the ultimate principles and properties of real beings. the metaphysical doctrine which holds that there is but one substance.Metaphysical Universal. The doctrine which holds that the content or datum of perception is identical with the reality or object known thereby. Monism. See Motus. that the attributes of the percept as experienced and all its relations. and obtain knowledge corresponding to reality through a divinely pre-established harmony. The Leibnitzian doctrine which holds that the ultimate individual beings are monads.

Natural Law. and contextual realism that beings possess a "nature. The essence of a being considered as the ultimate principle of its operations. The system of philosophy which in the main follows the principles and tenets of scholasticism. Neo-Scholasticism. See Analytic proposition. independently characterize such objects. panobjectivism. but adapts it to modern problems. all the attributes of the percept as experienced and all its relations. Neo-Idealism. Scientific. The doctrine that scientific knowledge of physical objects is the final and only legitimate form of knowledge. Neo-Hegelianism. characterized by a closer union between empirical science and psychology. A more recent form of Absolute Idealism. The universal pattern of action required by human nature in general (not in the concrete) for its completion or perfection." in virtue of which they are specifically distinct substances with specific properties and activities.Multiple Categoricals. the scholastics. Neo-Psychologism. Neo-Realism. See Neo-Idealism. Terms which signify the absence of a thing. The doctrine which holds that there are neither universal objects outside the mind nor universal ideas in the mind. The doctrine which holds that there are existent objects not conditioned by perception or cognition. Propositions which contain two or more categorical sentences in their very construction. neo-hegelianism. Naturalism. The theory of Aristotle. Nominal Definition. Nature. An explanation of what a word means. N Naturalism. Nominalism. characterized by an approach to the problem of knowledge through experience rather than by means of aprioristic speculations. except that of being experienced. Necessary Propositions. Negative Terms. . A more recent form of psychological idealism.

The absence of a definite kind of being. just what they seem when experienced by us. Not-self. Privative. ground. Oneness. Noumenon. The science of being in its most general aspects. while retaining the original subject. The doctrine that things are.Non-Ego. the whole world. . O Object. Occasion. Nothing. Observation. immediate intuition of God's ideas or of absolute Being. Nothing. Nothing. Ontology. has for its predicate the contradictory of the original predicate. A circumstance or combination of circumstances which affords an opportunity for an efficient cause to act. Negative. Absolute. The close scrutiny and examination of natural occurrences. The mere absence of some kind of being in a thing. or cause of the phenomenon. Synonym: Equipollence. Relative. See Idea. Notion. The absence of being. Objectivism. Nothing. the thing known. The total absence of being in every conceivable form. In epistemology. A process of eduction in which the inferred judgment. That attribute of a being in virtue of which it is undivided in itself (and divided from every other being). The unknowable reality or thing-in-itself which is postulated as the basis. The absence of some kind of being in a thing that is fit to have it and normally ought to have it. as something other-than-self. Ontologism. distinct from man's body and mind and outside his person. The doctrine which holds that man's mind derives all its knowledge through a direct. Nothing. Obversion. when not experienced by us.

and possesses the complete activity required by its nature for its proper perfection. in its ultimate analysis. The reception of an effect from another. P Pan-Egoism. so that all material reality. Pan-Psychism. See Logical opposition. Perceptionism. The doctrine which holds that mind and matter are not substances. Pan-Objectivism. Perfection. The doctrine which holds that the universe is identical with God.Opposition. Psycho-Physical. Presentative. a form of absolute idealism. Parallelism. Categorical propositions which are plainly composed of two or more sentences. Logical. that the psychical and physical are but a manifold of interrelated occurrences. Passion (Reaction). asserting the oneness of all things in the absolute Ego. See Aristotelianism. The doctrine which attempts to dissolve the antithesis between noumenon and phenomenon. is endowed with psychical powers. Only the "perfect" is desirable or "good. A thing is "perfect" so far as it has emerged from the incompleteness of potency. The doctrine which holds that the human mind can know nothing but the phenomena or appearances of things." Peripateticism. Universals taken partly and indeterminately. or of the universe to God. the reduction of God to the universe. See Realism. See Neo-Realism. Perception. The cognizing of the object which produces sensation. Pan-Phenomenalism. . subject and object are concepts which are due to the reflection resulting from the interrelations of the various components of the absolutely unitary contents of our immediate experience. in which all finite entities begin. by identifying all reality with the universal consciousness or Ego. Ego and thing-in-itself. The doctrine which interprets the qualitative essence of material force and energy as a sort of psychical activity and appetency. Overtly Multiple Categoricals. Pantheism. mind and matter. Particular Ideas.

