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Knowledge Management is one of the hottest topics today in both the industry world and information research world. In our daily life, we deal with huge amount of data and information. Data and information is not knowledge until we know how to dig the value out of of it. This is the reason we need knowledge management. Unfortunately, there's no universal definition of knowledge management, just as there's no agreement as to what constitutes knowledge in the first place. We chose the following definition for knowledge management for its simplicity and broad context.
Simple Definition: Knowledge Management (KM) refers to a multi-disciplined approach to achieving organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge. KM focuses on processes such as acquiring, creating and sharing knowledge and the cultural and technical foundations that support them.
Knowledge Management may be viewed in terms of: o People – how do you increase the ability of an individual in the organisation to influence others with their knowledge o Processes – Its approach varies from organization to organization. There is no limit on the number of processes o Technology – It needs to be chosen only after all the requirements of a knowledge management initiative have been established.
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Culture –The biggest enabler of successful knowledge-driven organizations is the establishment of a knowledge-focused culture Structure – the business processes and organisational structures that facilitate knowledge sharing Technology – a crucial enabler rather than the solution.
What Is Knowledge Management Related To?
Knowledge management draws from a wide range of disciplines and technologies:
Expert systems, artificial intelligence and knowledge base management systems (KBMS)
Computer-supported collaborative work (groupware)
Library and information science
Decision support systems
Relational and object databases
a company having knowledge management strategy 2. companies uncover the most opportunities — and ultimately derive the . help-desk technology full-text search and retrieval performance support systems Although around 20 kinds of disciplines and study areas were listed above. and the World Wide Web. Arthur Andersen. Organizational science object-oriented information modeling electronic publishing technology. and Booz-Allen & Hamilton The Value of Knowledge Management Some benefits of KM correlate directly to bottom-line savings. there is no way to include all of the related subjects to knowledge management. hypertext. 80's. A number of management theorists have contributed to the evolution of knowledge management Peter Drucker: information and knowledge as organizational resources Peter Senge: "learning organization" Leonard-Barton: well-known case study of "Chaparral Steel ". A number of management consulting firms had begun in-house knowledge management programs Knowledge management was introduced in the popular press. Knowledge (and its expression in professional competence) as a competitive asset was apparent Managing knowledge that relied on work done in artificial intelligence and expert systems Knowledge management-related articles began appearing in journals and books 3. In today's information-driven economy. 90's until now. 70's. while others are more difficult to quantify. The History of Knowledge Management 1. the most widely read work to date is Ikujiro Nonaka’s and Hirotaka Takeuchi’s The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation (1995) The International Knowledge Management Network(IKMN) went online in 1994 Knowledge management has become big business for such major international consulting firms as Ernst & Young.
and knowledge management software is rapidly evolving. Yet better collaboration is not an end in itself. Knowledge Management Drivers The main drivers behind knowledge management efforts are: o Knowledge Attrition: Despite the economic slowdown. knowledge management consulting services and technologies are in high demand. As the performance metrics of early adopters are documenting the substantial benefits of knowledge management. As the volume of digital information expands. knowledge management is in a state of high growth. Much of this cost is due to knowledge attrition. o Content Management: The explosion of digitally stored business-critical data is widely documented. especially among the business and legal services industries. . As a result. A creative approach to KM can result in improved efficiency.000 gigabytes by 2003. Estimated annual costs of employee turnover was a staggering $129 million per organization. without an overarching business context. Consequently. To get the most value from a company's intellectual assets. sharing and reuse. Over 32. the annual value of mergers has risen 100 fold reaching a cumulative $15 trillion in 1999. the need for its logical organization is critical for purposes of information retrieval. o Knowledge Merging: Since 1980. Knowledge Management Today According to a recent IDC report. more organizations are recognizing the value of leveraging organizational knowledge. The recent frenzy of corporate mergers coupled with the increased need to integrate global corporate communications requires the merging of disparate and often conflicting knowledge models. A recent survey by the global consulting firm Drake Beam Morin revealed an average voluntary employee turnover rate of 20 percent with 81 percent of organizations citing employee turnover as a critical issue.most value — from intellectual rather than physical assets.000 gigabytes per company in 1999 to 153. KM is meaningless at best and harmful at worst. an effective KM program should help a company do one or more of the following: Foster innovation by encouraging the free flow of ideas Improve decision making Improve customer service by streamlining response time Boost revenues by getting products and services to market faster Enhance employee retention rates by recognizing the value of employees' knowledge and rewarding them for it Streamline operations and reduce costs by eliminating redundant or unnecessary processes These are the most prevalent examples. which can be effectively minimized using knowledge management techniques. voluntary employee turnover remains high. KM practitioners maintain that knowledge must be shared and serve as the foundation for collaboration.000 deals were announced. Forester Research estimates that online storage for Global 2. higher productivity and increased revenues in practically any business function.500 companies will grow from an average of 15. triple the number of 10 years earlier and more than 30 times as many as in 1981. representing a compound annual growth rate of 78%.
