1Ht. d. Mech. Sci. Pergamon Press Ltd. 1960. Vol. 1, 1717. 356 365.

Printed in Great Britab)



J. F. ELY a n d O. C. ZIENKIEWICZ Northwestern University, Illinois
{Received 30 June 1959)

Summary--This paper deals with a finite-difference solution of the torsion problem of nonhomogeneous and compound prismatic bars. General, governing equations for both problems are developed and the boundary conditions for an interface between parts composed of homogeneous but different materials are stated. The case of multiply connected regions is discussed and integral conditions, analogous to the conditions in multiply connected homogeneous bars, are developed. Examples illustrating various types of problems are worked out and the accuracy of the method demonstrated by comparison with some known solutions. NOTATION

0 G

T s, n

co-ordinates d i s p l a c e m e n t c o m p o n e n t s in x y z direction shear stresses t w i s t per unit length m o d u l u s of rigidity P r a n d t l ' s stress function torque t a n g e n t a n d n o r m a l directions to curve ratio of G 2 to G~ 1. I N T R O D U C T I O N

THE increasing use of geometrically c o m p l i c a t e d composite sections in practice has p r o m p t e d this investigation of the torsion of composite bars. Composite sections are used in reinforced concrete a n d aircraft, as well as o t h e r m o r e specialized applications, a n d the m e t h o d s p r e s e n t e d here should p r o v e useful in solving the torsion p r o b l e m in these fields. Several p r o b l e m s on t h e torsion of c o m p o u n d p r i s m a t i c bars h a v e been solved a n a l y t i c a l l y b y Muskhelishvilli, 1 Gorgidze, 2 Mitra, 3 T a k e y a m a , 4 Suhareviki, 5 S h e r m a n , 6 Cowan, 7 Craven s a n d others. T h e p r o b l e m s solved generally dealt with cross-sectional shapes t h a t could be m a p p e d conformally, w i t h relat i v e ease. While these a n a l y t i c a l solutions of the torsion p r o b l e m for b o t h h o m o geneous as well as composite bars are exceedingly i m p o r t a n t , it is necessary to use r e l a x a t i o n m e t h o d s to solve the p r o b l e m of e v e n a h o m o g e n e o u s b a r w h e n t h e g e o m e t r y of the cross-section becomes c o m p l i c a t e d as i n s t a n c e d b y n u m e r o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s b y Southwell, 9 Shaw, 1° Allen, 11 Dobie 12 a n d others 13-16. Since the h o m o g e n e o u s b a r can be easily t r e a t e d b y r e l a x a t i o n m e t h o d s , it 356

The additional conditions required in the case of a multiply connected cross-section will also be derived. i. y). Indeed.e. It is anticipated t h a t any digital computer programmes available for solution of the Poisson equation could be easily adapted to the type of problems discussed. and not to illustrate the handling of especially complicated boundaries. and examples will be shown for each class of problem. the treatment of this more general case also turns out to be simple. 1 and a material which has a continuously varying G in cross-section. without slipping. Finally. and then for those that are composed of two distinct materials joined together. Equations will be developed for simply connected cross-sections. at an interface. the membrane analogy will be discussed in detail and other analogies pointed out. Torsion of a bar.Torsion of compound bars--a relaxation solution 357 seemed logical to a t t e m p t to extend these methods to cover the case of simply and multiply connected composite bars when the geometry of the crosssection is complicated. Co-ordinates used. 1. 17 and using Prandtl's stress function ¢. GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR CONTINUOUSLY VARYING G Consider Fig. where the material has a continuously varying G. but whose G is independent of z. which defines the two stress components by 8¢ 8¢ (2) . More complex boundary shapes can be dealt with as usual by using a finer mesh size which will require more time to obtain the required solutions. It should be pointed out that the purpose of the examples which were chosen for this paper is to illustrate how the method can be applied to the various general classes of problems. Following the notation used by Timoshenko and Goodier. 2. (1) / I~'XG. G = G(x.