Objective potency. Philosophy. Positive Law. The science of things in their ultimate reasons. Personalism. Possibility. Phenomenalism. causes. Intrinsic. . and free activity of personality the key to the nature of reality and the solution of the ultimate problems of philosophy. The contingent means chosen by a given community in its particular circumstances to achieve its common good. an individual. The doctrine that the appearances of things are their reality.Person. An argumentation consisting of two or more syllogisms. Positive Ideas. Absolute. Possibility.. subsistent. actual thing. because the world at large is essentially bad. and principles. Personal Supposition. logically connected together in such a way that the conclusion of the preceding syllogism becomes the premise of the one following. acquired by the aid of human reason alone. In epistemology. Petitio Principii. or the capacity or aptitude of a being for existence. A form of naturalism which denies the legitimacy of philosophical problems and methods and claims that science is the only knowledge which is exact and ultimate. i. See Possibility. Pluralism. The philosophic theory which maintains that evil predominates over good. intellectual substance. The use of a term to signify both the nature and the bearers of this common nature. Ideas which signify a real.e. but only things in relation to our experience. the appearance that is produced by the action of a thing upon a percipient. The doctrine which holds that reality cannot be reduced to either one ultimate form of being (monism of either mind or matter) or two ultimate forms of being (dualism of mind and matter). identity. but to many mutually irreducible ultimate forms of being. Pessimism. complete. That form of idealism which gives equal recognition to both the pluralistic and monistic aspects of experience and which finds in the conscious unity. there are no things in themselves. See Begging the question. Polysyllogism. Positivism. An intellectual hypostasis. Phenomenon.

Objective. considered by idealists as self-evident. that all objects of knowledge are mental objects. though they do not expressly mention each other. Real. Pragmatism. Posture. The possibility due to the powers of a thing acting according to the laws of nature. Possibility. and systems. Moral. See Possibility. ideas. Subjective. or axiom. conscious states. Physical. excluding others which are joined to it in the real order.e. these ideas mutually include each other implicitly. See Potency. Possibility. Logical. A process in which the mind fixes its attention upon one or the other characteristic of a thing or upon one element common to many things. Extrinsic. The capacity or aptitude of a being for existence in virtue of the power of an efficient cause capable of producing it. Formal. Potency. The capacity for doing something. Metaphysical. See Possibility. Potency. Possibility. Possibility. or rather attitude. Receptive Subjective. A disposition of parts among themselves in the sense of "attitude". Possibility.Possibility. Precision. Intrinsic. Potency. Relative. according to their capacity to satisfy human needs and interests in a social way. The capacity or aptitude for something. theories. A type of abstraction or precision in which the ideas drawn out by the abstractive process are only subjectively different. The capacity or aptitude of a being for existence. Extrinsic. hypotheses. i. The capacity for receiving an act. The postulate. The possibility of free agents to do something without grave difficulty. The capacity of a nonexistent being for existence. Potency. which places all knowledge and truth in a direct relation to life and action. Idealist. Intrinsic. Precision. judgments. See Possibility. Postulate. Possibility. .. due to the compatibility or non-contradiction of its constitutive elements. Potency. immanent or intransitive action expressed by an intransitive verb. Operative Subjective. Intrinsic. it judges the value of ideas. The doctrine.

