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Bridging Insula Europae Enhancing Pupils Motivation by Developing European Dimension of Learning and the Use of ICT 134214-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-COMENIUS-CMP Grant Agreement 2007-3435/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
CHAPTER 1 1. Use of ICT as learning tools: perceptions and reality of the ICT in secondary schools 2. Barriers and Obstacles: main problems that represent real barriers to the ICT learning tools diffusion in the schools
CHAPTER 2 Best Practices in Schools: experiences of ICT as didactical tools
ICT ….. Tools to widen teaching horizons CHAPTER 1
BRIDGING IE SURVEY 1. Use of ICT as learning tools: perceptions and reality of the ICT in secondary schools 2. Barriers and Obstacles: main problems that represent real barriers to the ICT learning tools diffusion in the schools RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Analysis and review of the literature (existing researches, studies, reports, normative documents). Review of the web or other publications – existing cross-national, national and regional researches, projects, initiatives, good practices, etc.; Review of the National Strategy for ICT Interviews with experts in the field of ICT educational approaches in Italian’s pedagogical practice: Mr. Mario Rotta _ Expert on ICT, e-learning and on-line learning environments in education Mr. Antonio Fini_ Expert in e-learning platforms and in particular of cooperative and collaborative systems. Questionnaire, filled in by 32 teachers from different schools throughout the country;
Importance of the social interaction and experience in education Technology is now such an important part of children’s everyday lives that a learning environment without it would be completely out of touch with their own realities. The technology is now part of our social and economic fabric, and it is hard to imagine education and training without it. Our vision draws on the shifts and trends that are transforming the way people work, learn and—to tell the whole—make sense of the world in a digitalised, networked and knowledge– based society. «I believe that the only true education comes through the stimulation of the child’s powers by the demands of the social situations in which he finds himself. Through these demands he is stimulated to act as a member of a unity, to emerge from his original narrowness of action and feeling, and to conceive of himself from the standpoint of the welfare of the group to which he belongs. Through the responses which others make to his own activities he comes to know what these mean in social terms» (Dewey 1897) Conclusions drawn from the review of normative regulations à à à Situation The Ministry of Education strategic documents and laws (D.lgs. 59/04, )underlined the importance of the ICT Integration into Italian Schools. E-learning is defined as the use of new multimedia technologies and Internet in order to improve the quality of learning by facilitating the access to resources and services. à à Main goal To improve the quality of education To enrich the educational contents through ICT To introduce innovativel educational technologies à Specific goal To include ICT into educational programs To integrate the ICTS into educational aims at a national level and at local level ICTs would have to work in tandem with the development of school development plans.
Barriers This is not currently the reality. There is no discernable policy of integrating ICTs into the curriculum. ICTs are not yet adequately incorporated into the general subjects’ educational plans and thus they are limited, accidental and dependent on the teacher’s personal initiatives. The question of planned funding is fundamental to the development of ICT. Schools must know what funding will be available to them on an annual or two yearly basis. It is no longer sufficient to starve the system for years and then to pump in some funding because there is an election pending, this helps only to politicise the system and does absolutely nothing to encourage good planning and prudent spending. Furthermore school development planning cannot take place in a vacuum! How can any principal teacher plan meaningfully, for the integration of ICTs into curricular areas, when s/he has no idea from year to year if there will be funding to replace obsolete hardware or to replenish/replace software?
We are now in the ludicrous situation of broadband and networks being placed in schools that for the most part are equipped with a stock of ageing computers that date back to 2002 at the latest, or in many cases, right back to 1997.
What the experts say about the situation? Potentialities The experts pointed out in particular the importance of the social dimension of the use of the new technologies in education During the last decade, the Internet has changed our life in many ways and especially the way that we communicate. Technologies like e-mail, discussion forums and chats are considered today almost out-of-date, while new and promising technologies like weblogs, wikis and podcasts emerge and contribute not only to the development of the individual expression but also to the creation of Communities of Practice (CoP).