z = .Y~'xz} dx dy. =-20. The sufficient and necessary boundary condition on the external boundary C becomes ¢ = 0. To ensure continuity of the axial displacement w. ZIENKIEWlCZ and. (5) To determine the torque T acting on the section.G Sy + Oy' aw _ ~Y 1 84 G Sx Ox' (3) all the relations between stresses and strains are determined correctly. (6) For purposes of computation it is convenient to rewrite the above relationships in a non-dimensional form. it follows from the definition (2) that the stress function on this boundary must have a constant value. we take the displacement components given by u=-Oyz. we have. G = G'G o. ¢'=0 or G. in which L represents some typical dimension of the section. which. Substituting x = x'L. (4) In the case of constant G this reduces to the familiar Poisson equation V 2¢=~±~y~- a~5 824 2GO. (4a) As the shear stress normal to the external boundary must be zero..358 J . by substitution of (2) and (5). we integrate T = ffa(X-%z . y = y'L. that O axYd+ or ~ .( G o O L ) 88¢n'.~¢ xy +8y3(G (G ¢ ) )~ x =-2Go. ¢ = 4 ' ( G 00L2). v=Oxz. F . in place of (4) and (5).. . aw l 84 8x . with the other stresses equal to zero. This constant can be arbitrarily fixed as zero. b y differentiating the final two expressions of (3).)dR (9) (10) . we find that the equilibrium equations are automatically satisfied. we have. in addition. ELY and O. C. If. T = 2G00L4ffdp ' dx' dy'. and Go some typical value of G. yields T = 2 f f R ¢ dx dy. (8) The stresses and the torque are given b y % .

The first of these can be expressed as ~¢1 8s- 8¢2 8s- on C2. a n d (b) the axial displacements are compatible on the interface.Torsion of compound bars--a relaxation solution 3. On the e x t e r n a l b o u n d a r y . 2. (11) which can be satisfied b y m a k i n g ¢1=¢2 on C2. are required. (12a) n being the direction of the n o r m a l to Ca. satisfying equation (4) in their domains. Z JLX FIc. T h e second condition is satisfied if 8w1= 8wa 8s ~s on Ca. The p r o b l e m t h u s becomes v e r y similar to those e n c o u n t e r e d in porous media flow. if G 1 and G a refer to the values of G in the respective regions. I t can be seen t h a t t h e stress function will be continuous across the interface. which separates regions R 1 a n d R a. G O V E R N I N G EQUATIONS FOR A DISCONTINUOUS G 359 W e shall now consider the section shown in Fig. the b o u n d a r y condition (5) still has to be imposed. two functions. ¢1 and Ca. or in . to specify the problem completely. (12) which b y the use of (3) can be shown to be equivalent to 1 8¢1 = 1 8¢8 G 1 8n G~ 8n on Ca. Torsion of a composite bar. These conditions m u s t ensure t h a t : (a) the shear stresses n o r m a l to the interface are the same in each region. w h e t h e r C2 cuts it or not. 2. (lla) as t h e addition of a r b i t r a r y constants does n o t affect the results. H o w e v e r . b u t its derivatives will in general be discontinuous there. Clearly. additional r e q u i r e m e n t s h a v e to be imposed on the interface. where a d i s c o n t i n u i t y occurs in the v a r i a t i o n of G at the interface Ca.

However. using a continuously varying G. MULTIPLY CONNECTED CROSS-SECTIONS In the problems examined so far the condition of single-valued displacements is automatically satisfied. homogeneous sections (see Timoshenko and Goodier17). by approximating to the discontinuity in G by a continuous but steep. and using the non-dimensional notation of the previous section. an equivalent condition has to be established. which is already implicit. 2. (14) on interface.F. is well known for the problem of torsion of multiply connected. It should be noted t h a t the methods of the previous section. when the permeabilities differ abruptly. in which arbitrarily e 1 ~ e 0 and G2 ~ = G~" These relations will be used in the illustrative examples shown later. integrating (12a) around the interface C2. If. Such a condition. (15) in R2. ELY a n d O. = ¢~. ZIENKIEWICZ the determination of magnetic fields. an additional condition would be required. Now we shall take G2 as being equal to a constant k in R2. referring to Fig. each having constant elastic properties. however. The results obtained by using this procedure. This is particularly easy to do in finite-difference treatment. we have V2¢~=-2 in R1. usually expressed in a form of a line integral. however. one of the conditions on the "interface" now is that ¢1 is equal to a constant. where G1 may be variable. It is well known that phenomena of refraction of the flow lines occur in such instances. no condition being imposed on ~¢1/~n. variation. as does the method of this section.360 J. and will be illustrated later. For the problem on hand. 4. the region enclosed by C~ were empty. C. we have . Considering the case of a bar made of two materials. as could be shown by integration of the expressions (3). and let this constant tend to zero. (13) V2¢~=-2a with ¢' = 0 on external boundary and ¢. merely giving ~¢2/~n = O. We shall derive this by taking the case of a hole as a limiting case of the problem discussed in the previous section. are not as accurate (for a given mesh size) as those obtained by assuming the G discontinuous. Condition (12a) becomes insufficient in the limit. Clearly. could be used to solve this problem of a discontinuous G a t an interface.