Principle of Excluded Middle. Principle of. An antecedent physical influence which. Subjective. See Sufficient Reason. Principle of. therefore. is required in order that the faculty of a creature can pass from potentiality to actuality. Precision. Principle of Identity. Predication. The different modes or ways in which a universal can be predicated of its subject. . A type of abstraction or precision in which the ideas drawn out by the abstractive process are objectively different. Precision. a category. Ideas of which one signifies a perfection and the other denies a perfection in a subject which naturally ought to possess it. for the obvious and simple reason that in mentioning it he makes it an idea. See Change. See Identity. Principle of Causality. See Precision. Ego-Centric. Principles. Premotion. so that the one does not necessarily include the other.e. The fallacy which consists in considering an "obvious" characteristic of a thing as the "exclusive" characteristic of that thing. Physical. Principle of. Principle of Change. it is. i. Material. See Excluded Middle. Definition by Initial. See Contradiction. Principle. Predicament. Supreme. and then defines the thing as consisting solely and exclusively of this particular characteristic. Supreme." Privative Ideas.Precision. Objective. Predicables. according to Thomists. impossible to discover whether the cognitive relationship is indispensable to things which enter into it. The predicament involved in every act of knowledge that no thinker is able to mention a thing that is not an idea. See Principles. That from which something proceeds in any manner whatever. See Causality. Predicament. An ultimate and supreme mode of being. Principle of. Material.. Formal. First. Principle of. of Being. these ideas have a different comprehension or thought-content. Those highest principles which are immediately derived from the concept of "being. Principle of Contradiction. See Precision. Principle of. Principle of Sufficient Reason. Principles.

Proposition. Purpose. Quantity of propositions. without being strictly essential. when present to the mind. An attribute of the material (determinable) element in a being. Q Qualified Statements. Quality of propositions. A relatively permanent quality which produces. The number of individuals to whom the judgment or proposition applies. which enables the mind to decide for the truth of a judgment concerning these things and facts. An absolute accident completing and determining a substance in its being and in its operations. The modification of the copula in a sentence. but with the fear of the possibility of error. The fallacy which argues from a statement which is true in a special instance (qualified statement) to the general class. Prosody. Quantity. making it either affirmative or negative. The act or actuality perfecting and determining an essence in such a manner that the entity it gives to the being flows necessarily from its nature. Fallacy of. The "whatness" or essence of a being. or results from. . but are not explicitly contained in its concept as such. Quality. See End. The supreme modes or attributes necessarily connected with every being. That condition or quality of things and facts. Objective. Properties. Quality. Affective. which are different phases of the same fundamental being.Probability. Transcendental. A judgment expressed in a sentence. See Accent. Quiddity. some accidental sensible alteration. Fallacy of. Property.

. Real Division. but only potentially and causally. Real Universal. wheat we perceive is existentially identical with the independent reality. Critical Presentative. Cosmothetical. The resolution of a thing into the natural parts which it has independent of the mind. Realism. The reception of an action on the part of the recipient. The doctrine which holds that man does not infer the existence of external objects from representative images or "ideas" in consciousness. but perceives them directly in some form through a presentation of the objects themselves in senseperception. Aristotelian. Reaction (Passion). The use of a term for a thing in its natural being or existence. That form of presentative realism which holds that some qualities of objects are real and as such are perceived immediately. Realism. Critical. Representative. but it has. relation. The doctrine which holds that we know physical objects by means of. not an internal or immanent. present in the objects. Epistemological. the doctrine which holds that objects have an existence independent of their being known so that their relation to the subject in knowledge is only an external. when being perceived. The theory that the real object has an existence independent of the experient's perception and thought. In general. and in terms of.which it does not possess when not perceived. Also called moderate presentative realism. certain qualities . Real Supposition. but that it is the external object which we know and to which this complex act of cognition is directed. Hypothetical. logical ideas. Realism. Realism.R Rationalism. Realism. See Realism. Representative. See Realism. Realism. See Direct universal. A statement explaining what a thing is in itself.notably the sense qualities -. Real Definition. The method of proving propositions by appealing to abstract and universal principles. while others are not actually and formally. Realism. these latter have no formal existence independent of the perceiving subject.