Technologies That Support Knowledge Management The following diagram reflects the main technologies that currently support knowledge management systems. optimizing intellectual capital by producing knowledge management solutions such as codification strategies and knowledge bases. The flow on value of this has been estimated at US $1. The Dow Chemical Company saved $40 million a year in the re-use of patents. one of the largest banks in the US. For instance: Ford Motor Company accelerated its concept-to-production time from 36 months to 24 months. and Pfizer credits KM practices for discovering the hidden benefits of the Viagra drug. Chase Manhattan. also known as computer based training. large revenue gains and efficiency improvements have been recorded by numerous major corporations. KM ROI Although 65% of organizations that are currently implementing KM initiatives have not measured the impact of their performance. E-learning can be an effective medium for knowledge management deliverables. used Customer relationship management KM initiatives to increase its annual revenue by 15%. there has been a dramatic increase in e-learning. but not equal to knowledge management. E-learning is closely linked to and overlapping with. developing knowledge leaders. KM Objectives The graph below shows the results of a recent IDC study in which corporations cited various objectives for knowledge management efforts: Activities related to these objectives include: creating knowledge sharing networks that facilitate a corporate knowledge culture. . and estimating revenue and efficiency gains resulting from knowledge management in terms of return on investment (ROI).25 billion.o E-Learning: As the economy becomes more global and the use of PCs more pervasive.
2. organizations are investing heavily in ad hoc KM software that facilitates organizational knowledge. They will offer knowledge enriching features that support the seamless interoperability and flow of information and knowledge. 3. All of these stages are enhanced by effective workflow and project management. and storing knowledge using structured repositories such as data warehouses. knowledge aware enterprise management systems. organizing. communities of practice such as the Knowledge Management Network and the development of standards and best practices are in a mature stage of development. These centralized knowledge repositories will optimize information collection. Knowledge is distributed through education. These . and retrieval. New methods and tools will be developed for KM driven E-intelligence and innovation. extranets. KM and E-learning will converge into knowledge collaboration portals that will efficiently transfer knowledge in an interdisciplinary and cross functional environment. The Future of Knowledge Management In the next several years ad-hoc software will develop into comprehensive. training programs. web conferencing. Finally. The chart below estimates the state of their current and future KM activities. Information systems will evolve into artificial intelligence systems that use intelligent agents to customize and filter relevant information. Present and Future State of KM Currently. automated knowledge based systems. organization. groupware. Knowledge is acquired or captured using intranets. An organizational memory is formed by refining. KM curricula such as certification. Knowledge is Applied or leveraged for further learning and innovation via mining of the organizational memory and the application of expert systems such as decision support systems. Techniques such as data mining and text mining that use KM for competitive intelligence and innovation are in the early stages of development. and document management systems.These technologies roughly correlate to four main stages of the KM life cycle: 1. 4. The Effect of Knowledge Management on Databases Multiple corporate databases will merge into large. corporate training and university graduate certificate programs are on the rise. integrated. expert networks. multidimensional knowledge bases that are designed to support competitive intelligence and organizational memory.
and annotation capabilities to capture tacit knowledge. and they will play an integral role in making these connections possible. Both knowledge base developers and administrators must understand the role of the knowledge base in the overall KM system. DBAs will need to have some knowledge about each of these disciplines. Developers must consider the overall technical architecture of the corporation to ensure seamless interoperability. The Implications of Knowledge Management For. Knowledge Management Cycle The knowledge management cycle is shown below. For example.Many organizations do a good job at collecting documents. The use of knowledge bases can reduce customer service costs by providing customers with easy access to 24/7 self service via smart systems that reduce the need to contact customer service or technical support staff. Organization. electronic transactions and other artifacts of doing business. Strengths Capture . Data Analyst or Systems Administrator will blur as these systems merge into and overlap with KM systems.features may include: the incorporation of video and audio clips. Summary Organizations are realizing that intellectual capital or corporate knowledge is a valuable asset that can be managed as effectively as physical assets in order to improve performance. database users will enjoy a new level of interaction with the KM system including just-in-time knowledge that delivers precise relevant information on demand and in context. It consistes of five phases: Capture. Storage. data analysts will enjoy simplified access and more powerful tools for data exploitation.. Content will be in the form of small reusable learning objects and associated metadata that provides contextual information to assist KM reasoning and delivery systems. Successful knowledge management systems can create and capture new knowledge by combining existing knowledge in new and interesting ways. General Public: Even if they are not interacting directly with a knowledge base. processes and technology for the purpose of leveraging corporate knowledge. smart systems will translate to optimal usability and less time spent searching for relevant information.. content qualifiers in the form of source or reference metadata. The use of standardized metadata and methods will also facilitate both intra-corporate and inter-corporate interoperability. Database Developers: The design and development of knowledge based systems will be considerably more complex than current database development methods. . The database professionals of today are the Knowledge Managers of the future. Database Administrators: Database Administrators will evolve into Knowledge Managers. The lines between technical roles such as Web Developer. Making effective physical storage and platform choices will be equally more complex. links to external authoritative sources. Retrieval and Mining. the general public will benefit from the secondary effects of improved customer service due to faster access to more accurate information by service providers. The focus of knowledge management is connecting people. The key component that is often missed is the knowledge that is present in the minds of the organization's subject matter experts. More complex. Database Users: From business class users to the general public. Database users may even create customized views of knowledge bases that support their needs. The knowledge base will store and maintain corporate memory and Knowledge Managers will become the gatekeepers of corporate knowledge.
heuristic and analytic tools to mine data. . This knowledge is often lost when the employee leaves. SciencEngines has developed specific techniques and technologies to capture this human knowledge as well as the more traditional forms of knowledge. We have experience in audio. We are particularly skilled at providing interfaces to allow your human subject matter experts to discover new relationships in massive data sets.The SciencEngines team is well versed in multiple commercial Database Management Systems. We have expertise in relational and object based technologies.) present data as ordered lists of information. Storage .We have a portfolio of statistical. We have developed visual systems that present information that is easily understood and actionable by users.Many retrieval systems (e. Organization . Retrieval . Google. etc. Mining .Our internationally renowned expertise in metadata can provide complex structures to describe and integrate your knowledge. retires or dies. video and multimedia structures and storage. Bing.g.
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