the problem of viscous flow of fluid in a tube. c. z-=¢. Gx an I t can be seen t h a t this equation reduces to the familiar form when G1 is a constant. 5. Therefore we obtain after substitution .. we obtain 1 0¢1 1 f ( I02¢2+a2¢. equation (4a) applies inside and on C2. MEMBRANE AND O T H E R ANALOGIES I t has been pointed out t h a t the torsion problem of a homogeneous bar is analogous.O)dx dy (16) 1 a¢1 . I t can be observed t h a t as G2 tends to zero. These include the membrane under constant pressure.2GOAv. mathematically.G2 JJAo. 0¢1 = -. namely. flow of a current in a conductor of variable thickness.tdxdy.. I t is well known t h a t the deflections of a membrane subjected to a constant pressure and tension satisfy the equation V2z = q T (in which q is a pressure. c. -.= . with several other physical problems. T the membrane tension and Z the deflection). ¢2 must become constant in region R~ to satisfy the governing equation (4). while G1 is a function of x and y.2G~. G1 ~n 1 (~" ( j j ~v. is the area inside the curve C9. I t can easily be shown t h a t in the case of a membrane with variable tension the equivalent expression is ( bz\ ax O/ ~z) The analogy with equation (4) is now obvious if 1 T=~._ 20At. We shall discuss only one of these. . 24 q=20.Torsion of compound bars--a relaxation solution 361 where G2 is a constant. and the analogy of the "floating disc" is again applicable. Since G2 is constant. namely. the membrane analogy.0¢1 c. ~n A sufficient number of boundar y conditions is now available for a unique solution of multiply connected sections. Applying Green's Theorem in two dimensions to the right-hand side. and in general an y of the physical problems which satisfy Poisson's or Laplace's equation.1.. C. These analogies can be extended to the case of a composite bar in torsion with rewarding results. G1 an . as it is in the case of homogeneous sections. [~x~x2 aY~ where Ac.

Again. values of ¢' × 104.0. E x a m p l e s A and B (Figs. The general t r e a t m e n t of Poisson's equation is now virtually s t a n d a r d for the usual N e u m a n n and Dirichlet b o u n d a r y conditions and the main problems e n c o u n t e r e d here are those pertaining to the interface between the two materials. C. as well as for m u l t i p l y connected regions. can be deduced. a = l. Torsion of a square composite bar. and no special difficulty was e n c o u n t e r e d in their application in the examples solved. As t h e techniques t e x t s (e. as the conditions at the interface are essentially similar to those e n c o u n t e r e d in the t r e a t m e n t of seepage or magnetic field problems in media of different permeabihties. techniques or relaxation t r e a t m e n t are well known. used for the first time b y Christopherson. 6.which in the case of an interface becomes a line force. F . I t should be observed t h a t the variation of T implies existence of distributed forces parallel to the x y p l a n e s . 3(a). ELY and O. E X A M P L E S The governing equations and their respective easily t r a n s f o r m e d into suitable finite-difference can t h e n be obtained b y application of relaxation of b o t h are well k n o w n and described in m a n y Y L 2 b o u n d a r y conditions can be relationships and a solution methods. TM are excellently described in Allen's text.g. ZIENKIEWICZ Discontinuous variation of G can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a discontinuous variation of the m e m b r a n e tension and because T~n=- ~z Aq b y statics. As a possible experim e n t a l solution the m e m b r a n e analogy does not a p p e a r practicable. Allen n) it is not ~2oo '--400~ ~ Y 1134'--lOGO 1~76 '%\ 1462 i 13 / I J-X T.1388 (G~L 4) Fro. The a c c u r a c y . proposed to elaborate on these m a t t e r s here. These.362 J . 3(a-c) and 4) show problems in which straight a n d c u r v e d interfaces between two materials occur respectively. Example A. all the other relationships for interface conditions.

and these values are always greater t h a n the t r u e value. T = 0"2358 (G o OL4).4~0""-"-" S /600~ 640 95"~ ~. a = T = 0.~L~ x E x a m p l e A.1941 0. T o r s i o n o f a s q u a r e c o m p o s i t e b a r .1941 (GOL4). . T = D(Go 8L 4) Torsional rigidity. a = 3.2399 (% discrepancy ) 1. 3(c). L.71 * Only t w o t e r m s of the series solution were used. 3(b). v a l u e s o f ¢ ' x 104 .28 1.Torsion of compound baxs--a relaxation solution 363 of the r e l a x a t i o n solution can be seen f r o m t h e t a b l e below.2358 Timoshenko 0-1406 Muskhelishvilli* 0-1407 0-1972 0. D By relaxation 0-1388 0. E x a m p l e A.I Illl/ / / I FIG. T o r s i o n o f a s q u a r e c o m p o s i t e b a r . v a h m s o f ~ ' x 104. L T Ill I Values of a = 1 = 2 a = 3 (1710) (2623) (2837) (2388) (1989) (1500) (863) ~X FIG.57 1.~ 921 i ~1400~ ~180''~ J603 J I L 2 i . in which the stiffness of the bars of example A obtained from a relatively coarse mesh solution are compared with values computed by a series solution developed by MuskhelishvilliL L E- 200~. 2000 . ~ 1 0 4 4 ~12 0 0 " ' . The error increases w i t h increasing a.