See Realism. from which it then infers the external. New. Also called immediate. we know only appearances (phenomena) of reality and in them reality is transfigured or altered to such an extent that there is no resemblance between reality and the perceptual knowledge we have of it. Presentative. and there is a foundation in the things themselves for these universal ideas. Representative. Presentative. universals are formally in the mind. Realism. Representative. See Realism. Representative. Presentative. The doctrine which holds that the reality underlying appearances is totally and forever inconceivable to us. Realism. The doctrine which holds that physical. cosmothetical. Also called mediate. but we have universal ideas in the mind. The doctrine which holds that the human mind is immediately aware. Mediate. Objective Representative. external objects are presented directly in some form to consciousness in sense-perception. Presentative. Moderate Presentative. it is the doctrine which holds that there are no universal realities outside the mind. Natural. In the problem of the universals. That form of presentative realism which holds that the things perceived are actually so in nature as they appear to the senses. Realism. . intuitive. See Neo-Realism. not of the external objects themselves. Realism. inferential realism. Realism. but fundamentally in the things. Realism. Realism. but of its own internal "representations" or "ideas" only. See Realism. Critical Presentative. That form of representative realism which holds that our "representations" or "ideas" resemble the external objects. natural realism or perceptionism.Realism. Rigid Presentative. See Realism. Transfigured. Realism. hypothetical. Realism. so that their reality is perceived as it exists "out there" in nature. Realism. See Realism. Realism. Also called naive presentative realism. That form of representative realism which holds that our "representations" or "ideas" do not resemble the external objects. Realism. Immediate. Realism. Realism. Intuitive. Inferential. See Realism. See Realism. non-Ego reality as their cause. Naive Presentative. Rigid Presentative. Subjective Representative. Moderate.

Predicamental). A relation in which the foundation in both extremes is of the same nature and degree. ordination) of one thing to something else. Non-Mutual. Essential (Transcendental). Asymmetrical. Real. Reduplicative Proposition. Reflex Universal. It is the bearing (reference. The power of the mind which perceives the truth and validity of derived ideas. The reason why one thing is related to another. Relation. Symmetrical. respect. Relation. Foundation of. Relation. A relation whose foundation is real or logical in both extremes. A relation which exists between things. Mutual. The subject and term of a relation. Relation. Reasoning. See Relation. Relation. A relation based on an accident as its foundation. and principles on the basis of indirect and mediate evidence. Accidental. A proposition which contains an expression which duplicates the subject or predicate and implies the reason or cause for the connection between subject and predicate. See Relation. Relation. Accidental (Categorical. Relation. Essential. independent of the mind and its thinking. A relation made solely by the mind and placed by the mind between entities. judgments. Relation. Logical. Predicamental. See Logical universal. Mutual. A relation in which the foundation in both extremes is of a different nature or degree. Relation. Mutual. . attitude. Transcendental. Categorical. Relation. Accidental. A relation in which the very essence of one thing has a bearing toward something.Reason. Relation. Relation. Relation. Relation. A relation whose foundation is real or logical in one of the extremes only. See Mediate inference. Extremes of. See Relation.

and that the perceptual content is "objectively" present in nature precisely as experienced in perception and cognition.Relative Ideas. Relativism. It advocates a natural dualism of God and creature. Two incompatible ideas united in such a way that the one cannot be understood without the other. as against monism and pantheism. Relativism. positivism. according to the relative standpoint of the individual perceiver. A conscious experience aroused by the stimulation of an organ of sense. Sensation. the doctrine that the existence and character of experienced data depend upon the occurrence of percipient events and therefore upon the nature and situation of the experiencing organism as their essential and proximately determining factor. Representationalism. Objective. it defends a moderate realism. Second Intention. The system of philosophy. which follows the general lines of Aristotle's principles. nominalism and conceptualism. it is common-sense knowledge critically examined and philosophically vindicated. objectivistic and not subjectivistic. as against ultra-realism. he doctrine that every known object is relative (in relation) to the knowing subject and as such is dependent in its being upon the knowing subject and incapable of existing apart from consciousness. mind and matter. Universal of. In epistemology. A proposition expressing a relationship of time or place between two statements. it is spiritualistic and not materialistic. Self-Consciousness. In epistemology. Reflex consciousness. prevalent in the middle ages. A reward given for the observance of a law and the punishment meted out for the violation of a law. Representative. by means of which the Ego apprehends itself concretely in its own mental acts and states. experimental and not aprioristic. the doctrine of the immanence of relations as constitutive of their being. Scholasticism. and innatism. See Realism. as against sensism. Relative Proposition. thought and thing. that the object known possesses the character exhibited by the datum only "in relation to" this given organism. in sense-perception it is presentational and not agnostic or representational or idealistic. concerning intellectual knowledge it defends a moderate rationalism. See Logical universal. . self-awareness. S Sanction.