These emerging technologies signal a transition to Web 2.0, i.e. the second generation of the Internet, which is characterized by greater functionality, interoperability and connectivity of resources and information, better organized and categorized content, open communication and active online communities.
No doubt that this new milieu will have a great impact on research, education and teaching as it is also a transition from the “Read Only” Web to “Read/Write Web”. Social software contributes to the construction of knowledge with the others and for the others. The focus is on the community itself and not on the individual user The new technologies can 8Foster cooperation and construct students/teachers networks that promote sociability through knowledge and mutual participation in new forms of activities 8 Support the collaboration among students and schools 8 Help teachers raise their pupils' awareness of what “learn” means There is also evidence that ICT has a positive impact on learning processes and teaching practices. It leads to better teamwork, collaborative working across schools, and a more student–centred approach which gives learners more autonomy. Using ICT affects the nature of learning itself. It encourages inquiry, problem solving, and critical thinking. The technology offers unprecedented learning tools: à creating more dynamic interaction between students and teachers; à favouring teamwork in problem–solving activities; and à helping students to personalise and monitor their own learning. Barriers The potential of ICT for learning is not being fully exploited yet. There is a need to keep up with technological developments, in particular to extend the use of broadband, available in just two thirds of schools at present Too many educational programmes are concentrated on the acquisition of computer skills, and insufficiently on the use of ICTs as a tool for teaching and learning. There is a lack about the confidence required to use ICT for methodological improvement.
Institutional innovation is slower than technological development Most current developments in the use of modern technologies in education and training are… “little more than relatively naïve transpositions to new environments of the much criticised educational paradigms of the past. Driven by an invisible force that calls us to the past, we seem to keep putting emphasis mainly on the use of the PC itself rather than on learning opportunities that the new technologies are pleading to offer us”.
Expert Recommendations for Decision makers • A climate of collective ownership and responsibility for the development and implementation of ICT policies should be created. • Stakeholders should use innovation and success stories of others to create and promote future ICT policy and implementations. • Decision-makers should use the results of research; researchers should make their results readable and usable by decision-makers. • There is a need for more practical implementation oriented researches into schools • Educational policies should consider teachers as key agents of Education, of the evolution of Education, and of the preparation of players and citizens of the knowledge society. Expert Recommendations for Teachers • Teachers must be involved in a lifelong learning context. Teacher professional development in the context of Lifelong Learning should include ICT knowledge and expertise. This knowledge should include not only technological abilities but also cultural and cognitive roots of computer and computer science, such as, for example, a knowledge of the history of the field, which is essential for understanding the present - its beliefs, desires and intents for ICT in education and how it might evolve • Networks of teachers should be developed and activated
WHAT TEACHERS THINK ABOUT THE INTRODUCTION OF E-LEARNING METHODOLOGIES
Relationship between ICT e new learning approaches
Are your schools well equipped?
Is the school management pro-active about the introduction of ICT into schools?
Have you time at your disposal for the introduction of the new ICT approaches into your school-programmes?
Do you need to update your ICT skills?
Do you have any kind of experience concerning ICT innovative projects into your schools?
Do you think that the new ICT educational appoaches can improve your professional teaching activities?
What are the utility of the different ICT tools?
What are the main tools that you think you will use?
TEACHERS SURVEY CONCLUSION There has been some progress in teachers’ understanding of the contribution of ICT to teaching and learning
à à However, opportunities for teachers to acquire or extend their own skills, to
review their programmes, and then to incorporate ICT strategies in schemes of work and in lessons, have been too variable. The best work is from teachers who, despite having undertaken the generic training, are largely self-taught in applying ICT to teaching, or who have received informal training from a more knowledgeable colleague. Teachers now have more knowledge about the effective use of ICT but the focus is still on technical skills rather than conceptual understanding of the new educational potentialities of the ICT. To realize the potential inherent in ICT, there is a need for innovative ICT pedagogies in secondary education.
