Maritime International is a leading manufacturer of marine bollards and cleats worldwide. Our range of bollards and cleats is unsurpassed by any other manufacturer or supplier. Maritime can provide many of the most popular “legacy” style bollards, optimized bollards, or cast any new style to meet custom requirements. It is Maritime’s mission to provide the bollards or cleats our customers require, and not just what we offer. Maritime International began designing and manufacturing mooring bollards over ten years ago with the philosophy to supply the highest quality products backed by reliable engineering and testing. Numerous suppliers of marine bollards in the market consider only the commercial aspects of the product. Maritime’s ability to consider technical and commercial considerations collectively is what has made our company unique. Our customers rely on mooring bollards and cleats to perform as expected, and it is our experience, technical expertise, and integrity which provides this assurance. Contained within this catalog are the details of our latest bollard and cleat designs, a reference to our “legacy” bollards, which are still available, and general technical information regarding the selection and installation of bollards and cleats. Should you require additional information, or require support for a unique mooring solution, Maritime engineers are available around the world to satisfy your requirements.
Large differences in line angles may also occur at multipurpose berths where widely varying vessel sizes frequent the same berth. as well as the material used to cast the bollard. The two column design allows two lines to be secured and independently released without having to compromise the mooring of an adjacent vessel. The opposing sloping columns are particularly useful for securing of spring lines as their greatest strength is parallel to the berth.
There is some confusion within the marine industry over how mooring bollards are rated and how one goes about selecting a bollard with regards to capacity. Accordingly.
© 2010 Maritime International. or Port Engineer. Currently there is no governing body recognized in the industry. The line loads can be influenced by numerous factors including vessel size. The particular type of bollard a customer requests. This lack of a standard rating method can result in unsafe mooring practices and products. This feature may be of particular importance where very large changes in water level result in significant differences in line angles. Double Bitt bollards are useful when high densities of mooring lines are present. Kidney shaped bollards offer an economical solution for installations where securing of mooring lines at high angles is not a concern. Maritime provides a wide range of products. is usually a function of what has historically been used at the operator’s facility.Bollard Types & Selection
Mooring bollards are available in a wide range of shapes. as well as simple cleats used for smaller vessels. vessel deck equipment. elasticity of the mooring lines. and anchorage. bollard spacing. This choice must be respected to ensure the safe usage of the product. and numerous other factors. passing vessels. during the detailed design of the berth. There are three primary areas of concern when considering the load rating of a bollard:
1.All rights reserved. Staghorn. It may also be the preference of the consultant as they may have considered a particular bollard model. Inc. communicate as to what is expected of the product and how that bollard will perform in service. of which no single combination can satisfy all customers. It is for this reason that it is not a simple question to ask “What load rating is necessary for a vessel of a particular carrying capacity?” In fact. T-head. It is critical that both the manufacturer of the bollard and the Consultant. there are differences amongst models that should be considered when selecting a bollard. What is the actual un-factored line load determined to be necessary
at the berth? This load should be determined by a qualified engineer that has performed a detailed mooring analysis. T-head bollards are more prominent in some regions while Single Bitt bollards are more commonly used in others. These differences can also be geographically dependent. For example. While customer preference may determine the model supplied by Maritime. load ratings. T-head and Staghorn bollards can handle higher line load angles than Single Bitt and Kidney shaped bollards. This style is not recommended when multiple mooring lines will share one bollard as there may be a possibility of an unintentional release due to the shallow lip at the top of the bollard. and materials. wind conditions. current conditions. . along with its particular shape. The most commonly used style of bollards are the Single Bitt. and Kidney. This is also a significant reason for wide price variations offered by the numerous suppliers in the market. the carrying capacity of the vessel may be one of the least importance parameters. load rating.
. tidal levels. Double Bitt.
confirm our engineering designs and provide conclusive evidence of our product’s capacity.
Cast Steel Advantages
Cast steel is available in a wide range of strengths. The load capacity of the bollard and anchorage system may also be intentionally limited. the loads on each anchor bolt. the organic shapes of bollards can lead to erroneous results and therefore should not be used alone for the final design of any bollard or cleat.