See Skepticism. Single Categoricals. Skepticism. inversely. Skepticism. Ideas which represent a single object only. A proposition which contains an expression which duplicates the subject or predicate and implies the time element or condition of this connection. See Sensationalism. A permanent union of a number of persons in fellowship and cooperation for a common purpose of benefit to all. The reasoning of one who doubts the possibility of knowledge of reality. infinite and uncreated. or. in which the thinker is certain only of his own personal internal states of mind. Sophism.Sensationalism. one in which the subject of the preceding premise becomes the predicate of the following premise. when maintained as a philosophic principle. namely one subject. with the conclusion composed of the subject of the last premise and the predicate of the first premise. Absolute. the final conclusion being composed of the subject of the first premise and the predicate of the last. Simple Ideas. Species. and the copula. of which nature (matter) and thought (mind) are the attributes. Ideas whose comprehension consists of one single attribute or element. Absolute. The doctrine of Baruch Spinoza which holds that there exists but a single substance. The absence of any leaning toward either side of any question. absolute. Simple Term. the systematic doubt which characterizes a philosophic skeptic. A predicable or universal idea which expresses the whole essence of a thing. Singular Ideas. An abridged polysyllogism consisting of three or more premises in such a way that the predicate of the preceding premise become the subject of the following premise. Solipsism. Pyrrhonic. Specificative Proposition. The doctrine which holds that sensation is the sole origin of knowledge. . The skeptical attitude. metaphysical monism. one predicate. Spinozism. Propositions consisting of but a single sentence in their construction. A term consisting of a single word. Sensism. Society. The use of deceptive words and ideas with the purpose of misleading and deceiving. Skepticism. it is a pantheistic. Sorites.

entitatively distinct among themselves. In logic. Subalternation. In logic. Substance. In epistemology. unified nature. perception. the knower. See Hypostasis. and between a universal and particular negative. Subject. Primary. Substance. the use of a term or word for the thing which it signifies. Secondary.Statistics. Principle of. A substance whose nature demands no further union with a substantial coprincipal. Complete. Incomplete. A being whose nature it is to exist in and for itself and not in another as in a subject. The classification and evaluation of group phenomena by an analysis of data supplied by enumeration and measurement. . the logical opposition existing between a universal and particular affirmative. A substance whose nature demands that it be conjoined with some other substantial coprincipal. concrete substantial being. Any generic or specific substance. A substance which does not consist of substantial parts which are entitatively distinct among themselves. that which possesses knowledge. Subsistence. the logical opposition existing between a particular affirmative and a particular negative. consciousness. That mode of existence in virtue of which a thing is self-contained and autonomous in its operations. in so far as it possesses internal states of knowledge. Subcontrariety. thought. even if no production be involved. Substance. The doctrine which holds that we can immediately know only what is present in consciousness. Suppositum. Composite. Supposition. The principle which states that everything without exception must have an adequate reason or ground for its being and existence. Subjectivism. Substance. Substance. in such a manner that their union results in a single. the mind. Substance. Substance. Simple. A substance consisting of incomplete substantial parts. Sufficient Reason. Any individual. In logic.

accidental. Term. distinct from either of the former. The goal or ending-point toward which something proceeds. partly for the same and partly for a different reason. Thomism. Terminus A Quo. a posteriori. A term which is used of totally diverse things. The information or evidence obtained from competent and reliable witnesses. from the universal to the particular. from two judgments that contain a common idea and one at least of which is universal. Testimony. One of the schools of scholastic philosophy. from the "logical whole" to the "logical part. Term. utilitarianism. E. directly or indirectly. expressive of an idea. a third judgment.Syllogism.g. Synthesis. from the cause to effect. The tendency of efficient causes to realize definite results through their action. from the necessary to the contingent. The starting-point from which something proceeds. Univocal. Teleology. from the general to the special. The scientific method in which the mind proceeds from the simple to the complex.. A term which designates a number of things in an identical sense. A proposition in which neither the subject nor the predicate is contained in the comprehension of the other. Term. follows with necessity. Analogous. from the general law to the individual cases. An argumentation in which. -. Synthetic Proposition." from the principle to the applications of the principle. A species of axiological ethics which makes the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on an estimate of its actual or probable conduciveness to some end or of its actual or probable productiveness. Synonyms: Contingent. Term. . so that it has entirely different meanings. Equivocal.Top of Page -- T Teleological Ethics. A term applied to unlike things. of the maximum good. Terminus Ad Quem. A sensible conventional sign.