RAPID DEVELOPMENTS IN ICT ARE DIFFICULT TO MANAGE FOR MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL MANAGERS AND SCHOOLS. APPROACHES TO ICT DEVELOPMENT IN ITALIAN SCHOOLS ARE IN THE EMERGING AND APPLYING STAGES
THE INFUSING APPROACH The infusing approach involves integrating or embedding ICT across the curriculum, and is seen in those schools that now employ a wide range of computer-based technologies. Teachers explore new ways in which ICT changes their personal productivity and professional practice. Subject areas to reflect real-world applications.
THE TRANSFORMING APPROACH Schools that use ICT to rethink and renew school organization in creative ways are at the transforming approach. ICT becomes an integral though invisible part of daily personal productivity and professional practice. The focus of the curriculum is now learner-centred and integrates subject areas in real-world applications. ICT is taught as a separate subject at the professional level and is incorporated into all vocational areas. Schools have become centres of learning for their communities.
CHAPTER 2 BEST PRACTICES IN SCHOOLS: EXPERIENCES OF ICT AS DIDACTICAL TOOLS Projects and the most recent experiences related to technology innovation in Italian schools
Purpose: To offer users a more efficient administration To renew teaching and learning methods through the use of new technologies To reduce the technological gap among schools, students and families
Learning with fun
Teachers’ training on the net Active Learning Methodologies Social training & Networking
School Web Labs
ICT for SEN (Special Educational Needs)
Best practises 1- Learning with FUN
KIDSMART It is a IBM-Italia project aiming at children approach to technology through creative games and fun in order to integrate the information and communication technology in the teaching methods. • • • • • Cartoons: How to use the PC Creative games Writing and using web tools, playing online games Exercises: (e.g. “create a book using a digital camera) sharing of skills acquired through games that can be improved through work carried out at home The PC game offers children a way to solve problems, make decisions, use acquired skills and at the same time help their class mates acquire new skills, also with the help from parents. http://www.kidsmartearlylearning.org/IT/index.html
DIVERTIPC: PLAY AND LEARN WITH THE TV Playful and interdisciplinary project promoting a proper familiarization with computer science. Along with DivertInglese converged in the new "Il D" portal, it is dedicated to primary and secondary school students and it also involves teachers and families. DivertiPC offers:
a new approach to learning through fun of English and Italian at school through TV and the Web. A number of open spaces available for students who want to customize them with their own material. They can also be uploaded with interdisciplinary training contents.
Games and activities with a teaching purpose which is not structured as a didactic path though
A chance to learn interactively but not replacing the teacher.
DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TELEVISION FOR SCHOOL
project will bring school at home through a communication system which will enable parents to verify every day their children's‘ behaviour, the programmes studied, the results achieved, sitting in front of a TV.
This solution to a specific communication demand will make use of innovative technologies, like the DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial), also known as "Digital Terrestrial Television". It will initially provide some important information such as the class register, school activities, school fees. It will also allow students to participate in the courses from home. This is a very innovative path that the Public school system has never followed before. www.istruzione.it/innovazione/progetti/
E-DIDATECA This project aims at collecting and spreading multimedia tools for educational purposes, created by a consortia of educational institutions and public organizations They are free, for didactic use only, at www.edidateca.it.
From the website other facilities can be reached such as a section dedicated to the use of video-language for didactics (streaming videos can be downloaded, a collection of links, a forum area, a useful software section, etc) It has been a reference point for schools of every level, that through this portal can download, send and consult multimedia material produced by the schools themselves, and receive useful suggestions to produce projects.
An example: "I Ragazzi del Fiume" school network has implemented a project for teaching and spreading minor and EU languages and for online cooperative learning through Podcasting technology. Podcasts can offer educational material to be listened to and visualised on personal computers or mobile devices, freeing learning from the constraints of a classroom www.ragazzidelfiume.it/
2-Teachers’ training on the net
ForTic Ministerial teachers training programme on information and communication This initiative proposes to implement a national web portal for technological training through a blended-learning method. The programme includes open training paths combining and exploiting both didactics and technology, in order to meet the requirements and skills of the school staff. The project is based on three types of training programmes:
the first is basic and is addressed to teachers with little or no competence in the use of TIC. The objective is the achievement of basic computer skills and the use of TIC in teaching.. the second programme is aimed at creating a “consultant”, skilled in the use of methodologies and didactic resources offered by the ICT. The training objectives are essentially directed towards the problem arising from the use of TIC in education for teachers who already have basic computer competences. the third programme aims at supplying the necessary competences to personnel “responsible” for the management of the technological structures who have already a reasonable level of familiarity with basic computer functions.