Ductile Iron Advantages
Ductile Iron is more corrosion resistant than steel and can tolerate compromised coatings better than steel. While hand calculations are helpful in the preliminary design of the bollard. Other types of cast iron can be used. It is not possible for the bollard supplier alone to consider other significant loads being carried by the concrete such as the deck load. to avoid damage to the wharf. to satisfy the load requirements of the customer. the strength of the concrete itself. and the failure mode of the bollard and anchorage system? The bollard itself can be rated based on its yield strength or ultimate strength. Ductile Iron is more fluid during the casting stage and results in a smoother finish with more intricate details allowed. geographical preferences exist when making this choice. The required anchorage can only be determined by considering factors such as anchor bolt size. Some valid technical characteristics that may influence the choice of steel versus iron follow. but they lack the predictable ductile failure mode preferred by Engineers.2.
What is the necessary anchorage capacity of the bollard to the wharf to ensure safe mooring and to avoid costly structural damage in the event of concrete failure from an overload condition? This subject. in and of itself. and embedment depth. Bollard shapes are optimized and the casting material chosen through the use of finite element analysis. consideration must be given to the failure mode so that a predictable release of the mooring line is possible without the failed bollard and anchorage system causing harm to port and vessel personnel and equipment. often decided by what is currently being used at the facility. While this technique is useful for the intended purpose. at strategic locations in the system. grade. This is usually accomplished through the use of fuse bolts that can be predicted to fail near a certain load which allows for easy replacement of the failed component without structural damage to the wharf. such as when a name or other information must be cast into the bollard. The shape of the bollard itself can also be adjusted. What is the working capacity of the bollard. as well as the influence of the reinforcing bars located in the vicinity of the bollard anchors. crane loads. ductile cast iron gives needed structural margin over gray iron in the event of an overload situation. All of Maritime’s bollard load ratings are certified using both finite element analysis and hand calculations.
Maritime guarantees the load capacity of its bollard castings through rigorous analytical and numerical analysis. Cast steel with minor defects or damage can be easily repaired using standard welding techniques and personnel and can even be welded down to supporting steel structures should that option be preferred over bolting. when in reality it needs to be determined by the structural engineer of the wharf who should be in close communication with the bollard supplier on the size and loads of the anchors being provided. whether the bollard is keyed into the concrete or surface mounted. Regular load testing. The choice of whether to use cast steel or cast iron is usually a preference of the customer. to yield and failure loads. This allows the bollard to be commercially competitive versus thicker cast iron bollards.
Mooring bollards are typically manufactured using the sand casting method with the materials of choice being either steel or ductile iron. if necessary.
. The ductility of cast steel gives needed structural margin in the event of an overload situation. and fender loads. is a very complicated one. the ultimate failure load.
3. Although not as ductile as steel. Bollard suppliers are sometimes asked to demonstrate anchor pullout capacity. Again.
65-35 A27 Gr. 70-36 A27 Gr.Min. Inc. ksi [Mpa] 45  51  Elongation.Material Specifications
Cast Steel ASTM Specifications
ASTM Grade A27 Gr. Min. 70-40 A148 Gr.
. Min. % NA NA
© 2010 Maritime International. ksi [Mpa] 65  80  Yield Strength. ksi [MPa] 65  70  70  80  Yield Strength Min. or 50mm. 450-310 1083 Gr. ksi [MPa] 65  80  Yield Strength Min. 340-550 Tensile Strength. or 50mm. . Min. 550-350 Tensile Strength. Min. ksi [MPa] 45  55  Elongation in 2 in. Min % 12 6 Reduction of Area. Min. % 31 25 21
Ductile Iron ASTM Specifications
ASTM Grade A536 Gr. % 22 18 15 Reduction of Area. 80-55-06 Tensile Strength Min. 65-45-12 A536 Gr. Min.All rights reserved. % 35 30 30 35
Cast Steel ISO Specifications
ISO Grade 3755 Gr. ksi [Mpa] 33  39  49  Elongation. Min % 24 22 22 22 Reduction of Area. ksi [MPa] 35  36  40  50  Elongation in 2 in. Min % N/A N/A
Ductile Iron ISO Specifications
ISO Grade 1083 Gr. 230-450 3755 Gr. ksi [Mpa] 65  70  80  Yield Strength. Min. 270-480 3755 Gr. % 10 5 Reduction of Area. 80-50 Tensile Strength Min. Min.