Objective. Metaphysical. but that there exist extra-mental universal realities corresponding to them. The conformity (agreement) between intellect and thing. Supreme and fundamental ideas which admit of no strict definition because of their extreme simplicity." The First Principle: the Principle of Contradiction . The First Fact: my own existence . Truth. the characteristic of human knowledge enabling the mind to pass beyond the limits of its own internal state and to know extra-mental reality. Mental. Truth. Truth. The doctrine which excludes the human body as an essential participant in the vital functions of man. See Truth. Truth. Transcendence. Truth." -. Ontological (Metaphysical. Ultra-Realism. In metaphysics. Moral. Truth. The agreement of a being with the intellect. Transcendental Ideas. See Truth.Top of Page -- U Ultra-Mechanism." The First Condition: the essential trustworthiness of reason . Truths. Objective). so that the body is considered to be actuated solely by mechanical forces. The agreement of the intellect with the thing. Truth. The doctrine which holds that we have not only universal ideas in the mind.Traditionalism. The doctrine which holds that God gave a primitive revelation to mankind which is handed down as a tradition from generation to generation. Logical. . Ontological."It is impossible for a thing to be and not to be at the same time."Reason is capable of knowing truth."I exist. See Truth. The agreement of speech with thought. Primary. something which goes beyond all ordinary classifications and categories of being. Ontological. Logical. Transcendental. and this tradition is the ultimate foundation of knowledge and criterion of truth. In epistemology.

The unity of a thing in such a manner that it does not consist of any parts into which it could be divided. Unity. The principle which states that "Nature is uniform in its causality". Universal Propositions. an idea. Real. Predicamental. Propositions in which the subject is a universal term used distributively to each and all of the class. See Unity. Understanding. Unity of Simplicity. Ideas which represent some common nature or attribute which can be applied to a class as a whole and to each individual of that class. Universal Term. will always produce the same results. Universal. Unity of Composition. Uniformity of Nature. under the same conditions. Univocal Term.Ultra-Spiritualism. Unity. See Unity. destroying the conception of man as an organism. Principle of. so that a cognitional communication between them is impossible. The unity of a being in such a manner that it is a whole not actually divided into the real parts of which it consists. or. That mode or attribute of a being in virtue of which a being is undivided in itself (and divided from every other being). the content of which is predicable of a class as a class and of each individual member of a class. . A unit considered as a standard for measuring mathematical or numerical quantity. A term which expresses a universal idea and can be applied to each individual of a class and to the class itself. Logical. Predicamental. The indivision of a thing in its entity." Unity. Predicamental (Mathematical. Numerical. Unity. The doctrine which postulates an excessive dualism between mind (soul) and body in the human Ego. In epistemology. The indivision of a universal idea (class) considered as a whole of which the inferiors are parts. Mathematical. The power of the mind which perceives the truth and validity of ideas and principles on the basis of direct and immediate evidence. Universal Ideas. A term used constantly in an identical sense. Unity. Unity. Numerical). "the same non-free causes.

Will. Volition which must follow the apprehension of a perfect good. as a category. Z Zoroastrianism. Value. Position in space. according to the viewpoint and use of the individual persons. a universal idea which expresses duration of motion. and Anra-mainyu (Ahriman) is the supreme Principle of Evil. Volition which results in consequence of a deliberation over the respective merits of particular values. Terms which are subject to shades and degrees of meaning. Rational appetition. Natural. Volition. That which is perfect or perfective. An oriental theory.V Vague Terms. Where. Deliberate. a universal idea which signifies position in space. Situation in time. as a category. originating with Zoroaster (or Zarathustra) which maintains that the forces of good and evil are waging a constant battle for supremacy. Volition. W When. Ahura-mazda (Ormuzd) is the supreme Principle of Good. Volition. . The rational appetency or the power to strive for an intellectually perceived good and to shun an intellectually perceived evil.

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