@pprendereinrete Microsoft & Italian Government This portal is dedicated to teachers: it is in fact a free online educational tool for teachers in which can be found ideas, suggestions and useful documentation for in-depth study for a proper use of didactic technologies. A number of services such as forums, online seminars and a range of events dedicated to the school world are available to a teaching community of about 20,000 people as of today. “Apprendereinrete” is a web space open and free though for teachers only. A virtual meeting point born to disseminate in school both knowledge and the use of technologies. It is a forum in which ideas can be compared and support can be obtained from tutoring personnel expert on the use of Microsoft Office: it comprises training programmes free of charge, both virtual and in class; an area in which teachers can share their experiences and see their woks published; documentation and presentation to improve one’s computer competences.
in the area Docente@utore (almost 200 teachers of all disciplines have already joined it) teachers use the platform as a debating ground with their Italian colleagues. This initiative offers the opportunity to produce interactive multimedia projects with the students; these projects are then uploaded in a common space thus giving teaching a new aspect.
NETFORM is a ministerial internet product of which teachers are at the same time producers and users. It is :
a "repository" for didactic programmes
a database of teaching material produced and accessible in the web.
a tool for teachers to share ideas, significant teaching experiences, materials and new didactic methods.
an educational environment in which teachers who are less familiar with the use of TIC in teaching have access to material produced by more experienced colleagues.
NETFORM has found a new form of constructive cooperation between teachers almost exclusively “at distance”; it represents also an open system accessible to teachers for fresh input and for the inclusion of new programmes.
PIONIERI Realized by the Italian teacher association with the objective to supply an easy path to teachers for the use of technology in education.
through class seminars the teachers have first become familiar with the teaching tools and have been helped in understanding the didactic and technical characteristics of the programmes used (Moodle, LAMS, Hot Potaoes, Mind Maps: MindManager e FreeMind, FLE3, Mediawiki, WordPress), acquiring a better in-sight of these tools.
The project’s web page has several tools: - a meeting, sharing and exchange point for the teaching community (and not only) interested in the use of educational tools.
a resource and a concrete help thanks to the possibility to find and download precious theoretical information (basic knowledge section), practical information (good practices section), as well as online courses through a number of didactic softwares (online courses section).
- In the section “template of learning activities” there are also a number of models (templates) for learning activities ready to be copied and personalised according to individual teaching objectives. http://www.copernicus-bz-pionieri.it REMOTELAB The MIUR (Italian Ministry of education) programme’s main purpose is:
the creation of an environment to enable the realization of tests in remote mode through a web platform. These systems run with a variety of programmes
aimed at encouraging the communication and the interaction among different users. Remote tests consist of a range of high technology tools which are included and integrated in a virtual website which allows managing and supervising them in real time, so as to make the test wherever an internet connection is available. These tools allow the data processing and analysis in the different science fields, such as chemistry, physics and mathematics. All the data acquired by the system are real data, and are therefore subject to a number of errors which could occur in a laboratory.
3- Social training & Networking
CAMPUS Conoscere à Learning: developing towards a new portal for knowledge. It is a project co-designed by the Autonomous Region of Sardinia and MIUR. Objective: to create a new school environment enjoying educational continuity and to develop a web shared by schools and institutions. Campus online is based on the use of technologies to develop didactic activities and internet projects, the result being the establishment of new relations between schools strengthening those already existing, creating synergies and sharing experiences. It foresees: - A technological infrastructure to set up in Sardinia 611 computer labs with 12 work stations for a total of 543 schools connected with the web;
- A pilot project for multimedia experimentation involving 28 schools 12 of which of first grade secondary level, 8 second grade secondary schools, 4 elementary schools and 4 prep schools. 100 classes which will work jointly to develop semi-finished didactic tools adapting them to their needs and improving them through already acquired teaching and learning experiences. The following are some of the tools available to the schools involved in the project: - Online video library - Lessons in videoconference Multimedia lab: files divided by subject or field of knowledge Constant school/family dialogue
Think.com the virtual educational environment for didactics is an educational innovative system realized by Oracle Education Foundation which exploits the internet to create an online method of cooperation.