Solutions w i t h a c o n s t a n t a n d a r b i t r a r y value of the stress function on t h e hole b o u n d a r y are first o b t a i n e d using the governing equation (4) a n d excluding the nonh o m o g e n e o u s t e r m . values o f ~ ' × 104. T h e n a solution of the full e q u a t i o n with a zero value of . C. G was a s s u m e d to v a r y in a continuous w a y f r o m G 1 to G 2 within a distance of one m e s h length. T h e coarseness of the m e s h resulted in a n error of a b o u t 6 per cent in the final stiffness as c o m p a r e d w i t h the e x a c t solution. T h e p r o c e d u r e m a y . Torsion of a square bar with a circular insert. however. ZIENKIEViICZ To t e s t the a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d of satisfying the interface conditions. 5) t h e case of a m u l t i p l y connected region is considered in which t h e interface b e t w e e n two m a t e r i a l s cuts t h e hole b o u n d a r y . h o m o g e n e o u s shafts. i. it p r o v e d to be less a c c u r a t e t h a n the m e t h o d e m p l o y i n g the correct interface conditions. Example B. The finite difference expression of e q u a t i o n (4) can now be used directly at all m e s h points. T h e p r o c e d u r e followed here was essentially the s a m e as described b y Shaw 1° for the t r e a t m e n t of m u l t i p l y connected. 4. FIG. while the others are for a discontinuous v a r i a t i o n of G.e. be a d v a n t a g e o u s w h e n n u m e r o u s c u r v e d interfaces occur. ELY a n d O. [Fig. = 10. :F. 3(c) ]. Values in parentheses. refer to an a s s u m e d continuous v a r i a t i o n of G. I n e x a m p l e C (Fig.364 J . 3(c)]. in one of t h e e x a m p l e s [see Fig.

Phys. SUHAREVIKI. CRAVEN. F. Soc. SOUTHWELL. 950 (I953). SHERMAN and M. 17. Bull. 344 (1952). HISAO TAKEYAMA. N. 5. Rep. MITRA. Mathematika 1. 11. 15. B. H.lnzh. Coll. Proc. Struct. ACA-11. 381 (1949). . HIGGINS. Lond. DOBYE. I. I. SHAW. R. New York (1951). V. Japan 2. Nauk S S S R 6. 14. sborn. 317 (1936). Aeronaut. T h i s c o m b i n e d s o l u t i o n satisfies t h e i n t e g r a l c o n d i t i o n (16). N. 7. 16. The Torsion of Solid and Hollow Prisms in the Elastic and Plastic Range by Relaxation Methods. Some Basic Problems of the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity p. D. H. E. S. Inzh. McGraw-Hill. 17 (1950). Struct. W. Trudy Tbiliss Math. 12. 561. Counc. 23. 34 (1942). Z. McGraw-Hill. Torsion of a composite bar with a circular hole. Soc. D. G. V. 47. R. CHRISTOPHERSONand R. W. Akad.J. Mech. 8born. A. J. FIG. Calcutta Math. 2. 6. Razmadze 17. Engr. 191 (1955). Appl. N. REFERENCES I. Groningen (1953). 8. Hague (A) 3. Iowa St. 88 (1949).. Engng. V. GENT. London (1955). a n d t h e final s o l u t i o n o b t a i n e d b y a l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n of these. PAYNE. Naulc S S S R 19. 3. MUSKHELISHVILLI. Austral. TIMOSUENI~O and J. Sci. Noordhoff. Clarendon Press. Soc. H. Engr. B. Relaxation Methods p. COWAN. J. Inst. GORGIDZE. Civ. J. COWAN. DE G. I. D. Oxford (1946). Appl. SOUTHWELL. GOODIER. 85. 5. T. 48. 30. Theory of Elasticity. 39.. 567. A.a relaxation solution 365 t h e s t r e s s f u n c t i o n o f t h e b o l e b o u n d a r y is c o m p u t e d . 13.38 (1944). 95 (1949). A g a i n n o s p e c i a l difficulties were e n c o u n t e r e d . 4. L. Example C.. 18. Appl. 203 (1952). 107 (1954). NARODETSKII. 96 (1954). •. 469 (1943).Torsion of compound b a r s . Sci. ALLEN. 14. S. YA. 9. Roy. Res. DOBIE and A. 10. A 168. J. 827. D. J.Relaxation Methods in Theoretical Physics p. Akad. 198.

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