Traditionally. Maritime can supply a unique solution whereby the recess form work and anchor location template can be combined into one tool. The most common method is utilizing cast-in-place embedded anchors. or epoxy-in anchors for retrofitting existing structures. This is particularly significant for cast steel bollards. For installations where the bollard is to be set into a recess cast into the concrete.
Always follow installation procedures supplied by Maritime when installing our bollards as each installation may be unique and require special instructions. but some attention to the abrasion resistance of the coating should given as the direct contact and movement of the mooring lines will result in accelerated wear of any coating.
Various options exist for the installation of mooring bollards and cleats. Particular attention should be paid to the torque values recommended for each installation. Contact Maritime for more information or assistance with this technique.
Non-Shrink Grout Recess
Coatings are an essential part of the system as it prevents excessive corrosion that can weaken a bollard. Virtually any coating requested can be applied. Bollards can be supplied fully painted from our factory or with an easily removable rust preventative primer that allows surface preparation and coating on-site after installation. Cast-in anchors or pipe sleeves should be set in place with the aid of a template or setting frame which will locate the anchors within the proper tolerances. Alternate methods include through bolting with cast in pipe sleeves. which are less corrosion resistant than ductile iron bollards. cleats are supplied hot dip galvanized. but can also be supplied painted if requested.
It is also possible for Maritime to supply anchorages in standard 316 stainless steel. duplex stainless steel. and embedded setting frames if required. Please contact Maritime for specific information when considering stainless steel anchors. and stress caused by various loads considered in the wharf design.
Item Bolts Nuts (Heavy Hex) Washers Plate Washers Standard Grades ASTM F1554 Gr. and PCA codes and methods.
© 2010 Maritime International. The required embedment depth of the bollard anchorage is highly dependent on the wharf construction and will depend on numerous factors including concrete strength. BS. Bollard anchorages are typically designed in accordance with AISC. DH ASTM F436 ASTM A36 ISO Grades ISO 898 Gr. The final approval of the anchorage embedment depth should be approved by the consultant or a qualified engineer that is aware of all the site conditions. These documents are supplied at the delivery time of the bollards or cleats.Mounting Hardware
Maritime bollards should be installed using our suggested hardware diameters and grades as these have been carefully calculated to match the load ratings of the bollard.All rights reserved. Inc. . reinforcing bar design. 105 ASTM A563 Gr. custom plate washers. All carbon steel anchors and associated nuts and plate washers are supplied hot dip galvanized to ASTM A123 or A153 standards as required. and super duplex stainless steel. 8. Additionally anchors can be supplied with leveling nuts. Alternate diameters and grades can be considered if approved by Maritime. Maritime’s standard anchors are supplied according to the specifications listed below.8 ISO 898 Gr. Additional standards or material grades can be considered upon request. In standard applications anchors are supplied with nuts and plate washers. ACI.
. Bollard anchors are usually supplied as partially threaded bars with each end of the anchor having enough threaded length to allow for field adjustment of the anchor’s vertical positioning. 8 ISO 887 ISO 630
Quality Control Documentation
A final documentation package is prepared by Maritime and includes the following documents: • • • • • • • Drawings of the bollard and associated anchors with installation details Engineering calculations and analysis demonstrating load capacity Installation procedure Chemical analysis test reports Mechanical test reports Dimensional as-built reports Coating test reports
Additional quality assurance and control can be supplied in the form of full scale proof loading of the bollards as well as coupons attached to the supplied bollards that allow our customers the opportunity to perform their own chemical and mechanical testing after delivery.