Think.com web portal is conceived to encourage the cooperation and link between students and teachers. This tool promotes the development of the didactics and supports
teachers to outline educational plans, manage lesson contents, share professional knowledge with other colleagues and also initiate international cooperation. ORACLE provides the Italian schools with an educational virtual setting consisting in interactive web portal, training and support services for teachers and students. This allows every teacher, students and parent to communicate online. Students and teachers will be able to exchange any type of communication, familiarise with the most advanced technologies and improve training experience. Online learning communities
It is a very effective tool for teachers à as they can experiment interactive classroom work, can cooperate and talk to foreign colleagues using a virtual environment which is protected, confidential, structured and personalised.
As far as students are concerned à the portal favours aggregation and communication with other students worldwide. Think.com so offers the opportunity to take part in educational communities and to interactive learning groups as well as to forums on specific subjects such as art, science and literature.
Think.com all over the world Think.com is now used by many school institutions worldwide: it is translated in 27 languages in Europe and Africa; the community involves 5600 schools of all specialisations and levels (USA, China, Australia etc) for a total of 76,000 students and teachers. Think.com in Italy The pilot project involved about 25 schools of all specializations and levels mainly located in Rome and the surroundings. Other school institutes have joined Think.com separately. As of today 40 schools all over Italy have experimented this project.
www.think.com/it 4- School Web Labs
ON-LINE LIBRARIES IN SCHOOLS The project carried out in cooperation with three big Italian University Consortia (CASPUR, CILEA, CINECA) promotes the opening of school libraries to public and private libraries. Schools involved will be able to take advantage of the facilities supplied by the National Library Service and will be integrated with the territorial centres SBN (Sistema Bibliotecario Nationale - National Library Network). The web portal, which is addressed to all Italian schools, supports the training platform and gives the access to the facilities as well. It already includes a number of thematic areas and very popular debate forums, sometimes shared by other web portals (www.ricercaitaliana.it, www.scuolaeservizi.it) relating to other important Italian projects. In one of these portal areas (www.biblioscuole.it/public/vetrina.htm) schools can publish interesting information about the use of the library for didactics The cataloguing of the documents will allow to create an only catalogue for school libraries participating in the project and the use of modern ICT technologies will also allow web access thus supplying bibliography and access to information to everyone. http://www.istruzione.it/innovazione/progetti/biblioteche-nelle-scuole.shtml ON-LINE MUSEUMS
The term "museum didactics" refers to all the methods and tools used by museums and school institutions to place the existing cultural heritage at a wide audience disposal. The cooperation between schools and museums for didactic purposes is very old and nowadays, cooperation between schools and museums is still an unsolved matter. From this point of view the insertion of ICT in the cultural heritage field, offers a great chance à Therefore the Department for Information Technology Systems has implemented a special Section for Museum Didactics on the MIUR web portal. It will be a proper tool for students, teachers, parents, museum employees and everybody looking for a combination between education and knowledge worlds. The Archive of the Central Museum of the Risorgimento, recently re-filed, and the iconographical catalogues - photographs, prints, pictures, etc., can be accessed at the following website: www.risorgimento.it www.miur.it DID@TIC It is a joint project between MIUR and Microsoft “Partners in learning” started in 2006. It is a teacher training project aimed at teaching through technology. This included videoseminars, multimedia resources and tutorship experts that involved the participants in a virtual-learning community. The objective: to give teachers the opportunity to acquire knowledge necessary to develop PBL activities in schools. The project was carried out with the e-learning method and was structured as follows: use of the PBL materials such as video-seminars, handbooks and suggestions for implementation, bibliography, PBL files with materials for teachers and students, materials for in-depth studies, indexes, linkography and resources chosen by the tutor; attendance to meetings group activities for PBL files production
Each participant has been part of a virtual class divided in three areas of study: psychosocial, history, human science and technical/scientific During the first phase the teachers studied the materials, then they started group debates under the tutor’s supervision, sharing ideas, proposals, suggestions and experiences and finally they studied the PBL files, both together and individually.
ITALIAN DIPLOMA IN GRAPHIC COMPUTER SCIENCE AND VIDEOGAME The school’s computer labs are the most advanced in Italy. The cooperation activities are entirely carried out on the web through the use of Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services ◊ teachers and students have their own web work space where they meet and set up programmes in a more flexible way thus adding an extra element of advantage to didactics. Students are assigned an administration type profile, since one of their activities is programming, and a workspace clearly accessible in the computer’s resources. The tool so conceived in the web allows teachers and students alike to have access to the files from anywhere. Students can click on the server from home and open the documents they have created in their space work in SharePoint. The system allows the opening of a website for each department and section where the material can be shared. Each section shows the personal websites of the students. From here they can save their work and use other tools from SharePoint (personal blogs, calendars, news on the schools or the subjects) The benefits of such a project are flexibility for teachers and responsibility for students.
5- ICT for SEN (Special Educational Needs) HSH@network
The "Hospital School Home @ network" is a ministerial project that exploits the role of technology and multimedia communication to guarantee uninterrupted studies to students who are hospitalized or housebound, ensuring health care as well as assistance in the education. In less than two years, the project has achieved some important objectives: • the implementation of an e-learning platform allowing online training for 450 teachers; • the wireless wiring and connection to the GARR network of 65 hospitals spread all over the national territory; • the purchase and distribution of portable personal computers • Set up of ADSL lines (free for families) for home learning. A case: «S. is nine years old. She is attending the third year of the primary school "G.De Ruggero", C course, 179° teaching district of Rome. Regarding her disease, S. says: my parents explained to me that my cells produce other cells although they turn out to be bad ones instead of good ones. This uninterrupted game of cards among white and red blood cells and platelets prevents her from attending her classes and therefore meeting her fellows for long periods. Sometimes "S. is forced to a brief hospitalization in the best of Rome hospitals" "whereas she should go to school". Since a few days though, S. has been able too see her fellows and teachers and speak with them" "she has been able to do her homework, and even be tested and get bad marks. Yes, it is a few days since she has been given a computer and an open line with her fellows and teachers". "She connects to the internet and through the use of a camera and a microphone she can talk to her friends, she can study, she is, like, in the classroom. Not like all her fellows in fact, as she would like, but somehow she is there with them. From “Libero” newspaper.
TEACHERS DOWN ON THE STREET a project allowing school dropouts to accomplish their right and duty to study through ICT tools. In particular it tries to re-introduce into an educational context the
"lost" teenagers from the suburbs of Naples, Turin and the provinces in order to stimulate them to further educational studies and/or vocational training. Campania region - Naples • supports the complex didactics of the G-Bus project (a mobile ICT classroom), through the use of a mobile multimedia classroom; • uses the internet for collaborative and cooperative learning by connecting the webus to the classrooms and territory via the umts; • ensures professionalism and skills which entrepreneurs can refer to during the dedicated "Youth-work days"; • supplies young people with territorial information, entrepreneurial experience, helping the business start up. The webus is in fact also a useful tool for advertising, doing social communication and raising financial resources. Piemonte region - Turin This cooperation project with "Turoldo" Comprehensive School of Turin and three districts (Vercelli, Asti, Verbania) tries to rescue and motivate the school dropouts by experimenting a new learning approach based on the set up of an iBook Wireless Mobile Classroom. In particular it strengthens the link between the techniques for cooperative-learning, peer education, Feuerstein mediation pedagogy and the use of information and multimedia tools.
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